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Sasmita Kusumastuti, Esther van Fenema, Eugenie C F Polman-van Stratum, Wilco Achterberg, Jolanda Lindenberg, Rudi G J Westendorp
CONTEXT: Many medical schools have initiated care internships to familiarize their students with older persons and to instil a professional attitude. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of care internships on the image that first-year medical students have of older persons and to explore the underlying concepts that may play a role in shaping this image. DESIGN: Survey before and after a two-week compulsory care internship using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD; 32 adjectives) and the Attitudes toward Old People (AOP; 34 positions) questionnaires...
2017: PloS One
Andreas Natsch, Roger Emter
The publication by the OECD of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization has accelerated the development and validation of mechanistic tests and testing strategies to assess the potential of new molecules to trigger skin allergies. The molecular initiating event (MIE) in the AOP is reaction with skin peptides/proteins. It is followed by a number of cellular events. Currently, only one in chemico test to characterize the MIE was proposed to and underwent adoption by the OECD, while two cell-based assays have completed the process...
January 17, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Edison GilPavas, Izabela Dobrosz-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Gómez-García
In this study, the industrial textile wastewater was treated using a chemical-based technique (coagulation-flocculation, C-F) sequential with an advanced oxidation process (AOP: Fenton or Photo-Fenton). During the C-F, Al2(SO4)3 was used as coagulant and its optimal dose was determined using the jar test. The following operational conditions of C-F, maximizing the organic matter removal, were determined: 700 mg/L of Al2(SO4)3 at pH = 9.96. Thus, the C-F allowed to remove 98% of turbidity, 48% of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and let to increase in the BOD5/COD ratio from 0...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Elisa Montaguti, Nicola Rizzo, Gianluigi Pilu, Aly Youssef
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility and reliability of an automated technique for the assessment of the angle of progression (AoP) in labor using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. METHODS: AoP was assessed using 3D transperineal ultrasound by two operators in 52 women in active labor to evaluate intra- and interobserver reproducibility. Furthermore, intermethod agreement between automated and manual techniques on 3D images, and between automated technique on 3D vs 2D images were evaluated...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Paola Villegas-Guzman, Javier Silva-Agredo, Oscar Florez, Ana L Giraldo-Aguirre, Cesar Pulgarin, Ricardo A Torres-Palma
To provide new insights toward the selection of the most suitable AOP for isoxazolyl penicillins elimination, the degradation of dicloxacillin, a isoxazolyl penicillin model, was studied using different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): ultrasound (US), photo-Fenton (UV/H2O2/Fe(2+)) and TiO2 photocatalysis (UV/TiO2). Although all processes achieved total removal of the antibiotic and antimicrobial activity, and increased the biodegradability level of the solutions, significant differences concerning the mineralization extend, the pH of the solution, the pollutant concentration and the chemical nature of additives were found...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Jamshid H Karimov, Michael Zhen-Yu Tong, Nicole Byram, Gengo Sunagawa, Raymond Dessoffy, Nader Moazami, Randall C Starling, Kiyotaka Fukamachi
BACKGROUND: Changes in the geometry of the HeartMate II (HMII) inflow cannula have been implicated in device thrombosis post-implant. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate what effects changing the angle of the cannula in relation to the pump may have on pump flow and arterial pressure, under simulated inflow conditions. METHODS: The HMII with an inflow cannula was mounted on a mock loop consisting of a pulsatile pneumatic ventricle to simulate the native ventricle...
January 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Eugenie Pophillat, Rosanna M Rooney, Monique Nesa, Melissa C Davis, Natalie Baughman, Sharinaz Hassan, Robert T Kane
The Aussie Optimism Program: Feelings and Friends (AOP-FF) is a 10 week, universal mental health promotion program based on social/emotional and cognitive and behavioral strategies. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal Cognitive Behavioral Therapy based program in preventing and reducing internalizing problems in 6-8 year olds (Years 1-3 in Australia). Year 1-3 students from a low SES primary school (N = 206) were randomly assigned in classes to either an intervention or a control group and assessed at baseline and post-test...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Thomas Petry, Axel Bosch, Xavier Coste, Dorothea Eigler, Pierre Germain, Shawn Seidel, Paul A Jean
The skin sensitization potential of chemicals has traditionally been evaluated in vivo according to OECD testing guidelines in guinea pigs or the mouse local lymph node assay. There has lately been a great emphasis on establishing in vitro test methods reflecting the key biological events in the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization as published by the OECD. Against this background, a group of 8 polysiloxanes and silanes, seven of them aminofunctionalised, for which in vivo data were already available, has been tested in vitro in the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the KeratinoSens™ and the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) and in the modified myeloid U937 skin sensitization test (mMUSST) as far as technically feasible...
