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Plasma mitochondrial dna

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155101/type-i-ifn-related-netosis-in-ataxia-telangiectasia-and-artemis-deficiency
#1
Ersin Gul, Esra Hazar Sayar, Bilgi Gungor, Fehime Kara Eroglu, Naz Surucu, Sevgi Keles, Sukru Nail Guner, Sıddıka Fındık, Esin Alpdündar, Ihsan Cihan Ayanoglu, Basak Kayaoglu, Busra Nur Geçkin, Hatice Asena Sanli, Tamer Kahraman, Cengiz Yakicier, Meltem Muftuoglu, Berna Oguz, Deniz Nazire Cagdas Ayvaz, Ihsan Gursel, Seza Ozen, Ismail Reisli, Mayda Gursel
BACKGROUND: Pathological inflammatory syndromes of unknown etiology are commonly observed in Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and Artemis deficiency. Similar inflammatory manifestations also exist in STING-associated vasculopathy in infancy (SAVI) patients. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the inflammation associated manifestations observed in AT and Artemis deficient patients stem from increased type I IFN signature leading to neutrophil mediated pathological damage...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147981/low-atrazine-dosages-reduce-sperm-quality-of-calomys-laucha-mice
#2
Graciela Quintana Saalfeld, Antônio Sergio Varela Junior, Tiane Castro, Fernanda Alves Pereira, Stela Mari Meneghello Gheller, Alessandra Cardoso da Silva, Carine Dahl Corcini, Carlos Eduardo da Rosa, Elton Pinto Colares
Reproductive effects caused by the exposure to environmentally relevant dosages of atrazine on wild animals are poorly understood. This study evaluated the effects of three dosages of atrazine on sperm parameters of adult Calomys laucha males. Adult mice were orally exposed to dosages of 0 (water and vehicle control), 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg of animal weight for a 21-day period. Following exposure, analyses were performed to determine sperm motility parameters, plasma membrane integrity and fluidity, mitochondrial functionality, acrosome integrity, DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the sperm samples...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130947/application-of-digital-pcr-in-detecting-human-diseases-associated-gene-mutation
#3
Yu Tong, Shizhen Shen, Hui Jiang, Zhi Chen
Gene mutation has been considered a research hotspot, and the rapid development of biomedicine has enabled significant advances in the evaluation of gene mutations. The advent of digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) elevates the detection of gene mutations to unprecedented levels of precision, especially in cancer-associated genes. dPCR has been utilized in the detection of tumor markers in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples from patients with different types of cancer in samples such as plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and sputum, which confers significant value for dPCR in both clinical applications and basic research...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113834/aflatoxin-b1-impairs-sperm-quality-and-fertilization-competence
#4
A Komsky-Elbaz, M Saktsier, Z Roth
Aflatoxins are poisonous byproducts of the soilborne fungus Aspergillus, involved in the decomposition of plant materials. Aflatoxins can be found in various food products, such as maize, sorghum, millet, rice and wheat. AFB1 is the most toxic of these, classified as a carcinogen and mutagen for both humans and animals. AFB1 has been detected in human cord blood and placenta; however, its toxic effect on sperm is less known. The current study examines sperm responses associated with AFB1 exposure. These included acrosome integrity and function, mitochondrial polarity, DNA fragmentation, fertilization competence and early embryonic development...
