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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896473/experience-with-oral-emergency-contraception-since-the-otc-switch-in-germany
#1
Marion Kiechle, Miriam Neuenfeldt
PURPOSE: In March 2015, the oral emergency contraceptives levonorgestrel (LNG) and ulipristal acetate (UPA) were released from prescription-only status in Germany. The main research question is to analyse whether the OTC status of oral emergency contraceptives has an influence on the patterns of use. METHODS: All information is based on searches for public domain sources on emergency contraception. Searches were made for scientific publications, statistics, and surveys...
November 28, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785169/non-prescription-dispensing-of-emergency-oral-contraceptives-recommendations-from-the-german-federal-chamber-of-pharmacists-bundesapothekerkammer
#2
Martin Schulz, Ralf Goebel, Claudia Schumann, Petra Zagermann-Muncke
BACKGROUND: Emergency hormonal contraceptives (EHC) are contraceptives used to prevent unintended pregnancy following unprotected sexual intercourse (USI) or contraceptive failure. The EHCs available without a prescription include medicines containing levonorgestrel (LNG) in more than 80 countries and, recently, based on an EU-switch ellaOne®, which contains ulipristal acetate (UPA). EHCs work by stopping or delaying ovulation. Those containing LNG can be used up to 72 hours after USI or contraceptive failure, while UPA can be used up to 120 hours...
July 2016: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683515/investigation-of-social-demographic-and-health-variations-in-the-usage-of-prescribed-and-over-the-counter-medicines-within-a-large-cohort-south-yorkshire-uk
#3
Mark A Green, Emma Little, Richard Cooper, Clare Relton, Mark Strong
OBJECTIVES: Prescribed and over-the-counter (non-prescribed) medicine usage has increased in recent years; however, there has been less investigation of the socioeconomic predictors of use. This has been due to a lack of data, especially for over-the-counter medicines. Our study aims to understand how prescribed and over-the-counter medicine patterns vary by demographic, social and health characteristics within a large population cohort. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data analysis...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682018/access-to-emergency-contraception-in-the-over-the-counter-era
#4
Kelly Cleland, Jamie Bass, Florida Doci, Angel M Foster
INTRODUCTION: After years of complex regulatory changes, levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraception (EC) is now approved for unrestricted sale in the United States. Timely access to EC pills is critical because they are more likely to work the sooner they are taken. This study assesses whether LNG EC is sold in accordance with current Food and Drug Administration regulations. METHODS: We distributed an online questionnaire through an EC-focused listserv for reproductive health professionals, asking data collectors to visit local stores and document product names, price, over-the-counter shelf availability, and misinformation about age restrictions...
November 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486050/the-power-of-the-patient-question-a-secret-shopper-study
#5
Joanne Peters, Karishma Desai, Daniel Ricci, Dan Chen, Monny Singh, Betty Chewning
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of one standardized patient question on the length, number and type of new topics pharmacists addressed. To explore how community pharmacists counsel secret shoppers on two types of over-the-counter (OTC) medications-ibuprofen (IB) and emergency contraceptives (EC). METHODS: 25 pharmacists from 7 independent, midwestern community pharmacies consented to have secret shoppers purchase an OTC medication and to have their consultations audio-recorded...
September 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385872/evaluation-of-pharmacists-services-for-dispensing-emergency-contraceptive-pills-in-delhi-india-a-mystery-shopper-study
#6
Pikee Saxena, Archana Mishra, Aruna Nigam
BACKGROUND: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27321899/sexual-and-contraceptive-behaviors-among-adolescents-requesting-emergency-contraception
#7
Carrie Cwiak, Brandon Howard, Jennifer Hsieh, Nancy Ricciotti, Gina S Sucato
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Unintended pregnancy rates in the United States remain high among adolescents. Emergency contraception (EC) provides the only option for pregnancy prevention after unprotected sex. To better define the population of adolescents who request and use EC pills, we performed a post-hoc analysis of an over-the-counter simulation study of EC pills. SETTING: Teen reproductive health clinics in 5 cities. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 who requested EC...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293493/important-but-incomplete-plan-b-as-an-avenue-for-post-assault-care
#8
Michelle L Munro, Kristy K Martyn, Rebecca Campbell, Sandra Graham-Bermann, Julia S Seng
Many survivors of rape do not seek post-assault care. The recent change in status of emergency contraception (EC), such as Plan B, to an over-the-counter (OTC) product may be further changing post-assault care-seeking. This descriptive study will quantify OTC EC use in the post-assault period and elicit survivors' desires for care. Data were collected from women purchasing OTC EC at university pharmacies (n=55) and students in an undergraduate university class (n=165). Quantitative results indicate annual prevalence rates of post-assault OTC EC use as 5...
