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liver fat content and insulin resistance

Wei Song, Zongling Wang, Xuelei Zhang, Yan Li
Ulva prolifera is the major causative species in the green tide, a serious marine ecological disaster, which bloomed in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea of China. However, it is also a popular edible seaweed and its extracts exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The present study investigated the effects of ethanol extract of U. prolifera (EUP) on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in high-fat-diet- (HFD-) treated mice. HFD-treated mice obtained drinking water containing 2% or 5% EUP...
2018: BioMed Research International
Gilles Fouret, Sylvie Gaillet, Jerome Lecomte, Beatrice Bonafos, Ferdinand Djohan, Bruno Barea, Eric Badia, Charles Coudray, Christine Feillet-Coudray
The incidence of obesity and its metabolic complications are rapidly increasing and become a major public health issue. This trend is associated with an increase in the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and diabetes. The sequence of events leading to NAFLD progression and mitochondrial dysfunction and their interrelation remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to explore the installation and progression of NAFLD and its association with the liver mitochondrial structure and activity changes in rats fed an obesogenic diet up to 20 weeks...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Daniel F Vatner, Leigh Goedeke, Joao-Paulo G Camporez, Kun Lyu, Ali R Nasiri, Dongyan Zhang, Sanjay Bhanot, Susan F Murray, Christopher D Still, Glenn S Gerhard, Gerald I Shulman, Varman T Samuel
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Targeting regulators of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase could enhance adipose lipid clearance, prevent ectopic lipid accumulation and consequently ameliorate insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Angiopoietin-like 8 (ANGPTL8) is an insulin-regulated lipoprotein lipase inhibitor strongly expressed in murine adipose tissue. However, Angptl8 knockout mice do not have improved insulin resistance. We hypothesised that pharmacological inhibition, using a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) against Angptl8 in adult high-fat-fed rodents, would prevent ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance by promoting adipose lipid uptake...
March 1, 2018: Diabetologia
Dionysios V Chartoumpekis, Dushani L Palliyaguru, Nobunao Wakabayashi, Marco Fazzari, Nicholas Kh Khoo, Francisco J Schopfer, Ian Sipula, Yoko Yagishita, George K Michalopoulos, Robert M O'Doherty, Thomas W Kensler
Nrf2 is a canonical regulator of cytoprotective gene expression but evidence of its crosstalk with other pathways, including metabolic ones, is ever increasing. Pharmacologic or systemic genetic activation of the Nrf2 pathway partially protects from obesity in mice and ameliorates fasting hyperglycemia in mice and humans. However, systemic Nrf2 deletion also protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. To further investigate the effect of the disruption of Nrf2 on obesity in a tissue-specific manner, we focused on adipocytes and hepatocytes with targeted deletion of Nrf2...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Giuseppina R Umano, Sonia Caprio, Anna Di Sessa, Naga Chalasani, Daniel J Dykas, Bridget Pierpont, Allen E Bale, Nicola Santoro
OBJECTIVES: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of liver damage in childhood, its occurrence is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recently, the rs626283 polymorphism in the MBOAT7 gene has been found to be associated with alcoholic liver disease and NAFLD in adults. METHODS: In a multiethnic cohort of obese children and adolescents we genotyped the rs626283 polymorphism in the MBOAT7 gene, evaluated insulin sensitivity by an oral glucose tolerance test, and measured the intra-hepatic fat content (HFF%) by magnetic resonance imaging...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Konstantinos Kantartzis, Louise Fritsche, Maria Bombrich, Jürgen Machann, Fritz Schick, Harald Staiger, Iris Kunz, Rotraut Schoop, Angela Lehn-Stefan, Martin Heni, Andreas Peter, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan
We performed the so far largest randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial (N=112, 12 week intervention) to investigate effects and safety of resveratrol supplementation on liver fat content and cardiometabolic risk parameters in overweight and obese and insulin resistant subjects. At baseline the variability in liver fat content was very large, ranging from 0.09% to 37.55% (median 7.12%, interquartile range 3.85%-12.94%). The mean (SD) liver fat content was 9.22 (6.85)% in the placebo group and 9.91 (7...
February 27, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Antonietta Liotti, Serena Cabaro, Ilaria Cimmino, Serena Ricci, Claudio Procaccini, Orlando Paciello, Gregory A Raciti, Rosa Spinelli, Susanna Iossa, Giuseppe Matarese, Claudia Miele, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Beguinot, Francesco Oriente
Prep1 is a gene encoding for a homeodomain transcription factor which induces hepatic and muscular insulin resistance. In this study, we show that Prep1 hypomorphic heterozygous (Prep1i/+ ) mice, expressing low levels of protein, featured a 23% and a 25% reduction of total body lipid content and epididymal fat, respectively. The percentage of the small adipocytes (25-75 μm) was 30% higher in Prep1i/+ animals than in the WT, with a reciprocal difference in the large adipose cells (100-150 and >150 μm)...
