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Extendible Prostheses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269495/split-belt-adaptation-and-gait-symmetry-in-transtibial-amputees-walking-with-a-hybrid-emg-controlled-ankle-foot-prosthesis
#1
Oliver A Kannape, Hugh M Herr
Our ability to automatically adapt our walking pattern to the demands of our environment is central to maintaining a steady gait. Accordingly, a large effort is being made to extend and integrate this adaptability to lower-limb prostheses. To date, the main focus of this research has been on short term adaptation, such as in response to a terrain transition or a sudden change in the environment. However, long term adaptation and underlying sensorimotor learning processes are critical to optimizing walking patterns and predictively changing our gait when faced with continued perturbations...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268266/simple-emg-driven-musculoskeletal-model-enables-consistent-control-performance-during-path-tracing-tasks
#2
Dustin Crouch, He Huang
Consistent, robust performance is critical for the utility and user-acceptance of neurally-controlled powered upper limb prostheses. We preliminarily evaluated the performance consistency of an electromyography (EMG)-driven controller based on a two degree-of-freedom musculoskeletal hand model, whose simplified structure is more practical for real-time prosthesis control than existing, complex models. Parameters of four virtual muscles were computed by numerical optimization from an able-bodied subject's kinematic and EMG data collected during wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) flexion/extension movements...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261012/evaluation-of-effects-of-electrical-stimulation-in-the-retina-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#3
A Gonzalez-Calle, J D Weiland
Retinal prostheses provide the capability to blind patients to detect motion and locate large objects. To avoid activating axons of passage, which can create streak-like perceptions, long pulse stimulation can be used to bypass axons and achieve focal retinal activation. Safety is a concern because long pulses require more charge than short pulses to elicit a response from neural tissue. Future implants will require smaller electrodes to improve resolution, but increased charge density may result, which is another safety concern...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227922/evaluation-of-effects-of-electrical-stimulation-in-the-retina-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#4
A Gonzalez-Calle, J D Weiland, A Gonzalez-Calle, J D Weiland, A Gonzalez-Calle, J D Weiland
Retinal prostheses provide the capability to blind patients to detect motion and locate large objects. To avoid activating axons of passage, which can create streak-like perceptions, long pulse stimulation can be used to bypass axons and achieve focal retinal activation. Safety is a concern because long pulses require more charge than short pulses to elicit a response from neural tissue. Future implants will require smaller electrodes to improve resolution, but increased charge density may result, which is another safety concern...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227747/split-belt-adaptation-and-gait-symmetry-in-transtibial-amputees-walking-with-a-hybrid-emg-controlled-ankle-foot-prosthesis
#5
Oliver A Kannape, Hugh M Herr, Oliver A Kannape, Hugh M Herr, Oliver A Kannape, Hugh M Herr
Our ability to automatically adapt our walking pattern to the demands of our environment is central to maintaining a steady gait. Accordingly, a large effort is being made to extend and integrate this adaptability to lower-limb prostheses. To date, the main focus of this research has been on short term adaptation, such as in response to a terrain transition or a sudden change in the environment. However, long term adaptation and underlying sensorimotor learning processes are critical to optimizing walking patterns and predictively changing our gait when faced with continued perturbations...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226423/simple-emg-driven-musculoskeletal-model-enables-consistent-control-performance-during-path-tracing-tasks
#6
Dustin Crouch, He Huang, Dustin Crouch, He Huang, Dustin Crouch, He Huang
Consistent, robust performance is critical for the utility and user-acceptance of neurally-controlled powered upper limb prostheses. We preliminarily evaluated the performance consistency of an electromyography (EMG)-driven controller based on a two degree-of-freedom musculoskeletal hand model, whose simplified structure is more practical for real-time prosthesis control than existing, complex models. Parameters of four virtual muscles were computed by numerical optimization from an able-bodied subject's kinematic and EMG data collected during wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) flexion/extension movements...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223914/decoding-lower-limb-muscle-activity-and-kinematics-from-cortical-neural-spike-trains-during-monkey-performing-stand-and-squat-movements
#7
Xuan Ma, Chaolin Ma, Jian Huang, Peng Zhang, Jiang Xu, Jiping He
Extensive literatures have shown approaches for decoding upper limb kinematics or muscle activity using multichannel cortical spike recordings toward brain machine interface (BMI) applications. However, similar topics regarding lower limb remain relatively scarce. We previously reported a system for training monkeys to perform visually guided stand and squat tasks. The current study, as a follow-up extension, investigates whether lower limb kinematics and muscle activity characterized by electromyography (EMG) signals during monkey performing stand/squat movements can be accurately decoded from neural spike trains in primary motor cortex (M1)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186679/directed-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-toward-placode-derived-spiral-ganglion-like-sensory-neurons
