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Mpho D Mhlongo, Andrew Tomita, Lindokuhle Thela, Varsha Maharaj, Jonathan K Burns
Background: While there is considerable research in developed countries on the nature and extent of post-traumatic stress among refugees and migrants, few report on female Africans migrating within Africa. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to traumatic life events and post-traumatic stress disorder risk in refugees and migrants in Durban, South Africa, with specific focus on sexual trauma events among women. Methods: Interviews were conducted on 157 consenting non-South African adults using a sociodemographic questionnaire, Life Events Checklist (documenting traumatic events experienced) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (measuring post-traumatic symptomatology)...
2018: South African Journal of Psychiatry: SAJP: the Journal of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa
Pascal Geldsetzer, Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Michaela Theilmann, Justine I Davies, Ashish Awasthi, Goodarz Danaei, Thomas A Gaziano, Sebastian Vollmer, Lindsay M Jaacks, Till Bärnighausen, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in India. Yet, evidence on the CVD risk of India's population is limited. To inform health system planning and effective targeting of interventions, this study aimed to determine how CVD risk-and the factors that determine risk-varies among states in India, by rural-urban location, and by individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used 2 large household surveys carried out between 2012 and 2014, which included a sample of 797,540 adults aged 30 to 74 years across India...
June 2018: PLoS Medicine
Keith Morris-Schaffer, Marissa Sobolewski, Joshua L Allen, Elena Marvin, Min Yee, Manish Arora, Michael A O'Reilly, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Hyperoxia during treatment for prematurity may enhance susceptibility to other risk factors for adverse brain development, such as air pollution exposure, as both of these risk factors have been linked to a variety of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. This study investigated the combined effects of neonatal hyperoxia followed by inhalation of concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS, <100 nm in aerodynamic diameter) on learning. C57BL/6 J mice were birthed into 60% oxygen until postnatal day (PND) 4 and subsequently exposed to filtered air or to CAPS using the Harvard University Concentrated Ambient Particle System (HUCAPS) from PND 4-7 and 10-13...
June 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Anesthesiology
Valentina Cuccio, Vittorio Gallese
The nature of concepts has always been a hotly debated topic in both philosophy and psychology and, more recently, also in cognitive neuroscience. Different accounts have been proposed of what concepts are. These accounts reflect deeply different conceptions of how the human mind works. In the last decades, two diametrically opposed theories of human cognition have been discussed and empirically investigated: the Computational Theory of Mind, on the one hand (Fodor 1983 The modularity of mind: an essay on faculty psychology ; Pylyshyn 1984 Computation and cognition: toward a foundation for cognitive science ), and Embodied Cognition (Barsalou 2008 Annu...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Michael Pignanelli, Caroline Just, Chrysi Bogiatzi, Vincent Dinculescu, Gregory B Gloor, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Gregor Reid, Bradley L Urquhart, Kelsey N Ruetz, Thomas J Velenosi, J David Spence
Metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) that accumulate in renal failure (gut-derived uremic toxins, GDUTs) affect atherosclerosis and increase cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that patients on a Mediterranean diet and those consuming lower amounts of dietary precursors would have lower levels of GDUTs. Patients attending vascular prevention clinics completed a Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and had plasma levels of TMAO, p-cresylsulfate, hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide, phenyl acetyl glutamine, and phenyl sulfate measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
June 16, 2018: Nutrients
Tonny Elmose Andersen, Per Grünwald Andersen, Merja Annika Vakkala, Ask Elklit
Introduction Correctly identifying chronic pain patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important because the comorbidity of a chronic pain condition and PTSD is found to compromise treatment success. In addition, the existence of PTSD is associated with pain sensitisation, elevated levels of pain, and disability. Furthermore, the diagnostic criteria for PTSD has changed dramatically in the last two decades which has had a profound impact on the reported prevalence rates of PTSD in chronic pain samples...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Li Zhang, Jun Ding, Hanyu Zheng, Sensong An, Hongtao Lin, Bowen Zheng, Qingyang Du, Gufan Yin, Jerome Michon, Yifei Zhang, Zhuoran Fang, Mikhail Y Shalaginov, Longjiang Deng, Tian Gu, Hualiang Zhang, Juejun Hu
The original version of this Article omitted the following from the Acknowledgements:'J.D. and H. Zhang acknowledge initial funding for design of the meta-atoms provided by the National Science Foundation under award CMMI-1266251. Z.L. and H. Zheng contributed to the Device Fabrication section and were independently funded as visiting scholars by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under award 51772042 and the "111" project (No. B13042) led by Professor Huaiwu Zhang. Later work contained within the Device Modeling and Device Characterization sections and some revisions to the manuscript were funded under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Defense Sciences Office (DSO) Program: EXTREME Optics and Imaging (EXTREME) under Agreement No...