December 2015: Sexuality Research & Social Policy: Journal of NSRC: SR & SP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27261868/emergency-contraception
#9
REVIEW
Pelin Batur, Lisa N Kransdorf, Petra M Casey
Emergency contraception (EC) may help prevent pregnancy in various circumstances, such as contraceptive method failure, unprotected sexual intercourse, or sexual assault, yet it remains underused. There are 4 approved EC options in the United States. Although ulipristal acetate requires a provider's prescription, oral levonorgestrel (LNG) is available over the counter for women of all ages. The most effective method of EC is the copper intrauterine device, which can be left in place for up to 10 years for efficacious, cost-effective, hormone-free, and convenient long-term primary contraception...
June 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084496/role-of-disulfide-linkage-in-action-of-bis-dialkylaminethiocarbonyl-disulfides-as-potent-double-edged-microbicidal-spermicide-design-synthesis-and-biology
#10
Nand Lal, Santosh Jangir, Veenu Bala, Dhanaraju Mandalapu, Amit Sarswat, Lalit Kumar, Ashish Jain, Lokesh Kumar, Bhavana Kushwaha, Atindra K Pandey, Shagun Krishna, Tara Rawat, Praveen K Shukla, Jagdamba P Maikhuri, Mohammad I Siddiqi, Gopal Gupta, Vishnu L Sharma
Trichomoniasis and candidiasis are amongst the most common morbidity-causing reproductive tract infections, generally treated by Metronidazole and Fluconazole respectively. Poor vaginal efficacy, drug-resistance and non-spermicidal nature limit their use as topical microbicidal contraceptives. Bis(dialkylaminethiocarbonyl)disulfides (4-38) were designed as dually active, non-surfactant molecules capable of eliminating Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida strains as well as irreversibly immobilizing 100% human sperm instantly, at doses non-cytotoxic to human cervical epithelial cells and vaginal microflora in vitro...
June 10, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963438/symptomatic-dry-eye-and-its-associated-factors-a-study-of-university-undergraduate-students-in-ghana
#11
Kofi Asiedu, Samuel Kyei, Frank Boampong, Stephen Ocansey
BACKGROUND: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of symptomatic dry eye disease (DED) among undergraduate students in a Ghanaian university. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 700 undergraduate students of the University of Cape Coast, aged 18 to 34 years. Participants completed questionnaires delivered directly to randomly and systematically selected subjects to detect symptomatic dry eye and its predictive factors. Symptomatic dry eye was defined as any reported symptom on the Standard Patient Evaluation Eye Dryness (SPEED) questionnaire reported as often or constant or if any symptom on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) was reported as most of the time or all of the time...
March 9, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954695/patterns-and-prevalence-of-medication-use-across-the-menstrual-cycle-among-healthy-reproductive-aged-women
#12
Kristen A Johnson, Lindsey A Sjaarda, Sunni L Mumford, Rebecca A Garbose, Karen C Schliep, Donald Mattison, Neil J Perkins, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Enrique F Schisterman
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterize the patterns of medication intake in healthy, reproductive-age women not using hormonal contraception. METHODS: Two hundered fifty-nine healthy, premenopausal women (18-44 years of age) enrolled in the BioCycle Study (2005-2007) were followed over two menstrual cycles. Women were excluded if they were currently using oral contraceptives or other chronic medications. Over-the-counter and prescription medication use among participants was evaluated daily throughout the study via a diary assessing type of medication, dosage, units, and frequency...
