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liver fat content and insulin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640216/a-branched-chain-amino-acid-related-metabolic-signature-characterizes-obese-adolescents-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Martina Goffredo, Nicola Santoro, Domenico Tricò, Cosimo Giannini, Ebe D'Adamo, Hongyu Zhao, Gang Peng, Xiaoqing Yu, Tukiet T Lam, Bridget Pierpont, Sonia Caprio, Raimund I Herzog
Dysregulation of several metabolite pathways, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance in adults, while studies in youth reported conflicting results. We explored whether, independently of obesity and insulin resistance, obese adolescents with NAFLD display a metabolomic signature consistent with disturbances in amino acid and lipid metabolism. A total of 180 plasma metabolites were measured by a targeted metabolomic approach in 78 obese adolescents with (n = 30) or without (n = 48) NAFLD assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591572/hepatic-diacylglycerol-associated-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE%C2%B5-translocation-links-hepatic-steatosis-to-hepatic-insulin-resistance-in-humans
#2
Kasper W Ter Horst, Pim W Gilijamse, Ruth I Versteeg, Mariette T Ackermans, Aart J Nederveen, Susanne E la Fleur, Johannes A Romijn, Max Nieuwdorp, Dongyan Zhang, Varman T Samuel, Daniel F Vatner, Kitt F Petersen, Gerald I Shulman, Mireille J Serlie
Hepatic lipid accumulation has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but translational evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the relationship between liver fat and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in 133 obese subjects. Although the presence of hepatic steatosis in obese subjects was associated with hepatic, adipose tissue, and peripheral insulin resistance, we found that intrahepatic triglycerides were not strictly sufficient or essential for hepatic insulin resistance. Thus, to examine the molecular mechanisms that link hepatic steatosis to hepatic insulin resistance, we comprehensively analyzed liver biopsies from a subset of 29 subjects...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585211/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#3
Atilla Engin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is in parallel with the obesity epidemic and it is the most common cause of liver diseases. The development of hepatic steatosis in majority of patients is linked to dietary fat ingestion. NAFLD is characterized by excess accumulation of triglyceride in the hepatocyte due to both increased inflow of free fatty acids and de novo hepatic lipogenesis. Insulin resistance with the deficiency of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2)-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity causes an increase in intracellular fatty acid-derived metabolites such as diacylglycerol, fatty acyl CoA or ceramides...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578672/sake-lees-extract-improves-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#4
Hisako Kubo, Masato Hoshi, Takuya Matsumoto, Motoko Irie, Shin Oura, Hiroko Tsutsumi, Yoji Hata, Yasuko Yamamoto, Kuniaki Saito
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide as one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease. Sake lees (SL) are secondary products of sake manufacturing and are considered to have beneficial effects on human health. To investigate these effects, we used high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice treated with or without the SL extract. METHOD: Mice were the HFD ad libitum for 8 weeks and were administered 500 μL of distilled water with or without the SL extract (350 mg/mL) by a feeding needle daily for the last 4 weeks...
June 3, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566408/5-ala-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-through-ampk-signaling-pathway
#5
Haoyong Yu, Mingliang Zhang, Yunqin Ma, Junxi Lu, Pan Pan, Haibing Chen, Weiping Jia
5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), the first compound in the porphyrin synthesis pathway, has been reported to ameliorate the diabetic state in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by reducing fat pad weight in the retroperitoneal region. Dietary supplementation with 5-ALA has additionally demonstrated the capacity to lower blood glucose and HbA1c levels among subjects with diabetes. The etiology of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is complex and its typical characteristics include obesity and insulin resistance...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556755/effects-of-exercise-training-alone-on-depot-specific-body-fat-stores-in-youth-review-of-recent-literature
#6
YoonMyung Kim
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased at an alarming rate. The increased obesity rate in pediatrics parallels the increased risks for developing metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In particular, the strong relationship between obesity and such health consequences are well explained by the excessive accumulation of depot-specific body adiposity such as visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid content, intermuscular AT (IMAT), and/or intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content...
