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"Muscle-tendon interaction"

Hiroyuki Oda, Kanae Sano, Yoko Kunimasa, Paavo V Komi, Masaki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Patients who have had an Achilles tendon (AT) rupture repaired are potentially at higher risk for re-rupture than those without previous rupture. Little attention has been given to the neuromechanical modulation of muscle-tendon interaction and muscle activation profiles during human dynamic movements after AT rupture repair. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine muscle-tendon behavior and muscle activation during bilateral hopping. METHODS: We enrolled nine subjects who had undergone surgical repair of unilateral AT rupture within the past 1-2 years...
October 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
Dean L Mayfield, Bradley S Launikonis, Andrew G Cresswell, Glen A Lichtwark
There are high mechanical demands placed on skeletal muscles in movements requiring rapid acceleration of the body or its limbs. Tendons are responsible for transmitting muscle forces, but, because of their elasticity, can manipulate the mechanics of the internal contractile apparatus. Shortening of the contractile apparatus against the stretch of tendon affects force generation according to known mechanical properties; however, the extent to which differences in tendon compliance alter force development in response to a burst of electrical impulses is unclear...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Gursharan Kalsi, Nicola R Fry, Adam P Shortland
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the interaction of muscle bellies and their tendons in individuals with muscle pathology is limited. Knowledge of these interactions may inform us of the effects of musculoskeletal pathologies on muscle-tendon dynamics and the subsequent neurological control strategies used in gait. Here, we investigate gastrocnemius muscle-tendon interaction in typically-developing (TD) adults and children, and in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP). METHODS: We recruited six TD adults (4 female; mean age: 34 yrs...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Daniel E Lidstone, Herman van Werkhoven, Justin A Stewart, Reed Gurchiek, Madison Burris, Paige Rice, Garrett Feimster, Jeffrey M McBride
BACKGROUND: Previous literature has shown in vivo changes in muscle-tendon interaction during exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise. It is unclear whether these changes in muscle-tendon length during exhaustive SSC exercise are associated with changes in mechanical efficiency (ME). The purpose of the study was to investigate whether changes in platarflexor contractile component (CC) length, tendon length, and changes in plantarflexor muscle activity could explain reduction in ME during exhaustive SSC exercise...
October 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
G Guilhem, V Doguet, H Hauraix, L Lacourpaille, M Jubeau, A Nordez, S Dorel
AIM: Defining the origins of muscle injury has important rehabilitation and exercise applications. However, current knowledge of muscle damage mechanics in human remains unclear in vivo. This study aimed to determine the relationships between muscle-tendon unit mechanics during maximal eccentric contractions and the extent of subsequent functional impairments induced by muscle damage. METHODS: The length of the muscle-tendon unit, fascicles and tendinous tissues was continuously measured on the gastrocnemius medialis using ultrasonography, in time with torque, during 10 sets of 30 maximal eccentric contractions of plantar flexors at 45°s(-1) , in seventeen participants...
June 2016: Acta Physiologica
Dominic James Farris, Glen A Lichtwark, Nicholas A T Brown, Andrew G Cresswell
Humans utilise elastic tendons of lower limb muscles to store and return energy during walking, running and jumping. Anuran and insect species use skeletal structures and/or dynamics in conjunction with similarly compliant structures to amplify muscle power output during jumping. We sought to examine whether human jumpers use similar mechanisms to aid elastic energy usage in the plantar flexor muscles during maximal vertical jumping. Ten male athletes performed maximal vertical squat jumps. Three-dimensional motion capture and a musculoskeletal model were used to determine lower limb kinematics that were combined with ground reaction force data in an inverse dynamics analysis...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
L Eduardo Cofré Lizama, Mirjam Pijnappels, N Peter Reeves, Sabine M P Verschueren, Jaap H van Dieën
Explicit visual feedback on postural sway is often used in balance assessment and training. However, up-weighting of visual information may mask impairments of other sensory systems. We therefore aimed to determine whether the effects of somatosensory, vestibular, and proprioceptive manipulations on mediolateral balance are reduced by explicit visual feedback on mediolateral sway of the body center of mass and by the presence of visual information. We manipulated sensory inputs of the somatosensory system by transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation on the feet soles (TENS) of the vestibular system by galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) and of the proprioceptive system by muscle-tendon vibration (VMS) of hip abductors...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Chris Tijs, Jaap H van Dieën, Huub Maas
Results from imaging studies and finite element models suggest epimuscular myofascial effects on sarcomere lengths in series within muscle fibers. However, experimental evidence is lacking. We evaluated epimuscular myofascial effects on (1) muscle belly, fiber, and mean sarcomere length and (2) sarcomere length distribution within passive fibers of the rat tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SO) muscles. Hindlimbs (n = 24) were positioned in predefined knee (55°, 90°, 125°, 160°) and ankle (either 90° or 125°) angles, and fixed in a formaldehyde solution...
