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J Rodríguez-Chueca, E Laski, C García-Cañibano, M J Martín de Vidales, Á Encinas, B Kuch, J Marugán
The high chemical stability and the low biodegradability of a vast number of micropollutants (MPs) impede their correct treatment in urban wastewater treatment plants. In most cases, the chemical oxidation is the only way to abate them. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have been experimentally proved as efficient in the removal of different micropollutants at lab-scale. However, there is not enough information about their application at full-scale. This manuscript reports the application of three different AOPs based on the addition of homogeneous oxidants [hydrogen peroxide, peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and persulfate anions (PS)], in the UV-C tertiary treatment of Estiviel wastewater treatment plant (Toledo, Spain) previously designed and installed in the facility for disinfection...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sophie J E Cramer, Janneke Dekker, Jenny Dankelman, Steffen C Pauws, Stuart B Hooper, Arjan B Te Pas
Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is one of the most common diagnoses in preterm infants. Severe and recurrent apneas are associated with cerebral injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Despite pharmacotherapy and respiratory support to prevent apneas, a proportion of infants continue to have apneas and often need tactile stimulation, mask, and bag ventilation and/or extra oxygen. The duration of the apnea and the concomitant hypoxia and bradycardia depends on the response time of the nurse. We systematically reviewed the literature with the aim of providing an overview of what is known about the effect of manual and mechanical tactile stimulation on AOP...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Christopher J Martyniuk
Environmental science has benefited a great deal from omics-based technologies. High-throughput toxicology has defined adverse outcome pathways (AOPs), prioritized chemicals of concern, and identified novel actions of environmental chemicals. While many of these approaches are conducted under rigorous laboratory conditions, a significant challenge has been the interpretation of omics data in "real-world" exposure scenarios. Clarity in the interpretation of these data limits their use in environmental monitoring programs...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Fiona Sewell, Nichola Gellatly, Maria Beaumont, Natalie Burden, Richard Currie, Lolke de Haan, Thomas H Hutchinson, Miriam Jacobs, Catherine Mahony, Ian Malcomber, Jyotigna Mehta, Graham Whale, Ian Kimber
The advent of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) has provided a new lexicon for description of mechanistic toxicology, and a renewed enthusiasm for exploring modes of action resulting in adverse health and environmental effects. In addition, AOPs have been used successfully as a framework for the design and development of non-animal approaches to toxicity testing. Although the value of AOPs is widely recognised, there remain challenges and opportunities associated with their use in practise. The purpose of this article is to consider specifically how the future trajectory of AOPs may provide a basis for addressing some of those challenges and opportunities...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Subramanian Natarajan, Hari C Bajaj, Rajesh J Tayade
The problem of textile dye pollution has been addressed by various methods, mainly physical, chemical, biological, and acoustical. These methods mainly separate and/or remove the dye present in water. Recently, advanced oxidation processes (AOP) have been focused for removal of dye from waste water due to their advantages such as ecofriendly, economic and capable to degrade many dyes or organic pollutant present in water. Photocatalysis is one of the advance oxidation processes, mainly carried out under irradiation of light and suitable photocatalytic materials...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Je Min Yoo, Baekwon Park, Sang Jin Kim, Yong Seok Choi, Sungmin Park, Eun Hye Jeong, Hyukjin Lee, Byung Hee Hong
Ferrous ion-based catalysts have been widely employed to oxidatively destruct the major industrial pollutants such as phenolic compounds through advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). These agents, however, inevitably show several drawbacks including the need for pH adjustment and further purification steps to remove residual salts. Here we report the use of a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene film as a novel metal-free catalyst for the AOP-based degradation of phenols in aqueous solution, which does not require additional steps for salt removal nor external energy to activate the process...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Nariaki Asada
