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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643284/hydroxyl-radical-mediated-degradation-of-diclofenac-revisited-a-computational-approach-to-assessment-of-reaction-mechanisms-and-by-products
#1
Sesil Agopcan Cinar, Asu Ziylan-Yavaş, Saron Catak, Nilsun H Ince, Viktorya Aviyente
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are based on the in situ production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in water upon irradiation of the sample by UV light, ultrasound, electromagnetic radiation, and/or the addition of ozone or a semiconductor. Diclofenac (DCF), one of the emerging organic contaminants (EOC), is of environmental concern due to its abundancy in water and is known to be subjected to AOPs. The current study uses density functional theory (DFT) to elucidate the mechanisms of the reactions between •OH and DCF leading to degradation by-products, P1-P9...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639026/regulation-of-engineered-nanomaterials-current-challenges-insights-and-future-directions
#2
Racliffe W S Lai, Katie W Y Yeung, Mana M N Yung, Aleksandra B Djurišić, John P Giesy, Kenneth M Y Leung
Substantial production and wide applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have raised concerns over their potential influences on the environment and humans. However, regulations of products containing ENMs are scarce, even in countries with the greatest volume of ENMs produced, such as the United States and China. After a comprehensive review of life cycles of ENMs, five major challenges to regulators posed by ENMs are proposed in this review: (a) ENMs exhibit variable physicochemical characteristics, which makes them difficult for regulators to establish regulatory definition; (b) Due to diverse sources and transport pathways for ENMs, it is difficult to monitor or predict their fates in the environment; (c) There is a lack of reliable techniques for quantifying exposures to ENMs; (d) Because of diverse intrinsic properties of ENMs and dynamic environmental conditions, it is difficult to predict bioavailability of ENMs on wildlife and the environment; and (e) There are knowledge gaps in toxicity and toxic mechanisms of ENMs from which to predict their hazards...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625243/-experimental-study-on-effect-of-airway-pressure-on-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#3
Dingyu Tan, Feng Sun, Yangyang Fu, Shihuan Shao, Yazhi Zhang, Yingying Hu, Jun Xu, Huadong Zhu, Xuezhong Yu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different airway pressure on ventilation, organ perfusion and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) of cardiac arrest (CA) pigs during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and to explore the possible beneficial mechanism of positive airway pressure during CPR. METHODS: Twenty healthy landrace pigs of clean grade were divided into low airway pressure group (LP group, n = 10) and high airway pressure group (HP group, n = 10) with random number table...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621381/the-methodology-applied-in-dpph-abts-and-folin-ciocalteau-assays-has-a-large-influence-on-the-determined-antioxidant-potential
#4
Helena Abramovič, Blaž Grobin, Nataša Poklar, Blaž Cigić
Antioxidant potential (AOP) is not only the property of the matrix analyzed but also depends greatly on the methodology used. The chromogenic radicals 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay were applied to estimate how the method and the composition of the assay solvent influence the AOP determined for coffee, tea, beer, apple juice and dietary supplements. Large differences between the AOP values depending on the reaction medium were observed, with the highest AOP determined mostly in the FC assay...
