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liver fat content

Lin Li, Meilin He, Hang Xiao, Xiaoqian Liu, Kai Wang, Yuanshu Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acetic acid (AcOH), a short-chain fatty acid, is reported to have some beneficial effects on metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory mechanism of acetic acid on hepatic lipid metabolism in BRL-3A cells. METHODS: We cultured and treated BRL-3A cells with different concentrations of sodium acetate (neutralized acetic acid) and BML-275 (an AMPKα inhibitor). The total lipid droplet area was measured by oil red O staining, and the triglyceride content was determined by a triglyceride detection kit...
March 6, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Stephen A Harrison, Mary E Rinella, Manal F Abdelmalek, James F Trotter, Angelo H Paredes, Hays L Arnold, Marcelo Kugelmas, Mustafa R Bashir, Mark J Jaros, Lei Ling, Stephen J Rossi, Alex M DePaoli, Rohit Loomba
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a chronic liver disease characterised by the presence of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular injury, for which no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment exists. FGF19 is a hormone that regulates bile acid synthesis and glucose homoeostasis. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of NGM282, an engineered FGF19 analogue, for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study, we recruited patients aged 18-75 years with biopsy-confirmed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis as defined by the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis clinical research network histological scoring system, from hospitals and gastroenterology and liver clinics in Australia and the USA...
March 5, 2018: Lancet
Sobha Puppala, Cun Li, Jeremy P Glenn, Romil Saxena, Samer Gawrieh, Amy Quinn, Jennifer Palarczyk, Edward J Dick, Peter W Nathanielsz, Laura A Cox
Maternal obesity (MO) increases offspring cardiometabolic disease risk. Altered fetal liver development in response to the challenge of MO has metabolic consequences underlying adverse offspring life-course health outcomes. Little is known about molecular pathways and potential epigenetic changes regulating primate fetal liver responses to MO. We hypothesized that MO would induce fetal baboon liver epigenetic changes resulting in dysregulation of key metabolic pathways that impact lipid metabolism. MO was induced prior to pregnancy by a high fat, high sucrose diet...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
P Jariyahatthakij, B Chomtee, T Poeikhampha, W Loongyai, C Bunchasak
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing methionine (Met) in a low-protein (Low-CP) diet during d 11 to 24 and subsequently feeding with a low-metabolizable energy diet (Low-ME; -75 kcal/kg) or a normal ME diet during d 25 to 42 on the productive performance, blood chemical profile, and lipid metabolism-related gene expression of broiler chickens. The 1,600 broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1) Normal CP, then Normal ME; 2) Low-CP, then Normal ME; 3) Low-CP, then Low-ME; 4) Low-CP+Met, then Normal ME; and 5) Low-CP+Met, then Low-ME...
March 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Wei Song, Zongling Wang, Xuelei Zhang, Yan Li
Ulva prolifera is the major causative species in the green tide, a serious marine ecological disaster, which bloomed in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea of China. However, it is also a popular edible seaweed and its extracts exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The present study investigated the effects of ethanol extract of U. prolifera (EUP) on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in high-fat-diet- (HFD-) treated mice. HFD-treated mice obtained drinking water containing 2% or 5% EUP...
2018: BioMed Research International
Chloe S Chaudhury, Julia B Purdy, Chia-Ying Liu, Caryn G Morse, Takara L Stanley, David Kleiner, Colleen Hadigan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is common in HIV, but there are no approved therapies. The aim of this open-label proof-of-concept study was to determine the effect of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone on hepatic fat in HIV-infected patients with hepatic fat ≥ 5% by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: Five subjects received eplerenone (25 mg daily x 1 week followed by 50 mg daily x 23 weeks). Laboratory tests were done at each visit, and the primary endpoint, change in hepatic fat content, was determined by MRI spectroscopy at baseline and week 24...
March 6, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
K Pawlak, Z Nieckarz, A Sechman, D Wojtysiak, B Bojarski, B Tombarkiewicz
The level of artificial electromagnetic field (EMF) has steadily increased with the development of human civilization. The developing chicken embryo has been considered a good model to study the effects of EMF on living organisms. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a 1800 MHz electromagnetic field during embryogenesis on the frequency of chick embryo malformations, morphometric parameters of the heart and liver and concentration of corticosterone in blood plasma, lipid and glycogen content in the liver of newly hatched chicks...