May 30, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555111/novel-glp-1-analog-supaglutide-reduces-hfd-induced-obesity-associated-with-increased-ucp-1-in-white-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#7
Yun Wan, Xi Bao, Jiabao Huang, Xiangyu Zhang, Wenjuan Liu, Qiaoli Cui, Dongdong Jiang, Zhihong Wang, Rui Liu, Qinghua Wang
GLP-1, an important incretin hormone plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. However, the therapeutic use of native GLP-1 is limited due to its short half-life. We recently developed a novel GLP-1 mimetics (supaglutide) by genetically engineering recombinant fusion protein production techniques. We demonstrated that this formulation possessed long-lasting GLP-1 actions and was effective in glycemic control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes rodent models. Here, we investigated the effects of supaglutide in regulating energy homeostasis in obese mice...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555086/hepatic-cd36-downregulation-parallels-steatosis-improvement-in-morbidly-obese-undergoing-bariatric-surgery
#8
E Pardina, R Ferrer, J Rossell, D Ricart-Jané, K A Méndez-Lara, J A Baena-Fustegueras, A Lecube, J Julve, J Peinado-Onsurbe
BACKGROUND: The notion that hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism is altered in obese patients is relatively new and its relationship with hepatic steatosis and cardiometabolic alterations remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) on the expression profile of genes related to metabolic syndrome in liver biopsies from morbidly obese individuals using a custom-made, focused cDNA microarray, and assessed the relationship between the expression profile and hepatic steatosis regression...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551552/standardized-mori-ramulus-extract-improves-insulin-secretion-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-c57blks-j-db-db-mice-and-ins-1-cells
#9
Soo-Yeon Park, Bora Jin, Jae-Ho Shin, Sirichai Adisakwattana, Oran Kwon
Abnormalities in the hyperbolic relationship between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion may cause oxidative stress and non-enzymatic glycation, resulting in an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Here, we performed a 14-week study to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Mori ramulus (MRE; 0, 800, and 1600mg/kg body weight) and its signature component oxyresveratrol (OXY; 800mg/kg body weight) on β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in C57BLKS/J db/db mice fed with a high-fat diet. Compared with the diabetic control group, the high-dose MRE group showed a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (p=0...
May 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545248/ephedra-treated-donor-derived-gut-microbiota-transplantation-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#10
Jing-Hua Wang, Bong-Soo Kim, Kyungsun Han, Hojun Kim
Changes in gut microbiota (GM) are closely associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and so on. Several medicinal herbs, including Ephedra sinica (Es), have anti-obesity effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Es maintains its anti-obesity effect through Es-altered gut microbiota (EsM) transplantation. GM was isolated from cecal contents of Es treated and untreated rats following repeated transplants into obese rats via oral gavage over three weeks...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515456/metabolomic-analysis-shows-differential-hepatic-effects-of-t2-and-t3-in-rats-after-short-term-feeding-with-high-fat-diet
#11
Liliana F Iannucci, Federica Cioffi, Rosalba Senese, Fernando Goglia, Antonia Lanni, Paul M Yen, Rohit A Sinha
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health problem worldwide, and is often associated with lipotoxic injury, defective mitochondrial function, and insulin resistance. Thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Among the THs, diiodothyronine (T2) and triiodothyronine (T3) have shown promising results in lowering hepatic fat content in various models of NAFLD. In this study, we used a targeted metabolomics approach to investigate the differential effects of T2 and T3 on the early metabolic adaptation in the livers of rats fed high fat diet (HFD), a period when hepatosteatosis is reversible...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507343/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-vascular-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-are-exacerbated-by-trail-deletion-in-mice
#12
Siân P Cartland, Hanis H Harith, Scott W Genner, Lei Dang, Victoria C Cogger, Melissa Vellozzi, Belinda A Di Bartolo, Shane R Thomas, Leon A Adams, Mary M Kavurma
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incorporates steatosis, non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) and liver cirrhosis, associating with diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is protective of CVD. We aimed to determine whether TRAIL protects against insulin resistance, NAFLD and vascular injury. Twelve-week high fat diet (HFD)-fed Trail (-/-) mice had increased plasma cholesterol, insulin and glucose compared to wildtype. Insulin tolerance was impaired with TRAIL-deletion, with reduced p-Akt, GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487551/high-free-androgen-index-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-independently-of-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#13
C Jie, W Chunhua, Z Yi, W Yuying, X Wendi, L Tzuchun, L Shengxian, W Lihua, Z Jun, S Yun, L Wei, T Tao
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVECentral obesity and insulin resistance are common conditions in women with PCOS and in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, few studies have addressed the association between hyperandrogenism (HA) and NAFLD. We aimed to determine whether variations in the free androgen index (FAI) might be associated with NAFLD prevalence.SUBJECTS/METHODSA cross-sectional study was performed including 400 Chinese women with PCOS and 100 age and body mass index (BMI)-matched women...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479494/gastric-mucosal-devitalization-reduces-adiposity-and-improves-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-obese-rats
#14
Andreas Oberbach, Nadine Schlichting, Marco Heinrich, Yvonne Kullnick, Ulf Retschlag, Stefanie Lehman, Mouen A Khashab, Anthony N Kalloo, Vivek Kumbhari
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The gastric mucosa is an endocrine organ that regulates satiation pathways by expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), excludes gastric mucosa and reduces gastric volume. Our study aims to investigate the independent effects of altering gastric mucosa on obesity and its related comorbidities. METHODS: Gastric mucosal devitalization (GMD) of 70% of the stomach was achieved by argon plasma coagulation in a high-fat diet (HFD) rat model and compared with VSG and sham (SH)...
