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Antiobiotic resistant

Pramodhini Subramanian, Niveditha Shanmugam, Umadevi Sivaraman, Shailesh Kumar, Stephen Selvaraj
BACKGROUND: Microbial biofilms pose a public health problem for persons requiring indwelling medical devices, as micro-organisms in biofilms are difficult to treat with antimicrobial agents. Thus the present study includes biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance pattern of uropathogens in hospitalised patients with catheter associated urinary tract infections (UTI). METHOD: This prospective analysis included 100 urine samples from catheterised patients with symptoms of UTI over a period of six months...
2012: Australasian Medical Journal
R M Franke, C S Lancaster, C J Peer, A A Gibson, A M Kosloske, S J Orwick, R H Mathijssen, W D Figg, S D Baker, A Sparreboom
The macrolide antiobiotic erythromycin undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism and is commonly used as a probe for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity. By means of a transporter screen, erythromycin was identified as a substrate for the transporter ABCC2 (MRP2) and its murine ortholog, Abcc2. Because these proteins are highly expressed on the biliary surface of hepatocytes, we hypothesized that impaired Abcc2 function may influence the rate of hepatobiliary excretion and thereby enhance erythromycin metabolism...
May 2011: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
(no author information available yet)
Unnecessary use of antibiotics can endanger patients, increase bacteria resistance, and result in added expenditures. There are only four appropriate medications that should be given to children in whom strep is suspected. You may wish to consider giving Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus test to children before prescribing an antiobiotic. Staff also should take into consideration whether the patient has been exposed to friends or relatives with strep.
April 2006: ED Management: the Monthly Update on Emergency Department Management
K Vishwanathan, M G Bartlett, J T Stewart
Gatifloxacin is an advanced-generation, 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone that is active against a broad spectrum of pathogens, including antiobiotic resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Development of a rapid, sensitive and selective method for the determination of gatifloxacin in human plasma is essential for understanding the pharmacokinetics of the drug when administered orally or intravenously. Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis HLB was used to extract gatifloxacin and the internal standard ciprofloxacin from plasma...
2001: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
C Thornsberry, D F Sahm
Multiple antibiotic resistance threatens current treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This paper presents a summary of resistance data for Streptococcus pneumoniae (6,223 isolates), Haemophilus influenzae (4,016) and Moraxella catarrhalis (1,263) collected from 153 centers throughout Japan, China, UK, Germany, Spain, France, Italy, Brazil and USA. Antiobiotics tested were: beta-lactams (penicillin, ampicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefuroxime, and ceftriaxone), macrolides (azithromycin and clarithromycin), sulphonamide (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), glycopeptide (vancomycin) and fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin)...
October 2000: Journal of Chemotherapy
L B Rice
Antibiotic resistance among nosocomial pathogens in this country's hospitals adds significantly to patient morbidity and mortality, and the cost of health care. Optimism for identifying antimicrobial agents that would "solve the problem" of resistance has been replaced by a much more guarded and realistic view of the battle between humans and pathogenic microorganisms. Efforts now are more appropriately directed toward limiting, rather than completely eliminating, resistance, generally by either infection control or antibiotic control measures, and sometime combinations of the two...
August 1999: Pharmacotherapy
D Chakraborty, B Mondal, S C Pal, S K Sen
A streptomycete strain D1.5 capable of producing broad spectrum antiobiotic was isolated from soil. The morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characters were studied, compared to known species and identified as Streptmoyces hygroscopicus. Antibiotic activity of the strain was tested against both Gram positive and negative bacteria as well as fungi. It exhibited complete resistance to beta-lactum antibiotics.
February 1995: Hindustan Antibiotics Bulletin
J Mohler, B Fantin, J L Mainardi, C Carbon
The kinetics of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels in serum during therapy with cell wall-active agents (ceftriaxone, imipenem) and gentamicin were investigated in rabbits with experimental endocarditis caused by an isogenic pair of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains: a TEM-3 beta-lactamase-producing strain (KpR) or its susceptible variant (KpS). In vitro, KpR was resistant to ceftriaxone and was susceptible to gentamicin and imipenem, while KpS was susceptible to all three antibiotics. Serum TNF levels were determined in control rabbits hourly after bacterial inoculation and then daily; they were determined in treated animals hourly after the first antibiotic injection and then daily during a 4-day therapy with either imipenem (60 mg/kg of body weight four times daily), ceftriaxone (75 mg/kg once daily), or gentamicin (4 mg/kg once daily) alone or in combination with ceftriaxone...
May 1994: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Y Zou, Y H Ling, S Reddy, W Priebe, R Perez-Soler
Annamycin (Ann) is a non-cross-resistant lipophilic anthracycline antiobiotic optimally suited for liposome delivery. We studied how vesicle size and presence of phospholipids with a high phase transition temperature and monosialoganglioside (GM I) in the liposome bilayers affect the pharmacokinetics, tumor selectivity and toxicity of Ann. Entrapment of Ann in multilamellar vesicles (L-Ann) resulted in a 20% lower heart AUC and a 30-40% higher tumor and liver AUC. Reduction of the liposome size from 1.6 to 0...