November 4, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110394/methylisothiazolinone-may-induce-cell-death-and-inflammatory-response-through-dna-damage-in-human-liver-epithelium-cells
#5
Eun-Jung Park, Sanghwa Kim, Jaerak Chang
Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) is a powerful biocide and preservative, which is widely used alone or in a 1:3 ratio with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCIT) under the trade name of Kathons in the manufacture of numerous personal and household products. Considering that Kathons injected intravenously is distributed in the blood and then in the liver, we explored the toxic mechanism of MIT on human liver epithelium cells. At 24 h after exposure, MIT bound to the plasma membrane and the inner wall of vacuoles in the cells, and rupture of the cell membrane and nuclear envelop, autophagosome-like vacuoles formation and mitochondrial damage were observed...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104026/current-insights-into-functions-of-phospholipase-a2-receptor-in-normal-and-cancer-cells-more-questions-than-answers
#6
REVIEW
Olga Sukocheva, Mario Menschikowski, Albert Hagelgans, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Gabriele Siegert, Pallu Reddanna, Anupam Bishayee
Lipid signaling network was proposed as a potential target for cancer prevention and treatment. Several recent studies revealed that phospholipid metabolising enzyme, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), is a critical regulator of cancer accelerating pathologies and apoptosis in several types of cancers. In addition to functioning as an enzyme, PLA2 can activate a phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) in plasma membrane. While the list of PLA2 targets extends to glucose homeostasis, intracellular energy balance, adipocyte development, and hepatic lipogenesis, the PLA2R1 downstream effectors are few and scarcely investigated...
November 2, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078758/transcriptomic-data-from-two-primary-cell-models-stimulating-human-monocytes-suggest-inhibition-of-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-mitochondrial-function-by-n-meningitidis-which-is-partially-up-regulated-by-il-10
#7
Unni Gopinathan, Reidun Øvstebø, Berit Sletbakk Brusletto, Ole Kristoffer Olstad, Peter Kierulf, Petter Brandtzaeg, Jens Petter Berg
BACKGROUND: Biological interpretation of DNA microarray data may differ depending on underlying assumptions and statistical tests of bioinformatics tools used. We used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to analyze previously generated DNA microarray data from human monocytes stimulated with N. meningitidis and IL-10 ("the model system"), and with meningococcal sepsis plasma before and after immunodepletion of IL-10 ("the patient plasma system"). The objectives were to compare if the two bioinformatics methods resulted in similar biological interpretation of the datasets, and to identify whether GSEA provided additional insight compared with IPA about the monocyte host response to meningococcal activation...
October 27, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074536/a-novel-application-of-structural-equation-modeling-estimates-the-association-between-oxidative-stress-and-colorectal-adenoma
#8
Ronald C Eldridge, Michael Goodman, Roberd M Bostick, Veronika Fedirko, Myron Gross, Bharat Thyagarajan, W Dana Flanders
In vitro evidence implicates oxidative stress in many adverse health conditions, including colorectal neoplasia. In human studies, however, oxidative stress is measured by imperfect biomarkers, which are inconsistently associated with health outcomes. Structural equation modeling (SEM) offers one possible solution by modeling a latent (unobserved) construct from multiple biomarkers. Our goal was to investigate the association of a latent oxidative stress variable with colorectal adenoma. Using SEM, we analyzed pooled data from two cross-sectional studies of colorectal adenoma (n=526) that measured five plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation that comprised the latent oxidative stress variable: F2-isoprostanes (FIP), fluorescent oxidation products (FOP), mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) copy number, γ-tocopherol (Gtoc), and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
October 26, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072129/cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-variation-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-study-of-non-invasive-biomarker-from-northeast-india
#9
Manish Kumar, Shilpee Srivastava, Seram Anil Singh, Anup Kumar Das, Ganesh Chandra Das, Bishal Dhar, Sankar Kumar Ghosh, Rosy Mondal
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. The lifestyle, food habits, and customary practices manifest the Northeast Indian population toward higher susceptibility to develop head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we have investigated the association of smoke and smokeless tobacco, and alcohol with copy number variation of cell-free mitochondrial DNA and cell-free nuclear DNA in cases and controls. Cell-free DNA from plasma was isolated from 50 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cases and 50 controls with informed written consent using QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061822/in-vitro-effects-of-bromoalkyl-phenytoin-derivatives-on-regulated-death-cell-cycle-and-ultrastructure-of-leukemia-cells
#10
Katarzyna Śladowska, Małgorzata Opydo-Chanek, Teodora Król, Wojciech Trybus, Ewa Trybus, Anna Kopacz-Bednarska, Jadwiga Handzlik, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Lidia Mazur
BACKGROUND/AIM: To search for new antileukemic agents, the chemical structure of phenytoin was modified. A possible cytotoxic activity of three bromoalkyl phenytoin analogs, methyl 2-(1-(3-bromopropyl)-2,4-dioxo-5,5-diphenylimidazolidin-3-yl) propanoate (PH2), 1-(3-bromopropyl)-3-methyl-5,5-diphenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (PH3) and 1-(4-bromobutyl)-3-methyl-5,5-diphenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (PH4) on regulated cell death, the cell cycle and cell ultrastructure was assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiments were performed in vitro on HL-60 and U937 cells, using flow cytometry and electron microscopy methods...
