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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823069/current-status-of-cattle-production-system-in-nyagatare-district-rwanda
#1
Eugene Mazimpaka, Francis Mbuza, Tukei Michael, Eugene N Gatari, E M Bukenya, Okwee-Acai James
A study was conducted to characterize the cattle production systems in Nyagatare District, Eastern Province of Rwanda using pre-tested questionnaires, interviews with key informants as well as focus group discussions in a period of 2 months. The respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling at sector and cell levels. Based on the procedure of Krejcie and Morgan (Educational and Psychological Measurement 30:607-610, 1970) to determine the overall sample size, the result indicated that the majority (98.3%) of farms were privately owned by large families of five to seven members, and most farmers (53...
August 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823058/polyurethane-gelatin-nanofibrils-neural-guidance-conduit-containing-platelet-rich-plasma-and-melatonin-for-transplantation-of-schwann-cells
#2
Majid Salehi, Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mohammdreza Nourani, Arash Khojasteh, Saeed Farzamfar, Korosh Mansouri, Jafar Ai
The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using a biodegradable porous neural guidance conduit as a carrier to transplant allogeneic Schwann cells (SCs). The conduit was prepared from polyurethane (PU) and gelatin nanofibrils (GNFs) using thermally induced phase separation technique and filled with melatonin (MLT) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The prepared conduit had the porosity of 87.17 ± 1.89%, the contact angle of 78.17 ± 5.30° and the ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus of 5...
August 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822933/occurrence-of-vibrio-species-beta-lactam-resistant-vibrio-species-and-indicator-bacteria-in-ballast-and-port-waters-of-a-tropical-harbor
#3
Charmaine Ng, Shin Giek Goh, Nazanin Saeidi, William A Gerhard, Claudia K Gunsch, Karina Yew Hoong Gin
Ballast water discharges are potential sources for the spread of invasive and pathogenic aquatic organisms. Ballast waters from six ships docked in the Port of Singapore were tested to determine if indictor organisms fell within proposed standards for ballast water discharge according to regulation D-2 of the Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC) guidelines. Vibrio species were cultured on media supplemented with beta-lactam antibiotics to determine the presence of antibiotic resistant Vibrio species in the ballast waters of these vessels...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822306/xyloglucan-endotransglucosylase-hydrolases-xths-are-inactivated-by-binding-to-glass-and-cellulosic-surfaces-and-released-in-active-form-by-a-heat-stable-polymer-from-cauliflower-florets
#4
Sandra C Sharples, Tu C Nguyen-Phan, Stephen C Fry
Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity, which cuts and re-joins hemicellulose chains in the plant cell wall, contributing to wall assembly and growth regulation, is the major activity of XTH proteins. During purification, XTHs often lose XET activity which, however, is restored by treatment with certain cold-water-extractable, heat-stable polymers (CHPs), e.g. from cauliflower florets. It was not known whether the XTH-activating factor (XAF) present in CHPs works by promoting (e.g. allosterically) XET activity or by re-solubilising sequestered XTH proteins...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821801/experimental-study-of-rheological-properties-and-oil-displacement-efficiency-in-oilfields-for-a-synthetic-hydrophobically-modified-polymer
#5
Pengcheng Liu, Zhenbao Mu, Chao Wang, Yanling Wang
In a previous study, we developed a synthetic hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) using bromododecane (BD), which we denote as BD-HMHEC. In this work, we continually investigate the rheological properties and its oil displacement efficiency in PuTao well area in Daqing oilfields, China. Results show that BD-HMHEC solution has good viscosification, thermal-resistance, salt-tolerance, shear resistance, and acid/alkali resistance. The storage modulus (G') and the loose modulus (G") of the BD-HMHEC solutions increase significantly with increasing BD-HMHEC concentration, and the solution becomes viscoelastic at a sufficiently high BD-HMHEC concentration...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821117/chitosan-based-thin-active-layer-membrane-for-forward-osmosis-desalination
#6
Alireza Shakeri, Hasan Salehi, Masoud Rastgar
A novel hydrophilic chitosan-based thin active layer membrane was elaborately fabricated through a facile method and its performance was studied in forward osmosis (FO) desalination process. Chitosan (CS) was interfacially polymerized with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) monomer on the surface of sulfonated polyethersulfone-polyethersulfone (SPES-PES) support layer. Two different procedures were employed to incorporate CS into the membrane thin active layer structure. The solutions containing different CS concentrations (from 0...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821056/fabrication-of-salecan-poly-amps-co-hmaa-semi-ipn-hydrogels-for-cell-adhesion
#7
Xinyu Hu, Yongmei Wang, Liangliang Zhang, Man Xu, Wei Dong, Jianfa Zhang
Salecan is a novel water-soluble extracellular β-glucan and has excellent physicochemical and biological properties. A series of hydrogels were fabricated from Salecan and poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide) (poly(AMPS-co-HMAA), PAH) by semi-IPN technique. The introduction of Salecan into the PAH network endows the system with enhanced cell adhesion properties. These semi-IPN hydrogels with open interconnected pores had pH and salt-sensitive swelling behavior. The increase in the content of hydrophilic Salecan could enhance the water uptake of the hydrogels...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820993/changing-profiles-of-bound-water-content-and-distribution-in-the-activated-sludge-treatment-by-nacl-addition-and-ph-modification
#8
Dong-Qin He, Ying-Jie Zhang, Chuan-Shu He, Han-Qing Yu
Currently the dewatering of activated sludge from wastewater treatment plants is a problem not well solved. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS), are highly hydrated biopolymers and play important roles in sludge dewatering. In the present work, two types of treatments, i.e., salt addition and pH modification, were proposed to evaluate the effects of bound water content and its distribution on the dewatering performance of activated sludge...