May 4, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472825/lycopene-improves-insulin-sensitivity-through-inhibition-of-stat3-srebp-1c-mediated-lipid-accumulation-and-inflammation-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#15
Zhaohui Zeng, Wang He, Zhen Jia, Shu Hao
In the past few years, metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, has reached global prevalence. Lycopene is one of the major carotenoids in tomatoes, watermelons, red grapefruits, and guava. In the current study, using high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, we investigated the effect of Lycopene on insulin resistance. We showed that diet containing Lycopene significantly prevented HFD-induced increase of fasting blood glucose and insulin level, glucose and insulin intolerance, and decrease of hepatic glycogen content...
May 4, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468951/insulin-resistance-promotes-lysyl-oxidase-like-2induction-and-fibrosis-accumulation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
Paola Dongiovanni, Marica Meroni, Guido Alessandro Baselli, Giulia Alessandra Bassani, Raffaela Rametta, Alessandro Pietrelli, Marco Maggioni, Federica Facciotti, Valentina Trunzo, Sara Badiali, Silvia Fargion, Stefano Gatti, Luca Vittorio Carlo Valenti
Background & Aims: In patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance (IR) associates with fibrosis progression independently of hepatic inflammation, but the mechanisms are still unclear. Methods : We modeled the independent contribution of inflammation (steatohepatitis: NASH) by exploiting the methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet, and that of IR by insulin receptor haploinsufficiency (InsR+/-), in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in C57Bl/6 mice. We confirmed study findings in 96 patients with NAFLD...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452943/pectic-bee-pollen-polysaccharide-from-rosa-rugosa-alleviates-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-via-induction-of-ampk-mtor-mediated-autophagy
#17
Xinzhi Li, Haiquan Gong, Siwen Yang, Lulu Yang, Yuying Fan, Yifa Zhou
Despite it is used as a nutraceutical against diabetes and obesity, the mechanism of action of bee pollen is still unclear. Pectic bee pollen polysaccharide (RBPP-P) was isolated from Rosa rugosa, and its structure was characterized by (13)C-NMR and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Using high glucose and fatty acids-treated HepG2 cells and high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice, we detected its effect on insulin function and lipid metabolism based on autophagy. RBPP-P contained arabinogalactan, rhamnogalacturonan I, and homogalacturonan domains...
April 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428027/fructose-intervention-for-12-weeks-does-not-impair-glycemic-control-or-incretin-hormone-responses-during-oral-glucose-or-mixed-meal-tests-in-obese-men
#18
N Matikainen, S Söderlund, E Björnson, L H Bogl, K H Pietiläinen, A Hakkarainen, N Lundbom, B Eliasson, S M Räsänen, A Rivellese, L Patti, A Prinster, G Riccardi, J-P Després, N Alméras, J J Holst, C F Deacon, J Borén, M-R Taskinen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are affected early on in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies consistently link high fructose consumption to insulin resistance but whether fructose consumption impairs the incretin response remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: As many as 66 obese (BMI 26-40 kg/m(2)) male subjects consumed fructose-sweetened beverages containing 75 g fructose/day for 12 weeks while continuing their usual lifestyle...
June 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417532/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-prevalence-and-its-metabolic-associations-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-and-type-2-diabetes
#19
Kenneth Cusi, Arun J Sanyal, Shuyu Zhang, Mark L Hartman, Juliana M Bue-Valleskey, Byron J Hoogwerf, Axel Haupt
We investigated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence and its metabolic associations in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and in insulin-naïve and insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Baseline data from patients who had liver fat content (LFC) evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging in 4 phase 3 studies of basal insulin peglispro (BIL) were analyzed. Associations of NAFLD with clinical characteristics, glycemic control and diabetes therapy were evaluated. The prevalence of NAFLD (defined as LFC ≥6%) was low in T1D (8...
April 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395666/hydroxytyrosol-prevents-reduction-in-liver-activity-of-%C3%AE-5-and-%C3%AE-6-desaturases-oxidative-stress-and-depletion-in-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-content-in-different-tissues-of-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#20
Rodrigo Valenzuela, Francisca Echeverria, Macarena Ortiz, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, Alejandra Espinosa, María Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, Paola Illesca, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues...
April 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
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