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"Human evolutionary genetics"

Magda Lewandowska, Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska, Tomasz Płoszaj, Piotr Witas, Alicja Zamerska, Hanna Mańkowska-Pliszka, Henryk W Witas
The last decade has seen sharp progress in the field of human evolutionary genetics and a great amount of genetic evidence of natural selection has been provided so far. Since host-pathogen co-evolution is difficult to trace due to the polygenic nature of human susceptibility to microbial diseases, of particular interest is any signal of natural selection in response to the strong selective pressure exerted by pathogens. Analysis of ancient DNA allows for the direct insight into changes of a gene pool content over time and enables monitoring allele frequency fluctuations...
May 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Hakhamanesh Mostafavi, Tomaz Berisa, Felix R Day, John R B Perry, Molly Przeworski, Joseph K Pickrell
A number of open questions in human evolutionary genetics would become tractable if we were able to directly measure evolutionary fitness. As a step towards this goal, we developed a method to examine whether individual genetic variants, or sets of genetic variants, currently influence viability. The approach consists in testing whether the frequency of an allele varies across ages, accounting for variation in ancestry. We applied it to the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort and to the parents of participants in the UK Biobank...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
Noah A Rosenberg, Jonathan T L Kang
The magnitude of genetic diversity within human populations varies in a way that reflects the sequence of migrations by which people spread throughout the world. Beyond its use in human evolutionary genetics, worldwide variation in genetic diversity sometimes can interact with social processes to produce differences among populations in their relationship to modern societal problems. We review the consequences of genetic diversity differences in the settings of familial identification in forensic genetic testing, match probabilities in bone marrow transplantation, and representation in genome-wide association studies of disease...
September 2015: Genetics
Alessandra Congiu, Paolo Anagnostou, Nicola Milia, Marco Capocasa, Francesco Montinaro, Giovanni Destro Bisol
This study presents an overview of online databases for mtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisms in human populations. In order to provide readers with information which may help optimize their use, we focus on: (i) type, quantity and source of data contained; (ii) possibilities of downloading and uploading; (iii) availability of data filters and population genetics tools. We show that some of these databases offer a useful complement to the primary databases by giving access to additional data and making it possible to perform queries which exploit some specific metadata...
2012: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
John Novembre, Eunjung Han
The past few years of research in human evolutionary genetics have provided novel insights and questions regarding how human adaptations to recent selective pressures have taken place. Here, we review the advances most relevant to understanding human evolution in response to pathogen-induced selective pressures. Key insights come from theoretical models of adaptive evolution, particularly those that consider spatially structured populations, and from empirical population genomic studies of adaptive evolution in humans...
March 19, 2012: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Michael Balter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2011: Science
Saharon Rosset, R Spencer Wells, David F Soria-Hernanz, Chris Tyler-Smith, Ajay K Royyuru, Doron M Behar
The mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) is widely used in studies of human evolutionary genetics, and therefore accurate estimates of mutation rates among nucleotide sites in this region are essential. We have developed a novel maximum-likelihood methodology for estimating site-specific mutation rates from partial phylogenetic information, such as haplogroup association. The resulting estimation problem is a generalized linear model, with a nonstandard link function. We develop inference and bias correction tools for our estimates and a hypothesis-testing approach for site independence...
November 2008: Genetics
Erin K Hanson, Jack Ballantyne
In forensic casework, Y chromosome short tandem repeat markers (Y-STRs) are often used to identify a male donor DNA profile in the presence of excess quantities of female DNA, such as is found in many sexual assault investigations. Commercially available Y-STR multiplexes incorporating 12-17 loci are currently used in forensic casework (Promega's PowerPlex Y and Applied Biosystems' AmpFlSTR Yfiler). Despite the robustness of these commercial multiplex Y-STR systems and the ability to discriminate two male individuals in most cases, the coincidence match probabilities between unrelated males are modest compared with the standard set of autosomal STR markers...
2007: PloS One
Vincent Plagnol, Jeffrey D Wall
Determining the evolutionary relationships between fossil hominid groups such as Neanderthals and modern humans has been a question of enduring interest in human evolutionary genetics. Here we present a new method for addressing whether archaic human groups contributed to the modern gene pool (called ancient admixture), using the patterns of variation in contemporary human populations. Our method improves on previous work by explicitly accounting for recent population history before performing the analyses...
July 2006: PLoS Genetics
A R Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2001: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
F M Salzano
After a short review on opinions about human evolutionary genetics and the prospects for understanding the biological variation present in our species, descriptions are made for studies performed in Brazil concerning: (a) C-band variability in chromosomes 1, 9, 16 and Y in Indian populations, with a Caucasoid sample used for comparison; (b) The paradox of the restricted number of HLA haplotypes observed in Indian groups, coupled with a finding of significantly less homozygotes than those expected assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; (c) The distribution of Gc and Tf isoelectric focusing subtypes in Indians and its anthropological significance; (d) Racial admixture quantitative estimations in samples from two Indian tribes and two cities...
1982: Acta Anthropogenetica
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