Kidneys are physiologically hypoxic due to huge oxygen consumption for tubular reabsorption. The physiological hypoxia makes the kidney an appropriate organ for sensitively detecting oxygen levels and producing erythropoietin (EPO). In preterm neonates, immature kidneys cannot produce sufficient EPO, which results in anemia of prematurity (AOP). The cause of EPO insufficiency in AOP has been unclear, therefore current therapeutic options are transfusion and injection of recombinant human EPO. This report shows that the cause of insufficient EPO production in AOP is elevated renal oxygen levels due to poor oxygen consumption by immature tubules...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laith Furatian, Madjid Mohseni
The 185 nm wavelength radiation generated by the conventional low pressure mercury lamp forms the basis of an advanced oxidation process (AOP) that does not require chemical addition. The photolysis of water by 185 nm photons generates the hydroxyl radical (OH) used to degrade trace organic contaminants. While AOPs in general suffer decreased efficiency in direct proportion to the concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and alkalinity (HCO3 - /CO3 2- ), acting as OH scavengers, such solutes impose an additional parasitic effect on the 185 nm AOP as absorbers of photons...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Kellie A Fay, Daniel L Villeneuve, Joe Swintek, Stephen Edwards, Mark Nelms, Brett R Blackwell, Gerald T Ankley
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ToxCast program has screened thousands of chemicals for biological activity, primarily using high-throughput in vitro bioassays. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) offer a means to link pathway-specific biological activities with potential apical effects relevant to risk assessors. Thus, efforts are underway to develop AOPs relevant to pathway-specific perturbations detected in ToxCast assays. Previous work identified a 'cytotoxic burst' (CTB) phenomenon wherein large numbers of the ToxCast assays begin to respond at or near test chemical concentrations that elicit cytotoxicity, and a statistical approach to defining the bounds of the CTB was developed...
February 24, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Jukka Hakkola, Camilla Bernasconi, Sandra Coecke, Lysiane Richert, Tommy B Andersson, Olavi Pelkonen
Pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate expression of many xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes including several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Many xenobiotics induce CYP enzymes through these intracellular receptors and consequently affect toxicokinetics and possible metabolic activation of the receptor ligands and other xenobiotics utilizing similar metabolic pathways...
March 12, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Bahattin Tuncalı, Hakan Boya, Zeynep Kayhan, Şükrü Araç
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the effect of obesity on pneumatic tourniquet inflation pressures determined with a novel formula during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 208 patients (19 males, 199 females; mean age 69.8 years; range, 53 to 84 years) who were performed TKA between January 2013 and December 2016 were evaluated prospectively. Patients were divided into two groups as non-obese (body mass index [BMI] ≤30.0 kg/m2) and obese (BMI >30...
April 2018: Eklem Hastalıkları Ve Cerrahisi, Joint Diseases & related Surgery
Guoshuai Liu, Yanan Zhou, Jie Teng, Jinna Zhang, Shijie You
The advanced oxidation process (AOP) based on SO4 - radicals draws an increasing interest in water and wastewater treatment. Producing SO4 - radicals from the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) by transition metal ions or oxides may be problematic due to high operational cost and potential secondary pollution caused by metal leaching. To address this challenge, the present study reports the efficient production of SO4 - radicals through visible-light-driven photocatalytic activation (VL-PCA) of PMS by using Cu2 (OH)PO4 single crystal for enhanced degradation of a typical recalcitrant organic pollutant, i...
March 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Magdalini Sachana, Alexandra Rolaki, Anna Bal-Price
The Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) are designed to provide mechanistic understanding of complex biological systems and pathways of toxicity that result in adverse outcomes (AOs) relevant to regulatory endpoints. AOP concept captures in a structured way the causal relationships resulting from initial chemical interaction with biological target(s) (molecular initiating event) to an AO manifested in individual organisms and/or populations through a sequential series of key events (KEs), which are cellular, anatomical and/or functional changes in biological processes...