#8
Akihiro J Matsuoka, Zachery D Morrissey, Chaoying Zhang, Kazuaki Homma, Abdelhak Belmadani, Charles A Miller, Duncan M Chadly, Shun Kobayashi, Alexandra N Edelbrock, Miho Tanaka-Matakatsu, Donna S Whitlon, Ljuba Lyass, Tammy L McGuire, Samuel I Stupp, John A Kessler
The ability to generate spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) from stem cells is a necessary prerequisite for development of cell-replacement therapies for sensorineural hearing loss. We present a protocol that directs human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) toward a purified population of otic neuronal progenitors (ONPs) and SGN-like cells. Between 82% and 95% of these cells express SGN molecular markers, they preferentially extend neurites to the cochlear nucleus rather than nonauditory nuclei, and they generate action potentials...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160269/infections-in-cancer-patients-with-solid-tumors-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Kenneth V I Rolston
Solid tumors are much more common than hematologic malignancies. Although severe and prolonged neutropenia is uncommon, several factors increase the risk of infection in patients with solid tumors, and the presence of multiple risk factors in the same patient is not uncommon. These include obstruction (most often caused by progression of the tumor), disruption of natural anatomic barriers such as the skin and mucosal surfaces, and treatment-related factors such as chemotherapy, radiation, diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures, and the increasing use of medical devices such as various catheters, stents, and prostheses...
March 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159347/prevention-of-periimplant-skin-inflammation-using-an-acrylic-resin-housing-with-a-tunnel-design-for-an-implant-retained-auricular-prosthesis
#10
Hai Hoang Phan, Natdhanai Chotprasert, Prana Shakya, M L Theerathavaj Srithavaj
Implant-retained auricular prostheses offer better retention than conventional adhesive retentive methods. Periimplant skin inflammation, which results from improper substructure design, poor hygiene, skin thickness, and the hot and moist environment around abutments, however, is a common complication of craniofacial implants. This article describes a technique for fabricating an acrylic resin housing design with an extended arm to improve ventilation around implants and to reduce the risk of the silicone prosthesis tearing away from the acrylic resin housing...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112854/a-current-perspective-on-screw-retained-single-implant-restorations-a-review-of-pertinent-literature
#11
REVIEW
George Priest
OBJECTIVE: There is a trend toward increased use of screw-retained single-implant restorations. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to examine the data related to screw- and cement-retention and to objectively evaluate the innovations in implant dentistry that have led to this resurgence. OVERVIEW: When comparing the two options, survival and complication rates are similar, bone and soft-tissue levels are comparable, and zirconia offers esthetic advantages for both selections...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989094/histopathological-and-immunohistochemical-evaluation-of-pannus-tissue-in-patients-with-prosthetic-valve-dysfunction
#12
Süleyman Karakoyun, Mustafa Ozan Gürsoy, Mahmut Yesin, Macit Kalçık, Mehmet Ali Astarcıoğlu, Sabahattin Gündüz, Ali Emrah Oğuz, Şermin Çoban Kökten, Ayşe Nimet Karadayı, Altuğ Tuncer, Cengiz Köksal, Tayyar Gökdeniz, Mehmet Özkan
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic valve dysfunction due to pannus formation is a rare but serious complication. Currently, limited data are available concerning the pathogenesis and immunohistochemical properties of pannus. The study aim was to investigate the morphological, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of pannus formation in patients with prosthetic valve dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 35 patients (10 males, 25 females; mean age 44 ± 16 years) who had undergone re-do valve surgery due to prosthetic valve obstruction was enrolled in the study...
2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942525/are-long-stimulus-pulse-durations-the-answer-to-improving-spatial-resolution-in-retinal-prostheses
#13
COMMENT
Matthew A Petoe, Mohit N Shivdasani
Retinal prostheses can provide artificial vision to patients with degenerate retinae by electrically stimulating the remaining inner retinal neurons. The evoked perception is generally adequate for light localization, but of limited spatial resolution owing to the indiscriminate activation of multiple retinal cell types, leading to distortions in the perceived image. Here we present a perspective on a recent work by Weitz and colleagues who demonstrate a focal confinement of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activation when using extended pulse durations in the stimulation waveform...
November 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909134/what-is-the-morbidity-of-a-non-invasive-growing-prosthesis
#14
M M Gilg, C L Gaston, M C Parry, L Jeys, A Abudu, R M Tillman, S R Carter, R J Grimer
AIMS: Extendible endoprostheses have been available for more than 30 years and have become more sophisticated with time. The latest generation is 'non-invasive' and can be lengthened with an external magnetic force. Early results have shown a worryingly high rate of complications such as infection. This study investigates the incidence of complications and the need for further surgery in a cohort of patients with a non-invasive growing endoprosthesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2003 and June 2014, 50 children (51 prostheses) had a non-invasive growing prosthesis implanted for a primary bone sarcoma...
