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Salt water

Zhangtao Li, Lu Wang, Jun Meng, Xingmei Liu, Jianming Xu, Fan Wang, Philip Brookes
Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) has a high adsorption capacity for heavy metals, but it forms aggregates easily. In this study, zeolite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (Z-NZVI) was synthesized from a simplified liquid-phase reduction of iron(III) salts which simultaneously adsorbed As(III), Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution and soil. Scanning electron micrographs showed that aggregation was eliminated and the NZVI evenly dispersed onto the surface of zeolite. FTIR spectra reveal that NZVI was protected from oxidization on the surface of Z-NZVI...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Li Tang, Arpita Iddya, Xiaobo Zhu, Alexander V Dudchenko, Wenyan Duan, Craig Turchi, Johan Vanneste, Tzahi Y Cath, David Jassby
The desalination of inland brackish groundwater offers the opportunity to provide potable drinking water to residents and industrial cooling water to industries located in arid regions. Geothermal brines are used to generate electricity, but often contain high concentrations of dissolved salt. Here, we demonstrate how the residual heat left in spent geothermal brines can be used to drive a membrane distillation (MD) process and recover desalinated water. Porous polypropylene membranes were coated with a carbon nanotube (CNT)/poly (vinyl alcohol) layer, resulting in composite membranes having a binary structure that combines the hydrophobic properties critical for MD with the hydrophilic and conductive properties of the CNTs...
October 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Federica Veronese, Elisa Zavattaro, Pamela Farinelli, Enrico Colombo, Paola Savoia
Introduction.Mycobacterium marinum is a non-tubercular mycobacterium residing in fresh or salt water (in tropical or temperate areas); it is a fish and human pathogen, and in immunocompromised patients can cause severe cutaneous and subcutaneous infections. Case presentation. A 46-year-old white man who underwent immunosuppressive therapy was admitted to our department in May 2016 for skin lesions previously diagnosed as 'unusual erysipelas'. We rejected the hypothesis of erysipelas, due to the clinical features, and our diagnostic hypotheses were oriented towards sporotrichosis, atypical mycobacteriosis, cutaneous tuberculosis and cutaneous sarcoidosis...
April 2017: JMM Case Reports
Monice M Fiume, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of diethanolamine and its salts as used in cosmetics. Diethanolamine functions as a pH adjuster; the 16 salts included in this rereview reportedly function as surfactants, emulsifying agents, viscosity increasing agents, hair or skin conditioning agents, foam boosters, or antistatic agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous CIR reports. Since data were not available for each individual ingredient, and since the salts dissociate freely in water, the Panel extrapolated from previous reports to support safety...
September 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
Maristella De Cicco, Lech-G Milroy, Sonja A Dames
Increased efforts have been undertaken to better understand the formation of signaling complexes at cellular membranes. Since the preparation of proteins containing a transmembrane domain or a prenylation motif is generally challenging an alternative membrane anchoring unit that is easy to attach, water-soluble and binds to different membrane mimetics would find broad application. The 33-residue long FATC domain of yeast TOR1 (y1fatc) fulfills these criteria and binds to neutral and negatively charged micelles, bicelles and liposomes...
October 12, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Mingwei Zhu, Yiju Li, Guang Chen, Feng Jiang, Zhi Yang, Xiaoguang Luo, Yanbin Wang, Steven D Lacey, Jiaqi Dai, Chengwei Wang, Chao Jia, Jiayu Wan, Yonggang Yao, Amy Gong, Bao Yang, Zongfu Yu, Siddhartha Das, Liangbing Hu
The solar steam process, akin to the natural water cycle, is considered to be an attractive approach to address water scarcity issues globally. However, water extraction from groundwater, for example, has not been demonstrated using these existing technologies. Additionally, there are major unaddressed challenges in extracting potable water from seawater including salt accumulation and long-term evaporation stability, which warrant further investigation. Herein, a high-performance solar steam device composed entirely of natural wood is reported...
October 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
Mizuki Takeuchi, Shinji Kajimoto, Takakazu Nakabayashi
We report direct observation of a spatial distribution of water molecules inside of a living cell using Raman images of the O-H stretching band of water. The O-H Raman intensity of the nucleus was higher than that of the cytoplasm, indicating that the water density is higher in the nucleus than that in the cytoplasm. The shape of the O-H stretching band of the nucleus differed from that of the cytoplasm but was similar to that of the balanced salt solution surrounding cells, indicating less crowded environments in the nucleus...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Marios Michailidis, Ioritz Sorzabal-Bellido, Evanthia Adamidou, Yuri Antonio Diaz-Fernandez, Jenny Louise Aveyard, Reut Wengier, Dmitry O Grigoriev, Rasmita Raval, Yehuda Benayahu, Raechelle D'Sa, Dmitry G Shchukin
Application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as antifouling/antibacterial carriers is limited and specifically with dual synergetic effect. In the present work, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) modified with quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) and loaded with the biocide Parmetol S15 were synthesised as functional fillers for antifouling/antibacterial coatings. From the family of the mesoporous silica nanoparticles, MCM-48 was selected as a carrier due to its cubic pore structure, high surface area and high specific pore volume...