June 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26897510/emergency-contraception-for-adolescents-a-political-battle
#13
Jennifer Johnson
The political debate for adolescents to have access to emergency contraception that is available over the counter has been going on for years. Since 1999, Levonorgestrel, Plan B One Step®, has been used in the United States as an emergency contraception but with a prescription at the time. The FDA has done years of research and testing with Barr Laboratories, the manufacture of Plan B One Step®, to make it safe for females of all ages. In 2003, the FDA recommended the over the counter use of Plan B One Step® for all ages, yet this did not occur...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870124/emergency-contraception-awareness-attitudes-and-barriers-of-saudi-arabian-women
#14
Syed Irfan Karim, Farhana Irfan, Norah Al Rowais, Basma Al Zahrani, Riaz Qureshi, Bedoor H Al Qadrah
OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge, attitude, and barriers about emergency contraception (EC) among married women of child bearing age. METHODS: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted over a 6-month period, commencing in March 2013 at Family Practice Clinics of King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected using a structured pretested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 statistical software. RESULT: A total of 242 women were enrolled in the study...
November 2015: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26760409/the-potential-impact-of-over-the-counter-access-to-oral-contraceptives-to-reduce-unintended-pregnancy
#15
Daniel Grossman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2015: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26656383/emergency-contraception-focus-on-the-facts
#16
Deanna Bridge Najera
Significant progress on contraception, and in particular emergency contraception, has been made in the past decade. Emergency contraception was first introduced as a stand-alone prescription in 1998, and the interaction of politics and medicine meant a tumultuous course to the drug becoming available over the counter. This article reviews how emergency contraception works, the effectiveness of different methods, pros and cons, and the history of emergency contraception.
January 2016: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26639702/fighting-trafficking-of-falsified-and-substandard-medicinal-products-in-russia
#17
N F Fayzrakhmanov
BACKGROUND: The trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products is a global socio-economic problem, which poses a serious threat to economy and health of populations of most countries, including the Russian Federation. OBJECTIVE: To identify the main achievements and challenges in the fight against trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products in the Russian Federation, to formulate possible solutions to these problems. METHODS: The study of criminal cases and statistical information about the level of crime in the Russian Federation; legal analysis of regulatory legal acts in the sphere of criminal law and turnover of medicinal products; review of scientific and practical publications...
2015: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26598304/over-the-counter-access-to-oral-contraceptives
#18
REVIEW
Daniel Grossman
Making oral contraceptives (OCs) available over the counter (OTC) could help to reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States. Surveys show widespread support for OTC access to OCs among US women. Studies indicate that women can accurately use checklists to identify contraindications to OCs. Continuation is as good or better among OTC users compared with women using OCs obtained by prescription. Women and clinicians have expressed concerns related to making OCs available OTC. These concerns can be addressed by existing data or through research required by the Food and Drug Administration as part of the application to make OCs available OTC...
December 2015: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26549241/provider-opinions-regarding-expanding-access-to-hormonal-contraception-in-pharmacies
#19
Sally Rafie, Sanaz Kelly, Erika K Gray, Megan Wong, Susannah Gibbs, Cynthia C Harper
PURPOSE: Expanding access to hormonal contraception may reduce the barrier created with the current prescription requirement. The goal of this study was to gain a better understanding of health care providers' opinions on expanding access to hormonal contraception (oral pill, transdermal patch, vaginal ring, and injectable) and the role of pharmacists as direct providers of this reproductive health service. METHODS: A voluntary, self-administered survey was distributed to participating national professional associations' physician and midlevel provider members who provide reproductive health services...
March 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26525365/a-self-assessment-efficacy-tool-for-spermicide-contraceptive-users
#20
Courtney A Schreiber, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Mary Dupuis Sammel, Paul G Whittaker
BACKGROUND: Easily accessible contraceptive methods, such as chemical and barrier methods, are used currently by approximately 1 in 6 women who use contraception in the United States. Even in the face of suboptimal effectiveness, coitally dependent methods likely will always have a role in fertility management. Because most contraceptive efficacy stratifications use population-based data, for women to make informed decisions about the individual fit of a contraceptive method, better evidence-based, user-friendly tools are needed...
February 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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