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Igor O Shmarakov, Vira L Borschovetska, William S Blaner
Bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane) is a widely used industrial chemical. The extensive distribution of BPA in the environment poses risks to humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying BPA toxicity as well as its effective detoxification and elimination are not well understood. We have investigated specifically for BPA the notion raised in the literature that the optimal sensing, detoxification, and elimination of xenobiotics requires retinoid (natural derivatives and synthetic analogs of vitamin A) actions...
May 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Bei Liu, Ruili Sun, Hongbo Luo, Xueting Liu, Manli Jiang, Chuang Yuan, Li Yang, Jinyue Hu
Our previous study showed that TLR3 induces apoptosis via both death receptors and mitochondial in human endothelial cells. We report here that the activation of TLR4 induced dose- and time-dependent cell death in moncytic THP-1 cells. LPS treatment of THP-1 cells induced the activation of both caspase 8 and 9, suggesting the involvement of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. TNFα was induced by TLR4 activation at both mRNA and protein levels, but its neutralization did not down-regulated TLR4-induced cell death...
February 2017: Immunobiology
Ying Zhang, Ya-Ping Zhao, Yuan-Fu Gao, Zhong-Min Fan, Meng-Yuan Liu, Xiao-Yi Cai, Zheng-Kun Xia, Chun-Lin Gao
MicroRNA‑106b (miR‑106b) is reported to correlate closely with skeletal muscle insulin resistance. In the current study the effect of miR‑106b on palmitic acid (PA)‑induced mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance was investigated in C2C12 myotubes via the silencing of miR‑106b. MiR‑106b expression was increased under PA treatment, while miR‑106b loss of function improved insulin sensitivity by upregulating its target mitofusin‑2 (Mfn2) in C2C12 myocytes. Furthermore, miR‑106b loss of function partly improved mitochondrial morphological lesions and increased the levels of mitochondial DNA and intracellular adenosine triphosphate that had been impaired by PA exposure in C2C12 myocytes...
May 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
N Birouk
The recent literature included interesting reports on the pathogenic mechanisms of hereditary neuropathies. The axonal traffic and its abnormalities in some forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease were particularly reviewed by Bucci et al. Many genes related to CMT disease code for proteins that are involved directly or not in intracellular traffic. KIF1B controls vesicle motility on microtubules. MTMR2, MTMR13 and FIG4 regulate the metabolism of phosphoinositide at the level of endosomes. The HSPs are involved in the proteasomal degradation...
December 2014: Revue Neurologique
Zongtao Liu, Yaoyao Cui, Jianqiu Yu, Lili Niu, Jiabo Deng, Juan Jiang, Jing Li
Stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) has been enlisted as the Near Threatened species in the IUCN Red List. In this study, the complete mitochondial genome of M. arctoides was determined. The mitogenome was 16,559 bp in length with an A + T content of 56.8%, containing 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and a control region (D-loop). Ten protein-coding genes (ND1, COX1, COX2, ND4, COX3, ND4L, ATP8, ATP6, CYTB, ND6) started with ATG codons, while ND2, ND3 and ND5 initiated with ATT, ATC and ATA, respectively...
May 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
V S Shneer
DNA barcoding was recently developed as a method of species identification across a broad range of eucaryotes taxa by sequencing a standardized short DNA fragment. Due to modern technologies, it is possible to do this with a tiny piece of any tissue taken from an organism at any developmental phase, often without damaging it. A variable 5' half of mitochondial gene CO1 is suggested as a standard region for most of animals; it is not identified yet for fungi and plants. "The Barcode of Life Initiative" implies creating and developing the barcode library for all the species on Earth to facilitate both assigning of newly obtained specimens to the known species and for discovering new and cryptic species or at least their provisional recognition...