December 23, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Yingjie Yan, Qi-Nan Liao, Feng Ji, Wei Wang, Shoujun Yuan, Zhen-Hu Hu
3,5-Dinitrobenzamide has been widely used as a feed additive to control coccidiosis in poultry, and part of the added 3,5-dinitrobenzamide is excreted into wastewater and surface water. The removal of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide from wastewater and surface water has not been reported in previous studies. Highly reactive hydroxyl radicals from UV/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and UV/titanium dioxide (TiO2) advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can decompose organic contaminants efficiently. In this study, the decomposition of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide in aqueous solution during UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 oxidation processes was investigated...
December 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Matej Čehovin, Alojz Medic, Boris Kompare, Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn
Drinking water contains organic matter that occasionally needs to be treated to assure its sufficient quality and safety for the consumers. H2O2 and UV advanced oxidation processes (H2O2/UV AOPs) were combined with hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) to assess the effects on the removal of selected organic pollutants. Water samples containing humic acid, methylene blue dye and micropollutants (metaldehyde, diatrizoic acid, iohexol) were treated first by H2O2 (dosages from 1 to 12 mg L-1) and UV (dosages from 300 to 2800 mJ cm-2) AOPs alone and later in combination with HC, generated by nozzles and orifice plates (4, 8, 18 orifices)...
December 2016: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Clemens Wittwehr, Hristo Aladjov, Gerald Ankley, Hugh J Byrne, Joop de Knecht, Elmar Heinzle, Günter Klambauer, Brigitte Landesmann, Mirjam Luijten, Cameron MacKay, Gavin Maxwell, M E Bette Meek, Alicia Paini, Edward Perkins, Tomasz Sobanski, Dan Villeneuve, Katrina M Waters, Maurice Whelan
Efforts are underway to transform regulatory toxicology and chemical safety assessment from a largely empirical science based on direct observation of apical toxicity outcomes in whole organism toxicity tests to a predictive one in which outcomes and risk are inferred from accumulated mechanistic understanding. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework provides a systematic approach for organizing knowledge that may support such inference. Likewise, computational models of biological systems at various scales provide another means and platform to integrate current biological understanding to facilitate inference and extrapolation...
December 19, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Minju Lee, Tony Merle, Daniel Rentsch, Silvio Canonica, Urs von Gunten
The abatement of 9 polychloro-1,3-butadienes (CBDs) in aqueous solution by ozone, UV-C(254 nm) photolysis, and the corresponding advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) (i.e., O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2) was investigated. The following parameters were determined for 9 CBDs: second-order rate constants for the reactions of CBDs with ozone (kO3) (<0.1-7.9 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) or with hydroxyl radicals (k(•)OH) (0.9 × 10(9) - 6.5 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)), photon fluence-based rate constants (k') (210-2730 m(2) einstein(-1)), and quantum yields (Φ) (0...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Timothy E H Allen, Jonathan M Goodman, Steve Gutsell, Paul J Russell
The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework provides an alternative to traditional in vivo experiments for the risk assessment of chemicals. AOPs consist of a number of key events (KEs) linked by key event relationships across a range of biological organization backed by scientific evidence. The first KE in the pathway is the molecular initiating event (MIE)-the initial chemical trigger that starts an AOP. Over the past 3 years the AOP conceptual framework has gained a large amount of momentum in toxicology as an alternative to animal methods, and so the MIE has come into the spotlight...
December 19, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Jarno E J Wolters, Marcel H M van Herwijnen, Daniel H J Theunissen, Danyel G J Jennen, Wim F P M Van den Hof, Theo M C M de Kok, Frank G Schaap, Simone G J van Breda, Jos C S Kleinjans
Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an undecapeptide with strong immunosuppressant activities and is used a lot after organ transplantation. Furthermore, it may induce cholestasis in the liver. In general, the drug-induced cholestasis (DIC) pathway includes genes involved in the uptake, synthesis, conjugation, and secretion of bile acids. However, whether CsA-induced changes in the cholestasis pathway in vitro are persistent for repeated dose toxicity has not yet been investigated. To explore this, primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were exposed to a subcytotoxic dose of 30 μM CsA daily for 3 and 5 days...
