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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330219/effect-of-chlorpyrifos-on-soil-microbial-diversity-and-its-biotransformation-by-streptomyces-sp-hp-11
#1
M Supreeth, M A Chandrashekar, N Sachin, N S Raju
The application of pesticides in agricultural fields not only reaches the target pests but also with soil where it interacts with soil microorganisms resulting in change of microbial diversity. Chlorpyrifos (CP) is one such organophosphorous insecticide most widely used against various insects, termites, and beetles throughout the globe. In the present work, the effect of CP on soil microbial population was assessed by the cultivable method. The fertile soil which does not have a history of any pesticide application was treated with 100 and 200 µg/g of CP along with control which received only sterile water and incubated for 1, 7, and 14 days...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330188/purification-and-characterization-of-a-surfactant-compatible-lipase-from-aspergillus-tamarii-jgif06-exhibiting-energy-efficient-removal-of-oil-stains-from-polycotton-fabric
#2
Arijit Das, Srividya Shivakumar, Sourav Bhattacharya, Sujina Shakya, S S Swathi
An extracellular lipase with 23,666.66 U/ml/min activity was produced by Aspergillus tamarii JGIF06 under submerged fermentation in mineral salt medium containing coconut oil (2.5 % v/v), tryptone (2 % w/v) and ammonium chloride (2 % w/v), with initial pH of 5 ± 0.2, incubated at 25 °C for 7 days on a rotary shaker at 120 rpm. A 7.9-fold increase in lipase-specific activity was recorded after purification by DEAE Sepharose ion exchange and Sephadex G200 column chromatography. The apparent molecular mass of this enzyme was revealed as 50 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328039/reduction-of-metal-adducts-in-oligonucleotide-mass-spectra-in-ion-pair-reversed-phase-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#3
Robert E Birdsall, Martin Gilar, Henry Shion, Ying Qing Yu, Weibin Chen
RATIONALE: Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)-based techniques commonly used in oligonucleotide analyses are known to be sensitive to alkali metal adduct formation. Adducts directly impact the sensitivity of MS-based analyses as the available charge is distributed across the parent peak and adduct(s). The current study systematically evaluated common liquid chromatography (LC) components in LC/ESI-MS configurations used in oligonucleotide analysis to identify metal adduct contributions from LC instrumentation...
July 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328021/novel-archaeal-tetraether-lipids-with-a-cyclohexyl-ring-identified-in-fayetteville-green-lake-ny-and-other-sulfidic-lacustrine-settings
#4
Xiao-Lei Liu, Ana De Santiago Torio, Tanja Bosak, Roger Everett Summons
RATIONALE: The meromictic Fayetteville Green Lake (FGL) is of significant geobiological interest because of microbial cycling of sulfur within and below the permanent chemocline and in the euxinic deep waters. Studies of glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) may help shed light on understanding the activity of archaeal communities in these habitats. METHODS: Normal-phase and reversed-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis on total lipid extracts of environmental samples revealed series of GDGTs with different biphytane structures...
May 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327735/reverse-micelle-based-water-soluble-nanoparticles-for-simultaneous-bioimaging-and-drug-delivery
#5
Ying Chen, Yong Liu, Yongchao Yao, Shiyong Zhang, Zhongwei Gu
With special confined water pools, reverse micelles (RMs) have shown potential for a wide range of applications. However, the inherent water-insolubility of RMs hinders their further application prospects, especially for applications related to biology. We recently reported the first successful transfer of RMs from organic media to an aqueous phase without changing the smart water pools by the hydrolysis of an arm-cleavable interfacial cross-linked reverse micelles. Herein, we employed another elaborate amphiphile 1 to construct new acrylamide-based cross-linked water-soluble nanoparticles (ACW-NPs) under much gentler conditions...
March 22, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327537/synthesis-characterization-and-the-antioxidant-activity-of-double-quaternized-chitosan-derivatives
#6
Lijie Wei, Qing Li, Wenqiang Tan, Fang Dong, Fang Luan, Zhanyong Guo
With the specialty of improving the water solubility of chitosan, quaternary ammonium salts have broadened the application of this polysaccharide in food, medicine and pesticides. To identify the effect of quaternary ammonium salts' quantity, single quaternized chitosan N-phenmethyl-N,N-dimethyl chitosan (PDCS), double quaternized chitosan N-(1-pyridylmethyl-2-ylmethyl)-N,N-dimethyl chitosan (MP2MDCS), N-(1-pyridylmethyl-3-ylmethyl)-N,N-dimethyl chitosan (MP3MDCS), and N-(1-pyridylmethyl-4-ylmethyl)-N,N-dimethyl chitosan (MP4MDCS) were designed and synthesized successfully through chemical modification of chitosan...
