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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106987/constructing-ultraporous-covalent-organic-frameworks-in-seconds-via-an-organic-terracotta-process
#1
Suvendu Karak, Sharath Kandambeth, Bishnu P Biswal, Himadri Sekhar Sasmal, Sushil Kumar, Pradip Pachfule, Rahul Banerjee
Research on covalent organic frameworks (COFs) has recently gathered significant momentum by the virtue of their predictive design, controllable porosity and long range ordering. However, the lack of solvent free and easy-to-perform synthesis processes appears to be the bottleneck towards their greener fabrication, thereby limiting their possible potential applications. To alleviate such shortcomings, we demonstrate a simple route towards the rapid synthesis of highly crystalline and ultraporous COFs in seconds using a novel salt-mediated crystallization approach...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106775/colloidal-fouling-of-nanofiltration-membranes-development-of-a-standard-operating-procedure
#2
Md Abdullaha Al Mamun, Subir Bhattacharjee, David Pernitsky, Mohtada Sadrzadeh
Fouling of nanofiltration (NF) membranes is the most significant obstacle to the development of a sustainable and energy-efficient NF process. Colloidal fouling and performance decline in NF processes is complex due to the combination of cake formation and salt concentration polarization effects, which are influenced by the properties of the colloids and the membrane, the operating conditions of the test, and the solution chemistry. Although numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of these parameters on the performance of the NF process, the importance of membrane preconditioning (e...
January 18, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106741/the-role-of-lipid-membranes-in-life-s-origin
#3
REVIEW
David Deamer
At some point in early evolution, life became cellular. Assuming that this step was required for the origin of life, there would necessarily be a pre-existing source of amphihilic compounds capable of assembling into membranous compartments. It is possible to make informed guesses about the properties of such compounds and the conditions most conducive to their self-assembly into boundary structures. The membranes were likely to incorporate mixtures of hydrocarbon derivatives between 10 and 20 carbons in length with carboxylate or hydroxyl head groups...
January 17, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104328/isotopic-constraints-on-water-source-mixing-network-leakage-and-contamination-in-an-urban-groundwater-system
#4
F Grimmeisen, M F Lehmann, T Liesch, N Goeppert, J Klinger, J Zopfi, N Goldscheider
Water supply in developing countries is prone to large water losses due to leaky distribution networks and defective sewers, which may affect groundwater quality and quantity in urban areas and result in complex subsurface mixing dynamics. In this study, a multi-stable isotope approach was used to investigate spatiotemporal fluctuations of surface and sub-surface water source partitioning and mixing, and to assess nitrogen (N) contamination in the urban water cycle of As-Salt, Jordan. Water import from the King Abdullah Canal (KAC), mains waters from the network, and wastewater are characterized by distinct isotopic signatures, which allowed us to quantify city effluents into the groundwater...
January 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104237/one-step-green-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-iron-oxide-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanocomposite-with-high-supramolecular-recognition-capability-application-for-vortex-assisted-magnetic-solid-phase-extraction-of-organochlorine-pesticides-residue-from-honey-samples
#5
Shokouh Mahpishanian, Hassan Sereshti
In this research, β-cyclodextrin/iron oxide reduced graphene oxide hybrid nanostructure (β-CD/MRGO) with high water dispersability, excellent magnetic responsivity and molecular selectivity was prepared via a facile one step green strategy. The obtained nanomaterial was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), which confirmed the modification of GO with β-CD and magnetic nanoparticles...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103106/low-temperature-alkaline-ph-hydrolysis-of-oxygen-free-titan-tholins-carbonates-impact
#6
Coralie Brassé, Arnaud Buch, Patrice Coll, François Raulin
Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is one of the key planetary objects in the field of exobiology. Its dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere is the site of important organic chemistry. This paper focuses on the organic aerosols produced in Titan's atmosphere that play an important role in atmospheric and surface processes and in organic chemistry as it applies to exobiological interests. To produce reliable laboratory analogues of these aerosols, we developed, tested, and optimized a device for the synthesis of clean tholins...
January 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102930/modulation-of-the-thermodynamic-signatures-of-an-rna-thermometer-by-osmolytes-and-salts
#7
Mimi Gao, Loana Arns, Roland Winter
Folding of ribonucleic acids (RNAs) is driven by several factors, such as base pairing and stacking, chain entropy, and ion-mediated electrostatics, which have been studied in great detail. However, the power of background molecules in the cellular milieu is often neglected. Herein, we study the effect of common osmolytes on the folding equilibrium of a hairpin-structured RNA and, using pressure perturbation, provide novel thermodynamic and volumetric insights into the modulation mechanism. The presence of TMAO causes an increased thermal stability and a more positive volume change for the helix-to-coil transition, whereas urea destabilizes the hairpin and leads to an increased expansibility of the unfolded state...