June 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619486/extended-depth-of-focus-contact-lenses-vs-two-commercial-multifocals-part-2-visual-performance-after-1-week-of-lens-wear
#5
Ravi C Bakaraju, Daniel Tilia, Jennifer Sha, Jennie Diec, Jiyoon Chung, Danny Kho, Shona Delaney, Anna Munro, Varghese Thomas
PURPOSE: To compare the visual performance of prototype contact lenses designed via deliberate manipulation of higher-order spherical aberrations to extend-depth-of-focus with two commercial multifocals, after 1 week of lens wear. METHODS: In a prospective, participant-masked, cross-over, randomized, 1-week dispensing clinical-trial, 43 presbyopes [age: 42-63 years] each wore AIROPTIX Aqua multifocal (AOMF), ACUVUE OASYS for presbyopia (AOP) and extended-depth-of-focus prototypes (EDOF) appropriate to their add requirements...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606456/extended-depth-of-focus-contact-lenses-vs-two-commercial-multifocals-part-1-optical-performance-evaluation-via-computed-through-focus-retinal-image-quality-metrics
#6
Ravi C Bakaraju, Klaus Ehrmann, Arthur Ho
PURPOSE: To compare the computed optical performance of prototype lenses designed using deliberate manipulation of higher-order spherical aberrations to extend depth-of-focus (EDOF) with two commercial multifocals. METHODS: Emmetropic, presbyopic, schematic eyes were coupled with prototype EDOF and commercial multifocal lenses (Acuvue Oasys for presbyopia, AOP, Johnson & Johnson & Air Optix Aqua multifocal, AOMF, Alcon). For each test configuration, the through-focus retinal image quality (TFRIQ) values were computed over 21 vergences, ranging from -0...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601791/effect-of-operational-and-water-quality-parameters-on-conventional-ozonation-and-the-advanced-oxidation-process-o3-h2o2-kinetics-of-micropollutant-abatement-transformation-product-and-bromate-formation-in-a-surface-water
#7
Marc Bourgin, Ewa Borowska, Jakob Helbing, Juliane Hollender, Hans-Peter Kaiser, Cornelia Kienle, Christa S McArdell, Eszter Simon, Urs von Gunten
The efficiency of ozone-based processes under various conditions was studied for the treatment of a surface water (Lake Zürich water, Switzerland) spiked with 19 micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, industrial chemical, X-ray contrast medium, sweetener) each at 1 μg L(-1). Two pilot-scale ozonation reactors (4-5 m(3) h(-1)), a 4-chamber reactor and a tubular reactor, were investigated by either conventional ozonation and/or the advanced oxidation process (AOP) O3/H2O2. The effects of selected operational parameters, such as ozone dose (0...
May 11, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597391/desorption-of-micropollutant-from-spent-carbon-filters-used-for-water-purifier
#8
Da-Sol Kwon, So-Yeon Tak, Jung-Eun Lee, Moon-Kyung Kim, Young Hwa Lee, Doo Won Han, Sanghyeon Kang, Kyung-Duk Zoh
In this study, to examine the accumulated micropollutants in the spent carbon filter used in the water purifier, first, the method to desorb micropollutant from the activated carbon was developed and optimized. Then, using this optimized desorption conditions, we examined which micropollutants exist in spent carbon filters collected from houses in different regions in Korea where water purifiers were used. A total of 11 micropollutants (caffeine (CFF), acetaminophen (ACT), sulfamethazine (SMA), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), metoprolol (MTP), carbamazepine (CBM), naproxen (NPX), bisphenol-A (BPA), ibuprofen (IBU), diclofenac (DCF), and triclocarban (TCB)) were analyzed using LC/MS-MS from the spent carbon filters...
June 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590104/time-remaining-in-labor-and-probability-of-vaginal-delivery-as-a-function-of-the-angle-of-progression-in-a-low-risk-population-with-a-normal-first-stage-of-labor-in-house-observational-study-and-comparison-with-the-data-in-the-literature
#9
Bianca Masturzo, Annalisa Piazzese, Sara Paracchini, Maria S Quezada, Tullia Todros, Antonio Farina
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the angle of progression (AoP), as measured by transperineal ultrasound, was predictive of both the time remaining in labor and vaginal delivery. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective observational cohort study involving 270 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies at term. The AoP, measured at the end of the first stage of labor, was used as a predictive variable of time remaining in labor and mode of delivery...
June 7, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552350/ultrasound-assisted-advanced-oxidation-processes-for-water-decontamination
#10
Nilsun H Ince
The study reflects a part of my experience in sonochemistry and ultrasound-assisted advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) acquired during the last fifteen years with my research team. The data discussed were selected from studies with azo dyes, endocrine disrupting compounds and analgesic/anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals, which are all classified as "hazardous" or "emerging" contaminants. The research focused on their treatability by ultrasound (US) and AOPs with emphasis on the mineralization of organic carbon...