December 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863860/orofacial-rehabilitation-with-zygomatic-implants-cad-cam-bar-and-magnets-for-patients-with-nasal-cancer-after-rhinectomy-and-partial-maxillectomy
#15
Elizabeth King, Carl Abbott, Lawrence Dovgalski, James Owens
Nasal carcinoma extending into the premaxilla requires radical surgical excision including rhinectomy and partial maxillectomy. Rehabilitation is complex and involves the use of removable prostheses. Three patients treated with zygomatic implants and custom-milled bars to retain an obturator and nasal prosthesis are presented.
November 15, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812497/endobronchial-dental-prosthesis-retrieval-by-a-snare-technique-using-a-flexible-bronchoscope-and-fluoroscopy-two-case-reports-and-technical-tips
#16
Hideo Ichimura, Michihiro Maeda, Shinji Kikuchi, Yuichiro Ozawa, Koji Kanemoto, Koichi Kurishima, Hiroaki Iijima, Hiroichi Ishikawa, Yukio Sato
We describe two cases in each of which a dental prosthesis, presenting as an endobronchial foreign body (FB), was successfully retrieved using a snare technique employing a flexible bronchoscope and fluoroscopy that enabled us to avoid the need for rigid bronchoscope and thoracotomy. In one case, the FB was peripherally lodged and bronchoscopically invisible. In the other case, the FB was observed in the right intermediate bronchus, but the grasping basket and forceps were unable to retrieve it. The combination of a flexible bronchoscope and fluoroscopy extended the application of the snare technique to bronchoscopically invisible FBs and facilitated placement of an encircling loop around the FB...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747699/rehabilitation-of-a-complex-midfacial-defect-by-means-of-a-zygoma-implant-supported-prosthesis-and-nasal-epithesis-a-novel-technique
#17
Lorenzo Trevisiol, Pasquale Procacci, Antonio D'Agostino, Francesca Ferrari, Daniele De Santis, Pier Francesco Nocini
PURPOSE: Several authors have described zygoma implants as a reliable surgical option to rehabilitate severe maxillary defects in case of extreme atrophy or oncological resections. The aim of this study is to report a new technical approach to the rehabilitation of a complex oronasal defect by means of a zygoma-implant-supported full-arch dental prosthesis combined with a nasal epithesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The patient presented with a subtotal bilateral maxillectomy and total rhinectomy defect because of a squamous cell carcinoma of the nose...
December 2016: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716709/valve-in-valve-in-homograft-a-case-of-a-repeat-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-in-a-patient-with-an-aortic-homograft
#18
Kimberly Naden Hollander, Mario Montealegre-Gallegos, Feroze Mahmood
In recent years, the use of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has extended beyond the treatment of native aortic valve stenosis in patients with high surgical risk. TAVR is increasingly being performed for bioprosthetic aortic valve failure, i.e., the valve-in-valve (VIV) procedure. Establishing the success of a VIV procedure can be challenging in these cases. Furthermore, the limited availability of prostheses sizes further complicates the management of these patients. We present an unusual case of a repeat TAVR in a patient who previously had a VIV procedure in an aortic homograft...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706265/precision-fit-of-screw-retained-implant-supported-fixed-dental-prostheses-fabricated-by-cad-cam-copy-milling-and-conventional-methods
#19
Danilo Gonzaga de França, Maria Helena Morais, Flávio D das Neves, Adriana Fonte Carreiro, Gustavo As Barbosa
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fabrication methods (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture [CAD/CAM], copy-milling, and conventional casting) in the fit accuracy of three-unit, screw-retained fixed dental prostheses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen three-unit implant-supported screw-retained frameworks were fabricated to fit an in vitro model. Eight frameworks were fabricated using the CAD/CAM system, four in zirconia and four in cobalt-chromium...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688831/time-discrete-vibrotactile-feedback-contributes-to-improved-gait-symmetry-in-patients-with-lower-limb-amputations-case-series
#20
Simona Crea, Benoni B Edin, Kristel Knaepen, Romain Meeusen, Nicola Vitiello
BACKGROUND: Reduced sensory feedback from lower leg prostheses results in harmful gait patterns and entails a significant cognitive burden because users have to visually monitor their locomotion. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to validate a sensory feedback device designed to help elderly patients with transfemoral amputation to improve their temporal gait symmetry after a training program aimed at associating the vibrotactile patterns with symmetrical walking...
September 29, 2016: Physical Therapy
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