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liver fat content and insulin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333341/preventive-effects-of-salvia-officinalis-leaf-extract-on-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-in-a-model-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-that-responds-to-rosiglitazone
#1
Mohamed R Ben Khedher, Mohamed Hammami, Jonathan R S Arch, David C Hislop, Dominic Eze, Edward T Wargent, Małgorzata A Kępczyńska, Mohamed S Zaibi
Background: Salvia officinalis (sage) is a native plant to the Mediterranean region and has been used for a long time in traditional medicine for various diseases. We investigated possible anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects of sage methanol (MetOH) extract in a nutritional mouse model of obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance, as well as its effects on lipolysis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods: Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were treated for five weeks with sage methanol extract (100 and 400 mg kg-1/day bid), or rosiglitazone (3 mg kg-1/day bid), as a positive control...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298969/-dietetary-recommendation-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Anna Jeznach-Steinhagen, Joanna Ostrowska, Aneta Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Iwona Boniecka, Wioletta Gronostajska
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease in the developed world. Nowadays, in the adult population of Europe it is estimated at 14% to 21%. Its most important risk factors are obesity and metabolic syndrome. Introducing lifestyle changes such as: dietary intervention and increased physical activity are the first-line treatment and are intended to support not only NAFLD but also associated diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidemia...
December 22, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278293/green-tea-polyphenol-egcg-alleviates-metabolic-abnormality-and-fatty-liver-by-decreasing-bile-acid-and-lipid-absorption-in-mice
#3
Jinbao Huang, Simin Feng, Anna Liu, Zhuqing Dai, Hong Wang, Kenneth Reuhl, Wenyun Lu, Chung S Yang
SCOPE: The tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to ameliorate metabolic abnormalities and fatty liver. The present study investigated the mechanisms of actions of EGCG on bile acid homeostasis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet, a high-fat western-style diet or a high-fat western-style diet containing 0.32% EGCG. The effects of the treatments on biochemical parameters, gene expression and lipidomics were analyzed...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273469/circulating-triacylglycerols-but-not-pancreatic-fat-associate-with-insulin-secretion-in-healthy-humans
#4
Bettina Nowotny, Sabine Kahl, Birgit Klüppelholz, Barbara Hoffmann, Guido Giani, Roshan Livingstone, Peter J Nowotny, Valerie Stamm, Christian Herder, Andrea Tura, Giovanni Pacini, Jong-Hee Hwang, Michael Roden
BACKGROUND: Loss of adequate insulin secretion for the prevailing insulin resistance is critical for the development of type 2 diabetes and has been suggested to result from circulating lipids (triacylglycerols [TG] or free fatty acids) and/or adipocytokines or from ectopic lipid storage in the pancreas. This study aimed to address whether circulating lipids, adipocytokines or pancreatic fat primarily associate with lower insulin secretion. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Nondiabetic persons (n=73), recruited from the general population, underwent clinical examinations, fasting blood drawing to measure TG and adipocytokines and oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) to assess basal and dynamic insulin secretion and sensitivity indices...
December 19, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241148/obesity-exacerbates-the-acute-metabolic-side-effects-of-olanzapine
#5
Logan K Townsend, Willem T Peppler, Natasha D Bush, David C Wright
Olanzapine is a second-generation antipsychotic used in the management of schizophrenia and various off-label conditions. The acute metabolic responses of olanzapine recapitulate many of the side effects associated with obesity. Obesity rates are high in the schizophrenic population, but it is unknown whether pre-existing obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction augments the acute side effects of olanzapine. To address this question, we compared the responses to olanzapine in lean and high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice...