April 9, 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551585/lethal-and-sub-lethal-evaluation-of-indigo-carmine-dye-and-byproducts-after-tio2-photocatalysis-in-the-immune-system-of-eisenia-andrei-earthworms
#11
Patrícia Christina Genázio Pereira, Roberta Valoura Reimão, Thelma Pavesi, Enrico Mendes Saggioro, Josino Costa Moreira, Fábio Veríssimo Correia
The Indigo carmine (IC) dye has been widely used in textile industries, even though it has been considered toxic for rats, pigs and humans. Owing to its toxicity, wastes containing this compound should be treated to minimize or eliminate their toxic effects on the biota. As an alternative to wastewater treatment, advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) have been highlighted due to their high capacity to destruct organic molecules. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate Indigo Carmine toxicity to soil organisms using the earthworm Eisenia andrei as a model-organism and also verify the efficiency of AOP in reducing its toxicity to these organisms...
May 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543973/advancing-the-adverse-outcome-pathway-framework-an-international-horizon-scanning-approach
#12
Carlie A LaLone, Gerald T Ankley, Scott E Belanger, Michelle R Embry, Geoff Hodges, Dries Knapen, Sharon Munn, Edward J Perkins, Murray A Rudd, Daniel L Villeneuve, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett, Xiaowei Zhang, Markus Hecker
Our ability to conduct whole-organism toxicity tests to understand chemical safety has been outpaced by the synthesis of new chemicals for a wide variety of commercial applications. As a result, scientists and risk assessors are turning to mechanistically based studies to increase efficiencies in chemical risk assessment and making greater use of in vitro and in silico methods to evaluate potential environmental and human health hazards. In this context, the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework has gained traction in regulatory science because it offers an efficient and effective means for capturing available knowledge describing the linkage between mechanistic data and the apical toxicity end points required for regulatory assessments...
June 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539215/comparison-and-validation-of-an-in-vitro-skin-sensitization-strategy-using-a-data-set-of-33-chemical-references
#13
Elodie Clouet, Saadia Kerdine-Römer, Pierre-Jacques Ferret
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an adverse health effect that develops following repeated exposure to skin sensitizing chemicals. An animal testing ban has been applied in EU, leading to development of reliably predictive non-animal methods. Several in vitro methods have been developed as alternatives but one single non-animal test method is not been sufficient to fully address since the LLNA test ban. Here, we have selected an ITS (Integrated Testing Strategy) for skin sensitization which focuses on three in vitro methods that covered the first three steps of the AOP (DPRA, SENS-IS or h-CLAT)...
May 21, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536863/chemical-exposure-and-infant-leukaemia-development-of-an-adverse-outcome-pathway-aop-for-aetiology-and-risk-assessment-research
#14
REVIEW
Olavi Pelkonen, Andrea Terron, Antonio F Hernandez, Pablo Menendez, Susanne Hougaard Bennekou
Infant leukaemia (<1 year old) is a rare disease of an in utero origin at an early phase of foetal development. Rearrangements of the mixed-lineage leukaemia (MLL) gene producing abnormal fusion proteins are the most frequent genetic/molecular findings in infant B cell-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. In small epidemiological studies, mother/foetus exposures to some chemicals including pesticides have been associated with infant leukaemia; however, the strength of evidence and power of these studies are weak at best...
May 23, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529068/adverse-outcome-pathways-application-to-enhance-mechanistic-understanding-of-neurotoxicity
#15
REVIEW
Anna Bal-Price, M E Bette Meek
Recent developments have prompted the transition of empirically based testing of late stage toxicity in animals for a range of different endpoints including neurotoxicity to more efficient and predictive mechanistically based approaches with greater emphasis on measurable key events early in the progression of disease. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) has been proposed as a simplified organizational construct to contribute to this transition by linking molecular initiating events and earlier (more predictive) key events at lower levels of biological organization to disease outcomes...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527947/embryonic-vascular-disruption-adverse-outcomes-linking-high-throughput-signaling-signatures-with-functional-consequences
#16
Robert G Ellis-Hutchings, Raja S Settivari, Alene T McCoy, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Jill Franzosa, Thomas B Knudsen, Edward W Carney
Embryonic vascular disruption is an important adverse outcome pathway (AOP) as chemical disruption of cardiovascular development induces broad prenatal defects. High throughput screening (HTS) assays aid AOP development although linking in vitro data to in vivo apical endpoints remains challenging. This study evaluated two anti-angiogenic agents, 5HPP-33 and TNP-470, across the ToxCastDB HTS assay platform and anchored the results to complex in vitro functional assays: the rat aortic explant assay (AEA), rat whole embryo culture (WEC), and the zebrafish embryotoxicity (ZET) assay...