July 2009: Zhurnal Obshcheĭ Biologii
Qing-Hong Yu, Rong Zhan, Hao-Bo Huang
The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying effect of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on myeloma cell line U266 in vitro. The viability and apoptosis of U266 cells were observed by MTT assay, flow cytometry and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. The expression of hTERT mRNA was assessed by RT-PCR analysis. The variation of procaspase-3, bcl-2 and hTERT protein expression were detected by Western blot. The results indicated that the As2O3 could inhibit the growth of U266 cells significantly and the concentration of 50% growth inhibition (IC50) was 2 micromol/L...
October 2007: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
O V Ponomarenko, L H Babich, V F Horchev, S O Kosterin
In the experiments, which were carried out using flow cytometry on isolated uterus mitochondria of nonpregnant rats, conditions for studying Ca2+-induced increase in nonspecific permeability of mitochondial membrane were tested. Fluorescent probe nonyl acridin orange was used to determine the purity of isolated mitochondria. Mitochondrial swelling induced by addition of Ca2+ or alamethicin was detected as a decrease in light side scattering (SS). It was shown that mitochondrial swelling in the presence of 100 microM Ca plus 1 microM A23187 was 86 +/- 4% compared with maximal response after alamethicin treatment...
November 2006: Ukraïnsʹkyĭ Biokhimichnyĭ Z︠h︡urnal
Gáspár Jékely
BACKGROUND: The origin of eukaryotic cells was one of the most dramatic evolutionary transitions in the history of life. It is generally assumed that eukaryotes evolved later then prokaryotes by the transformation or fusion of prokaryotic lineages. However, as yet there is no consensus regarding the nature of the prokaryotic group(s) ancestral to eukaryotes. Regardless of this, a hardly debatable fundamental novel characteristic of the last eukaryotic common ancestor was the ability to exploit prokaryotic biomass by the ingestion of entire cells, i...
2007: Biology Direct
I Tsoneva, B Nikolova, M Georgieva, M Guenova, T Tomov, M-P Rols, M R Berger
Cytochrome C (Cyt. C) is a mitochondrial protein inducing apoptosis when it is accumulated in the cytosol by a currently unknown mechanism, but regulated by the bcl-2 family of proteins. The linker Histone H1 is another basic protein with highly conservative structure, composition, and equal molecular weight, not changed during the evolution. An attempt was made to understand better the apoptotic processes by electroloading of leukemic cells, such as K562, HL-60, and SKW3, and human lymphocytes with positively charged proteins, such as Cyt...
January 18, 2005: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hedy H Ginzberg, Patrick T Shannon, Tomoko Suzuki, Ouyang Hong, Eric Vachon, Theo Moraes, Maria Teresa Herrera Abreu, Vera Cherepanov, Xiaomin Wang, Chung-Wai Chow, Gregory P Downey
During acute inflammation, neutrophil-mediated injury to epithelium may lead to disruption of epithelial function, including the induction of epithelial apoptosis. Herein, we report the effects of neutrophil transmigration and of purified leukocyte elastase on epithelial cell survival. Neutrophil transmigration induced apoptosis of epithelial cells [control monolayers: 5 +/- 1 cells/25 high-power fields (HPF) vs. neutrophil-treated monolayers: 29 +/- 10 cells/HPF, P < 0.05, n = 3 as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay] as did low concentrations (0...
July 2004: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Hong Yin, Dao-Chuan Zhang, Zhi-Li Bi, Zhan Yin, Yong Liu, Xiang-Chu Yin
Based on the 16S rDNA of 8 species (belonging to 8 families of Acridoidea) from China and keyed to 8 relative species of Orthoptera from GenBank, the homologus sequences were compared. The used frequency of nucleotide was calculated and the molecular phylogenetic tree constructed by MEGA microsoft. In the 480 bp fragment of mitochondial 16S rDNA, A + T was about 70.7% and G + C only 29.3%. The sequence data revealed considerable variation in 188 nucleotide sites among the analyzed individuals from 8 different families...
August 2003: Yi Chuan Xue Bao, Acta Genetica Sinica
Kouichi Hiraiwa
This article is a review of our experimental results regarding the physiological statuses and roles of chemical mediators in tourniquet shock, and a novel phenomenon, modulation reflex, that is commonly observed in this shock model is discussed. In a rabbit with a tourniquet applied to a hind limb for 24 hrs, blood pressure (BP) gradually falls after release of the tourniquet, but the decline in BP stops when a tourniquet is again applied to the hind limb, indicating that shock mediators are attributed to the hind limb...
