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Salt water

Camilo Ordóñez-Barona, Vadim Sabetski, Andrew A Millward, James Steenberg
Salts used for de-icing roads and sidewalks in northern climates can have a significant impact on water quality and vegetation. Sub-surface engineering systems, such as structural soil cells, can regulate water runoff and pollutants, and provide the necessary soil volume and irrigation to grow trees. However, the ability of such systems to manage de-icing salt contamination, and the impact of this contamination on the trees growing in them, have not been evaluated. We report on an field investigation of de-icing salt contamination in structural cells in two street-revitalization projects in Toronto, Canada, and the impact of this contamination on tree performance...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Guo-Qiang Chen, Xiao-Ran Jiang
Industrial biotechnology aims to produce bulk chemicals including polymeric materials and biofuels based on bioprocessing sustainable agriculture products such as starch, fatty acids and/or cellulose. However, traditional bioprocesses require bioreactors made of stainless steel, complicated sterilization, difficult and expensive separation procedures as well as well-trained engineers that are able to conduct bioprocessing under sterile conditions, reducing the competitiveness of the bio-products. Amid the continuous low petroleum price, next generation industrial biotechnology (NGIB) allows bioprocessing to be conducted under unsterile (open) conditions using ceramic, cement or plastic bioreactors in a continuous way, it should be an energy, water and substrate saving technology with convenient operation procedure...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Julien O Sindt, Andrew J Alexander, Philip J Camp
The effects of a rapidly heated nanoparticle on the structure of a concentrated aqueous salt solution are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. A diamond-like nanoparticle of radius 20 Å is immersed in a sodium-chloride solution at 20% above the experimental saturation concentration and equilibrated at T = 293 K and P = 1 atm. The nanoparticle is then rapidly heated to several thousand degrees Kelvin, and the system is held under isobaric-isoenthalpic conditions. It is observed that after 2-3 ns, the salt ions are depleted far more than water molecules from a proximal zone 15-25 Å from the nanoparticle surface...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Cui-Ping Guo, Zhen Wei, Fang Huang, Min Qin, Xing Li, Yu-Man Wang, Qun Wang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Rong Liu, Bin Zhang, Hong-Lian Li, Xiao-Chuan Wang
Although increasing evidences suggest a relationship between hypertension and brain function for years, it is still unclear whether hypertension constitutes a risk factor for cognitive decline and its underlying mechanism. In the present study, an experimental animal model of hypertension simply by feeding rats with high salt diet was employed. We found that long-term high salt intake caused a marked increase of systolic blood pressure linked to a declined regional cerebral blood flow. Fear conditioning and morris water maze behavioral test revealed that high salt diet induced hippocampal dependent spatial reference memory deficits, while a decreased synaptogenesis without neuronal loss in hippocampus was observed in high salt treated rats...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Ahmed Debez, Ikram Belghith, Andreas Pich, Wael Taamalli, Chedly Abdelly, Hans-Peter Braun
Seed germination recovery aptitude is an adaptive trait of overriding significance for the successful establishment and dispersal of extremophile plants in their native ecosystems. Cakile maritima is an annual halophyte frequent on Mediterranean coasts, which transiently produces transiently dormant seeds under high salinity, but that germinate fast when soil salinity is lowered by rainfall. Here, we report eco-physiological and proteomic data about (i) the effect of high salt (200 mM NaCl) on the early developmental stages (germination and seedling) and (ii) the seed germination recovery capacity of this species...
December 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Karlheinz Sünkel, Patrick R Nimax
The reaction of the alkaline earth dihalides MCl2·nH2O (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) with the silver salts of cyanocyclopentadienides [C5(CN)4X]- (X = H, CN) yields the corresponding alkaline earth biscyclopentadienides. The pentacyanocyclopentadienides of Mg and Ca and the tetracyanocyclopentadienides of Ca, Sr and Ba were studied by X-ray diffraction. The Mg compound 1a' shows only coordination by water molecules, but numerous hydrogen bridges between coordinated water molecules and pentacyanocyclopentadienide anions and further guest water molecules create a three-dimensional network...