November 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053854/dietary-betaine-supplementation-increases-adrenal-expression-of-steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-and-yolk-deposition-of-corticosterone-in-laying-hens
#11
Halima Abobaker, Yun Hu, Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine, an important methyl donor, is known to execute epigenetic regulation of gene expression via nutritional reprogramming. Herein, we explore whether feeding a betaine-supplemented diet to laying hens would affect corticosteroid biosynthesis in the adrenal gland and corticosterone deposition in eggs, in correlation with the expression of methyl transfer enzymes and the promoter DNA methylation status of affected genes. Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens at 38 weeks of age were assigned to Control and Betaine groups, fed basal and betaine-supplemented diets, respectively, for four weeks...
September 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053005/rbcs-homeostatically-bind-mtdna-through-tlr9-to-maintain-quiescence-and-prevent-lung-injury
#12
Meghan J Hotz, Danielle Qing, Michael G S Shashaty, Peggy Zhang, Hilary Faust, Neal Sondheimer, Stefano Rivella, G Scott Worthen, Nilam S Mangalmurti
RATIONALE: Potentially hazardous CpG-containing cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mtDNA) is routinely released into the circulation and is associated with morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. How the body avoids inappropriate innate immune activation by cf-mtDNA remains unknown. Because red blood cells (RBCs) modulate innate immune responses by scavenging chemokines, we hypothesized that RBCs may attenuate CpG-induced lung inflammation through direct scavenging of CpG-containing DNA...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048129/realgar-nanoparticles-versus-ato-arsenic-compounds-induce-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-activity-against-multiple-myeloma
#13
Danka Cholujova, Zdenka Bujnakova, Erika Dutkova, Teru Hideshima, Richard W Groen, Constantine S Mitsiades, Paul G Richardson, David M Dorfman, Peter Balaz, Kenneth C Anderson, Jana Jakubikova
Multiple myeloma (MM), a B cell malignancy characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, remains incurable despite the use of novel and conventional therapies. In this study, we demonstrated MM cell cytotoxicity triggered by realgar (REA; As4 S4 ) nanoparticles (NREA) versus Arsenic trioxide (ATO) against MM cell lines and patient cells. Both NREA and ATO showed in vivo anti-MM activity, resulting in significantly decreased tumour burden. The anti-MM activity of NREA and ATO is associated with apoptosis, evidenced by DNA fragmentation, depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential, cleavage of caspases and anti-apoptotic proteins...