May 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525648/the-role-of-omics-in-the-application-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-for-chemical-risk-assessment
#17
Erica K Brockmeier, Geoff Hodges, Thomas H Hutchinson, Emma Butler, Markus Hecker, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Natalia Garcia-Reyero, Peter Kille, Dörthe Becker, Kevin Chipman, John Colbourne, Timothy W Collette, Andrew Cossins, Mark Cronin, Peter Graystock, Steve Gutsell, Dries Knapen, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Anke Lange, Stuart Marshall, Stewart F Owen, Edward J Perkins, Stewart Plaistow, Anthony Schroeder, Daisy Taylor, Mark Viant, Gerald Ankley, Francesco Falciani
In conjunction with the second International Environmental Omics Symposium (iEOS) conference, held at the University of Liverpool (UK) in September 2014, a workshop was held to bring together experts in toxicology and regulatory science from academia, government and industry. The purpose of the workshop was to review the specific roles that high-content omics datasets (e.g., transcriptomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics) can hold within the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework for supporting ecological and human health risk assessments...
May 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521162/uv-h2o2-advanced-oxidation-for-abatement-of-organophosphorous-pesticides-and-the-effects-on-various-toxicity-screening-assays
#18
Austa M Parker, Yaal Lester, Emily K Spangler, Urs von Gunten, Karl G Linden
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are utilized due to their ability to treat emerging contaminants with the fast reacting and non-selective hydroxyl radical (OH). Organophosphorous insecticides are common drinking water contaminants, with 12 different compounds of this class being found on the US EPA's most recent Candidate Contaminant List (CCL4). The use of the AOP UV/H2O2 for the treatment of organophosphorous insecticides was explored in this study, by coupling biological and analytical tools to follow the abatement of the target compounds...
May 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507730/application-of-the-adverse-outcome-pathway-aop-concept-to-structure-the-available-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-mechanistic-data-for-allergic-sensitization-to-food-proteins
#19
REVIEW
Jolanda H M van Bilsen, Edyta Sienkiewicz-Szłapka, Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo, Linette E M Willemsen, Celia M Antunes, Elena Molina, Joost J Smit, Barbara Wróblewska, Harry J Wichers, Edward F Knol, Gregory S Ladics, Raymond H H Pieters, Sandra Denery-Papini, Yvonne M Vissers, Simona L Bavaro, Colette Larré, Kitty C M Verhoeckx, Erwin L Roggen
BACKGROUND: The introduction of whole new foods in a population may lead to sensitization and food allergy. This constitutes a potential public health problem and a challenge to risk assessors and managers as the existing understanding of the pathophysiological processes and the currently available biological tools for prediction of the risk for food allergy development and the severity of the reaction are not sufficient. There is a substantial body of in vivo and in vitro data describing molecular and cellular events potentially involved in food sensitization...
2017: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501908/a-tale-of-three-cuffs-the-hemodynamics-of-blood-flow-restriction
#20
J Grant Mouser, Scott J Dankel, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, Samuel L Buckner, Brittany R Counts, Jeremy P Loenneke
INTRODUCTION: The blood flow response to relative levels of blood flow restriction (BFR) across varying cuff widths is not well documented. With the variety of cuff widths and pressures reported in the literature, the effects of different cuffs and pressures on blood flow require investigation. PURPOSE: To measure blood pressure using three commonly used BFR cuffs, examine possible venous/arterial restriction pressures, and measure hemodynamic responses to relative levels of BFR using these same cuffs...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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