December 8, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Tzu-Heng Chen, Huan-Tsung Chang
Carbon-dot (C-dot) liposome consisting of several thousands of C-dots shows interesting photoswitching properties. The water dispersible C-dot liposome possesses intrinsic photoluminescence (PL) and is stable against salt and photoirradiation. The PL of C-dot liposome can be turned off and then on under photoirradiation over the wavelength regions of 510-540 nm and 365-420 nm, respectively. Like reported C-dots, the C-dot liposome emits various colors when excited at different wavelengths. Having great stability and high contrast, images of individual C-dot liposome have been recorded, showing negligible photoblinking...
December 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fabrice Rose, Jeanette Erbo Wern, Francesca Gavins, Peter Andersen, Frank Follmann, Camilla Foged
Induction of mucosal immunity with vaccines is attractive for the immunological protection against pathogen entrance directly at the site of infection. An example is infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), which is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world, and there is an unmet medical need for an effective vaccine. A vaccine against Ct should elicit protective humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in the genital tract mucosa. We previously designed an antibody- and CMI-inducing adjuvant based on poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles modified with the cationic surfactant dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide and the immunopotentiator trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Cynthia Gilmour, Tyler Bell, Ally Soren, Georgia Riedel, Gerhardt Riedel, Dianne Kopec, Drew Bodaly, Upal Ghosh
The efficacy of thin layer in situ soil amendments was tested as a potential tool for methylmercury (MeHg) risk mitigation in Penobscot River, ME, salt marsh. Salt marshes are sites of high MeHg accumulation within the Penobscot, and key targets for remediation. The study was a fully-crossed small plot study, with four treatments (activated carbon (AC), biochar, FeCl2, and lime) and unamended controls at two sites. Plots were monitored for two years. Porewater MeHg concentrations were the main endpoint, with impacts on sediment biogeochemistry as a secondary study goal...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ranran Tian, Mengbo Luo, Jingyuan Li
When nanoparticles enter blood or other biological fluids, they tend to contact with a variety of proteins which may hamper their application and even bring adverse impacts. Such nonspecific protein binding is usually weak and proteins reach dynamic equilibrium between adsorption and desorption. Studies on the spontaneous desorption of weakly bound proteins should not only be helpful to enrich our understanding about such nonspecific interactions but also shed light on the strategy to avoid nonspecific binding of proteins...
December 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
А Romaniuk, M Lyndin, V Sikora, Y Lyndina, S Romaniuk, K Sikora
Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent localization of malignant process in American women and women of European countries. To date it is not possible to control the morbidity growth due to lack of effective ways of primary prevention. Comparing the incidence of breast cancer in developed countries with the countries of Asia and Africa, there is the fact of population predominance lesion in more urbanized countries. This suggests that the environment along with other factors, occupies a significant place in the initiation and progression of breast neoplasia...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
Chao Tong, Fei Tian, Kai Zhao
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide studies on highland adaptation mechanism in terrestrial animal have been widely reported with few available for aquatic animals. Tibetan Schizothoracinae species are ideal model systems to study speciation and adaptation of fish. The Schizothoracine fish, Gymnocypris przewalskii ganzihonensis had underwent the ecological niche shift from salt water to freshwater, and also experienced a recent split from Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii. In addition, G. p. ganzihonensis inhabited harsh aquatic environment including low temperature and hypoxia as well as other Schizothoracinae species, its genetic mechanism of highland adaptation have yet to be determined...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
Esther Asensio, Víctor J Ferreira, Gonzalo Gil, Tatiana García-Armingol, Ana M López-Sabirón, Germán Ferreira
The environmental implications of soil salinity caused by accumulation of de-icing salt and leaching in soils of northeastern Spain were examined. For this purpose, the concentrations of ions associated with diagnosing and managing this problem were evaluated from several measurements performed over one year along a road. This analysis demonstrated a higher concentration of soluble Na⁺ in the soil 3 m from a road in the northernmost part of the study area in February, which made the soil saline-sodic. Data from the rest of the study period (during the spring and summer) demonstrated that the de-icing salt moved to areas farther south by runoff water, which caused environmental impacts by modifying soil characteristics...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yang-Er Chen, Hao-Tian Mao, Jie Ma, Nan Wu, Chao-Ming Zhang, Yan-Qiu Su, Zhong-Wei Zhang, Ming Yuan, Huai-Yu Zhang, Xian-Yin Zeng, Shu Yuan