February 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Elko Randrianarisoa, Norbert Stefan, Andreas Fritsche, Anja Hieronimus, Bernd Balletshofer, Jürgen Machann, Dorothea Siegel-Axel, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Kilian Rittig
Increased perivascular fat mass contributes to cardiometabolic risk (CMR). High peribrachial adipose tissue (PBAT) associates with insulin resistance independently of established CMR parameters. It is unknown to what extent periaortic adipose tissue (PAAT) may have a similar impact. In 95 participants, precise quantification of total adipose tissue, PBAT, PAAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and liver fat (LF) content was performed by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity was determined by oral glucose tolerance test and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) by high-resolution ultrasound...
January 1, 2018: Angiology
Karen Lambert, Marie Hokayem, Claire Thomas, Odile Fabre, Cécile Cassan, Annick Bourret, Florence Bernex, Christine Feuillet-Coudray, Cécile Notarnicola, Jacques Mercier, Antoine Avignon, Catherine Bisbal
Separately, polyphenols and exercise are known to prevent insulin resistance (IR) but their combined curative effects on established obesity and IR require further investigation. Therefore, we compared the metabolic effects of a combination of exercise and grape polyphenols supplementation in obese IR rats with high-fat diet (EXOPP) to the effect of high-fat diet alone (HF) or with a nutritional supplementation of grape polyphenols (PP) or with endurance exercise (EXO) during 8 wks. We observed an improvement of systemic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in EXO and EXOPP rats...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jorge Gonzalez-Cantero, Jose Luis Martin-Rodriguez, Alvaro Gonzalez-Cantero, Juan Pedro Arrebola, Jorge Luis Gonzalez-Calvin
AIMS: Insulin resistance is the pathophysiological precursor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), and its relationship with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been widely studied in patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome using not only ultrasound but also liver biopsies or proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H1-MRS) to assess liver fat content. In contrast, there are no studies on insulin resistance and NAFLD in lean or overweight Caucasian individuals using H1-MRS or liver biopsies for the quantification of hepatic triglyceride content...
2018: PloS One
Laura Pérez-Martínez, Laura Ochoa-Callejero, Susana Rubio-Mediavilla, Judit Narro, Iván Bernardo, José-Antonio Oteo, José-Ramón Blanco
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the general population. Its severity ranges from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. C-C chemokine ligand type 5 or RANTES plays an important role in the progression of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Our objective was to examine the preventive and therapeutic effects of maraviroc (MVC), a C-C chemokine receptor 5 antagonist, on liver pathology in an NAFLD mouse model. A total of 60 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: (1) high-fat diet (HFD) group or control group, (2) preventive group (HFD group plus MVC in drinking water since the beginning of the study), (3) early-therapeutic group (HFD group plus MVC in drinking starting at week 24 of the study), and (4) late-therapeutic group (HFD group plus MVC in drinking water starting at week 36 of the study)...
January 31, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Chantal Bertrand, Jean-Philippe Pradère, Nancy Geoffre, Simon Deleruyelle, Bernard Masri, Jean Personnaz, Sophie Le Gonidec, Aurélie Batut, Katie Louche, Cédric Moro, Philippe Valet, Isabelle Castan-Laurell
PURPOSE: Apelin treatment has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant mice by acting in skeletal muscles. However, the effects of systemic apelin on the hepatic energy metabolism have not been addressed. We thus aimed to determine the effect of chronic apelin treatment on the hepatic lipid metabolism in insulin resistant mice. The apelin receptor (APJ) expression was also studied in this context since its regulation has only been reported in severe liver pathologies...
