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liver fat content and insulin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140513/amino-acid-and-fatty-acid-levels-affect-hepatic-phosphorus-metabolite-content-in-metabolically-healthy-humans
#1
Sabine Kahl, Bettina Nowotny, Klaus Straßburger, Alessandra Bierwagen, Birgit Klüppelholz, Barbara Hoffmann, Guido Giani, Peter J Nowotny, Franziska Wallscheid, Erifili Hatziagelaki, Giovanni Pacini, Jong-Hee Hwang, Michael Roden
Objective: Hepatic energy metabolism negatively relates to insulin resistance and liver fat content in type 2 diabetes patients, but its role in metabolically healthy humans is unclear. We hypothesized that intrahepatocellular γ-adenosine triphosphate (γATP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations exhibit similar associations with insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic non-obese volunteers. Research Design and methods: A total of 76 participants underwent a 4-point sampling 75-g OGTT as well as in vivo31P/1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138227/the-hepatokines-fetuin-a-and-fetuin-b-are-up-regulated-in-the-state-of-hepatic-steatosis-and-may-differently-impact-on-glucose-homeostasis-in-humans
#2
Andreas Peter, Marketa Kovarova, Harald Staiger, Jürgen Machann, Fritz Schick, Alfred Königsrainer, Ingmar Koenigsrainer, Erwin D Schleicher, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan
The liver is a central regulator of whole-body glucose and lipid homeostasis and hepatokines, like fetuin-A, have been identified as markers and mediators of fatty liver-induced cardiometabolic risk. The closely related protein fetuin-B was shown to be up-regulated in the fatty liver and to impact on glucose homeostasis in mice. In the present study we aimed to test the relevance of these findings in humans. In 55 subjects hepatic mRNA expression of both hepatokines, fetuin-A and fetuin-B, associated positively with liver triglyceride content, while only fetuin-A expression associated with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130078/hepatic-adaptations-to-a-high-fat-diet-in-the-mrl-mouse-strain-are-associated-with-an-inefficient-oxidative-phosphorylation-system
#3
Ahlke Heydemann, Magdalis González-Vega, Tirsit K Berhanu, Aaron J Mull, Ragav Sharma, Jenan Holley-Cuthrell
The MRL mice are resistant to a 12-week high fat diet (HFD) feeding protocol, with the proximal cause being an increased basal pAMPK(T172) expression in the skeletal muscle. Here, we test if this lack of pathology extends to the liver at both the tissue and cellular levels and its correlation to pAMPK(T172) levels. MRL and B6 mice were subjected to 12 weeks of diet intervention and tissues were either fixed for histology or snap-frozen for further processing (n= 3-6, per group). The HFD MRL mice remain insulin and glucose sensitive after 12 weeks of HFD...
