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Plasma mitochondrial dna

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926641/impact-of-monotherapy-on-hiv-1-reservoir-immune-activation-and-co-infection-with-epstein-barr-virus
#1
Maria Raffaella Petrara, Anna Maria Cattelan, Lolita Sasset, Riccardo Freguja, Francesco Carmona, Silvia Sanavia, Marisa Zanchetta, Paola Del Bianco, Anita De Rossi
OBJECTIVES: Although monotherapy (mART) effectiveness in maintaining viral suppression and CD4 cell count has been extensively examined in HIV-1-infected patients, its impact on HIV-1 reservoir, immune activation, microbial translocation and co-infection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study involved 32 patients who switched to mART; patients were studied at baseline, 48 and 96 weeks after mART initiation. Thirty-two patients who continued combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) over the same period of time were included in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923379/synthesis-characterization-cellular-uptake-and-apoptosis-inducing-properties-of-two-highly-cytotoxic-cyclometalated-ruthenium-ii-%C3%AE-carboline-complexes
#2
Jincan Chen, Fa Peng, Yao Zhang, Baojun Li, Ji She, Xinming Jie, Zhilin Zou, Man Chen, Lanmei Chen
Two new cyclometalated Ru(II) complexes of the general formula [Ru(N-N)2(1-Ph-βC)](PF6), where N-N = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dmb, Ru1), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy, Ru2), and 1-Ph-βC (1-phenyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a β-carboline alkaloids derivatives, have been synthesized and characterized. The in vitro cytotoxicities, cellular uptake and localization, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis-inducing mechanisms of these complexes have been extensively explored by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), flow cytometry, comet assay, inverted fluorescence microscope as well as western blotting experimental techniques...
September 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915327/adipose-tissue-in-hiv-infection
#3
John R Koethe
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864278/effects-of-sodium-pyruvate-on-viability-synthesis-of-reactive-oxygen-species-lipid-peroxidation-and-dna-integrity-of-cryopreserved-bovine-sperm
#4
F Korkmaz, E Malama, M Siuda, C Leiding, H Bollwein
The aim of this study was to examine effects of sodium pyruvate on viability as well as on synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and DNA integrity of cryopreserved bovine sperm. In each of 23 Simmental AI bulls three ejaculates were collected. In a split sample design ejaculates were diluted by using Triladyl(®) extender without and with the addition of 5mM sodium pyruvate. Both aliquots were equilibrated for 24h before freezing. Frozen sperm samples were thawed, and examined immediately after thawing (0h) as well as after 3, 6, 12, and 24h incubation at 37°C...
October 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837526/mitochondrial-dna-is-released-in-urine-of-sirs-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury-and-correlates-with-severity-of-renal-dysfunction
#5
Marcel P B Jansen, Wilco P Pulskens, Loes M Butter, Sandrine Florquin, Nicole P Juffermans, Joris J T H Roelofs, Jaklien C Leemans
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is characterized by the activation of the innate immune system resulting in stimulation of inflammatory responses, coagulation, and platelet activation, that may contribute to complication such as the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI importantly worsens the outcome of SIRS, implying the existence of a detrimental cross-talk via systemic messages. Mitochondria are a source of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and are thought to form a molecular link between tissue injury and stimulation of innate immunity...
