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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944798/transcriptomic-analysis-of-bama-pig-s-liver-in-various-nutritional-states-reveals-a-metabolic-difference-of-fatty-acids
#1
Yixing Li, Yi Chu, Lin Yu, Huifang Kang, Lei Zhou
Both fasting and treatment with a high-fat diet (HFD) can dramatically change fat metabolism in the liver and, thus, are commonly used methods to investigate hepatic fat metabolism and related diseases. Here, the gene expression profiles of pig liver under both conditions were investigated and changes in hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) levels under different diet conditions were determined. In this study, both fasting and HFD conditions significantly increased hepatic TG levels and serum levels of cholesterol, TG, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B...
September 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942551/androgen-excess-and-metabolic-disorders-in-women-with-pcos-beyond-the-body-mass-index
#2
REVIEW
R A Condorelli, A E Calogero, M Di Mauro, L M Mongioi', R Cannarella, G Rosta, S La Vignera
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a common feature among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), especially in those patients with hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. PCOS women are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance and type II diabetes mellitus (DM II). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to explore the existing knowledge of the interplay between androgen excess, pancreatic β-cell function, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), intra-abdominal and subcutaneous (SC) abdominal adipocytes in PCOS, providing a better comprehension of the molecular mechanisms of diabetologic interest...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942246/inhibition-of-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-1b-induces-hepatic-steatosis-through-dpp4-nox1-mediated-regulation-of-superoxide
#3
Zi Long, Meng Cao, Shuhao Su, Guangyuan Wu, Fansen Meng, Hao Wu, Jiangzheng Liu, Weihua Yu, Kamran Atabai, Xin Wang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder that is closely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have suggested that hepatocyte nuclear factor 1b (HNF1b) ameliorates insulin resistance. However, the role of HNF1b in the regulation of lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis remains poorly understood. We found that HNF1b expression was decreased in steatotic livers. We injected mice with lentivirus (LV) expressing HNF1b shRNA to generate mice with hepatic knockdown of HNF1b...
September 20, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939830/lack-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-leads-to-gut-liver-axis-derangement-gut-dysbiosis-and-a-worsened-phenotype-in-a-mouse-model-of-nafld
#4
Pierantonelli Irene, Rychlicki Chiara, Agostinelli Laura, Giordano Debora Maria, Gaggini Melania, Fraumene Cristina, Saponaro Chiara, Manghina Valeria, Sartini Loris, Mingarelli Eleonora, Pinto Claudio, Buzzigoli Emma, Trozzi Luciano, Giordano Antonio, Marzioni Marco, De Minicis Samuele, Uzzau Sergio, Cinti Saverio, Amalia Gastalderi, Svegliati-Baroni Gianluca
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) represents the most common form of chronic liver injury and can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A "multi-hit" theory, involving high fat diet and signals from the gut-liver axis, has been hypothesized. The role of the NLRP3-inflammasome, which senses dangerous signals, is controversial. Nlrp3(-/-) and wild-type mice were fed a Western-lifestyle diet with fructose in drinking water (HFHC) or a chow diet. Nlrp3(-/-)-HFHC showed higher hepatic expression of PPAR γ2 (that regulates lipid uptake and storage) and triglyceride content, histological score of liver injury and greater adipose tissue inflammation...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938459/selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-cort125281-activates-brown-adipose-tissue-and-alters-lipid-distribution-in-male-mice
#5
Jan Kroon, Lisa L Koorneef, Jose K van den Heuvel, Cristy R C Verzijl, Nienke M van de Velde, Isabel M Mol, Hetty C M Sips, Hazel Hunt, Patrick C N Rensen, Onno C Meijer
Glucocorticoids influence a wide range of metabolic processes in the human body and excessive glucocorticoid exposure is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disease. We evaluated the utility of the novel glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist CORT125281 for its potential to overcome adiposity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidaemia, and compared this head-to-head with classic GR antagonist RU486 (mifepristone). We show that, while RU486 displays cross-reactivity to the progesterone and androgen receptor, CORT125281 selectively inhibits GR transcriptional activity...
September 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937541/body-composition-predicts-growth-in-infants-and-toddlers-with-chronic-liver-disease
#6
Erika F Hurtado-López, Edgar M Vásquez-Garibay, Xóchitl Trujillo, Alfredo Larrosa-Haro
This cross-sectional study was conducted on 15 infants and toddlers with chronic liver disease (CLD) to validate arm anthropometry as an accurate measure of body composition (BC) compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to predict growth from BC.The z-score means of the anthropometric indicators were < -2SD, except for body fat index and subscapular skinfold which were between -2 and +2 SD. Fat mass was predicted by arm adiposity indicators and fat-free mass by arm muscle area. Bone mineral content explained 87% of variation in length...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934818/effects-of-zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein-on-lipid-metabolism-of-liver-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#7
Guoqiang Fan, Yu Qiao, Shixing Gao, Jun Guo, Ruqian Zhao, Xiaojing Yang
Zinc alpha2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is a new type of adipokine involved in adipose tissue mobilization, however, little is known about its lipid metabolism effect in liver. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ZAG in the regulation of hepatic lipid accumulation. Mice were randomly divided into two groups; one was fed a normal diet and another was fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks to establish obesity model. After that, the normal diet group was divided into ND (injection of pcDNA3.1) and NDZ (injection of ZAG recombinant plasmid) and the high-fat diet group was divided into HF (injection of pcDNA3...
