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liver fat content and insulin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718838/phyllanthus-niruri-standardized-extract-alleviates-the-progression-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-decreases-atherosclerotic-risk-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
Raghdaa Hamdan Al Zarzour, Mariam Ahmad, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Gurjeet Kaur, Mohammed Ali Ahmed Saeed, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Nasiba Salisu Usman, Dhamraa W Al-Dulaimi, Mun Fei Yam
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major global health issues, strongly correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to evaluate anti-NAFLD effects of three different extracts of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri). NAFLD was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats using a special high-fat diet (HFD). A 50% methanolic extract (50% ME) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against NAFLD progression. It significantly reduced hepatomegaly (16%) and visceral fat weight (22%), decreased NAFLD score, prevented fibrosis, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) (48%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (65%), free fatty acids (FFAs) (25%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (45%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (38%), insulin concentration (67%), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (73%), serum atherogenic ratios TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (29%), LDL/HDL (66%) and (TC-HDL)/HDL (64%), hepatic content of cholesterol (43%), triglyceride (29%) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (40%) compared to a non-treated HFD group...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686216/butyrate-reduces-hfd-induced-adipocyte-hypertrophy-and-metabolic-risk-factors-in-obese-ldlr-leiden-mice
#2
Charlotte E Pelgrim, Bart A A Franx, Jessica Snabel, Robert Kleemann, Ilse A C Arnoldussen, Amanda J Kiliaan
Adipose tissue (AT) has a modulating role in obesity-induced metabolic complications like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) via the production of so-called adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. The adipokines are believed to influence other tissues and to affect insulin resistance, liver function, and to increase the risk of T2DM. In this study, we examined the impact of intervention with the short-chain fatty acid butyrate following a high-fat diet (HFD) on AT function and other metabolic risk factors associated with obesity and T2DM in mice during mid- and late life...
July 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681988/effect-of-liraglutide-on-ectopic-fat-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Signe Frøssing, Malin Nylander, Elizaveta Chabanova, Jan Frystyk, Jens Juul Holst, Caroline Kistorp, Sven O Skouby, Jens Faber
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were treated with the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide to investigate the effect on liver fat content, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial 72 women with PCOS and BMI >25 kg/m(2) and/or insulin resistance were treated with liraglutide or placebo 1.8 mg/day (2:1) for 26 weeks. Liver fat content was assessed by (1) HMR spectroscopy, VAT by MRI, body composition by DXA, and glucose metabolism by oral glucose tolerance test...
July 6, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679946/independent-tissue-contributors-to-obesity-associated-insulin-resistance
#4
Yvo Ham Kusters, Casper G Schalkwijk, Alfons Jhm Houben, M Eline Kooi, Lucas Lindeboom, Jos Op 't Roodt, Peter J Joris, Jogchum Plat, Ronald P Mensink, Eugene J Barrett, Coen DA Stehouwer
BACKGROUND: Induction of insulin resistance is a key pathway through which obesity increases risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular events. Although the detrimental effects of obesity on insulin sensitivity are incompletely understood, accumulation of visceral, subcutaneous, and liver fat and impairment of insulin-induced muscle microvascular recruitment (MVR) may be involved. As these phenotypic changes often coincide in obesity, we aimed to unravel whether they independently contribute to insulin resistance and thus constitute separate targets for intervention...
July 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673684/the-effect-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-15-deficiency-on-the-development-of-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#5
J D Schumacher, B Kong, Y Pan, L Zhan, R Sun, J Aa, D Rizzolo, J R Richardson, A Chen, M Goedken, L M Aleksunes, D L Laskin, G L Guo
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) characterized by steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis often associated with metabolic syndrome. Fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), an endocrine factor mainly produced in the distal part of small intestine, has emerged to be a critical factor in regulating bile acid homeostasis, energy metabolism, and liver regeneration. We hypothesized that FGF15 alters the development of each of the listed features of NASH. To test this hypothesis, four-week old male Fgf15(-/-) and their corresponding wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a control chow diet for six months...
July 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669771/antidiabetic-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-water-and-n-butanol-soluble-extracts-from-saharian-anvillea-radiata-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#6
Chouaib Kandouli, Mathieu Cassien, Anne Mercier, Caroline Delehedde, Emilie Ricquebourg, Pierre Stocker, Mourad Mekaouche, Zineb Leulmi, Aicha Mechakra, Sophie Thétiot-Laurent, Marcel Culcasi, Sylvia Pietri
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: According to Saharian traditional medicine, Anvillea radiata Coss. & Dur. (Asteraceae) has been valued for treating a variety of ailments such as gastro-intestinal, liver and pulmonary diseases, and has gained awareness for its beneficial effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. However, to best of our knowledge, no detailed study of the antidiabetic curative effects of this plant has been conducted yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of dietary supplementation with Anvillea radiata extracts on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice in relation with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pancreatic beta-cells and skeletal muscle protection, and digestive enzyme inhibiting properties...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666456/effect-of-cholecystectomy-on-hepatic-fat-accumulation-and-insulin-resistance-in-non-obese-hispanic-patients-a-pilot-study
#7
Víctor Cortés, Nicolás Quezada, Sergio Uribe, Marco Arrese, Flavio Nervi
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent worldwide. Experimental studies have shown that cholecystectomy (XGB) increases hepatic fat content in mice and appears associated to NAFLD in large retrospective population-based studies. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the effects of XGB on hepatic fat content (HFC) and insulin resistance (IR) in non-obese, middle aged Hispanic subjects. METHODS: Twenty-six gallstone patients undergoing elective XGB and 16 control subjects with normal livers and gallbladders at ultrasonography were prospectively followed 24 months for changes in HFC and IR...