December 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232702/adipose-tissue-deficiency-of-hormone-sensitive-lipase-causes-fatty-liver-in-mice
#6
Bo Xia, Guo He Cai, Hao Yang, Shu Pei Wang, Grant A Mitchell, Jiang Wei Wu
Fatty liver is a major health problem worldwide. People with hereditary deficiency of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are reported to develop fatty liver. In this study, systemic and tissue-specific HSL-deficient mice were used as models to explore the underlying mechanism of this association. We found that systemic HSL deficient mice developed fatty liver in an age-dependent fashion between 3 and 8 months of age. To further explore the mechanism of fatty liver in HSL deficiency, liver-specific HSL knockout mice were created...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222051/long-term-fermented-soybean-paste-improves-metabolic-parameters-associated-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#7
Min-Seok Kim, Bobae Kim, Haryung Park, Yosep Ji, Wilhelm Holzapfel, Do-Young Kim, Chang-Kee Hyun
Recently, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, called Doenjang, has attracted attention for its protective effect against diet-related chronic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Long-term fermented soybean pastes (LFSPs) are made by fermentation with naturally-occurring microorganisms for several months, whereas short-term fermented soybean pastes (SFSPs) are produced by shorter-time fermentation inoculated with a starter culture. Here, we demonstrate that administration of LFSP, but not SFSP, protects high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice against non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220408/comparison-of-goto-kakizaki-rats-and-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats-are-they-reliable-models-to-study-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Wilson Mitsuo Tatagiba Kuwabara, Ana Carolina Panveloski-Costa, Caroline Naomi Fukusawa Yokota, Joice Naiara Bertaglia Pereira, Jorge Mancini Filho, Rosangela Pavan Torres, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Rui Curi, Tatiana Carolina Alba-Loureiro
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an evident growing disease that affects different cultures throughout the world. T2DM occurs under the influence of three main factors: the genetic background, environmental and behavioral components. Obesity is strongly associated to the development of T2DM in the occident, while in the orient most of the diabetic patients are considered lean. Genetics may be a key factor in the development of T2DM in societies where obesity is not a recurrent public health problem. Herein, two different models of rats were used to understand their differences and reliability as experimental models to study the pathophysiology of T2DM, in two different approaches: the genetic (GK rats) and the environmental (HFD-induced obese rats) influences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212576/the-effects-of-physical-exercise-on-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Dirk J van der Windt, Vikas Sud, Hongji Zhang, Allan Tsung, Hai Huang
The increasing prevalence of obesity has made non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) the most common chronic liver disease. As a consequence, NAFLD and especially its inflammatory form non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are the fastest increasing etiology of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Physical inactivity is related to the severity of fatty liver disease irrespective of body weight, supporting the hypothesis that increasing physical activity through exercise can improve fatty liver disease...
December 6, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203714/exercise-heat-shock-proteins-and-insulin-resistance
#10
REVIEW
Ashley E Archer, Alex T Von Schulze, Paige C Geiger
Best known as chaperones, heat shock proteins (HSPs) also have roles in cell signalling and regulation of metabolism. Rodent studies demonstrate that heat treatment, transgenic overexpression and pharmacological induction of HSP72 prevent high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Overexpression of skeletal muscle HSP72 in mice has been shown to increase endurance running capacity nearly twofold and increase mitochondrial content by 50%. A positive correlation between HSP72 mRNA expression and mitochondrial enzyme activity has been observed in human skeletal muscle, and HSP72 expression is markedly decreased in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant and type 2 diabetic patients...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203511/adipocyte-jak2-regulates-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-independently-of-body-composition-liver-lipid-content-and-hepatic-insulin-signaling
#11
Kevin C Corbit, João Paulo G Camporez, Lia R Edmunds, Jennifer L Tran, Nicholas B Vera, Derek M Erion, Rahul C Deo, Rachel J Perry, Gerald I Shulman, Michael J Jurczak, Ethan J Weiss
Disruption of hepatocyte growth hormone (GH) signaling via disruption of Jak2 (JAK2L) leads to fatty liver. Previously, we demonstrated that development of fatty liver is dependent on adipocyte GH signaling. Here, we sought to determine the individual roles of hepatocyte and adipocyte Jak2 on whole body and tissue insulin sensitivity and liver metabolism. On chow, JAK2L mice had heaptic steatosis and severe whole body and hepatic insulin resistance. However, concomitant deletion of Jak2 in hepatocytes and adipocytes (JAK2LA) completely normalized insulin sensitivity while reducing liver lipid content...