October 19, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961892/plasma-mitochondrial-dna-levels-are-inversely-associated-with-hiv-rna-levels-and-directly-with-cd4-counts-potential-role-as-a-biomarker-of-hiv-replication
#14
Berta Pernas, Ignacio Rego-Pérez, Andrés Tabernilla, Vanesa Balboa, Sara Relaño, Marta Grandal, Manuel Crespo, Álvaro Mena, Ángeles Castro-Iglesias, Francisco J Blanco, Eva Poveda
Objectives: To evaluate plasma mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels among HIV-infected patients and its potential role as a biomarker of residual viral replication. Methods: HIV-infected patients on follow-up at a reference hospital in north-west Spain were selected. DNA was isolated from plasma samples and mtDNA levels were assessed using a quantitative real-time PCR assay. HIV-RNA levels and CD4+ cell counts were evaluated in the same blood samples used for plasma mtDNA quantification...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951025/improvement-of-liquid-stored-boar-semen-quality-by-removing-low-molecular-weight-proteins-and-supplementation-with-%C3%AE-tocopherol
#15
M Zakošek Pipan, J Mrkun, A Nemec Svete, P Zrimšek
Seminal plasma contains low-molecular weight components that can exert a harmful effect on sperm function. We have evaluated the effects of removing low-molecular weight components from seminal plasma and adding α-tocopherol on boar semen quality after 72h of liquid storage. Semen was evaluated on the basis of motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane modifications, mitochondrial activity, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), 8-isoprostane, and antioxidant status (total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD)) were measured in seminal plasma...
November 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944842/mitochondrial-dna%C3%A2-induced-inflammatory-damage-contributes-to-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-cardioprotective-role-of-epigallocatechin
#16
Chao-Yi Qin, Hong-Wei Zhang, Jun Gu, Fei Xu, Huai-Min Liang, Kang-Jun Fan, Jia-Yu Shen, Zheng-Hua Xiao, Er-Yong Zhang, Jia Hu
Inflammation serves an important role in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Fragments of endogenous damaged‑associated molecular patterns, recently identified as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), have been proven to be a potent pro‑inflammatory mediator. Epigallocatechin‑3‑gallate (EGCG) is able to regulate the expression levels of a series of inflammatory cytokines. However, the involvement of endogenous mtDNA in EGCG‑regulated inflammatory activities in the context of myocardial I/R injury remains to be elucidated...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930961/impact-of-a-novel-phosphoinositol-3-kinase-inhibitor-in-preventing-mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-accumulation-results-from-the-biochronicity-project
#17
George Edward Black, Kyle K Sokol, Donald M Moe, Jon D Simmons, David Muscat, Victor Pastukh, Gina Capley, Olena Gorodnya, Mykhaylo Ruchko, Mark B Roth, Mark Gillespie, Matthew J Martin
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926641/impact-of-monotherapy-on-hiv-1-reservoir-immune-activation-and-co-infection-with-epstein-barr-virus
#18
Maria Raffaella Petrara, Anna Maria Cattelan, Lolita Sasset, Riccardo Freguja, Francesco Carmona, Silvia Sanavia, Marisa Zanchetta, Paola Del Bianco, Anita De Rossi
OBJECTIVES: Although monotherapy (mART) effectiveness in maintaining viral suppression and CD4 cell count has been extensively examined in HIV-1-infected patients, its impact on HIV-1 reservoir, immune activation, microbial translocation and co-infection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study involved 32 patients who switched to mART; patients were studied at baseline, 48 and 96 weeks after mART initiation. Thirty-two patients who continued combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) over the same period of time were included in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923379/synthesis-characterization-cellular-uptake-and-apoptosis-inducing-properties-of-two-highly-cytotoxic-cyclometalated-ruthenium-ii-%C3%AE-carboline-complexes
#19
Jincan Chen, Fa Peng, Yao Zhang, Baojun Li, Ji She, Xinming Jie, Zhilin Zou, Man Chen, Lanmei Chen
Two new cyclometalated Ru(II) complexes of the general formula [Ru(N-N)2(1-Ph-βC)](PF6), where N-N = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dmb, Ru1), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy, Ru2), and 1-Ph-βC (1-phenyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a β-carboline alkaloids derivatives, have been synthesized and characterized. The in vitro cytotoxicities, cellular uptake and localization, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis-inducing mechanisms of these complexes have been extensively explored by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), flow cytometry, comet assay, inverted fluorescence microscope as well as western blotting experimental techniques...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915327/adipose-tissue-in-hiv-infection
#20
John R Koethe
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
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