January 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102423/synthesis-and-solution-stability-of-water-soluble-%C3%AE%C2%BA-2-n-%C3%AE%C2%BAo-bis-3-5-dimethylpyrazolyl-ethanol-manganese-i-tricarbonyl-bromide-corm-onn1
#8
Ralf Mede, Juliane Traber, Moritz Klein, Helmar Görls, Guido Gessner, Patrick Hoffmann, Michael Schmitt, Jürgen Popp, Stefan H Heinemann, Ute Neugebauer, Matthias Westerhausen
The reaction of (OC)5MnBr with bis(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)methane yields [{(Pz(Me2))2CH2}Mn(CO)3Br] (1). The use of tridentate heteroscorpionates such as bis(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)acetic acid and 2,2-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)ethanol leads to the formation of mononuclear [(OC)3Mn{(Pz(Me2))2CH-CO2}] (2) and [(OC)3Mn{(Pz(Me2))2CH-CH2OH}]Br (3, CORM-ONN1). Salt-like photoCORM 3 is soluble in aqueous media up to a concentration of 200 μM, non-toxic up to an approx. 65 μM solution and releases all carbonyl ligands upon irradiation...
January 19, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102364/indefinitely-stable-iron-iv-cage-complexes-formed-in-water-by-air-oxidation
#9
Stefania Tomyn, Sergii I Shylin, Dmytro Bykov, Vadim Ksenofontov, Elzbieta Gumienna-Kontecka, Volodymyr Bon, Igor O Fritsky
In nature, iron, the fourth most abundant element of the Earth's crust, occurs in its stable forms either as the native metal or in its compounds in the +2 or +3 (low-valent) oxidation states. High-valent iron (+4, +5, +6) compounds are not formed spontaneously at ambient conditions, and the ones obtained synthetically appear to be unstable in polar organic solvents, especially aqueous solutions, and this is what limits their studies and use. Here we describe unprecedented iron(IV) hexahydrazide clathrochelate complexes that are assembled in alkaline aqueous media from iron(III) salts, oxalodihydrazide and formaldehyde in the course of a metal-templated reaction accompanied by air oxidation...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101715/cortex-and-amygdala-dependent-learning-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-gene-expression-is-severely-impaired-in-mice-orally-treated-with-alcl3
#10
Syeda Mehpara Farhat, Aamra Mahboob, Touqeer Ahmed
Recent industrialization has increased human exposure to bio-available aluminum (Al). If more Al enters the brain than leaves, Al concentration will rise in the brain leading to neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to determine Al concentration, neurodegeneration, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene expression in the cortex and amygdala after oral ingestion of Al salt. The effect of Al on cortex- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory functions was also assessed. Mice were given AlCl3 (250 mg/kg) in drinking water for 42 days...
January 18, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101706/comparative-assessment-of-leca-and-spartina-maritima-to-remove-emerging-organic-contaminants-from-wastewater
#11
Ana Rita Ferreira, Paula Guedes, Eduardo P Mateus, Alexandra B Ribeiro, Nazaré Couto
The present work aimed to evaluate the capacity of constructed wetlands (CWs) to remove three emerging organic contaminants with different physicochemical properties: caffeine (CAF), oxybenzone (MBPh), and triclosan (TCS). The simulated CWs were set up with a matrix of light expanded clay aggregates (LECA) and planted with Spartina maritima, a salt marsh plant. Controlled experiments were carried out in microcosms using deionized water and wastewater collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), with different contaminant mass ranges, for 3, 7, and 14 days...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101449/immunohistochemical-expression-of-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-components-in-response-to-tempol-in-rats-fed-a-high-salt-diet
#12
Gabriel Cao, Silvana Lorena Della Penna, Nicolás Martín Kouyoumdzian, Marcelo Roberto Choi, Susana Gorzalczany, Belisario Enrique Fernández, Jorge Eduardo Toblli, María Inés Rosón
AIM: To determine the effect of tempol in normal rats fed high salt on arterial pressure and the balance between antagonist components of the renal renin-angiotensin system. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 8% NaCl high-salt (HS) or 0.4% NaCl (normal-salt, NS) diet for 3 wk, with or without tempol (T) (1 mmol/L, administered in drinking water). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and urinary sodium excretion (UVNa) were measured...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101446/hypertonicity-clinical-entities-manifestations-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Christos Argyropoulos, Todd S Ing, Dominic S Raj, Deepak Malhotra, Emmanuel I Agaba, Mark Rohrscheib, Zeid J Khitan, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Hypertonicity causes severe clinical manifestations and is associated with mortality and severe short-term and long-term neurological sequelae. The main clinical syndromes of hypertonicity are hypernatremia and hyperglycemia. Hypernatremia results from relative excess of body sodium over body water. Loss of water in excess of intake, gain of sodium salts in excess of losses or a combination of the two are the main mechanisms of hypernatremia. Hypernatremia can be hypervolemic, euvolemic or hypovolemic. The management of hypernatremia addresses both a quantitative replacement of water and, if present, sodium deficit, and correction of the underlying pathophysiologic process that led to hypernatremia...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100712/salt-management-strategy-defines-the-stem-and-leaf-hydraulic-characteristics-of-six-mangrove-tree-species
#14
Guo-Feng Jiang, Uromi Manage Goodale, Yan-Yan Liu, Guang-You Hao, Kun-Fang Cao
Mangroves in hypersaline coastal habitats are under constant high xylem tension and face great risk of hydraulic dysfunction. To investigate the relationships between functional traits and salt management, we measured 20 hydraulic and photosynthetic traits in four salt-adapted (SA) and two non-SA (NSA) mangrove tree species in south China. The SA species included two salt secretors (SSs), Avicennia marina (Forsskål) Vierhapper and Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco and two salt excluders (SEs), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L...
