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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676615/walter-b-cannon-s-world-war-i-experience-treatment-of-traumatic-shock-then-and-now
#1
Kathy L Ryan
Walter B. Cannon (1871-1945), perhaps America's preeminent physiologist, volunteered for service with the Army Expeditionary Force (AEF) during World War I. He initially served with Base Hospital No. 5, a unit made up of Harvard clinicians, before moving forward to the front lines to serve at a casualty clearing station run by the British. During his time there, he performed research on wounded soldiers to understand the nature and causes of traumatic shock. Subsequently, Cannon performed animal experimentation on the causes of traumatic shock in the London laboratory of Dr...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673390/enabling-multiplexed-testing-of-pooled-donor-cells-through-whole-genome-sequencing
#2
Yingleong Chan, Ying Kai Chan, Daniel B Goodman, Xiaoge Guo, Alejandro Chavez, Elaine T Lim, George M Church
We describe a method that enables the multiplex screening of a pool of many different donor cell lines. Our method accurately predicts each donor proportion from the pool without requiring the use of unique DNA barcodes as markers of donor identity. Instead, we take advantage of common single nucleotide polymorphisms, whole-genome sequencing, and an algorithm to calculate the proportions from the sequencing data. By testing using simulated and real data, we showed that our method robustly predicts the individual proportions from a mixed-pool of numerous donors, thus enabling the multiplexed testing of diverse donor cells en masse...
April 19, 2018: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669934/divergent-responses-to-kisspeptin-in-children-with-delayed-puberty
#3
Yee-Ming Chan, Margaret F Lippincott, Temitope O Kusa, Stephanie B Seminara
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide kisspeptin stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in healthy adults but not in adults with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We hypothesized that, in children presenting with delayed or stalled puberty, kisspeptin would elicit LH secretion in those children found on detailed nighttime neuroendocrine profiling to have evidence of emerging reproductive endocrine function. METHODS: Eleven boys and four girls were admitted overnight to assess LH secretion at baseline, after a single intravenous bolus of kisspeptin, and after a single intravenous bolus of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664932/obesity-and-unhealthy-lifestyle-associated-with-poor-executive-function-among-malaysian-adolescents
#4
Joyce Ying Hui Tee, Wan Ying Gan, Kit-Aun Tan, Yit Siew Chin
The understanding on the roles of obesity and lifestyle behaviors in predicting executive function of adolescents has been limited. Low executive function proficiency may have adverse effects on adolescents' school academic performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between BMI-for-age and multiple lifestyle behaviors (operationalized as meal consumption, physical activity, and sleep quality) with executive function (operationalized as inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) on a sample of Malaysian adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years (N = 513)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661008/psychiatry-in-american-medical-education-the-case-of-harvard-s-medical-school-1900-1945
#5
Tara H Abraham
As American psychiatrists moved from the asylum to the private clinic during the early twentieth century, psychiatry acquired a growing presence within medical school curricula. This shift in disciplinary status took place at a time when medical education itself was experiencing a period of reform. By examining medical school registers at Harvard University, records from the Dean's office of Harvard's medical school, and oral histories, this paper examines the rise in prominence of psychiatry in medical education...
April 16, 2018: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658414/over-time-the-right-results-will-emerge
#6
Marlene Behrmann, Jacob Geskin
Scientific research involves going beyond the well-trodden and well-tested ideas and theories that form the core of scientific knowledge. During the time scientists are working things out, some results will be right, and others will be wrong. Over time, the right results will emerge. Lisa Randall (Frank B. Baird, Jr. Professor of Science, Physics Department, Harvard University) We are grateful to all the commentators for the important and thoughtful comments raised in response to the Geskin and Behrmann (G & B) literature survey...
February 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657708/comparative-approaches-to-gentrification-lessons-from-the-rural
#7
Martin Phillips, Darren P Smith
The epistemologies and politics of comparative research are prominently debated within urban studies, with 'comparative urbanism' emerging as a contemporary lexicon of urban studies. The study of urban gentrification has, after some delay, come to engage with these debates, which can be seen to pose a major challenge to the very concept of gentrification. To date, similar debates or developments have not unfolded within the study of rural gentrification. This article seeks to address some of the challenges posed to gentrification studies through an examination of strategies of comparison and how they might be employed within a comparative study of rural gentrification...