December 2016: Jacobs J Diabetes Endocrinol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118016/modelling-insulin-resistance-in-rodents-by-alterations-in-diet-what-have-high-fat-and-high-calorie-diets-revealed
#4
Lewin Small, Amanda E Brandon, Nigel Turner, Gregory J Cooney
For over half a century, researchers have been feeding different diets to rodents to examine the effects of macronutrients on whole body and tissue insulin action. During this period, the number of different diets and the source of macronutrients employed has grown dramatically. Due to the large heterogeneity in both the source and percentage of different macronutrients used for studies, it is not surprising that different high calorie diets do not produce the same changes in insulin action. Despite this, diverse high calorie diets continue to be employed in an attempt to generate a "generic" insulin resistance...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109528/predictors-of-liver-fat-and-stiffness-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-an-11-year-prospective-study
#5
Susanna Lallukka, Sanja Sädevirta, Markus T Kallio, Panu K Luukkonen, You Zhou, Antti Hakkarainen, Nina Lundbom, Marju Orho-Melander, Hannele Yki-Järvinen
Liver fat can be non-invasively measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) and fibrosis estimated as stiffness using transient elastography (FibroScan). There are no longitudinal data on changes in liver fat in Europids or on predictors of liver stiffness using these methods. We determined liver fat ((1)H-MRS) and clinical characteristics including features of insulin resistance at baseline and after a median follow-up period of 11.3 (range 7.3-13.4) years in 97 Finnish subjects. Liver stiffness was measured at 11...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107297/decreasing-cb1-receptor-signaling-in-kupffer-cells-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-mice
#6
Tony Jourdan, Sarah M Nicoloro, Zhou Zhou, Yuefei Shen, Jie Liu, Nathan J Coffey, Resat Cinar, Grzegorz Godlewski, Bin Gao, Myriam Aouadi, Michael P Czech, George Kunos
OBJECTIVE: Obesity-induced accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver is thought to contribute to the development of insulin resistance, and increased activity of hepatic CB1R has been shown to promote both processes. However, lipid accumulation in liver can be experimentally dissociated from insulin resistance under certain conditions, suggesting the involvement of additional mechanisms. Obesity is also associated with pro-inflammatory changes which, in turn, can promote insulin resistance...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107295/the-fgf21-response-to-fructose-predicts-metabolic-health-and-persists-after-bariatric-surgery-in-obese-humans
#7
Kasper W Ter Horst, Pim W Gilijamse, Ahmet Demirkiran, Bart A van Wagensveld, Mariette T Ackermans, Joanne Verheij, Johannes A Romijn, Max Nieuwdorp, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier, Mark A Herman, Mireille J Serlie
OBJECTIVE: Fructose consumption has been implicated in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Emerging evidence shows that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has beneficial effects on glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism and may also mediate an adaptive response to fructose ingestion. Fructose acutely stimulates circulating FGF21 consistent with a hormonal response. We aimed to evaluate whether fructose-induced FGF21 secretion is linked to metabolic outcomes in obese humans before and after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066466/dgk%C3%AE-deficiency-protects-against-peripheral-insulin-resistance-and-improves-energy-metabolism
#8
Boubacar Benziane, Melissa L Borg, Robby Z Tom, Isabelle Riedl, Julie Massart, Marie Björnholm, Marc Gilbert, Alexander V Chibalin, Juleen R Zierath
Diacylglycerol kinases (DGK) regulate the balance between diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid. DGKζ is highly abundant in skeletal muscle and induces fiber hypertrophy. We hypothesized DGKζ influences functional and metabolic adaptions in skeletal muscle and whole body fuel utilization. DAG content was increased in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, but unaltered in liver of DGKζ knockout (KO) mice. Linear growth, body weight, fat mass, and lean mass was reduced in DGKζ KO versus wild-type mice...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031729/point-mutation-of-ffar1-abrogates-fatty-acid-dependent-insulin-secretion-but-protects-against-hfd-induced-glucose-intolerance
#9
Sibylle Sabrautzki, Gabriele Kaiser, Gerhard K H Przemeck, Felicia Gerst, Estela Lorza-Gil, Madhura Panse, Tina Sartorius, Miriam Hoene, Susan Marschall, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Susanne Ullrich
OBJECTIVE: The fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) mediates fatty acid-dependent augmentation of glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) in pancreatic β-cells. Genetically engineered Ffar1-knockout/congenic mice univocally displayed impaired fatty acid-mediated insulin secretion, but in vivo experiments delivered controversial results regarding the function of FFAR1 in glucose homeostasis and liver steatosis. This study presents a new coisogenic mouse model carrying a point mutation in Ffar1 with functional consequence...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031724/elevated-hepatic-dpp4-activity-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Christian Baumeier, Luisa Schlüter, Sophie Saussenthaler, Thomas Laeger, Maria Rödiger, Stella Amelie Alaze, Louise Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan, Andreas Fritsche, Robert Wolfgang Schwenk, Annette Schürmann