June 30, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665260/weight-changes-and-metabolic-outcomes-in-calorie-restricted-obese-mice-fed-high-fat-diets-containing-corn-or-flaxseed-oil-physiological-role-of-sugar-replacement-with-polyphenol-rich-grape
#8
Hastimansooreh Ansar, Negar Zamaninour, Abolghassem Djazayery, Hamideh Pishva, Mohammadreza Vafa, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Aydin Dilmaghanian, Khadijeh Mirzaei, Farzad Shidfar
OBJECTIVE: Because diet components are important during dieting in obesity treatment, we examined possible beneficial effects of substituting corn oil and sugar with flaxseed oil and grape in calorie-restricted high-fat diets on weight changes as well as improvement in some metabolic markers and related gene expression. METHODS: Seventy-five C57BL/6J male mice were given free access to a high-fat (36% of energy from fat) diet containing corn oil plus sugar (CO + S)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660492/deficiency-in-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-and-type-i-interferon-signalling-prevents-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#9
Tine D Hannibal, Anja Schmidt-Christensen, Julia Nilsson, Nina Fransén-Pettersson, Lisbeth Hansen, Dan Holmberg
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity is associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and is closely linked to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and type 2 diabetes, an increased fat intake results in adipose tissue expansion and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. The innate immune system not only plays a crucial role in obesity-associated chronic low-grade inflammation but it is also proposed to play a role in modulating energy metabolism...
June 28, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640216/a-branched-chain-amino-acid-related-metabolic-signature-characterizes-obese-adolescents-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Martina Goffredo, Nicola Santoro, Domenico Tricò, Cosimo Giannini, Ebe D'Adamo, Hongyu Zhao, Gang Peng, Xiaoqing Yu, Tukiet T Lam, Bridget Pierpont, Sonia Caprio, Raimund I Herzog
Dysregulation of several metabolite pathways, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance in adults, while studies in youth reported conflicting results. We explored whether, independently of obesity and insulin resistance, obese adolescents with NAFLD display a metabolomic signature consistent with disturbances in amino acid and lipid metabolism. A total of 180 plasma metabolites were measured by a targeted metabolomic approach in 78 obese adolescents with (n = 30) or without (n = 48) NAFLD assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591572/hepatic-diacylglycerol-associated-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE%C2%B5-translocation-links-hepatic-steatosis-to-hepatic-insulin-resistance-in-humans
#11
Kasper W Ter Horst, Pim W Gilijamse, Ruth I Versteeg, Mariette T Ackermans, Aart J Nederveen, Susanne E la Fleur, Johannes A Romijn, Max Nieuwdorp, Dongyan Zhang, Varman T Samuel, Daniel F Vatner, Kitt F Petersen, Gerald I Shulman, Mireille J Serlie
Hepatic lipid accumulation has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but translational evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the relationship between liver fat and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in 133 obese subjects. Although the presence of hepatic steatosis in obese subjects was associated with hepatic, adipose tissue, and peripheral insulin resistance, we found that intrahepatic triglycerides were not strictly sufficient or essential for hepatic insulin resistance. Thus, to examine the molecular mechanisms that link hepatic steatosis to hepatic insulin resistance, we comprehensively analyzed liver biopsies from a subset of 29 subjects...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585211/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Atilla Engin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is in parallel with the obesity epidemic and it is the most common cause of liver diseases. The development of hepatic steatosis in majority of patients is linked to dietary fat ingestion. NAFLD is characterized by excess accumulation of triglyceride in the hepatocyte due to both increased inflow of free fatty acids and de novo hepatic lipogenesis. Insulin resistance with the deficiency of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2)-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity causes an increase in intracellular fatty acid-derived metabolites such as diacylglycerol, fatty acyl CoA or ceramides...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578672/sake-lees-extract-improves-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#13
Hisako Kubo, Masato Hoshi, Takuya Matsumoto, Motoko Irie, Shin Oura, Hiroko Tsutsumi, Yoji Hata, Yasuko Yamamoto, Kuniaki Saito
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide as one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease. Sake lees (SL) are secondary products of sake manufacturing and are considered to have beneficial effects on human health. To investigate these effects, we used high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice treated with or without the SL extract. METHOD: Mice were the HFD ad libitum for 8 weeks and were administered 500 μL of distilled water with or without the SL extract (350 mg/mL) by a feeding needle daily for the last 4 weeks...