March 2018: Dialogues in Human Geography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614677/18f-flortaucipir-binding-in-choroid-plexus-related-to-race-and-hippocampus-signal
#8
Christopher M Lee, Heidi I L Jacobs, Marta Marquié, John A Becker, Nicolas V Andrea, David S Jin, Aaron P Schultz, Matthew P Frosch, Teresa Gómez-Isla, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson
BACKGROUND: On target 18F-Flortaucipir (FTP) binding of Alzheimer's disease tau aggregates and off-target binding of melanocytes have been demonstrated with autoradiography. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that if binding in choroid plexus (CP) is due to melanocytes, the signal would be elevated in Black/African American (B/AA) compared to White (W) participants. In addition, we examined whether CP signal affects measurements in adjacent regions, and whether correcting for spill-in effects has an influence on associations between hippocampus (HC) FTP and amyloid or cognition...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606657/the-role-of-digital-3d-scanned-models-in-dental-students-self-assessments-in-preclinical-operative-dentistry
#9
Cliff Lee, Hiro Kobayashi, Samuel R Lee, Hiroe Ohyama
The aim of this study was to determine how dental student self-assessment and faculty assessment of operative preparations compared for conventional visual assessment versus assessment of scanned digital 3D models. In 2016, all third-year students in the Class of 2018 (N=35) at Harvard School of Dental Medicine performed preclinical exams of Class II amalgam preparations (C2AP) and Class III composite preparations (C3CP) and completed self-assessment forms; in 2017, all third-year students in the Class of 2019 (N=34) performed the same exams...
April 2018: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604292/improved-diet-quality-associates-with-reduction-in-liver-fat-particularly-in-individuals-with-high-genetic-risk-scores-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Jiantao Ma, Rachel Hennein, Chunyu Liu, Michelle T Long, Udo Hoffmann, Paul F Jacques, Alice H Lichtenstein, Frank B Hu, Daniel Levy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary modification has been recommended for treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although it is not clear whether improving diet quality can prevent its development. We performed a prospective study to examine the association between diet quality change and change in liver fat change. We also examined the association between genetic risk score and liver fat change in individuals with different levels of diet quality change. METHODS: Our study included 1521 participants who attended the seventh and eighth examinations (1998-2001 and 2005-2008) of the second-generation cohort or attended the first and second examinations (2002-2005 and 2008-2011) of the third-generation cohort in the Framingham Heart Study...
March 28, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604123/well-being-and-posttraumatic-growth-among-syrian-refugees-in-jordan
#11
Niveen Rizkalla, Steven P Segal
The Syrian War has created a mass exodus of Syrian citizens to neighboring countries and exposed them to many atrocities. We explored factors affecting well-being and posttraumatic growth (PTG) of refugees residing in Jordan. Participants (N = 250) were surveyed via nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Outcome criteria included a global well-being rating and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Trauma exposure assessment included The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and The War Events Questionnaire. Ordinary least squares regression examined associations between potential contributors to refugee well-being and PTG, including work, age, sex, income, education, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity, physical pain, health, NGO assistance, psychotic/affective mental disorder, and length of residence in Jordan...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595461/harvard-pilgrim-s-patrick-cahill-tries-to-make-sense-of-it-all
#12
Frank Diamond
The 40-year-old vice president of regional markets for eastern Massachusetts wants enrollees and, especially, employers to know that there will continue to be a lot of public policy change as the ACA evolves. His course? Keep strengthening ties with providers.
March 2018: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590512/progress-its-glories-and-pitfalls
#13
Daniel Callahan
Steven Pinker, a cognitive psychologist and linguist at Harvard and a savant of big ideas, is one of the latest to take on the idea of progress. He does it under the aegis of "enlightenment," which comes down to a kind of holy trinity of reason, science, and humanism. His new book, Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress, is ambitious and cantankerous and heady with hope. On the whole, Pinker makes a good case for the benefits of progress, but with an overdose of feel-good prose...