May 29, 1995: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
R Aono, M Kobayashi, H Nakajima, H Kobayashi
We have isolated cyclohexane-tolerant mutants from Escherichi coli strain JA300, which is cyclohexane-sensitive and n-hexane-tolerant. These mutants were resistant to low levels of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline, and were sensitive to a low level of kanamycin. Spontaneous clones resistant to low levels of the antibiotics, isolated from JA300, showed altered levels of organic solvent tolerance. The clones resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol had cyclohexane tolerance. Some of the resistant clones had cyclohexane and n-pentane tolerances...
February 1995: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
V O Rotimi, B I Duerden, S Hafiz
Plasmid-mediated resistance to chloramphenicol (Chlr), erythromycin (Eryr), tetracycline (Tetr) and clindamycin (Clindr) was transferred from three clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis and one faecal isolate of B. thetaiotaomicron to strains of B. fragilis, B. distasonis and Escherichia coli, and subsequently to B. fragilis and E. coli second-and third-stage recipients in series. Successful transfer was achieved by membrane-filter and centrifugation techniques that provide stable cell-to-cell contact but not by simple mixed broth culture...
November 1981: Journal of Medical Microbiology
M Castets, D de Souza, Y Vézard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1972: Bulletin de la Société Médicale D'Afrique Noire de Langue Française
E M Petrov, I G Chernukha
Streptomycin sensitivity of 112 Leptospira strains isolated from domestic and wild animals was studied. Independent of the isolation period and nature the strains proved to be highly sensitive to the antiobiotic (MIC 0.1 to 0.5 gamma/ml). On the example of a clone strain of Leptospira it was shown with a fluctuation test that streptomycin resistance occurred spontaneously. Frequency of the streptomycin resistant mutations was determined for 5 clone strains of L. interrogans. It was 10-9 to 10-7 per a Leptospira...
January 1975: Antibiotiki
D Lipnicki, J Zamiechowska-miazga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 1975: Polski Tygodnik Lekarski
R Morimoto, A Lewin, H J Hsu, M Rabinowitz, H Fukuhara
Digestion of grande mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) BY EcoRI restriction endonuclease gives rise to nine fragments with a total molecular weight of 51.8 x 10(6). HindIII digestion yields six fragments with a similar total molecular weight. Specific restriction fragments can be detected despite the fact that yeast mtDNA consists of a heterogeneous distribution of randomly broken molecules. Digestion patterns of 10 genetically characterized petite clones containing various combinations of five antiobiotic resistance markers indicate that the petite mtDNA predominantly represents deletion of the grande genome...
October 1975: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
P Santanam, F H Kayser
A fast and accurate enzymatic estimation of the concentration of aminoglycoside antiobiotics in serum is given by aminoglycoside 4'-adenylyltransferase (synonym: tobramycin adenylyltransferase), a new enzyme recently found in tobramycin-resistant staphylococci (P. Santanam and F. H. Kayser, J. Infect. Dis. [Suppl.], in press). This enzyme is useful in assaying the kanamycins, the butirosins, amikacin, ribostamycin and, if required, the neomycins, tobramycin, and paromomycin. In combination with the assay using aminoglycoside 2''-adenylyltransferase (synonym: gentamicin adenylyltransferase) to determine the level of gentamicin, sisomicin, and tobramycin, a convenient method to estimate a wide range of aminoglycoside antibiotics in patients' sera is described...
October 1976: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
K M Campbell, G H Chambliss
A streptomycin-resistant mutantant of Bacillus subtilis that is also asporogenous, was isolated and partially characterized. This strain, SRB15, sporulated at a frequency of about 1% compared to the wild type frequency of greater than 70%. The two phenotypes were inseparable by transformation, suggesting that this strain carries a single mutation that causes it to be both streptomycin-resistant and spore-minus. The mutation cotransduces with cysA, the closest auxotrophic marker to the "ribosomal region" of the B...
December 30, 1977: Molecular & General Genetics: MGG
R B Bell
The resistance of 260 strains of fecal coliforms, isolated from raw domestic sewage and aerobic lagoon effluent, to ampicillin, aureomycin, chloromycetin, gentamicin, streptomycin, sulfadiazine, and tetracycline, was determined. Aerobic lagoon treatment produced a 20-fold reduction in the fecal coliform numbers. No statistically significant difference in antibiotic resistance was observed between the fecal coliforms found in raw sewage and in lagoon effluent despite a trend towards the loss of resistance in the latter...
July 1978: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
J W Kusek, J S Ortiz
A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of significant bacteriuria in a mentally retarded population. With 100,000 or more bacteria per ml. of urine used as a criterion for significant bacteriuria, 24 of 665 persons studied were considered to have significant bacteriuria for an overall prevalence rate of 3.6%. Seventeen of the 24 positive urine cultures were either from clean catch or catheter specimens. All patients undergoing catheterization were found to have significant bacteriuria. The individual prevalence rates of significant bacteriuria for males and females were 1...
January 1977: Health Laboratory Science
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