June 3, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566408/5-ala-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-through-ampk-signaling-pathway
#14
Haoyong Yu, Mingliang Zhang, Yunqin Ma, Junxi Lu, Jiemin Pan, Pan Pan, Haibing Chen, Weiping Jia
5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), the first compound in the porphyrin synthesis pathway, has been reported to ameliorate the diabetic state in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by reducing fat pad weight in the retroperitoneal region. Dietary supplementation with 5-ALA has additionally demonstrated the capacity to lower blood glucose and HbA1c levels among subjects with diabetes. The etiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is complex and its typical characteristics include obesity and insulin resistance...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556755/effects-of-exercise-training-alone-on-depot-specific-body-fat-stores-in-youth-review-of-recent-literature
#15
YoonMyung Kim
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased at an alarming rate. The increased obesity rate in pediatrics parallels the increased risks for developing metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In particular, the strong relationship between obesity and such health consequences are well explained by the excessive accumulation of depot-specific body adiposity such as visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid content, intermuscular AT (IMAT), and/or intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content...
May 30, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555111/novel-glp-1-analog-supaglutide-reduces-hfd-induced-obesity-associated-with-increased-ucp-1-in-white-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#16
Yun Wan, Xi Bao, Jiabao Huang, Xiangyu Zhang, Wenjuan Liu, Qiaoli Cui, Dongdong Jiang, Zhihong Wang, Rui Liu, Qinghua Wang
GLP-1, an important incretin hormone plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. However, the therapeutic use of native GLP-1 is limited due to its short half-life. We recently developed a novel GLP-1 mimetics (supaglutide) by genetically engineering recombinant fusion protein production techniques. We demonstrated that this formulation possessed long-lasting GLP-1 actions and was effective in glycemic control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes rodent models. Here, we investigated the effects of supaglutide in regulating energy homeostasis in obese mice...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555086/hepatic-cd36-downregulation-parallels-steatosis-improvement-in-morbidly-obese-undergoing-bariatric-surgery
#17
E Pardina, R Ferrer, J Rossell, D Ricart-Jané, K A Méndez-Lara, J A Baena-Fustegueras, A Lecube, J Julve, J Peinado-Onsurbe
BACKGROUND: The notion that hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism is altered in obese patients is relatively new and its relationship with hepatic steatosis and cardiometabolic alterations remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) on the expression profile of genes related to metabolic syndrome in liver biopsies from morbidly obese individuals using a custom-made, focused cDNA microarray, and assessed the relationship between the expression profile and hepatic steatosis regression...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551552/standardized-mori-ramulus-extract-improves-insulin-secretion-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-c57blks-j-db-db-mice-and-ins-1-cells
#18
Soo-Yeon Park, Bora Jin, Jae-Ho Shin, Sirichai Adisakwattana, Oran Kwon
Abnormalities in the hyperbolic relationship between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion may cause oxidative stress and non-enzymatic glycation, resulting in an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Here, we performed a 14-week study to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Mori ramulus (MRE; 0, 800, and 1600mg/kg body weight) and its signature component oxyresveratrol (OXY; 800mg/kg body weight) on β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in C57BLKS/J db/db mice fed with a high-fat diet. Compared with the diabetic control group, the high-dose MRE group showed a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (p=0...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545248/ephedra-treated-donor-derived-gut-microbiota-transplantation-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#19
Jing-Hua Wang, Bong-Soo Kim, Kyungsun Han, Hojun Kim
Changes in gut microbiota (GM) are closely associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and so on. Several medicinal herbs, including Ephedra sinica (Es), have anti-obesity effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Es maintains its anti-obesity effect through Es-altered gut microbiota (EsM) transplantation. GM was isolated from cecal contents of Es treated and untreated rats following repeated transplants into obese rats via oral gavage over three weeks...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515456/metabolomic-analysis-shows-differential-hepatic-effects-of-t2-and-t3-in-rats-after-short-term-feeding-with-high-fat-diet
#20
Liliana F Iannucci, Federica Cioffi, Rosalba Senese, Fernando Goglia, Antonia Lanni, Paul M Yen, Rohit A Sinha
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health problem worldwide, and is often associated with lipotoxic injury, defective mitochondrial function, and insulin resistance. Thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Among the THs, diiodothyronine (T2) and triiodothyronine (T3) have shown promising results in lowering hepatic fat content in various models of NAFLD. In this study, we used a targeted metabolomics approach to investigate the differential effects of T2 and T3 on the early metabolic adaptation in the livers of rats fed high fat diet (HFD), a period when hepatosteatosis is reversible...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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