January 18, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100017/subspecies-delineation-amid-phenotypic-geographic-and-genetic-discordance-in-a-songbird
#15
Jennifer Walsh, Irby J Lovette, Virginia Winder, Chris S Elphick, Brian J Olsen, W Gregory Shriver, Adrienne I Kovach
Understanding the processes that drive divergence within and among species is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology. Traditional approaches to assessing differentiation rely on phenotypes to identify intra- and interspecific variation, but many species express subtle morphological gradients in which boundaries among forms are unclear. This intraspecific variation may be driven by differential adaptation to local conditions and may thereby reflect the evolutionary potential within a species. Here, we combine genetic and morphological data to evaluate intraspecific variation within the Nelson's (Ammodramus nelsoni) and saltmarsh (A...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099851/a-molecular-and-cellular-context-dependent-role-for-ir76b-in-detection-of-amino-acid-taste
#16
Anindya Ganguly, Lisa Pang, Vi-Khoi Duong, Angelina Lee, Hanni Schoniger, Erika Varady, Anupama Dahanukar
Amino acid taste is expected to be a universal property among animals. Although sweet, bitter, salt, and water tastes have been well characterized in insects, the mechanisms underlying amino acid taste remain elusive. From a Drosophila RNAi screen, we identify an ionotropic receptor, Ir76b, as necessary for yeast preference. Using calcium imaging, we identify Ir76b(+) amino acid taste neurons in legs, overlapping partially with sweet neurons but not those that sense other tastants. Ir76b mutants have reduced responses to amino acids, which are rescued by transgenic expression of Ir76b and a mosquito ortholog AgIr76b...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099023/computational-models-of-the-gastrointestinal-environment-1-the-effect-of-digestion-on-the-phase-behaviour-of-intestinal-fluids
#17
Woldeamanuel A Birru, Dallas B Warren, Stephen J Headey, Hassan Benameur, Christopher J H Porter, Colin W Pouton, David K Chalmers
Improved models of the gastrointestinal environment have great potential to assist the complex process of drug formulation. Molecular dynamics (MD) is a powerful method for investigating phase behaviour at a molecular level. In this study we use multiple MD simulations to calculate phase diagrams for bile before and after digestion. In these computational models, undigested bile is represented by mixtures of palmitoyl-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDX) and water. Digested bile is modelled using a 1:1 mixture of oleic acid and palmitoylphosphatidylcholine (lyso-phosphatidylcholine, LPC), GDX and water...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098976/adsorption-neutralization-model-and-floc-growth-kinetics-properties-of-aluminum-coagulants-based-on-sips-and-boltzmann-equation
#18
Zhen Wu, Xian Zhang, Chunjiao Zhou, Jing-Lin Pang, Panyue P Zhang
Single-molecule aluminum salt AlCl3, medium polymerized polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and high polymerized polyaluminium chloride (HPAC) were prepared in laboratory. The characteristics and coagulation properties of these prepared aluminum salts were investigated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips adsorption isotherms were firstly used to describe the adsorption neutralization process in coagulation, and the Boltzmann equation was used to fit the reaction kinetics of floc growth in flocculation. It was novel to find that the experimental data fitted well with the Sips and Boltzmann equation, and the significance of parameters in the equations was discussed simultaneously...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094375/crystallization-kinetics-of-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-formed-by-spontaneous-room-temperature-hydrolysis-of-cerium-iv-ammonium-nitrate-in-light-and-heavy-water
#19
Natasha W Pettinger, Robert E A Williams, Jinquan Chen, Bern Kohler
A stable sol of cerium oxide nanoparticles forms spontaneously when cerium(iv) ammonium nitrate (CAN) is dissolved in room-temperature water at mM concentrations. Electron microscopy experiments reveal the formation of highly crystalline cerium oxide particles several nm in diameter and suggest that they are formed from amorphous particles that are similar in size. Under the low pH conditions of the experiments, the nanoparticles form a stable dispersion and show no evidence of aggregation, even many months after synthesis...
January 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094370/probing-sub-nano-level-molecular-packing-and-correlated-positron-annihilation-characteristics-of-ionic-cross-linked-chitosan-membranes-using-positron-annihilation-spectroscopy
#20
Rui Xia, Xingzhong Cao, Meizhen Gao, Peng Zhang, Minfeng Zeng, Baoyi Wang, Long Wei
Chitosan, CS, cross-linked with bivalent palladium has shown enhanced mechanical and thermal properties depending on the transformation of the structure at a microscopic scale. In the present study, CS directly cross-linked by palladium cation membranes (CS-cr-PM) was prepared through a solution-casting method. Mobility of chitosan chains were greatly reduced after crosslinking, making a great reduction in the swelling ratio studied by a water-swelling degree measurement, which led to an improvement in molecular chain rigidity...
January 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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