August 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825656/use-of-fgf-21-as-a-biomarker-of-mitochondrial-disease-in-clinical-practice
#6
Alireza Morovat, Gayani Weerasinghe, Victoria Nesbitt, Monika Hofer, Thomas Agnew, Geralrine Quaghebeur, Kate Sergeant, Carl Fratter, Nishan Guha, Mehdi Mirzazadeh, Joanna Poulton
Recent work has suggested that fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) is a useful biomarker of mitochondrial disease (MD). We routinely measured FGF-21 levels on patients who were investigated at our centre for MD and evaluated its diagnostic performance based on detailed genetic and other laboratory findings. Patients' FGF-21 results were assessed by the use of age-adjusted z-scores based on normalised FGF-21 values from a healthy population. One hundred and fifty five patients were investigated. One hundred and four of these patients had molecular evidence for MD, 27 were deemed to have disorders other than MD (non-MD), and 24 had possible MD...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799012/mtdna-genomes-reveal-a-relaxation-of-selective-constraints-in-low-bmi-individuals-in-a-uyghur-population
#7
Hong-Xiang Zheng, Lei Li, Xiao-Yan Jiang, Shi Yan, Zhendong Qin, Xiaofeng Wang, Li Jin
Considerable attention has been focused on the effect of deleterious mutations caused by the recent relaxation of selective constraints on human health, including the prevalence of obesity, which might represent an adaptive response of energy-conserving metabolism under the conditions of modern society. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoding 13 core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation plays an important role in metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized that a relaxation of selection constraints on mtDNA and an increase in the proportion of deleterious mutations have played a role in obesity prevalence...
August 10, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783377/extracellular-mitochondrial-dna-is-generated-by-fibroblasts-and-predicts-death-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#8
Changwan Ryu, Huanxing Sun, Mridu Gulati, Jose Herazo-Maya, Yonglin Chen, Awo Osafo-Addo, Caitlin Brandsdorfer, Julia Winkler, Christina Blaul, Jaden Faunce, Hongyi Pan, Tony Woolard, Argyrios Tzouvelekis, Danielle E Antin-Ozerkis, Jonathan T Puchalski, Martin Slade, Anjelica L Gonzalez, Daniel F Bogenhagen, Varvara Kirillov, Carol Feghali-Bostwick, Kevin Gibson, Kathleen Lindell, Raimund I Herzog, Charles S Dela Cruz, Wajahat Mehal, Naftali Kaminski, Erica L Herzog, Glenda Trujillo
RATIONALE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) involves the accumulation of alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expressing myofibroblasts arising from interactions with soluble mediators such as transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1), and mechanical influences such as local tissue stiffness. While IPF fibroblasts are enriched for aerobic glycolysis and innate immune receptor activation, innate immune ligands related to mitochondrial injury, such as extracellular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have not been identified in IPF...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767747/determination-of-an-optimal-membrane-permeable-cryoprotectant-addition-and-dilution-protocol-for-water-buffalo-spermatozoa
#9
S Mehmood, H Ahmed, S A Hussain Shah, F H Wattoo, S Akhtar, S M Hassan Andrabi
BACKGROUND: There is a possibility to reduce the toxicity of glycerol and osmotic stress of DMSO by lowering their concentrations in freezing extenders. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of glycerol and DMSO in tris-citric acid based extender on post- thaw quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen was collected from five adult buffalo bulls with artificial vagina. Five aliquots of semen per bull were separated for dilution with the treatment extenders...
May 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749007/reactive-oxygen-species-as-mediators-of-sperm-capacitation-and-pathological-damage
#10
REVIEW
Robert J Aitken
Oxidative stress plays a major role in the life and death of mammalian spermatozoa. These gametes are professional generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to derive from three potential sources: sperm mitochondria, cytosolic L-amino acid oxidases, and plasma membrane Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases. The oxidative stress created via these sources appears to play a significant role in driving the physiological changes associated with sperm capacitation through the stimulation of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate/Protein kinase A phosphorylation cascade, including the activation of Extracellular signal regulated kinase-like proteins, massive up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation in the sperm tail, as well as the induction of sterol oxidation...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723682/release-of-danger-associated-molecular-patterns-following-chemotherapy-does-not-induce-immunoparalysis-in-leukemia-patients
#11
Kim Timmermans, Guus P Leijte, Matthijs Kox, Gert Jan Scheffer, Nicole M A Blijlevens, Peter P Pickkers
Chemotherapy may result in the release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which can cause immunoparalysis (deactivation of the immune system). We investigated DAMPs following chemotherapy and their relationship with markers of immunoparalysis in leukemia patients. In 6 patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome and 12 healthy subjects, DAMPs, cytokines, and markers of immunoparalysis were determined before and during the first week after chemotherapy initiation. In the patients, plasma levels of nuclear DNA (a marker of general DAMP release) were profoundly increased before chemotherapy and further increased 4-6 h afterwards, while the specific DAMP mitochondrial DNA showed only a trend towards increase...