August 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820922/a-self-assembling-peptide-gel-as-a-vitreous-substitute-a-rabbit-study
#9
Koji Uesugi, Hirokazu Sakaguchi, Yasutaka Hayashida, Ryuhei Hayashi, Koichi Baba, Yuya Suganuma, Hidenori Yokoi, Motokazu Tsujikawa, Kohji Nishida
Purpose: To evaluate a self-assembling peptide gel as a potential vitreous substitute. Methods: PanaceaGel SPG-178, a self-assembling peptide gel, was diluted with distilled water and a balanced salt solution to achieve a final peptide concentration of 0.1%. The gel's refractive index, visible light transmission rate, and rheologic properties were investigated. The gel's biocompatibility was evaluated by examining the cellular viability (live and dead staining) and proliferation rate (alamarBlue assay)...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820214/mediated-water-electrolysis-in-biphasic-systems
#10
Micheál D Scanlon, Pekka Peljo, Lucie Rivier, Heron Vrubel, Hubert H Girault
The concept of efficient electrolysis by linking photoelectrochemical biphasic H2 evolution and water oxidation processes in the cathodic and anodic compartments of an H-cell, respectively, is introduced. Overpotentials at the cathode and anode are minimised by incorporating light-driven elements into both biphasic reactions. The concepts viability is demonstrated by electrochemical H2 production from water splitting utilising a polarised water-organic interface in the cathodic compartment of a prototype H-cell...
August 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819714/utilization-of-waste-bittern-from-saltern-as-a-source-for-magnesium-and-an-absorbent-for-carbon-dioxide-capture
#11
Choon-Ki Na, Hyunju Park, Eun Hea Jho
During solar salt production, large quantities of bittern, a liquid by-product containing high inorganic substance concentrations, are produced. The purpose of this research was to examine the utilization of waste bittern generated from salterns as a source for Mg production and as an absorbent for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. The study was conducted in a sequential two-step process. At NaOH/Mg molar ratios of 2.70-2.75 and pH 9.5-10.0, > 99% Mg precipitation from the bittern was achieved. After washing with water, 100-120 g/L of precipitate containing 94% Mg(OH)2 was recovered from the bittern...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819663/rheological-characterization-of-yield-stress-gels-formed-via-electrostatic-heteroaggregation-of-metal-oxide-nanoparticles
#12
Javen S Weston, Jeffrey H Harwell, Brian P Grady
Mixtures of fumed fractal metal oxide nanoparticles (np's) dispersed in water, at a solution pH where one species is positively charged and the other is negatively charged, form yield stress gels at volume fractions as low as 1.5%, due to electrostatic heteroaggregation into networks as confirmed by small-angle neutron scattering. These gels exhibit a measurable yield stress and an apparent viscosity that follows a power law relationship with shear rate. Rotational and oscillatory shear rheology is presented for binary mixtures of fumed silica, fumed alumina, and fumed titania in aqueous dispersions...
August 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818744/cytotoxic-genotoxic-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-caffeic-and-rosmarinic-acids-and-their-lithium-sodium-and-potassium-salts-as-potential-anticancer-compounds
#13
Marzena Matejczyk, Renata Świsłocka, Aleksandra Golonko, Włodzimierz Lewandowski, Eliza Hawrylik
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic, genotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of caffeic and rosmarinic acids and their salts with Li, Na and K with use of Escherichia coli K-12 recA:gfp strain as a model organism. METHODS: Cytotoxic potency of tested chemicals were calculated on the basis on the dose that confers inhibition percentage such as 20% for each concentrations of analysed chemicals. Genotoxic properties were calculated on the basis of the fold increase (FI) of SFI values normalized with control...