June 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Diego Marin, Mayra Orrego-Varon, Fernando Yanez, Luis Mendoza, Maria Alejandra Garcia, Jennifer Twyman, Robert Andrade, Ricardo Labarta
This article provides a description of an agricultural household survey data of rice growers collected in Ecuador between October 2014 and March 2015. The household survey was implemented using a structured questionnaire administered among 1028 households in the main rice production areas of Ecuador (i.e. Guayas, Los Rios, Manabi, and El Oro provinces). Information collected was provided by household heads (male or female) and included household and plot level data. The survey information includes household socio-demographic characteristics (e...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Paul Wallang, Sanjith Kamath, Alice Parshall, Tahani Saridar, Mahek Shah
Health-care companies around the world face an unprecedented challenge of rising health-care costs, increasing life expectancy and escalating demand. Although national health-care budgets have increased (as a percentage of gross domestic product) health care continues to impart significant upward pressure on national expenditure, particularly in the UK ( Licchetta and Stelmach, 2016 ). Additionally a substantial funding gap will continue to grow ( Gainsbury, 2016 ). In response to this challenge a 'value' based strategy has gained momentum over the last two decades...
June 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Waleed M Sweileh, Samah W Al-Jabi, Sa'ed H Zyoud, Ansam F Sawalha
Background: Outdoor air pollution is a major threat to global public health that needs responsible participation of researchers at all levels. Assessing research output is an important step in highlighting national and international contribution and collaboration in a certain field. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze globally-published literature in outdoor air pollution - related respiratory health. Method: Outdoor air pollution documents related to respiratory health were retrieved from Scopus database...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Robert D Truog, Thaddeus Mason Pope, David S Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Chen-Hao Chen, Tengfei Xiao, Han Xu, Peng Jiang, Clifford A Meyer, Wei Li, Myles Brown, X Shirley Liu
Motivation: Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen has been widely used to interrogate gene functions. However, the rules to design better libraries beg further refinement. Results: We found sgRNA outliers are characterized by higher G-nucleotide counts, especially in regions distal from the PAM motif, and are associated with stronger off-target activities. Furthermore, using non-targeting sgRNAs as negative controls lead to strong bias, which can be mitigated by using sgRNAs targeting multiple "safe harbor" regions...
June 1, 2018: Bioinformatics
Gerald E Benny, Matthew E Smith
The Harvard mycologist Roland Thaxter collected and studied a wide variety of fungi. Although he described >1000 fungal species, he was unable to describe all the specimens he collected before his death in 1932. His collections and microscope slides remain an important resource for studying fungal diversity at the Farlow Herbarium at Harvard University. Thaxter described three species in the obligate mycoparasite genus Syncephalis: S. pycnosperma, S. tenuis, and S. wynneae. He retained slide mounts of several other species, including a new species from his collection that was not described...