February 1, 2018: Endocrine
Rosario Martínez, Garyfallia Kapravelou, Ana Donaire, Carlos Lopez-Chaves, Francisco Arrebola, Milagros Galisteo, Samuel Cantarero, Pilar Aranda, Jesus M Porres, María López-Jurado
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic alterations characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemia, elevated plasma glucose, insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, a combined intervention of a lentil protein hydrolysate and a mixed training protocol was assessed in an animal experimental model of genetic obesity and metabolic syndrome. Thirty-two male obese and 32 lean Zucker rats were divided into eight different experimental groups. Rats performed a mixed exercise protocol or had a sedentary lifestyle and were administered a lentil protein hydrolysate or placebo...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
Nitien H Naran, Mark Haagensen, Nigel J Crowther
BACKGROUND: Globally, steatosis is the commonest type of liver pathology and is closely associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Obesity is common in urban African females but no data is available on hepatic fat content in this population group when compared to other ethnic groups. The aim of this study was therefore to compare hepatic fat content in woman from different ethnic groups in South Africa and to characterise the principle determinants of liver fat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 106 (48 Indian, 29 African and 29 Caucasian) female volunteers aged 20-60 years and having no history of cardiometabolic disorders were recruited...
2018: PloS One
Cherlyn Ding, Zhiling Chan, Yu Chung Chooi, John Choo, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Amanda Chang, S Sasikala, Navin Michael, S Sendhil Velan, Faidon Magkos
Type 2 diabetes in Asia occurs largely in the absence of obesity. The metabolically-obese normal-weight (MONW) phenotype refers to lean subjects with metabolic dysfunction that is typically observed in people with obesity, and is associated with increased risk for diabetes. Previous studies evaluated MONW subjects who had greater BMI or total body fat than respective control groups, making interpretation of the results difficult. We evaluated insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), insulin secretion (mixed meal with oral minimal modeling), intra-abdominal, muscle, and liver fat contents (magnetic resonance), and fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in 18 MONW subjects and 18 metabolically-healthy controls matched for age (43{plus minus}3 and 40{plus minus}3 y; P=0...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mohamed R Ben Khedher, Mohamed Hammami, Jonathan R S Arch, David C Hislop, Dominic Eze, Edward T Wargent, Małgorzata A Kępczyńska, Mohamed S Zaibi
Background: Salvia officinalis (sage) is a native plant to the Mediterranean region and has been used for a long time in traditional medicine for various diseases. We investigated possible anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects of sage methanol (MetOH) extract in a nutritional mouse model of obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance, as well as its effects on lipolysis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods: Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were treated for five weeks with sage methanol extract (100 and 400 mg kg-1/day bid), or rosiglitazone (3 mg kg-1/day bid), as a positive control...
2018: PeerJ
Anna Jeznach-Steinhagen, Joanna Ostrowska, Aneta Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Iwona Boniecka, Wioletta Gronostajska
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease in the developed world. Nowadays, in the adult population of Europe it is estimated at 14% to 21%. Its most important risk factors are obesity and metabolic syndrome. Introducing lifestyle changes such as: dietary intervention and increased physical activity are the first-line treatment and are intended to support not only NAFLD but also associated diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidemia...
December 22, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Jinbao Huang, Simin Feng, Anna Liu, Zhuqing Dai, Hong Wang, Kenneth Reuhl, Wenyun Lu, Chung S Yang
SCOPE: The tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to ameliorate metabolic abnormalities and fatty liver. The present study investigates the mechanisms of actions of EGCG on bile acid homeostasis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice are fed a low-fat diet, a high-fat western-style diet, or a high-fat western-style diet containing 0.32% EGCG. The effects of the treatments on biochemical parameters, gene expression, and lipidomics are analyzed...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Bettina Nowotny, Sabine Kahl, Birgit Klüppelholz, Barbara Hoffmann, Guido Giani, Roshan Livingstone, Peter J Nowotny, Valerie Stamm, Christian Herder, Andrea Tura, Giovanni Pacini, Jong-Hee Hwang, Michael Roden
BACKGROUND: Loss of adequate insulin secretion for the prevailing insulin resistance is critical for the development of type 2 diabetes and has been suggested to result from circulating lipids (triacylglycerols [TG] or free fatty acids) and/or adipocytokines or from ectopic lipid storage in the pancreas. This study aimed to address whether circulating lipids, adipocytokines or pancreatic fat primarily associate with lower insulin secretion. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Nondiabetic persons (n=73), recruited from the general population, underwent clinical examinations, fasting blood drawing to measure TG and adipocytokines and oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) to assess basal and dynamic insulin secretion and sensitivity indices...
December 19, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Logan K Townsend, Willem T Peppler, Natasha D Bush, David C Wright
Olanzapine is a second-generation antipsychotic used in the management of schizophrenia and various off-label conditions. The acute metabolic responses of olanzapine recapitulate many of the side effects associated with obesity. Obesity rates are high in the schizophrenic population, but it is unknown whether pre-existing obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction augments the acute side effects of olanzapine. To address this question, we compared the responses to olanzapine in lean and high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice...
February 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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