March 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568560/life-as-an-early-career-researcher-interview-with-yu-shrike-zhang
#14
Yu Shrike Zhang
Yu Shrike Zhang talks to Francesca Lake, Head of Open Access Publishing: Yu Shrike Zhang received his BE degree in biomedical engineering in 2008 from Southeast University, PR China and PhD degree in biomedical engineering in 2013 from Georgia Institute of Technology. He is currently an Instructor of Medicine and Associate Bioengineer in the Division of Engineering in Medicine at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School. His research interests include organs-on-chips, biomaterials, bioprinting, biomedical devices, biomedical imaging and biosensing with a focus on innovating medical engineering technologies to recreate functional tissues and biomimetic tissue models...
March 2018: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567495/characterizing-exposure-to-household-air-pollution-within-the-prospective-urban-rural-epidemiology-pure-study
#15
Raphael E Arku, Aaron Birch, Matthew Shupler, Salim Yusuf, Perry Hystad, Michael Brauer
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution (HAP) from combustion of solid fuels is an important contributor to disease burden in low- and middle-income countries (LIC, and MIC). However, current HAP disease burden estimates are based on integrated exposure response curves that are not currently informed by quantitative HAP studies in LIC and MIC. While there is adequate evidence supporting causal relationships between HAP and respiratory disease, large cohort studies specifically examining relationships between quantitative measures of HAP exposure with cardiovascular disease are lacking...
March 19, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566648/estimating-the-health-consequences-of-flight-attendant-work-comparing-flight-attendant-health-to-the-general-population-in-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Eileen McNeely, Irina Mordukhovich, Samuel Tideman, Sara Gale, Brent Coull
BACKGROUND: Flight attendants are an understudied occupational group, despite undergoing a wide and unique range of adverse job-related exposures. In our study, we aimed to characterize the health profile of cabin crew relative to the U.S. general population. METHODS: In 2014-2015, we surveyed participants of the Harvard Flight Attendant Health Study. We compared the prevalence of their health conditions to a contemporaneous cohort in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2013-2014) using age-weighted standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs)...
March 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557937/dr-terry-b-strom-professor-of-medicine-and-surgery-harvard-medical-school-boston-ma-usa-a-retrospective-of-a-transplant-visionary-innovator-and-dedicated-mentor
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556256/spinal-muscular-atrophy-type-i-and-the-dual-role-of-viruses-an-interview-with-professor-basil-t-darras-professor-of-neurology-pediatrics-at-harvard-medical-school
#18
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
According to Professor Basil T. Darras, Professor of Neurology (Pediatrics) at Harvard Medical School and Director of the Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Program at Boston Children's Hospital in Boston (MA, USA), the diagnosis of SMA type I is clinical and is based on detailed general physical and neurological examinations. SMA type I remains the most common genetic disease resulting in death in infancy and is really devastating for the child, the parents, as well as the medical professionals with the privilege of caring for patients with SMA and their parents...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553303/validation-of-mental-health-screening-instruments-in-the-kashmir-valley-india
#19
Tambri Housen, Annick Lenglet, Cono Ariti, Shabnum Ara, Showkat Shah, Maqbool Dar, Arshad Hussain, Altaf Paul, Zahoor Wagay, Kerri Viney, Simon Janes, Giovanni Pintaldi
The present study aimed to culturally adapt, translate, and validate the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Checklist (HTQ-16) prior to use in a cross-sectional mental health population survey in the Kashmir Valley. Cultural adaptation and translation of the HSCL-25 and the HTQ-16 employed multiple forms of transcultural validity check. The HSCL-25 and HTQ-16 were compared against a "gold standard" structured psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549691/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-coping-styles-of-war-veterans-twenty-years-after-the-war-from-tuzla-canton
#20
Zihnet Selimbašić, Maja Brkić, Nermina Kravić, Jasmin Hamidović, Mirna Selimbašić
Aim To analyse symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and coping strategies of war veterans in Tuzla Canton twenty years after the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Methods The study analysed a group of 120 war veterans from the Tuzla Canton who had experience of the war in BiH. For assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used, a version for Bosnia and Herzegovina and for assessment of coping styles Life Style Index was used. Results Concerning number of traumatic experiences of war veterans, it was found that they suffered 12 traumatic experiences...
February 1, 2018: Medicinski Glasnik
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