Read by QxMD icon Read

contraceptives otc

Van Mimi Chau, Carol A Stamm, Laura Borgelt, Michelle Gaffaney, Alia Moore, Rachel Z Blumhagen, Leanne Rupp, Daniel Topp, Christine Gilroy
OBJECTIVES: In February 2014, the Food and Drug Administration updated its regulations to make all single-dose levonorgestrel-only emergency contraception (LNG-EC) available over the counter. This study examines the availability and access to LNG-EC shortly after this policy change, and any additional barriers to obtaining LNG-EC in Colorado retail pharmacies. STUDY DESIGN: From June to July 2014, three female interviewers posing as women seeking LNG-EC conducted a telephone survey of all 633 Colorado retail pharmacies listed in The Little Blue Book (2014) phone directory...
April 23, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Melinda Vanya, Maria Matuz, Ria Benko, Reka Viola, Attila Horvath-Sziklai, Gyongyvér Soos, Gyorgy Bartfai
Background Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are used to prevent unintended pregnancy. There is a worldwide intention to improve access to ECPs; therefore, identifying potential barriers to introducing over-the counter (OTC) access is of utmost importance. As pharmacists are the key personnel to convey accurate drug information, their knowledge and attitude on ECPs is important. Objective We aimed to conduct a nationwide study to assess pharmacists' knowledge on ECPs and to survey their opinion on sales category change of ECPs (i...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Min-Jeong Park, Gyun-Ho Jeon
Venous thromboembolism is well known as one of the rare but serious adverse effects of combined oral contraceptives (COCs). The COCs with third and fourth generation progestogens were found to have higher risk of venous thrombosis than those with second generation progestogens. We present a case of pulmonary embolism in a 23-year-old nulligravid woman who was using COCs containing the third generation progestogen (desogestrel). At the time of presentation of the adverse effect, she had been using the COCs for 4 months...
March 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Krishna K Upadhya, John S Santelli, Tina R Raine-Bennett, Melissa J Kottke, Daniel Grossman
Oral contraceptives (OCs) are used by millions of women in the U.S. The requirement to obtain OCs by prescription from a clinician may serve as a barrier to contraceptive initiation and continuation for women, in particular adolescents. Over-the-counter (OTC) availability would reduce this barrier and could further reduce unintended pregnancy rates. This review explores the scientific issues and regulatory processes involved in switching OCs to OTC status for minor adolescents. We review: (1) the regulatory criteria for switching a drug to OTC status; (2) risk of pregnancy and safety during use of OCs including combined oral contraceptives and progestin-only pills for adolescents; (3) the ability of adolescents to use OCs consistently and correctly; (4) OTC access to OCs and potential effect on sexual risk behaviors; and (5) the potential for reduced opportunities for clinicians to counsel and provide recommended reproductive health care to adolescents...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Deepak Ahire, Sarmistha Sinha, Barry Brock, Ramaswamy Iyer, Sandhya Mandlekar, Murali Subramanian
Ortho-Tri-Cyclen® (OTC), a two drug cocktail comprising of ethinylestradiol (EE) and norgestimate (13-ethyl-17-acetoxy-18, 19-dinor-17α-pregn-4-en-20yn-3 oxime), is commonly prescribed to avert unwanted pregnancies in women of reproductive age. In vivo, norgestimate undergoes extensive and rapid deacetylation to produce 17-deacetylnorgestimate (NGMN), an active circulating metabolite that likely contributes significantly to norgestimate efficacy. Despite being of primary significance, the metabolism and reaction phenotyping of NGMN have not been previously reported...
March 10, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Nazanin Foroutan, Fatemeh Dabaghzadeh
BACKGROUND: As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient method...
October 2016: Pharmacy Practice
Marion Kiechle, Miriam Neuenfeldt
PURPOSE: In March 2015, the oral emergency contraceptives levonorgestrel (LNG) and ulipristal acetate (UPA) were released from prescription-only status in Germany. The main research question is to analyse whether the OTC status of oral emergency contraceptives has an influence on the patterns of use. METHODS: All information is based on searches for public domain sources on emergency contraception. Searches were made for scientific publications, statistics, and surveys...
March 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Martin Schulz, Ralf Goebel, Claudia Schumann, Petra Zagermann-Muncke
BACKGROUND: Emergency hormonal contraceptives (EHC) are contraceptives used to prevent unintended pregnancy following unprotected sexual intercourse (USI) or contraceptive failure. The EHCs available without a prescription include medicines containing levonorgestrel (LNG) in more than 80 countries and, recently, based on an EU-switch ellaOne®, which contains ulipristal acetate (UPA). EHCs work by stopping or delaying ovulation. Those containing LNG can be used up to 72 hours after USI or contraceptive failure, while UPA can be used up to 120 hours...
July 2016: Pharmacy Practice
Mark A Green, Emma Little, Richard Cooper, Clare Relton, Mark Strong
OBJECTIVES: Prescribed and over-the-counter (non-prescribed) medicine usage has increased in recent years; however, there has been less investigation of the socioeconomic predictors of use. This has been due to a lack of data, especially for over-the-counter medicines. Our study aims to understand how prescribed and over-the-counter medicine patterns vary by demographic, social and health characteristics within a large population cohort. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data analysis...
2016: BMJ Open
Kelly Cleland, Jamie Bass, Florida Doci, Angel M Foster
INTRODUCTION: After years of complex regulatory changes, levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraception (EC) is now approved for unrestricted sale in the United States. Timely access to EC pills is critical because they are more likely to work the sooner they are taken. This study assesses whether LNG EC is sold in accordance with current Food and Drug Administration regulations. METHODS: We distributed an online questionnaire through an EC-focused listserv for reproductive health professionals, asking data collectors to visit local stores and document product names, price, over-the-counter shelf availability, and misinformation about age restrictions...