March 7, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Tomoyuki Shimokaze, Katsuaki Toyoshima, Jun Shibasaki, Yasufumi Itani
OBJECTIVE: We often encounter infants who developed hypokalaemia following low-dose doxapram for apnea of prematurity (AOP). AIMS: To determine changes in blood potassium (K+) levels after doxapram administration. STUDY DESIGN: We studied infants born before 30 weeks gestation. Doxapram (0.1-0.3 mg/kg/h) in addition to methylxanthines was used to treat AOP refractory to methylxanthines. RESULTS: Twenty-five infants received doxapram were studied...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Shiqing Zhou, Yanghai Yu, Weiqiu Zhang, Xiaoyang Meng, Jinming Luo, Lin Deng, Zhou Shi, John C Crittenden
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been widely used for the destruction of organic contaminants in the aqueous phase. In this study, we introduce an AOP on activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) by using ascorbic acid (H2A) to generate sulfate radicals (SO4•-). Sulfate radicals, hydroxyl radicals (HO•) and ascorbyl radicals (A•-) were found using electron spin resonance (ESR). But we found A•- is negligible in the degradation of microcystin-LR (MCLR) due to its low reactivity. We developed a first-principles kinetic model to simulate the MCLR degradation and predict the radical concentrations...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
P V Nidheesh, Jayraj Khatri, T S Anantha Singh, R Gandhimathi, S T Ramesh
Zero-valent metals (ZVM) are widely used to remove heavy metals, contaminants, toxicity, etc. from water and wastewater. Zero-valent aluminium (ZVAl) has large surface area and high surface reactivity. It has enormous flexibility for the in-situ application. ZVAl can be applied as either a single or a bimetallic system as well as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). It is observed that ZVAl is capable of generating hydroxyl and sulfate radicals in water medium, which remove non-biodegradable pollutants from aqueous solution...
February 25, 2018: Chemosphere
Susana I L Gomes, Carlos P Roca, Natália Pegoraro, Tito Trindade, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Mónica J B Amorim
The current testing of nanomaterials (NMs) via standard toxicity tests does not cover many of the NMs specificities. One of the recommendations lays on understanding the mechanisms of action, as these can help predicting long-term effects and safe-by-design production. In the present study, we used the high-throughput gene expression tool, developed for Enchytraeus crypticus (4 × 44k Agilent microarray), to study the effects of exposure to several copper (Cu) forms. The Cu treatments included two NMs (spherical and wires) and two copper-salt treatments (CuNO3 spiked and Cu salt field historical contamination)...
March 5, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Dong Wu, Ruoqi Ma, Huawei Wei, Kai Yang, Bing Xie
Around 350 million tons of solid waste is disposed of in landfills every year globally, with millions of cubic meters of landfill leachates released into neighboring environment. However, to date, little is known about the variations of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in on-site leachate treatment systems and its development in leachate-receiving water environment. Here, we quantified 7 subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), 3 types of culturable antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and 6 subtypes of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the effluents from a combined leachate treatment process, including biological treatment (MBR), physical separation (UF), ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and advanced oxidation process (AOP)...
March 1, 2018: Environment International
Xiaoguang Duan, Hongqi Sun, Shaobin Wang
Catalytic processes have remarkably boosted the rapid industrializations in chemical production, energy conversion, and environmental remediation. As one of the emerging applications of carbocatalysis, metal-free nanocarbons have demonstrated promise as catalysts for green remediation technologies to overcome the poor stability and undesirable metal leaching in metal-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Since our reports of heterogeneous activation of persulfates with low-dimensional nanocarbons, the novel oxidative system has raised tremendous interest for degradation of organic contaminants in wastewater without secondary contamination...
March 1, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Daniel L Villeneuve, Michelle M Angrish, Marie C Fortin, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Marc Leonard, Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci, Sharon Munn, Jason M O'Brien, Nathan L Pollesch, L Cody Smith, Xiaowei Zhang, Dries Knapen
Toxicological responses to stressors are more complex than the simple one biological perturbation to one adverse outcome model portrayed by individual adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). Consequently, the AOP framework was designed to facilitate de facto development of AOP networks that can aid understanding and prediction of pleiotropic and interactive effects more common to environmentally realistic, complex exposure scenarios. The present paper introduces nascent concepts related to the qualitative analysis of AOP networks...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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