March 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324869/applications-of-high-pressure-to-pre-rigor-rabbit-muscles-affect-the-functional-properties-associated-with-heat-induced-gelation
#7
Siwen Xue, Huijuan Yang, Rui Liu, Chang Qian, Mengyao Wang, Yufeng Zou, Xinglian Xu, Guanghong Zhou
High pressure (HP) was applied to pre-rigor rabbit muscles (PRRMs) for the manufacture of value-added gel-type products. A 2×3 factorial design was adopted for HP-treatment (100, 200 and 300MPa for 15 or 180s) to PRRMs. The HP-treated meat was used for gel preparation and determination of water mobility properties and textural profiles. Salt-soluble meat proteins (SSMP) were then extracted from meat for estimating the tertiary conformational changes (hydrophobic and sulfhydryl groups). The water-holding capacity of treated samples increased significantly (P<0...
March 10, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324838/influence-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-on-the-effects-of-roxithromycin-in-crucian-carp-carassius-auratus-in-the-presence-of-natural-organic-matter
#8
Zhenhua Yan, Guanghua Lu, Hongwei Sun, Binni Ma
Carbon nanotubes are increasingly entering the aquatic environment and may interact with other co-existing contaminants, such as antibiotics. However, whether these interactions may affect their bioavailability in aquatic organisms is the subject of considerable debate. The primary objective of this study was to assess the risks arising from the coexistence of roxithromycin (ROX) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in waters containing natural organic matter (NOM), focusing on the distribution and bioaccumulation of ROX in crucian carp (Carassius auratus), and the related biochemical status...
March 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324648/influence-of-modern-stormwater-management-practices-on-transport-of-road-salt-to-surface-waters
#9
Joel W Snodgrass, Joel Moore, Steven M Lev, Ryan E Casey, David R Ownby, Robert F Flora, Grant Izzo
Application of road salts in regions with colder climates is leading to ground and surface water contamination. However, we know little about how modern stormwater management practices affect the movement of road salt through urban watersheds. We investigated groundwater contamination and transport of road salts at two stormwater ponds in Baltimore County, Maryland. In association with the ponds, we documented a plume of contaminated groundwater that resulted in Cl- loadings to the adjacent stream of 6,574 to 40,008 kg Cl- per winter, depending on winter snowfall...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322950/pectin-blended-anionic-polysaccharide-films-for-cationic-contaminant-sorption-from-water
#10
Mei Li, Gisela Buschle-Diller
Substantial amounts of industrial, agricultural, medical and domestic water worldwide are polluted by different types of contaminants. Removing these contaminants from effluent by adsorbent materials made from abundant, inexpensive polysaccharides is a feasible and promising approach to deal with this problem. In the present study, pectin blended with four other types of anionic polysaccharides, including alginate, carrageenan, xylan and xanthan, were crosslinked with zinc acetate and formed into thin films...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320855/salt-sensitivity-of-angiogenesis-inhibition-induced-blood-pressure-rise-role-of-interstitial-sodium-accumulation
#11
Stephanie Lankhorst, David Severs, Lajos Markó, Natalia Rakova, Jens Titze, Dominik N Müller, A H Jan Danser, Anton H van den Meiracker
In response to salt loading, Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulate in the skin in excess of water, stimulating skin lymphangiogenesis via activation of the mononuclear phagocyte system cell-derived vascular endothelial growth factor-C-vascular endothelial growth factor type 3 receptor signaling pathway. Inhibition of this pathway results in salt-sensitive hypertension. Sunitinib is an antiangiogenic, anticancer agent that blocks all 3 vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and increases blood pressure. We explored the salt dependency of sunitinib-induced hypertension and whether impairment of skin lymphangiogenesis is an underlying mechanism...
March 20, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319861/different-salt-concentrations-induce-alterations-both-in-photosynthetic-parameters-and-salt-gland-activity-in-leaves-of-the-mangrove-avicennia-schaueriana
#12
Janaina Dos Santos Garcia, Ândrea Carla Dalmolin, Marcel Giovanni Costa França, Pedro Antônio Oliveira Mangabeira
Mangrove sites are constantly under tidal regimes, where there is variation of dissolved oxygen and saline content in water. This study evaluated the effects of varying salinity in Avicennia schaueriana, an abundant species in the sea-mangrove-river interface. Seedlings of A. schaueriana were harvested at the riverbank and placed in different saline and nutrient solutions in a greenhouse in order to simulate a saline flow. After 7 acclimatization days, plants were exposed to the following saline concentrations: 0, 50, 170 and 250mM NaCl, for a period of 30 days...
March 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319400/playing-with-emulsion-formulation-to-control-the-perforation-of-a-freely-expanding-liquid-sheet
#13
Clara Vernay, Laurence Ramos, Alois Würger, Christian Ligoure
A single-drop experiment based on the collision of one drop of liquid on a small solid target is used to produce liquid sheets that are visualized with a fast camera. Upon impact, the drop flattens into a sheet that is bounded by a thicker rim and radially expanding in air. Emulsion-based liquid sheets are destabilized through the nucleation of holes that perforate the sheet during its expansion. The holes grow until they merge together and form a web of ligaments, which are then destabilized into drops. We propose the perforation mechanism as a sequence of two necessary steps...