January 2018: Mycologia
John P Morgan, Moses Isyagi, Joseph Ntaganira, Agnes Gatarayiha, Sarah E Pagni, Tamar C Roomian, Matthew Finkelman, Jane E M Steffensen, Jane R Barrow, Chrispinus H Mumena, Donna M Hackley
BACKGROUND: Oral health affects quality of life and is linked to overall health. Enhanced oral health research is needed in low- and middle-income countries to develop strategies that reduce the burden of oral disease, improve oral health and inform oral health workforce and infrastructure development decisions. OBJECTIVE: To implement the first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda to assess the oral disease burden and inform oral health promotion strategies. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, sample size and site selection were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Surveys Pathfinder stratified cluster methodologies...
2018: Global Health Action
Jessica Carlsson, Charlotte Sonne, Erik Vindbjerg, Erik Lykke Mortensen
The aim of this randomised trial was to compare the effectiveness of stress management (SM) versus cognitive restructuring (CR) in trauma-affected refugees. The intention-to-treat sample comprised 126 refugees with PTSD (SM = 62, CR = 64). The treatment consisted of 16 sessions of psychotherapy with manualised SM or CR in addition to 10 sessions with a medical doctor (psychoeducation and pharmacological treatment). The primary outcome was PTSD symptom severity (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire). Secondary outcomes were symptoms of depression and anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Ratings), quality of life (WHO-5), functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning, Sheehan Disability Scale), pain (Visual Analogue Scale) and somatisation (Symptom Checklist)...
May 24, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Cliff Lee, Soo-Woo Kim
The aim of this study was to assess whether a flipped classroom was an effective model for dental students to learn periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning (DTP). Participants were all third-year students in three academic years (2015-17) at Harvard School of Dental Medicine: two groups that experienced the flipped classroom (Classes of 2017 and 2018), and a control group (Class of 2019) that received the same content in traditional lecture format. All three groups completed a DTP knowledge quiz before and after the educational experience; the flipped classroom groups also completed pre and post surveys of their opinions about flipped classrooms...
June 2018: Journal of Dental Education
Donna M Hackley, Chrispinus H Mumena, Agnes Gatarayiha, Corrado Cancedda, Jane R Barrow
Harvard School of Dental Medicine, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, and the University of Rwanda (UR) are collaborating to create Rwanda's first School of Dentistry as part of the Human Resources for Health (HRH) Rwanda initiative that aims to strengthen the health care system of Rwanda. The HRH oral health team developed three management tools to measure progress in systems-strengthening efforts: 1) the road map is an operations plan for the entire dental school and facilitates delivery of the curriculum and management of human and material resources; 2) each HRH U...
June 2018: Journal of Dental Education
Nishant Kishore, Domingo Marqués, Ayesha Mahmud, Mathew V Kiang, Irmary Rodriguez, Arlan Fuller, Peggy Ebner, Cecilia Sorensen, Fabio Racy, Jay Lemery, Leslie Maas, Jennifer Leaning, Rafael A Irizarry, Satchit Balsari, Caroline O Buckee
Background Quantifying the effect of natural disasters on society is critical for recovery of public health services and infrastructure. The death toll can be difficult to assess in the aftermath of a major disaster. In September 2017, Hurricane Maria caused massive infrastructural damage to Puerto Rico, but its effect on mortality remains contentious. The official death count is 64. Methods Using a representative, stratified sample, we surveyed 3299 randomly chosen households across Puerto Rico to produce an independent estimate of all-cause mortality after the hurricane...
May 29, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
N J Bishop, K E Zuniga, A L Lucht
OBJECTIVES: Our first objective was to estimate empirically-derived subgroups (latent profiles) of observed carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake density in a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. Our second objective was to determine whether membership in these groups was associated with levels of, and short term change in, physical mobility limitations. DESIGN AND SETTING: Measures of macronutrient density were taken from the 2013 Health Care and Nutrition Study, an off-year supplement to the Health and Retirement Study, which provided indicators of physical mobility limitations and sociodemographic and health-related covariates...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
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