September 2003: Nihon Hōigaku Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Legal Medicine
Claude Desnuelle
The concept of mitochondrial disease originated in 1962 when Luft and co-workers described a patient with non thyroidal hypermetabolism related to loose coupling of oxidation-phosphorylation in muscle mitochondria. Over the following quarter of century, with the routine use of the Engel-Gomory staining on muscle biopsy revealing ragged-red fibres as a convenient markers for mitochondrial pathology, numerous papers described clinical, biochemical and morphological aspects of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies...
2003: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Xue-mei Tian, Zhan-xia Zhang
AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of anti-cancer effect of resveratrol (Res), and the effects of Res in cell apoptosis. The role of Res playing in mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) induction was studied. METHODS: Mitochondria was prepared from the liver of Wistar rats. The effects of Res on oxygen consumption of isolated mitochondria from rat liver was measured with Clark-type electrode and resulted in respiration control rate (RCR). Mitochondrial swelling affected by Res was assessed spectrophotometrically, through the changes in absorbance at 540 nm...
February 2003: Yao Xue Xue Bao, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica
Ulf T Brunk, Alexei Terman
Cellular manifestations of aging are most pronounced in postmitotic cells, such as neurons and cardiac myocytes. Alterations of these cells, which are responsible for essential functions of brain and heart, are particularly important contributors to the overall aging process. Mitochondria and lysosomes of postmitotic cells suffer the most remarkable age-related alterations of all cellular organelles. Many mitochondria undergo enlargement and structural disorganization, while lysosomes, which are normally responsible for mitochondrial turnover, gradually accumulate an undegradable, polymeric, autofluorescent material called lipofuscin, or age pigment...
April 2002: European Journal of Biochemistry
S A Johnson, A E Dalton, R S Pardini
Photoactivated hypericin produces singlet oxygen and superoxide anion radical; however, the intracellular events contributing to toxicity are unknown. Clonogenic assays of oxygen-dependent hypericin phototoxicity to EMT6 cells have previously shown that 0.5 microM hypericin + 1.5 J cm(-2) fluorescent light is non-toxic and that 1.0 microM hypericin + 1.5 J cm(-2) fluorescent light produces LD40 toxicity. Intracellular events leading to toxicity were revealed at these doses. Lactate dehydrogenase leakage was elevated for both 0...
July 15, 1998: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
G Brasseur, P Brivet-Chevillotte
Funiculosin, a center N inhibitor of the bc1 complex, induces a blue-shift in the cytochrome b spectrum. A thermosensitive revertant [Coppee, J.Y. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 269 (1994) 4221-4226] isolated from a cytochrome b respiratory-deficient mutant, exhibits a red-shift instead of the blue-shift retained in the original mutant and shows resistance to this inhibitor. Replacing cytochrome b-Asparagine-208 by Lysine in this revertant, keeping the original mutation S206L, leads, when mitochondria are incubated at non-permissive temperature, to complete loss of bc1 complex activity and funiculosin-binding, while the antimycin-binding is conserved...
October 31, 1994: FEBS Letters
V I Sorokovoĭ, Iu M Petrenko, N N Mochenova, G M Nikitina, Iu A Vladimirov
Lipid peroxidation was studied in the course of the development of anoxic injury to the mitochondria in vitro. Hydrolysis of mitochondial phospholipids was accompanied by an increase in antioxidant activity (AOA) of the organelles. At the same time the ability to transoxidation in liposomes formed from lipids extracted from the injured mitochondria was discovered to be increased. It is assumed that AOA of the mitochondria rises at the expense of antioxidants not extractable with a mixture of chloroform and methanol...
November 1984: Biulleten' Eksperimental'noĭ Biologii i Meditsiny
H de Vries, E Agsteribbe, A M Kroon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 1971: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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