2017: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710753/fluorochrome-labeled-inhibitors-of-caspases-expedient-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-markers-of-apoptotic-cells-for-rapid-cytometric-analysis
#12
Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz, Hong Zhao, H Dorota Halicka, Piotr Pozarowski, Brian Lee
Activation of caspases is a characteristic event of apoptosis. Various cytometric methods distinguishing this event have been developed to serve as specific apoptotic markers for the assessment of apoptotic frequency within different cell populations. The method described in this chapter utilizes fluorochrome labeled inhibitors of caspases (FLICA) and is applicable to fluorescence microscopy, flow- and imaging-cytometry as well as to confocal imaging. Cell-permeant FLICA reagents tagged with carboxyfluorescein or sulforhodamine, when applied to live cells in vitro or in vivo, exclusively label the cells that are undergoing apoptosis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702322/mitochondrial-transcription-factor-b2-is-essential-for-mitochondrial-and-cellular-function-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#13
Lisa M Nicholas, Bérengère Valtat, Anya Medina, Lotta Andersson, Mia Abels, Inês G Mollet, Deepak Jain, Lena Eliasson, Nils Wierup, Malin Fex, Hindrik Mulder
OBJECTIVE: Insulin release from pancreatic β-cells is controlled by plasma glucose levels via mitochondrial fuel metabolism. Therefore, insulin secretion is critically dependent on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the genes it encodes. Mitochondrial transcription factor B2 (TFB2M) controls transcription of mitochondrial-encoded genes. However, its precise role in mitochondrial metabolism in pancreatic β-cells and, consequently, in insulin secretion remains unknown. METHODS: To elucidate the role of TFB2M in mitochondrial function and insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo, mice with a β-cell specific homozygous or heterozygous knockout of Tfb2m and rat clonal insulin-producing cells in which the gene was silenced were examined with an array of metabolic and functional assays...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700739/cysteine-protects-rabbit-spermatozoa-against-reactive-oxygen-species-induced-damages
#14
Zhendong Zhu, Zhanjun Ren, Xiaoteng Fan, Yang Pan, Shan Lv, Chuanying Pan, Anmin Lei, Wenxian Zeng
The process of cryopreservation results in over-production of reactive oxygen species, which is extremely detrimental to spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to investigate whether addition of cysteine to freezing extender would facilitate the cryosurvival of rabbit spermatozoa, and if so, how cysteine protects spermatozoa from cryodamages. Freshly ejaculated semen was diluted with Tris-citrate-glucose extender supplemented with different concentrations of cysteine. The motility, intact acrosomes, membrane integrity, mitochondrial potentials, 8-hydroxyguanosine level and sperm-zona pellucida binding capacity were examined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685254/kh-tfmdi-a-novel-sirtuin-inhibitor-alters-the-cytoskeleton-and-mitochondrial-metabolism-promoting-cell-death-in-leishmania-amazonensis
#15
Brunno Renato Farias Verçoza, Joseane Lima Prado Godinho, Sara Teixeira de Macedo-Silva, Kilian Huber, Franz Bracher, Wanderley de Souza, Juliany Cola Fernandes Rodrigues
Treatment of leishmaniasis involves the use of antimonials, miltefosine, amphotericin B or pentamidine. However, the side effects of these drugs and the reports of drug-resistant parasites demonstrate the need for new treatments that are safer and more efficacious. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a new class of compounds with potential to treat leishmaniasis. Herein, we evaluated the effects of KH-TFMDI, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, on Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes...