November 2015: Physiological Reports
Adeline Bourgeois, Joana Esteves de Lima, Benjamin Charvet, Koichi Kawakami, Sigmar Stricker, Delphine Duprez
BACKGROUND: Components of the limb musculoskeletal system have distinct mesoderm origins. Limb skeletal muscles originate from somites, while the skeleton and attachments (tendons and connective tissues) derive from limb lateral plate. Despite distinct mesoderm origins, the development of muscle, skeleton and attachments is highly coordinated both spatially and temporally to ensure complete function of the musculoskeletal system. A system to study molecular interactions between somitic-derived tissues (muscles) and lateral-plate-derived tissues (skeletal components and attachments) during limb development is missing...
2015: BMC Developmental Biology
Michaël R Laurent, Vanessa Dubois, Frank Claessens, Sabine M P Verschueren, Dirk Vanderschueren, Evelien Gielen, Ferran Jardí
Bone is a biomechanical tissue shaped by forces from muscles and gravitation. Simultaneous bone and muscle decay and dysfunction (osteosarcopenia or sarco-osteoporosis) is seen in ageing, numerous clinical situations including after stroke or paralysis, in neuromuscular dystrophies, glucocorticoid excess, or in association with vitamin D, growth hormone/insulin like growth factor or sex steroid deficiency, as well as in spaceflight. Physical exercise may be beneficial in these situations, but further work is still needed to translate acceptable and effective biomechanical interventions like vibration therapy from animal models to humans...
September 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Prabhat Tiwari, Arun Kumar, Rudra Nayan Das, Vivek Malhotra, K VijayRaghavan
Tendons are fibrous connective tissue which connect muscles to the skeletal elements thus acting as passive transmitters of force during locomotion and provide appropriate body posture. Tendon-derived cues, albeit poorly understood, are necessary for proper muscle guidance and attachment during development. In the present study, we used dorsal longitudinal muscles of Drosophila and their tendon attachment sites to unravel the molecular nature of interactions between muscles and tendons. We performed a genetic screen using RNAi-mediated knockdown in tendon cells to find out molecular players involved in the formation and maintenance of myotendinous junction and found 21 candidates out of 2507 RNAi lines screened...
2015: PloS One
Benjamin D Robertson, Gregory S Sawicki
In terrestrial locomotion, there is a missing link between observed spring-like limb mechanics and the physiological systems driving their emergence. Previous modeling and experimental studies of bouncing gait (e.g., walking, running, hopping) identified muscle-tendon interactions that cycle large amounts of energy in series tendon as a source of elastic limb behavior. The neural, biomechanical, and environmental origins of these tuned mechanics, however, have remained elusive. To examine the dynamic interplay between these factors, we developed an experimental platform comprised of a feedback-controlled servo-motor coupled to a biological muscle-tendon...
October 27, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marco Brotto, Lynda Bonewald
The musculoskeletal system is significantly more complex than portrayed by traditional reductionist approaches that have focused on and studied the components of this system separately. While bone and skeletal muscle are the two largest tissues within this system, this system also includes tendons, ligaments, cartilage, joints and other connective tissues along with vascular and nervous tissues. Because the main function of this system is locomotion, the mechanical interaction among the major players of this system is essential for the many shapes and forms observed in vertebrates and even in invertebrates...