September 21, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934742/elevated-apoptosis-in-the-liver-of-dairy-cows-with-ketosis
#8
Xiliang Du, Liang Chen, Dan Huang, Zhicheng Peng, Chenxu Zhao, Yuming Zhang, Yiwei Zhu, Zhe Wang, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress and hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic oxidative stress and the apoptotic status of ketotic cows, as well as the underlying apoptosis pathway. METHODS: The blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities and the haptoglobin (HP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and serum apoptotic cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope M30 (CK18 M30) concentrations were determined by commercially available kits and ELISA kits, respectively...
September 21, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933738/anti-diabetic-effects-of-phenolic-extract-from-rambutan-peels-nephelium-lappaceum-in-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#9
Qingyu Ma, Yan Guo, Liping Sun, Yongliang Zhuang
Recent studies have shown that rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extract demonstrate high antioxidant and antiglycation activities in vitro and in vivo. This study further evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of RPP in a mouse model of Type II diabetes induced by streptozotocin combined with high-fat diet. Results showed that RPP increased the body weight and reduced the fasting blood glucose level of the diabetic mice. RPP significantly reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, and glycated serum protein in diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner...
July 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933022/food-safety-aspects-of-primary-environmental-contaminants-in-the-edible-tissues-of-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#10
József Lehel, Dóra Zwillinger, András Bartha, Katalin Lányi, Péter Laczay
The muscle, liver, kidney and fat samples of 20 roe deer of both sexes originating from a hunting area in central Hungary were investigated for the presence of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb, and their contents were evaluated for possible health risk to consumers. Both As and Hg were found at a level below the limit of detection (< 0.5 mg/kg wet weight) in all samples. The median of the measured Cd concentrations was significantly higher in both the kidney and the liver (p = 0.0011) of bucks than of does...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932090/new-botanical-drug-hl-tablet-reduces-hepatic-fat-as-measured-by-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-placebo-controlled-randomized-phase-ii-trial
#11
Jae Yoon Jeong, Joo Hyun Sohn, Yang Hyun Baek, Yong Kyun Cho, Yongsoo Kim, Hyeonjin Kim
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of HL tablet extracted from magnolia officinalis for treating patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Seventy-four patients with NAFLD diagnosed by ultrasonography were randomly assigned to 3 groups given high dose (400 mg) HL tablet, low dose (133.4 mg) HL tablet and placebo, respectively, daily for 12 wk. The primary endpoint was post-treatment change of hepatic fat content (HFC) measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
August 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928277/jnk-activation-of-bim-promotes-hepatic-oxidative-stress-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity
#12
Sara A Litwak, Lokman Pang, Sandra Galic, Mariana Igoillo-Esteve, William J Stanley, Jean-Valery Turatsinze, Kim Loh, Helen E Thomas, Arpeeta Sharma, Eric Trepo, Christophe Moreno, Daniel J Gough, Decio L Eizirik, Judy B de Haan, Esteban N Gurzov
The BCL-2 family are crucial regulators of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in normal physiology and disease. Besides their role in cell death, BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cellular metabolism. It remains unclear, however, whether these proteins have a physiological role in glucose homeostasis and metabolism in vivo Here we report that fat accumulation in the liver increases JNK-dependent BIM expression in hepatocytes. To determine the consequences of hepatic BIM deficiency in diet-induced obesity, we generated liver-specific BIM knockout (BLKO) mice...