December 4, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197627/mir-34a-regulates-mitochondrial-content-and-fat-ectopic-deposition-induced-by-resistin-through-the-ampk-ppar%C3%AE-pathway-in-hepg2-cells
#12
Fengyun Wen, Chaoqing An, Xiaotian Wu, Yi Yang, Jingjing Xu, Yasong Liu, Chunming Wang, Leitong Nie, Hubin Fang, Zaiqing Yang
Resistin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine and was named for its role in the development of insulin resistance. Increased serum resistin levels are also associated with steatohepatitis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In a previous study, resistin was observed to reduce mitochondrial content and upregulate miR-34a significantly in the liver. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were injected with agomir-34a or control agomir, and HepG2 cells were transfected with miR-34a mimics or inhibitors to assess their role in resistin-induced fat deposition...
January 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194974/serum-fetuin-b-is-positively-associated-with-intrahepatic-triglyceride-content-and-increases-the-risk-of-insulin-resistance-in-obese-chinese-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Dongmei Wang, Yijie Liu, Suhuan Liu, Lin Lin, Changqin Liu, Xiulin Shi, Zheng Chen, Mingzhu Lin, Shuyu Yang, Zhibin Li, Li Xuejun
BACKGROUND: Laboratory studies found Fetuin-B impaired insulin action in myotubes and hepatocytes and caused glucose intolerance in mice. We aimed to explore the correlation of serum Fetuin-B with intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and the association of Fetuin-B with the risk of insulin resistance in general adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1,318 obese adults who underwent serum Fetuin-B test and hepatic ultrasonography scanning was conducted in Xiamen, China...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188895/supplementation-of-mussel-peptides-reduces-aging-phenotype-lipid-deposition-and-oxidative-stress-in-d-galactose-induce-aging-mice
#14
Y Zhou, Q Xu, Y Dong, S Zhu, S Song, S Sun
OBJECTIVES: Aging is associated with glucose and lipid metabolism disorder. We aimed to examine the effects of mussel peptides on protecting against aging by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: For the aging model, d-galactose (200 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously to 8-month-old mice for 8 weeks. Mussel peptides (1,000 mg/kg) were simultaneously administered by intragastric gavage. The glucose and lipid metabolism profiles, aging phenotype and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) expression in the liver and adipose tissue of ICR mice were measured...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180325/-correlation-between-ectopic-fat-accumulation-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-individuals-with-different-glucose-tolerance-levels
#15
Shui-Qing Lai, Zhen-Zhen Hong, Hong-Mei Chen, Jin-Xin Lin, Jian Kuang, Yan-Bing Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between liver and skeletal muscle fat contents and insulin resistance in obese individuals with different levels of glucose tolerance. METHODS: RESULTS: Ten non-obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 9 obese individuals with NGT, and 7 obese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were enrolled in this study. All the participants were examined for insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and for liver and skeletal muscle fat accumulation quantified by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS)...
November 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179679/attenuating-the-rate-of-total-body-fat-accumulation-and-alleviating-liver-damage-by-oral-administration-of-vitamin-d-enriched-edible-mushrooms-in-a-diet-induced-obesity-murine-model-is-mediated-by-an-anti-inflammatory-paradigm-shift
#16
A Drori, D Rotnemer-Golinkin, S Avni, A Drori, O Danay, D Levanon, J Tam, L Zolotarev, Y Ilan
BACKGROUND: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with many features of the metabolic syndrome, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Vitamin D-enriched mushrooms extracts exert a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of the present study is to determine the immunomodulatory effect of oral administration of vitamin D-enriched mushrooms extracts on high-fat diet (HFD) animal model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: C57BL/6 mice on HFD were orally administered with vitamin D supplement, Lentinula edodes (LE) mushrooms extract, or vitamin D-enriched mushrooms extract for 25 weeks...