March 5, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Gilles Fouret, Sylvie Gaillet, Jerome Lecomte, Beatrice Bonafos, Ferdinand Djohan, Bruno Barea, Eric Badia, Charles Coudray, Christine Feillet-Coudray
The incidence of obesity and its metabolic complications are rapidly increasing and become a major public health issue. This trend is associated with an increase in the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and diabetes. The sequence of events leading to NAFLD progression and mitochondrial dysfunction and their interrelation remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to explore the installation and progression of NAFLD and its association with the liver mitochondrial structure and activity changes in rats fed an obesogenic diet up to 20 weeks...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Daniel F Vatner, Leigh Goedeke, Joao-Paulo G Camporez, Kun Lyu, Ali R Nasiri, Dongyan Zhang, Sanjay Bhanot, Susan F Murray, Christopher D Still, Glenn S Gerhard, Gerald I Shulman, Varman T Samuel
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Targeting regulators of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase could enhance adipose lipid clearance, prevent ectopic lipid accumulation and consequently ameliorate insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Angiopoietin-like 8 (ANGPTL8) is an insulin-regulated lipoprotein lipase inhibitor strongly expressed in murine adipose tissue. However, Angptl8 knockout mice do not have improved insulin resistance. We hypothesised that pharmacological inhibition, using a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) against Angptl8 in adult high-fat-fed rodents, would prevent ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance by promoting adipose lipid uptake...
March 1, 2018: Diabetologia
Holly P Quach, Tamara Dzekic, Paola Bukuroshi, K Sandy Pang
Vitamin D3 and the synthetic vitamin D analogs, 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 [1α(OH)D3 ] and 1α-hydroxyvitamin D2 [1α(OH)D2 ], and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3 ] were appraised for their vitamin D receptor (VDR) associated-potencies as cholesterol lowering agents in mice in vivo. These precursors require activation in vivo: 1α(OH)D3 and 1α(OH)D2 are activated by liver Cyp2r1 and Cyp27a1 to active VDR ligands, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3 ] and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 [1,25(OH)2 D2 ], respectively...
February 27, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Francesca Del Chicca, Andrea Schwarz, Dieter Meier, Paula Grest, Annette Liesegang, Patrick Robert Kircher
Objective of the present study is to describe two non-invasive methods of fat quantification in the normal canine liver using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Eleven adult beagle dogs were anesthetized and underwent magnetic resonance examination of the cranial abdomen including morphologic imaging, a modified Dixon (mDixon) dual gradient echo sequence and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS). In addition, ultrasonographic examination of the liver, fine needle aspirates and liver biopsies were performed, and hepatic triglyceride content was assayed...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Dionysios V Chartoumpekis, Dushani L Palliyaguru, Nobunao Wakabayashi, Marco Fazzari, Nicholas Kh Khoo, Francisco J Schopfer, Ian Sipula, Yoko Yagishita, George K Michalopoulos, Robert M O'Doherty, Thomas W Kensler
Nrf2 is a canonical regulator of cytoprotective gene expression but evidence of its crosstalk with other pathways, including metabolic ones, is ever increasing. Pharmacologic or systemic genetic activation of the Nrf2 pathway partially protects from obesity in mice and ameliorates fasting hyperglycemia in mice and humans. However, systemic Nrf2 deletion also protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. To further investigate the effect of the disruption of Nrf2 on obesity in a tissue-specific manner, we focused on adipocytes and hepatocytes with targeted deletion of Nrf2...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Giuseppina R Umano, Sonia Caprio, Anna Di Sessa, Naga Chalasani, Daniel J Dykas, Bridget Pierpont, Allen E Bale, Nicola Santoro
OBJECTIVES: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of liver damage in childhood, its occurrence is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recently, the rs626283 polymorphism in the MBOAT7 gene has been found to be associated with alcoholic liver disease and NAFLD in adults. METHODS: In a multiethnic cohort of obese children and adolescents we genotyped the rs626283 polymorphism in the MBOAT7 gene, evaluated insulin sensitivity by an oral glucose tolerance test, and measured the intra-hepatic fat content (HFF%) by magnetic resonance imaging...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Konstantinos Kantartzis, Louise Fritsche, Maria Bombrich, Jürgen Machann, Fritz Schick, Harald Staiger, Iris Kunz, Rotraut Schoop, Angela Lehn-Stefan, Martin Heni, Andreas Peter, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan
We performed the so far largest randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial (N=112, 12 week intervention) to investigate effects and safety of resveratrol supplementation on liver fat content and cardiometabolic risk parameters in overweight and obese and insulin resistant subjects. At baseline the variability in liver fat content was very large, ranging from 0.09% to 37.55% (median 7.12%, interquartile range 3.85%-12.94%). The mean (SD) liver fat content was 9.22 (6.85)% in the placebo group and 9.91 (7...