March 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319278/how-does-ceiii-nitrate-dissolve-in-a-protic-ionic-liquid-a-combined-molecular-dynamics-and-exafs-study
#14
Paola D'Angelo, Valentina Migliorati, Alessandra Serva, Riccardo Spezia
A diluted solution of Ce(NO₃)₃ in the protic ionic liquid (IL) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) is investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. For the first time polarizable effects are included in the MD force field to describe a heavy metal ion in a protic IL, but, unlike water, they are found to be unessential. The CeIII ion first solvation shell is formed by nitrate ions arranged in an icosahedral structure, and an equilibrium between monodentate and bidentate ligands is present in the solution...
March 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318566/automated-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-coupled-to-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-cold-vapour-atomic-fluorescence-spectroscopy-for-the-determination-of-mercury-species-in-natural-water-samples
#15
Yao-Min Liu, Feng-Ping Zhang, Bao-Yu Jiao, Jin-Yu Rao, Geng Leng
An automated, home-constructed, and low cost dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) device that directly coupled to a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) - cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS) system was designed and developed for the determination of trace concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg(+)), ethylmercury (EtHg(+)) and inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) in natural waters. With a simple, miniaturized and efficient automated DLLME system, nanogram amounts of these mercury species were extracted from natural water samples and injected into a hyphenated HPLC-CVAFS for quantification...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318268/mechanistic-insights-into-the-directed-assembly-of-hydrogel-blocks-mediated-by-polyelectrolytes-or-microgels
#16
Nicolas Hanauer, Pierre Luc Latreille, Xavier Banquy
In this study, we report the directed assembly of hydrogel blocks mediated by electrostatic interactions. We compared two different assembly mechanisms, one mediated by microgel particles and another mediated by direct interaction between oppositely charged blocks. The system consisted in hydrogel blocks made of an interpenetrated network of (hydroxyethyl)methacrylate-poly(ethyleneglycol)dimethacrylate (HEMA-PEGDMA) and either positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) or negatively charged hyaluronic acid (HA)...
March 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317258/centrifugeless-ultrasound-assisted-emulsification-microextraction-based-on-salting-out-phenomenon-followed-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-the-simple-determination-of-phthalate-esters-in-aqueous-samples
#17
Ehsan Mirparizi, Maryam Rajabi, Mohammad Bazregar, Alireza Asghari
A fast, sensitive, and centrifugeless ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography method is developed for the determination of some phthalate esters in aqueous samples. In this method, a simple approach is followed for elimination of the centrifugation step in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using an organic solvent whose melting point is near the ambient temperature, consumption of the extracting solvent is efficiently reduced, and the overall extraction time was found to be only 7 min...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317121/divergence-in-physiological-factors-affecting-swimming-performance-between-anadromous-and-resident-populations-of-brook-charr-salvelinus-fontinalis
#18
A Crespel, A Dupont-Prinet, L Bernatchez, G Claireaux, R Tremblay, C Audet
In this study, an anadromous strain (L) and a freshwater-resident (R) strain of brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis as well as their reciprocal hybrids, were reared in a common environment and submitted to swimming tests combined with salinity challenges. The critical swimming speeds (Ucrit ) of the different crosses were measured in both fresh (FW) and salt water (SW) and the variations in several physiological traits (osmotic, energetic and metabolic capacities) that are predicted to influence swimming performance were documented...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317055/electronic-and-relativistic-contributions-to-ion-pairing-in-polyoxometalate-model-systems
#19
Dylan J Sures, Stefano A Serapian, Károly Kozma, Pedro I Molina, Carles Bo, May Nyman
Ion pairs and solubility related to ion-pairing in water influence many processes in nature and in synthesis including efficient drug delivery, contaminant transport in the environment, and self-assembly of materials in water. Ion pairs are difficult to observe spectroscopically because they generally do not persist unless extreme solution conditions are applied. Here we demonstrate two advanced techniques coupled with computational studies that quantify the persistence of ion pairs in simple solutions and offer explanations for observed solubility trends...
March 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316939/application-of-established-pathophysiologic-processes-brings-greater-clarity-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia
#20
EDITORIAL
John K Maesaka, Louis J Imbriano, Nobuyuki Miyawaki
Hyponatremia, serum sodium < 135 mEq/L, is the most common electrolyte abnormality and is in a state of flux. Hyponatremic patients are symptomatic and should be treated but our inability to consistently determine the causes of hyponatremia has hampered the delivery of appropriate therapy. This is especially applicable to differentiating syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) from cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or more appropriately, renal salt wasting (RSW), because of divergent therapeutic goals, to water-restrict in SIAD and administer salt and water in RSW...
March 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
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