OBJECTIVE: Increased hepatic expression of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether this is causative for the development of NAFLD is not yet clarified. Here we investigate the effect of hepatic DPP4 overexpression on the development of liver steatosis in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Plasma DPP4 activity of subjects with or without NAFLD was analyzed. Wild-type (WT) and liver-specific Dpp4 transgenic mice (Dpp4-Liv-Tg) were fed a high-fat diet and characterized for body weight, body composition, hepatic fat content and insulin sensitivity...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031588/swertisin-rich-fraction-from-enicostema-littorale-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-and-hyperlipidemia-in-high-fat-fed-diet-and-low-dose-streptozotacin-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-rats
#11
Priyanka Mokashi, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt, Aparna Khanna, Nancy Pandita
INTRODUCTION: Enicostema littorale blume (A. Raynal) is a traditional Indian plant belongs to the Gentianaceae family. A lot of research has been done on this plant for its antidiabetic activity. However, there are no reports on flavonoids from E. littorale for its antidiabetic activity and their mechanism of action. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Swertisin rich flavonoid fraction (SRF) from Enicostema littorale blume and their mechanism of action...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993954/obesity-alleviating-potential-of-asiatic-acid-and-its-effects-on-acc1-ucp2-and-cpt1-mrna-expression-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-sprague-dawley-rats
#12
P Rameshreddy, V V Sathibabu Uddandrao, Parim Brahmanaidu, S Vadivukkarasi, Ramavat Ravindarnaik, Pothani Suresh, K Swapna, A Kalaivani, Parimi Parvathi, P Tamilmani, Ganapathy Saravanan
The present study evaluated the effects of asiatic acid (AA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid from Centella asiatica on lipid metabolism parameters in a rat model of obesity induced using a high fat diet (HFD) for 42 days. AA (20 mg/kg body weight [BW]) was administered orally once daily for 42 days, and an orlistat-treated group of rats (10 mg/kg BW) was included for comparison. Changes in BW, blood glucose levels, insulin resistance and leptin, adiponectin, amylase, and lipase levels in the blood; lipid profiles of plasma; liver antioxidants levels; and acetyl CoA carboxylase(ACC), uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) mRNA expression were observed in the experimental rats...
October 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987323/the-longevity-gene-indy-i-m-not-dead-yet-in-metabolic-control-potential-as-pharmacological-target
#13
REVIEW
Diana M Willmes, Anica Kurzbach, Christine Henke, Grit Zahn, Alexander Heifetz, Jens Jordan, Stephen L Helfand, Andreas L Birkenfeld
The regulation of metabolic processes by the Indy (I'm Not Dead Yet) (SLC13A5/NaCT) gene was revealed through studies in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. Reducing the expression of Indy in these species extended their life span by a mechanism resembling caloric restriction, without reducing food intake. In D. melanogaster, mutating the Indy gene reduced body fat content, insulin-like proteins and reactive oxygen species production. Subsequent studies indicated that Indy encodes a citrate transporter located on the cell plasma membrane...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942551/androgen-excess-and-metabolic-disorders-in-women-with-pcos-beyond-the-body-mass-index
#14
REVIEW
R A Condorelli, A E Calogero, M Di Mauro, L M Mongioi', R Cannarella, G Rosta, S La Vignera
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a common feature among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), especially in those patients with hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. PCOS women are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance and type II diabetes mellitus (DM II). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to explore the existing knowledge of the interplay between androgen excess, pancreatic β-cell function, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), intra-abdominal and subcutaneous (SC) abdominal adipocytes in PCOS, providing a better comprehension of the molecular mechanisms of diabetologic interest...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942246/inhibition-of-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-1b-induces-hepatic-steatosis-through-dpp4-nox1-mediated-regulation-of-superoxide
#15
Zi Long, Meng Cao, Shuhao Su, Guangyuan Wu, Fansen Meng, Hao Wu, Jiangzheng Liu, Weihua Yu, Kamran Atabai, Xin Wang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder that is closely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have suggested that hepatocyte nuclear factor 1b (HNF1b) ameliorates insulin resistance. However, the role of HNF1b in the regulation of lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis remains poorly understood. We found that HNF1b expression was decreased in steatotic livers. We injected mice with lentivirus (LV) expressing HNF1b shRNA to generate mice with hepatic knockdown of HNF1b...