February 27, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Marcin Krawczyk, Heike Bantel, Monika Rau, Jörn M Schattenberg, Frank Grünhage, Anita Pathil, Münevver Demir, Johannes Kluwe, Tobias Boettler, Susanne N Weber, Andreas Geier, Frank Lammert
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequent among obese individuals with metabolic syndrome. Variants PNPLA3 p.I148M, TM6SF2 p.E167K and MBOAT7 rs641738 are associated with higher liver fat contents. Here we analyzed 63 biopsied non-obese, non-diabetic patients with NAFLD (39 men, age: 20-72 years) recruited within the German NAFLD CSG program. The frequencies of the PNPLA3, TM6SF2 and MBOAT7 polymorphisms were compared with the remaining patients in the NAFLD CSG cohort and with a control population (n = 174)...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Raphael Chevre, Laia Trigueros-Motos, David Castaño, Tricia Chua, Maria Corlianò, Jay V Patankar, Lareina Sng, Lauren Sim, Tan Liang Juin, Guillaume Carissimo, Lisa F P Ng, Cheryl Neo Jia Yi, Chelsea Chandani Eliathamby, Albert K Groen, Michael R Hayden, Roshni R Singaraja
Bile acids (BAs) are surfactant molecules that regulate the intestinal absorption of lipids. Thus, the modulation of BAs represents a potential therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by hepatic accumulation of fat and is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. Cyp8b1 is a critical modulator of the hydrophobicity index of the BA pool. As a therapeutic proof of concept, we aimed to determine the impact of Cyp8b1 inhibition in vivo on BA pool composition and as protection against NAFLD...
February 26, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Khaled Abouelezz, Jianfeng Yuan, Guiping Wang, Guozhi Bian
The cassava root meal (CRM) has been utilized as a cheap energy alternative to replace maize in poultry diets. Recently, the CRM in turn has an increasing demand for starch extraction industry, which renders large amounts of residues. This study evaluated the nutrient composition, amino acid profile, and feeding value of cassava starch extraction residue meal (CReM) for growing ducks. A total of 960, 11-day-old, ducklings were housed in 24 floor pens and allocated randomly into four dietary treatments: (i) 0CReM (control), (ii) 50 g CReM/kg, (iii) 100 g CReM/kg, and (iv) 150 g CReM/kg...
February 26, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Antonietta Liotti, Serena Cabaro, Ilaria Cimmino, Serena Ricci, Claudio Procaccini, Orlando Paciello, Gregory A Raciti, Rosa Spinelli, Susanna Iossa, Giuseppe Matarese, Claudia Miele, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Beguinot, Francesco Oriente
Prep1 is a gene encoding for a homeodomain transcription factor which induces hepatic and muscular insulin resistance. In this study, we show that Prep1 hypomorphic heterozygous (Prep1i/+ ) mice, expressing low levels of protein, featured a 23% and a 25% reduction of total body lipid content and epididymal fat, respectively. The percentage of the small adipocytes (25-75 μm) was 30% higher in Prep1i/+ animals than in the WT, with a reciprocal difference in the large adipose cells (100-150 and >150 μm)...
February 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jackie K W Chan, Stefanie Bittner, Alex Bittner, Suman Atwal, Wen-Jun Shen, Mohammed Inayathullah, Jayakumar Rajada, Mark R R Nicolls, Fredric B Kraemer, Salman Azhar
To determine the effects of NDGA on metabolic and molecular changes in response to feeding mice typical American fast food or Western diet, mice were fed with ALIOS diet and subjected to metabolic analysis. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to: ALIOS, ALIOS + NDGA, or control diet and maintained on the specific diet for 8 weeks. Mice fed ALIOS diet, showed increased body, liver and epididymal fat pad weight, plasma ALT and AST levels (a measure of liver injury), and liver triglyceride (TG) content. Co-administration of NDGA normalized body and epididymal fat pad weight, ALT and AST levels, and liver TG...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Roberto Martínez-Beamonte, Olga Alda, Teresa Sanclemente, María J Felices, Sara Escusol, Carmen Arnal, Luis V Herrera-Marcos, Sonia Gascón, Joaquín C Surra, Jesús Osada, Mª Jesús Rodríguez-Yoldi
Squalene is the main unsaponifiable component of virgin olive oil, the main source of dietary fat in Mediterranean diet, traditionally associated with a less frequency of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, two experimental approaches were used. In the first, New Zealand rabbits fed for 4 weeks with a chow diet enriched in 1% sunflower oil for the control group, and in 1% of sunflower oil and 0.5% squalene for the squalene group. In the second, APOE KO mice received either Western diet or Western diet enriched in 0...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
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