December 19, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Piergiulio Tempesta
We shall prove that the celebrated Rényi entropy is the first example of a new family of infinitely many multi-parametric entropies. We shall call them the Z-entropies. Each of them, under suitable hypotheses, generalizes the celebrated entropies of Boltzmann and Rényi. A crucial aspect is that every Z-entropy is composable (Tempesta 2016 Ann. Phys.365, 180-197. (doi:10.1016/j.aop.2015.08.013)). This property means that the entropy of a system which is composed of two or more independent systems depends, in all the associated probability space, on the choice of the two systems only...
November 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Beate I Escher, Jörg Hackermüller, Tobias Polte, Stefan Scholz, Achim Aigner, Rolf Altenburger, Alexander Böhme, Stephanie K Bopp, Werner Brack, Wibke Busch, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Adrian Covaci, Adolf Eisenträger, James J Galligan, Natalia Garcia-Reyero, Thomas Hartung, Michaela Hein, Gunda Herberth, Annika Jahnke, Jos Kleinjans, Nils Klüver, Martin Krauss, Marja Lamoree, Irina Lehmann, Till Luckenbach, Gary W Miller, Andrea Müller, David H Phillips, Thorsten Reemtsma, Ulrike Rolle-Kampczyk, Gerrit Schüürmann, Benno Schwikowski, Yu-Mei Tan, Saskia Trump, Susanne Walter-Rohde, John F Wambaugh
The exposome encompasses an individual's exposure to exogenous chemicals, as well as endogenous chemicals that are produced or altered in response to external stressors. While the exposome concept has been established for human health, its principles can be extended to include broader ecological issues. The assessment of exposure is tightly interlinked with hazard assessment. Here, we explore if mechanistic understanding of the causal links between exposure and adverse effects on human health and the environment can be improved by integrating the exposome approach with the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept that structures and organizes the sequence of biological events from an initial molecular interaction of a chemical with a biological target to an adverse outcome...
December 8, 2016: Environment International
Kevin V Brix, Christian E Schlekat, Emily R Garman
Current ecological risk assessment and water quality regulations for nickel (Ni) use mechanistically based, predictive tools such as biotic ligand models (BLMs). However, despite many detailed studies, the precise mechanism(s) of Ni toxicity to aquatic organisms remains elusive. This uncertainty in the mechanism(s) of action for Ni has led to concern over the use of tools like the BLM in some regulatory settings. To address this knowledge gap, the authors used an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) analysis, the first AOP for a metal, to identify multiple potential mechanisms of Ni toxicity and their interactions with freshwater aquatic organisms...
December 9, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
F Javier Benitez, Francisco J Real, Juan L Acero, Francisco Casas
Three emerging contaminants (amitriptyline hydrochloride (AH), methyl salicylate (MS) and 2-phenoxyethanol (PE)) frequently found in wastewaters were selected to be individually degraded in ultra-pure water by the advanced oxidation process (AOP) constituted by the combination of UV radiation and chlorine. The influence of pH, initial chlorine concentration and nature of the contaminants was firstly explored. The trend for the reactivity of the selected compounds was deduced: AH > MS > PE. A later kinetic study was carried out focused on the evaluation of the first-order rate constants and the determination of the partial contribution to the global reaction of the direct photochemical pathway and the radical pathway...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Technology
Abhilasha More, Asha Srinivasan, Ping Huang Liao, Kwang Victor Lo
BACKGROUND: Liquid organic fertilizers (LOF) are relatively easy to degrade than those of solid organic fertilizers, and the nutrients are readily available for plant uptake. Microwave enhanced advanced oxidation treatment (MW/H2 O2 -AOP) was used to convert solid organic fertilizers (insoluble blood meal, bone meal, feather meal, sunflower ash and a mixture) into LOF. RESULTS: After the MW/H2 O2 -AOP treatment, high soluble nitrogen (11 to 29%), soluble phosphorus (64%) and potassium (92%), as well as low total suspended solids content could be obtained...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Siyuan Chen, Dingbo Lin, Yulong Gao, Xiaozhou Cao, Xinchun Shen
The ingestion of whole wheat products is responsible for the prevention of a number of chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to characterize the molecular properties of a novel wheat germ-derived antioxidant peptide (AOP) in protection against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). AOP (amino acid sequence AREGETVVPG) was isolated from wheat germ albumin using dual-enzymatic hydrolysis/separation, followed by MS/MS. The in vitro IC50 value for Fe(2+) chelation was 0...
December 6, 2016: Food & Function
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