August 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818328/deep-eutectic-solvent-based-ultrasound-assisted-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-coupled-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-the-determination-of-ultraviolet-filters-in-water-samples
#14
Huazi Wang, Lu Hu, Xinya Liu, Shujun Yin, Runhua Lu, Sanbing Zhang, Wenfeng Zhou, Haixiang Gao
In the present study, a simple and rapid sample preparation method designated ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on a deep eutectic solvent (DES) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (UV) detection (HPLC-UVD) was developed for the extraction and determination of UV filters from water samples. The model analytes were 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone (BP) and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3). The hydrophobic DES was prepared by mixing trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TAC) and decanoic acid (DecA)...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816050/coarse-grained-model-of-the-dynamics-of-electrolyte-solutions
#15
Marat Andreev, Alexandros Chremos, Juan de Pablo, Jack F Douglas
Ion-specific solvation has fundamental implications in biochemistry, and the thermodynamics and dynamics of aqueous salt solutions have correspondingly been investigated intensively. Nonetheless, there are fundamental unresolved issues in modeling the dynamics of aqueous salt solutions and the related problem of polymers dissolved in these solutions. In particular, experiments show that the self-diffusion coefficient, D, of water molecules in electrolyte solutions can be either enhanced or suppressed by particular salts having the same valence where the observed changes correlate with the Hofmeister series governing the relative solubility of proteins and water-soluble polymers in the same salt solutions...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816048/bile-salt-like-dienones-having-a-novel-skeleton-or-a-rare-substitution-pattern-function-as-chemical-cues-in-adult-sea-lamprey
#16
Ke Li, Anne M Scott, Cory O Brant, Skye D Fissette, Joseph J Riedy, Thomas R Hoye, Weiming Li
Two novel sulfated bile salt-like dienones, featuring either a unique, rearranged side chain or a rare cis-11,12-diol on the steroidal C-ring, herein named petromyzene A (1) and B (2), respectively, were isolated from water conditioned with spawning male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus; a jawless vertebrate animal). The structures of these natural products were elucidated by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Petromyzenes A and B exhibited high olfactory potency for adult sea lamprey and strong behavioral attraction for spawning females...
August 17, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815882/application-of-chitosan-microparticles-for-mitigation-of-salmonella-in-agricultural-water
#17
Ying Fan, Amber Ginn, M Kang, Kwang Cheol Jeong, Anita C Wright
AIM: The activity of chitosan microparticles (CM) was examined using a matrix of conditions in order to assess the efficacy of CM as a mitigation against various strains of Salmonella enterica in agricultural water. METHODS AND RESULTS: Different concentrations of CM (0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3% w/v) were examined for antimicrobial activity against log vs. stationary phase cells of Salmonella and at different conditions of temperature, salinity, and pH. Results showed greatest activity with 0...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813008/dietary-fructose-enhances-the-ability-of-low-concentrations-of-angiotensin-ii-to-stimulate-proximal-tubule-na%C3%A2-%C2%BA-reabsorption
#18
Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente, Pablo D Cabral, Nancy J Hong, Jessica Asirwatham, Nianxin Yang, Jessica M Berthiaume, Fernando P Dominici, Jeffrey L Garvin
Fructose-enriched diets cause salt-sensitive hypertension. Proximal tubules (PTs) reabsorb 70% of the water and salt filtered through the glomerulus. Angiotensin II (Ang II) regulates this process. Normally, dietary salt reduces Ang II allowing the kidney to excrete more salt, thereby preventing hypertension. We hypothesized that fructose-enriched diets enhance the ability of low concentrations of Ang II to stimulate PT transport. We measured the effects of a low concentration of Ang II (10(-12) mol/L) on transport-related oxygen consumption (QO₂), and Na/K-ATPase and Na/H-exchange (NHE) activities and expression in PTs from rats consuming tap water (Control) or 20% fructose (FRUC)...
August 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812356/single-molecule-nanopore-spectrometry-for-peptide-detection
#19
Amy E Chavis, Kyle T Brady, Grace A Hatmaker, Christopher E Angevine, Nuwan Kothalawala, Amala Dass, Joseph W F Robertson, Joseph E Reiner
Sensing and characterization of water-soluble peptides is of critical importance in a wide variety of bioapplications. Single molecule nanopore spectrometry (SMNS) is based on the idea that one can use biological protein nanopores to resolve different sized molecules down to limits set by the blockade duration and noise. Previous work has shown that this enables discrimination between polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules that differ by a single monomer unit. This paper describes efforts to extend SMNS to a variety of biologically relevant, water-soluble peptides...
August 16, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812090/zero-charged-catanionic-lamellar-liquid-crystals-doped-with-fullerene-c60-for-potential-applications-in-tribology
#20
Mengjun Chen, Baoyong Liu, Xiaolin Wang, Yanxu Fu, Jingcheng Hao, Hongguang Li
The formation of lamellar liquid crystals (LLCs) has been demonstrated in a few salt-free catanionic surfactant systems and their properties have been well documented. However, examples of their combination with other materials are relatively rare. Herein, a salt-free zero-charged catanionic surfactant with low chain melting temperature was prepared by mixing equimolar tetradecyltrimethylammonium oxide (TTAOH) and oleic acid (OA) in water, and its concentration-dependent aggregate transition was investigated...
August 16, 2017: Soft Matter
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