September 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932090/new-botanical-drug-hl-tablet-reduces-hepatic-fat-as-measured-by-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-placebo-controlled-randomized-phase-ii-trial
#16
Jae Yoon Jeong, Joo Hyun Sohn, Yang Hyun Baek, Yong Kyun Cho, Yongsoo Kim, Hyeonjin Kim
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of HL tablet extracted from magnolia officinalis for treating patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Seventy-four patients with NAFLD diagnosed by ultrasonography were randomly assigned to 3 groups given high dose (400 mg) HL tablet, low dose (133.4 mg) HL tablet and placebo, respectively, daily for 12 wk. The primary endpoint was post-treatment change of hepatic fat content (HFC) measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
August 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928277/jnk-activation-of-bim-promotes-hepatic-oxidative-stress-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity
#17
Sara A Litwak, Lokman Pang, Sandra Galic, Mariana Igoillo-Esteve, William J Stanley, Jean-Valery Turatsinze, Kim Loh, Helen E Thomas, Arpeeta Sharma, Eric Trepo, Christophe Moreno, Daniel J Gough, Decio L Eizirik, Judy B de Haan, Esteban N Gurzov
The BCL-2 family are crucial regulators of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in normal physiology and disease. Besides their role in cell death, BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cellular metabolism. It remains unclear, however, whether these proteins have a physiological role in glucose homeostasis and metabolism in vivo Here we report that fat accumulation in the liver increases JNK-dependent BIM expression in hepatocytes. To determine the consequences of hepatic BIM deficiency in diet-induced obesity, we generated liver-specific BIM knockout (BLKO) mice...
September 19, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925408/liver-volume-and-hepatic-adiposity-in-childhood-relations-to-body-growth-and-visceral-fat
#18
R Malpique, J Bassols, A López-Bermejo, M Diaz, F Villarroya, J Pavia, A Congo, F de Zegher, L Ibáñez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The sequence of prenatal growth restraint and postnatal catch-up growth may lead to hepato-visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation before the onset of puberty. In prepubertal children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA), we assessed potential relationships between the aforementioned sequence and liver volume. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population consisted of 86 children (41 AGA and 45 SGA with catch-up growth; age (mean±s...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925406/abdominal-fat-deposits-determined-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-relation-to-leptin-and-vaspin-levels-as-well-as-insulin-resistance-in-the-general-adult-population
#19
F Genske, J-P Kühn, M Pietzner, G Homuth, W Rathmann, H J Grabe, H Völzke, H Wallaschofski, N Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Various fat depots including visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) or liver fat content (LFC) were supposed to have different influences on various entities including adipokine levels as well as insulin resistance/sensitivity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the associations of SAT, VAT and LFC with the levels of leptin and vaspin as well as insulin resistance in a general non-diabetic population. METHODS: In total, 1825 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania were characterized according to body fat compartments and LFC determined by magnetic resonance imaging...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899694/anti-atherosclerotic-effect-of-hesperidin-in-ldlr-mice-and-its-possible-mechanism
#20
Ye-Zi Sun, Jian-Fei Chen, Li-Min Shen, Ji Zhou, Cui-Fang Wang
Hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid, exerts numerous pharmacological activities. However, its protective effect against atherosclerosis in vivo remains poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to observe the effects of hesperidin on high fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis using LDL receptor deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice. After 12 weeks of treatment, the animals were sacrificed. The blood samples were collected for further analysis. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were collected. Hepatic lipid content, quantification of atherosclerosis, assessment of oxidative stress and inflammation, gene expressions were performed on liver and aorta samples...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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