September 19, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925408/liver-volume-and-hepatic-adiposity-in-childhood-relations-to-body-growth-and-visceral-fat
#13
R Malpique, J Bassols, A López-Bermejo, M Diaz, F Villarroya, J Pavia, A Congo, F de Zegher, L Ibáñez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The sequence of prenatal growth restraint and postnatal catch-up growth may lead to hepato-visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation before the onset of puberty. In prepubertal children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA), we assessed potential relationships between the aforementioned sequence and liver volume. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population consisted of 86 children (41 AGA and 45 SGA with catch-up growth; age (mean±s...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925406/abdominal-fat-deposits-determined-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-relation-to-leptin-and-vaspin-levels-as-well-as-insulin-resistance-in-the-general-adult-population
#14
F Genske, J-P Kühn, M Pietzner, G Homuth, W Rathmann, H J Grabe, H Völzke, H Wallaschofski, N Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Various fat depots including visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) or liver fat content (LFC) were supposed to have different influences on various entities including adipokine levels as well as insulin resistance/sensitivity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the associations of SAT, VAT and LFC with the levels of leptin and vaspin as well as insulin resistance in a general non-diabetic population. METHODS: In total, 1825 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania were characterized according to body fat compartments and LFC determined by magnetic resonance imaging...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923202/dietary-linoleic-acid-and-its-oxidized-metabolites-exacerbate-liver-injury-caused-by-ethanol-via-induction-of-hepatic-proinflammatory-response-in-mice
#15
Dennis R Warner, Huilin Liu, Matthew E Miller, Christopher E Ramsden, Bin Gao, Ariel E Feldstein, Susanne Schuster, Craig J McClain, Irina A Kirpich
Alcoholic liver disease is a major human health problem leading to significant morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. Dietary fat plays an important role in alcoholic liver disease pathogenesis. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that a combination of ethanol and a diet rich in linoleic acid (LA) leads to the increased production of oxidized LA metabolites (OXLAMs), specifically 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), which contribute to a hepatic proinflammatory response exacerbating liver injury...
October 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915665/the-ketogenic-diet-is-not-feasible-as-a-therapy-in-a-cd-1-nu-nu-mouse-model-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-features-of-stauffer-s-syndrome
#16
Silvia Vidali, Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari, René Günther Feichtinger, Renaud Vatrinet, Andreas Koller, Felix Locker, Tricia Rutherford, Maura O'Donnell, Andrea Stöger-Kleiber, Bridget Lambert, Thomas Klaus Felder, Wolfgang Sperl, Barbara Kofler
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet, has shown some efficacy in the treatment of certain types of tumors such as brain tumors and neuroblastoma. These tumors are characterized by the Warburg effect. Because renal cell carcinoma (RCC) presents similar energetic features as neuroblastoma, KD might also be effective in the treatment of RCC. To test this, we established xenografts with RCC 786-O cells in CD-1 nu/nu mice and then randomized them to a control diet or to KDs with different triglyceride contents...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911649/long-chain-bases-from-sea-cucumber-mitigate-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-inflammation-in-obesity-mice
#17
Shiwei Hu, Jinhui Wang, Jingfeng Wang, Changhu Xue, Yuming Wang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation can induce hyperglycemia. Long-chain bases (LCBs) from sea cucumber exhibit antihyperglycemic activities. However, their effects on ER stress and inflammation are unknown. We investigated the effects of LCBs on ER stress and inflammatory response in high-fat, fructose diet-induced obesity mice. Reactive oxygen species and free fatty acids were measured. Inflammatory cytokines in serum and their mRNA expressions in epididymal adipose tissues were investigated...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911249/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-the-molecular-mechanism-of-hepatic-fat-metabolism-disorder-caused-by-muscovy-duck-reovirus-infection
#18
Quanxi Wang, Mengxi Liu, Lihui Xu, Yijian Wu, Yifan Huang
The aim of this work was to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying the fatty degeneration of livers infected with Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV), which produces obvious white necrotic foci in the liver. Transcriptome data for MDRV-infected Muscovy duck livers and control livers were sequenced, assembled, and annotated with Illumina® HiSeq 2000. The differentially expressed genes were screened and their functions analysed. We also determined and confirmed the molecular mechanism of the hepatic fat metabolism disorder caused by MDRV infection...
September 15, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901894/dietary-starch-types-affect-liver-nutrient-metabolism-of-finishing-pigs
#19
Chen Xie, Yanjiao Li, Jiaolong Li, Lin Zhang, Guanghong Zhou, Feng Gao
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different starch types on liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs. In all ninety barrows were randomly allocated to three diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing purified waxy maize starch (WMS), non-waxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (the amylose to amylopectin ratios were 0·07, 0·19 and 0·28, respectively). After 28 d of treatments, two per pen (close to the average body weight of the pen) were weighed individually, slaughtered and liver samples were collected...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899694/anti-atherosclerotic-effect-of-hesperidin-in-ldlr-mice-and-its-possible-mechanism
#20
Ye-Zi Sun, Jian-Fei Chen, Li-Min Shen, Ji Zhou, Cui-Fang Wang
Hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid, exerts numerous pharmacological activities. However, its protective effect against atherosclerosis in vivo remains poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to observe the effects of hesperidin on high fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis using LDL receptor deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice. After 12 weeks of treatment, the animals were sacrificed. The blood samples were collected for further analysis. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were collected. Hepatic lipid content, quantification of atherosclerosis, assessment of oxidative stress and inflammation, gene expressions were performed on liver and aorta samples...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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