November 2015: Bone
Agnes D Berendsen, Bjorn R Olsen
The development of the vertebrate skeleton reflects its evolutionary history. Cartilage formation came before biomineralization and a head skeleton evolved before the formation of axial and appendicular skeletal structures. This review describes the processes that result in endochondral and intramembranous ossification, the important roles of growth and transcription factors, and the consequences of mutations in some of the genes involved. Following a summary of the origin of cartilage, muscle, and tendon cell lineages in the axial skeleton, we discuss the role of muscle forces in the formation of skeletal architecture and assembly of musculoskeletal functional units...
November 2015: Bone
Firouzeh Dehghan, Ashril Yusof, Sekaran Muniandy, Naguib Salleh
PURPOSE: The high risk of knee injuries in female may be associated with sex-steroid hormone fluctuations during the menstrual cycle by its effect on ligaments and tendons stiffness. This study examined changes in knee range of motion in presence of estrogen and progesterone and investigated the interaction of their antagonists to relaxin receptors. METHOD: Sixty WKY rats were divided into 10 different groups receiving 17β-estradiol (0.2, 2, 20 and 50 μg/kg), progesterone (4 mg/kg), estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182/780, ERβ antagonist PHTPP, ERα antagonist MPP, and mifepristone in presence of estrogen and progesterone...
November 2015: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Y P Lv, W J Yao, J Chen, B L Bao
Intermuscular bones, ossified from tendons within the myosepta, occur only in teleost fish. Current understanding of the homology and origins of intermuscular bones in fishes is based mainly on morphological data. To date, there is no published data regarding molecular mechanisms of intermuscular bone formation. In this study, we cloned the gene muscle segment homeobox C (MsxC). MsxC potentially plays a role in intermuscular bone development of Hemibarbus labeo, an important species of cyprinid fish in the Chinese aquaculture industry...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Massimo Sartori, Marco Maculan, Claudio Pizzolato, Monica Reggiani, Dario Farina
This work presents an electrophysiologically and dynamically consistent musculoskeletal model to predict stiffness in the human ankle and knee joints as derived from the joints constituent biological tissues (i.e., the spanning musculotendon units). The modeling method we propose uses electromyography (EMG) recordings from 13 muscle groups to drive forward dynamic simulations of the human leg in five healthy subjects during overground walking and running. The EMG-driven musculoskeletal model estimates musculotendon and resulting joint stiffness that is consistent with experimental EMG data as well as with the experimental joint moments...
October 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Gregory S Sawicki, Benjamin D Robertson, Emanuel Azizi, Thomas J Roberts
A growing body of research on the mechanics and energetics of terrestrial locomotion has demonstrated that elastic elements acting in series with contracting muscle are critical components of sustained, stable and efficient gait. Far fewer studies have examined how the nervous system modulates muscle-tendon interaction dynamics to optimize 'tuning' or meet varying locomotor demands. To explore the fundamental neuromechanical rules that govern the interactions between series elastic elements (SEEs) and contractile elements (CEs) within a compliant muscle-tendon unit (MTU), we used a novel work loop approach that included implanted sonomicrometry crystals along muscle fascicles...
October 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
Chris Tijs, Jaap H van Dieën, Huub Maas
Triceps surae muscles are mechanically connected by the shared Achilles tendon and by epimuscular myofascial connections. We aimed to assess the effects of proximal lengthening of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles, imposed by changes in knee angle, on the magnitude and direction of the 3D ankle moment exerted by the soleus muscle and the mechanical interaction between ankle plantar flexor muscles during co-activation of gastrocnemius muscle, in the rat (N=9). Ankle angle was kept constant (90 deg), whereas knee angle was varied between 60 deg and 130 deg...
September 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
Malin Hammerman, Parmis Blomgran, Sandra Ramstedt, Per Aspenberg
Early tendon healing can be stimulated by mechanical loading and inhibited by cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Therefore, we investigated if impairment of tendon healing by a COX-2 inhibitor (parecoxib) is related to loading. Because loading might infer microdamage, which also stimulates healing, we also investigated if this effect is inhibited by parecoxib. The Achilles tendon was transected in 114 rats. Three degrees of loading were used: full loading, partial unloading, and unloading (no unloading, Botox injections in the plantar flexor muscles, or Botox in combination with tail suspension)...
September 1, 2015: Journal of Applied Physiology
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