November 28, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173234/dietary-%C3%AE-lactalbumin-induced-fatty-liver-by-enhancing-nuclear-liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1c-ppar%C3%AE-expression-and-minimising-ppar%C3%AE-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1-expression-and-amp-activated-protein-kinase-%C3%AE-phosphorylation
#17
María Elvira López-Oliva, Alba Garcimartin, Emilia Muñoz-Martínez
The effect and the role played by dietary α-lactalbumin (α-LAC) on hepatic fat metabolism are yet to be fully elucidated. We reported previously that α-LAC intake induced atherogenic dyslipidaemia in Balb/c mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate if this atherogenic effect could be due to a possible α-LAC-induced hepatic steatosis. We examine the ability of dietary α-LAC to induce liver steatosis, identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatic lipid metabolism in association with the lipid profile, peripheral insulin resistance (IR) and changes in the hepatic oxidative environment...
November 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170528/kidney-androgen-regulated-protein-kap-transgenic-mice-are-protected-against-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Beatriz Bardaji de Quixano, Josep A Villena, Miguel Aranda, Gemma Brils, Antoni Cuevas, Théana Hespel, Haizea Lekuona, Cristina Súarez, Olga Tornavaca, Anna Meseguer
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is reaching epidemic proportions with significant social and economical burden worldwide. Since the molecular basis of MS remains poorly defined, we investigated the impact of KAP, a kidney specific androgen-regulated gene, in the development of high fat-diet (hfd)-induced MS. Tg mice overexpressing KAP specifically in proximal tubule cells of the kidney exhibited reduced body weight and lower liver and adipose tissue weight compared to control littermates when fed a hfd. KAP Tg mice showed diminished adipocyte hypertrophy and reduced hepatic steatosis, significantly correlating with expression of relevant molecular markers and lower lipid content in liver...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140513/amino-acid-and-fatty-acid-levels-affect-hepatic-phosphorus-metabolite-content-in-metabolically-healthy-humans
#19
Sabine Kahl, Bettina Nowotny, Klaus Straßburger, Alessandra Bierwagen, Birgit Klüppelholz, Barbara Hoffmann, Guido Giani, Peter J Nowotny, Franziska Wallscheid, Erifili Hatziagelaki, Giovanni Pacini, Jong-Hee Hwang, Michael Roden
Objective: Hepatic energy metabolism negatively relates to insulin resistance and liver fat content in type 2 diabetes patients, but its role in metabolically healthy humans is unclear. We hypothesized that intrahepatocellular γ-adenosine triphosphate (γATP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations exhibit similar associations with insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic non-obese volunteers. Research Design and methods: A total of 76 participants underwent a 4-point sampling 75-g OGTT as well as in vivo31P/1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138227/the-hepatokines-fetuin-a-and-fetuin-b-are-up-regulated-in-the-state-of-hepatic-steatosis-and-may-differently-impact-on-glucose-homeostasis-in-humans
#20
Andreas Peter, Marketa Kovarova, Harald Staiger, Jürgen Machann, Fritz Schick, Alfred Königsrainer, Ingmar Koenigsrainer, Erwin D Schleicher, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan
The liver is a central regulator of whole-body glucose and lipid homeostasis and hepatokines, like fetuin-A, have been identified as markers and mediators of fatty liver-induced cardiometabolic risk. The closely related protein fetuin-B was shown to be up-regulated in the fatty liver and to impact on glucose homeostasis in mice. In the present study we aimed to test the relevance of these findings in humans. In 55 subjects hepatic mRNA expression of both hepatokines, fetuin-A and fetuin-B, associated positively with liver triglyceride content, while only fetuin-A expression associated with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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