July 6, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676970/acute-administration-of-methionine-and-or-methionine-sulfoxide-impairs-redox-status-and-induces-apoptosis-in-rat-cerebral-cortex
#16
Mayara Sandrielly Pereira Soares, Cassiana Macagnan Viau, Jenifer Saffi, Marcelo Zanusso Costa, Tatiane Morgana da Silva, Pathise Souto Oliveira, Juliana Hofstatter Azambuja, Alethéa Gatto Barschak, Elizandra Braganhol, Angela T S Wyse, Roselia Maria Spanevello, Francieli Moro Stefanello
High plasma levels of methionine (Met) and its metabolites such as methionine sulfoxide (MetO) may occur in several genetic abnormalities. Patients with hypermethioninemia can present neurological dysfunction; however, the neurotoxicity mechanisms induced by these amino acids remain unknown. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of Met and/or MetO on oxidative stress, genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and to evaluate whether the cell death mechanism is mediated by apoptosis in the cerebral cortex of young rats...
July 4, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659734/effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-thermogenesis-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-brown-adipose-tissues-of-diet-induced-obese-mice
#17
Mak-Soon Lee, Yoonjin Shin, Sunyoon Jung, Yangha Kim
Background: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea and has been considered a natural agent that can help to reduce the risk of obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EGCG on thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of diet-induced obese mice. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were provided a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity, following which they were divided into two groups: one on a high-fat control diet and the other on a 0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649382/does-sperm-quality-and-dna-integrity-differ-in-cryopreserved-semen-samples-from-young-adult-and-aged-nellore-bulls
#18
J T Carreira, J T Trevizan, I R Carvalho, B Kipper, L H Rodrigues, C Silva, S H V Perri, J R Drevet, M B Koivisto
BACKGROUND: In humans, it is now well documented that rising paternal age is correlated with decreased sperm DNA integrity and embryonic developmental failures. On the other side of the coin, it is also reported that very young fathers such as teenagers carry an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. These observations suggest that, at least in humans, there is an age window for optimal sperm DNA integrity. In bovine, little is known about sperm DNA quality in young bulls and how it evolves with age...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641368/glomerular-hyperfiltration-in-obese-african-american-hypertensive-patients-is-associated-with-elevated-urinary-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number
#19
Alfonso Eirin, Ahmed Saad, John R Woollard, Luis A Juncos, David A Calhoun, Hui Tang, Amir Lerman, Stephen C Textor, Lilach O Lerman
BACKGROUND: Glomerular hyperfiltration may contribute to the high incidence of renal disease in Obese African Americans essential hypertensive (ObAAEH) patients, but the precise mechanisms responsible for renal injury have not been elucidated. Mitochondria are important determinants of renal injury in hypertension, and increased levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the urine may indicate renal mitochondrial injury. We hypothesized that urine mtDNA copy numbers would be higher in ObAAEH compared to Caucasian essential hypertensive (CEH) patients...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633757/the-relationship-between-circulating-mitochondrial-dna-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-patients-with-major-depression
#20
Yuki Kageyama, Takaoki Kasahara, Masaki Kato, Shiho Sakai, Yasuhiko Deguchi, Munehide Tani, Kenji Kuroda, Kotaro Hattori, Sumiko Yoshida, Yuichi Goto, Toshihiko Kinoshita, Koki Inoue, Tadafumi Kato
BACKGROUND: Although inflammatory cytokines are established biomarkers of mood disorders, their molecular mechanism is not known. We hypothesized that circulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contributes to inflammation and could be used as biomarkers. We investigated if circulating mtDNA level is associated with inflammatory cytokines and can be used as a biomarker of mood disorders. METHODS: Plasma mtDNA concentration was measured with real-time quantitative PCR targeting two regions of the mtDNA and plasma levels of four cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6) were measured with a multiplex immunoassay method in 109 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD)...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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