November 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Joanne Peters, Karishma Desai, Daniel Ricci, Dan Chen, Monny Singh, Betty Chewning
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of one standardized patient question on the length, number and type of new topics pharmacists addressed. To explore how community pharmacists counsel secret shoppers on two types of over-the-counter (OTC) medications-ibuprofen (IB) and emergency contraceptives (EC). METHODS: 25 pharmacists from 7 independent, midwestern community pharmacies consented to have secret shoppers purchase an OTC medication and to have their consultations audio-recorded...
September 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
Pikee Saxena, Archana Mishra, Aruna Nigam
BACKGROUND: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Carrie Cwiak, Brandon Howard, Jennifer Hsieh, Nancy Ricciotti, Gina S Sucato
STUDY OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Unintended pregnancy rates in the United States remain high among adolescents. Emergency contraception (EC) provides the only option for pregnancy prevention after unprotected sex. To better define the population of adolescents who request and use EC pills, we performed a post hoc analysis of an over-the-counter simulation study of EC pills. SETTING: Teen reproductive health clinics in 5 cities. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years who requested EC...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Michelle L Munro, Kristy K Martyn, Rebecca Campbell, Sandra Graham-Bermann, Julia S Seng
Many survivors of rape do not seek post-assault care. The recent change in status of emergency contraception (EC), such as Plan B, to an over-the-counter (OTC) product may be further changing post-assault care-seeking. This descriptive study will quantify OTC EC use in the post-assault period and elicit survivors' desires for care. Data were collected from women purchasing OTC EC at university pharmacies (n=55) and students in an undergraduate university class (n=165). Quantitative results indicate annual prevalence rates of post-assault OTC EC use as 5...
December 2015: Sexuality Research & Social Policy
Pelin Batur, Lisa N Kransdorf, Petra M Casey
Emergency contraception (EC) may help prevent pregnancy in various circumstances, such as contraceptive method failure, unprotected sexual intercourse, or sexual assault, yet it remains underused. There are 4 approved EC options in the United States. Although ulipristal acetate requires a provider's prescription, oral levonorgestrel (LNG) is available over the counter for women of all ages. The most effective method of EC is the copper intrauterine device, which can be left in place for up to 10 years for efficacious, cost-effective, hormone-free, and convenient long-term primary contraception...
June 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Nand Lal, Santosh Jangir, Veenu Bala, Dhanaraju Mandalapu, Amit Sarswat, Lalit Kumar, Ashish Jain, Lokesh Kumar, Bhavana Kushwaha, Atindra K Pandey, Shagun Krishna, Tara Rawat, Praveen K Shukla, Jagdamba P Maikhuri, Mohammad I Siddiqi, Gopal Gupta, Vishnu L Sharma
Trichomoniasis and candidiasis are amongst the most common morbidity-causing reproductive tract infections, generally treated by Metronidazole and Fluconazole respectively. Poor vaginal efficacy, drug-resistance and non-spermicidal nature limit their use as topical microbicidal contraceptives. Bis(dialkylaminethiocarbonyl)disulfides (4-38) were designed as dually active, non-surfactant molecules capable of eliminating Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida strains as well as irreversibly immobilizing 100% human sperm instantly, at doses non-cytotoxic to human cervical epithelial cells and vaginal microflora in vitro...
June 10, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Kofi Asiedu, Samuel Kyei, Frank Boampong, Stephen Ocansey
BACKGROUND: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of symptomatic dry eye disease (DED) among undergraduate students in a Ghanaian university. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 700 undergraduate students of the University of Cape Coast, aged 18 to 34 years. Participants completed questionnaires delivered directly to randomly and systematically selected subjects to detect symptomatic dry eye and its predictive factors. Symptomatic dry eye was defined as any reported symptom on the Standard Patient Evaluation Eye Dryness (SPEED) questionnaire reported as often or constant or if any symptom on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) was reported as most of the time or all of the time...
March 9, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Kristen A Johnson, Lindsey A Sjaarda, Sunni L Mumford, Rebecca A Garbose, Karen C Schliep, Donald Mattison, Neil J Perkins, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Enrique F Schisterman
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterize the patterns of medication intake in healthy, reproductive-age women not using hormonal contraception. METHODS: Two hundered fifty-nine healthy, premenopausal women (18-44 years of age) enrolled in the BioCycle Study (2005-2007) were followed over two menstrual cycles. Women were excluded if they were currently using oral contraceptives or other chronic medications. Over-the-counter and prescription medication use among participants was evaluated daily throughout the study via a diary assessing type of medication, dosage, units, and frequency...
June 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Jennifer Johnson
The political debate for adolescents to have access to emergency contraception that is available over the counter has been going on for years. Since 1999, Levonorgestrel, Plan B One Step®, has been used in the United States as an emergency contraception but with a prescription at the time. The FDA has done years of research and testing with Barr Laboratories, the manufacture of Plan B One Step®, to make it safe for females of all ages. In 2003, the FDA recommended the over the counter use of Plan B One Step® for all ages, yet this did not occur...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Syed Irfan Karim, Farhana Irfan, Norah Al Rowais, Basma Al Zahrani, Riaz Qureshi, Bedoor H Al Qadrah
OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge, attitude, and barriers about emergency contraception (EC) among married women of child bearing age. METHODS: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted over a 6-month period, commencing in March 2013 at Family Practice Clinics of King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected using a structured pretested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 statistical software. RESULT: A total of 242 women were enrolled in the study...
November 2015: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"