We systematically compared the impacts of four Cr salts (chromic chloride, chromic nitrate, potassium chromate and potassium bichromate) on physiological parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence in indigenous moss Taxiphyllum taxirameum. Among the four Cr salts, K2Cr2O7 treatment resulted in the most significant decrease in photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant enzymes, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), and obvious cell death. Different form the higher plants, although hexavalent Cr(VI) salt treatments resulted in higher accumulation levels of Cr and were more toxic than Cr(III) salts, Cr(III) also induced significant changes in moss physiological parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
Ting Zhang, Shelby L Brantley, Dominique Verreault, Raja Dhankani, Steven A Corcelli, Heather Cecile Allen
The pH-induced surface speciation of organic surfactants such as fatty acids and phospholipids in monolayers and coatings is considered to be an important factor controlling their interfacial organization and properties. Yet, correctly predicting the surface speciation requires the determination of the surface dissociation constants (surface-pKa) of the protic functional group(s) present. Here, we use three independent methods, compression isotherms, surface tension pH titration, and infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) to study the protonation state of dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA) monolayers on water and NaCl solutions...
December 5, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Nienke M G Rorije, Rik H G Olde Engberink, Youssef Chahid, Naomi van Vlies, Jan P van Straalen, Bert-Jan H van den Born, Hein J Verberne, Liffert Vogt
BACKGROUND: Sodium-induced microcirculatory changes, endothelial surface layer alterations in particular, may play an important role in sodium-mediated blood pressure elevation. However, effects of acute and chronic sodium loading on the endothelial surface layer and microcirculation in humans have not been established. The objective of this study was to assess sodium-induced changes in blood pressure and body weight as primary outcomes and also in microvascular permeability, sublingual microcirculatory dimensions, and urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion in healthy subjects...
December 5, 2017: Anesthesiology
Hoang D Lu, Paradorn Rummaneethorn, Kurt D Ristroph, Robert K Prud'homme
Nanoprecipitation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to form nanocarriers (NCs) is an attractive method of producing formulations with improved stability and biological efficacies. However, nanoprecipitation techniques have not been demonstrated for highly soluble peptide therapeutics. We here present a model and technique to encapsulate highly water-soluble biologic APIs by manipulating API salt forms. APIs are ion paired with hydrophobic counterions to produce new API salts that exhibit altered solubilities suitable for nanoprecipitation processing...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
B Kullmann, M Hempel, R Thiel
This study presents a new chemical double-marking technique for European glass eels Anguilla anguilla by combing alizarin red S (ARS) and strontium chloride hexahydrate (Sr). Marked eels (double marked with ARS and Sr, but also single marked with ARS) were exposed in situ to brackish water (15 g l-1 artificial sea salt) for 14 days and did not exhibit increased mortalities compared with unmarked eels. Indeed, no mortality occurred in a marked group during the experiments. Moreover, an efficient mass-marking approach with low handling effort for both single ARS and double ARS-Sr techniques is described and was proven to be practicable for large-scale stocking programmes...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
Jianxing Song
In his Nobel Lecture, Anfinsen stated "the native conformation is determined by the totality of interatomic interactions and hence by the amino acid sequence, in a given environment." As aqueous solutions and membrane systems co-exist in cells, proteins are classified into membrane and non-membrane proteins, but whether one can transform one into the other remains unknown. Intriguingly, many well-folded non-membrane proteins are converted into "insoluble" and toxic forms by aging- or disease-associated factors, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive...
December 4, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
Taher Alizadeh
A new chromatographic procedure was proposed for the separation of propranolol (PRN) enantiomers based upon enantioselective chiral ligand-exchange chromatography. The separation was carried out on a short C8 column leading to considerably short separation time. L-alanine and Cu2+ were applied as chiral selector and central bivalent complexing ion, respectively. It was found that the kind of copper salt could influence the enantioseparation efficiency. The separation on the C8 stationary phase was more efficient than that on the C18 column...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
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