October 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Akihiro Yamauchi, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Teruhide Koyama, Nobuyoshi Iinuma, Shumpei Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Miyazaki, Eiichi Hirano, Taiichi Kaku, Takayuki Shindo
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of fatty liver disease that is defined by the presence of inflammation and fibrosis, ultimately leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment with human placental extract (HPE) reportedly ameliorates the hepatic injury. We evaluated the effect of HPE treatment in a mouse model of NASH. In the methione- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced liver injury model, fibrosis started from regions adjacent to the sinusoids. We administered the MCD diet with high-salt loading (8% NaCl in the drinking water) to mice deficient in the vasoprotective molecule RAMP2 for 5 weeks, with or without HPE...
September 2017: Heliyon
Lijuan Niu, Jian Yu, Weibiao Liao, Jihua Yu, Meiling Zhang, Mohammed M Dawuda
Osmotic stress is a major form of abiotic stress that adversely affects growth and development of plants and subsequently reduces yield and quality of crops. In this study, the effect of nitric oxide (NO) and calcium (Ca(2+)) on the process of adventitious rooting in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under simulated osmotic stress was investigated. The results revealed that the effect of exogenous NO and Ca(2+) in promoting the development of adventitious roots in cucumber seedlings under simulated osmotic stress was dose-dependent, with a maximal biological response at 10 μM NO donor nitroprusside (SNP) or 200 μM Ca(2+)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Akifumi Hosoda, Yuta Isomura, Syungo Takeo, Takuho Onai, Kazutaka Takeuchi, Minoru Toda, Hiroto Tamura
It is important to construct microbiological treatment systems for organic solvent-contaminated water. We developed a continuous culture supplemented with a biostimulation agent named BD-C, which is formulated from canola oil, and Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain GJ10 for an aerobic dichloromethane (DCM)-dechlorinating microorganism. The continuous culture was a chemostat constructed using a 1 L screw-capped bottle containing artificial wastewater medium with 2.0 mM DCM and 1.0% (v/v) BD-C. The expression of genes for DCM metabolism in the dechlorinating aerobe was monitored and analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Annette Taugbøl, Anna B Mazzarella, Emily R A Cramer, Terje Laskemoen
Phenotypic expression may be and often is influenced by an organism's developmental environment, referred to as phenotypic plasticity. The sperm cells of teleosts have been found to be inactive in the seminal plasma and are activated by osmotic shock for most fish species, through release in either hypertonic (for marine fish) or hypotonic (for freshwater fish) water. If this is the case, the regulatory system of sperm mobility should be reversed in salt- and freshwater fish. We tested this hypothesis by first activating sperm of salt- and freshwater populations of threespine stickleback in salt- and freshwater...
October 2017: Biology Letters
Qingjie Guan, Xu Liao, Mingliang He, Xiufeng Li, Zhenyu Wang, Haiyan Ma, Song Yu, Shenkui Liu
The 636-bp-long cDNA sequence of OsCu/Zn-SOD (AK059841) was cloned from Oryza sativa var. Longjing11 via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The encoded protein comprised of 211 amino acids is highly homologous to Cu/Zn-SOD proteins from tuscacera rice and millet. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that in rice, the level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression was lowest in roots and was highest in petals and during the S5 leaf stage. Moreover, the expression level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression decreased during the L5 leaf stage to maturity...
2017: PloS One
Wisit Hirunpinyopas, Eric Prestat, Stephen D Worrall, Sarah J Haigh, Robert A W Dryfe, Mark A Bissett
Laminar membranes of two-dimensional materials are excellent candidates for applications in water filtration due to the formation of nanocapillaries between individual crystals that can exhibit a molecular and ionic sieving effect, while allowing high water flux. This approach has been exemplified previously with graphene oxide, however these membranes suffer from swelling when exposed to liquid water, leading to low salt rejection and reducing their applicability for desalination applications. Here, we demonstrate that by producing thin (~5 µm) laminar membranes of exfoliated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in a straightforward and scalable process, followed by a simple chemical functionalization step, we can efficiently reject (~99%) of the ions commonly found in sea water, while maintaining water fluxes significantly higher (~5 times) than those reported for graphene oxide membranes...
October 11, 2017: ACS Nano
Alexandra Pontefract, Ting F Zhu, Virginia K Walker, Holli Hepburn, Clarissa Lui, Maria T Zuber, Gary Ruvkun, Christopher E Carr
Life can persist under severe osmotic stress and low water activity in hypersaline environments. On Mars, evidence for the past presence of saline bodies of water is prevalent and resulted in the widespread deposition of sulfate and chloride salts. Here we investigate Spotted Lake (British Columbia, Canada), a hypersaline lake with extreme (>3 M) levels of sulfate salts as an exemplar of the conditions thought to be associated with ancient Mars. We provide the first characterization of microbial structure in Spotted Lake sediments through metagenomic sequencing, and report a bacteria-dominated community with abundant Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, as well as diverse extremophiles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Li Ma, Anatol Manaenko, Yi-Bo Ou, An-Wen Shao, Shu-Xu Yang, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke with highest mortality and morbidity. Pronounced inflammation plays a significant role in the development of the secondary brain injury after ICH. Recently, SIK-2 (salt-inducible kinase-2) was identified as an important component controlling inflammatory response. Here we sought to investigate the role of SIK-2 in post-ICH inflammation and potential protective effects of SIK-2 inhibition after ICH. METHODS: Two hundred and ninety-three male CD-1 mice were used...
October 10, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Clitor J F Souza, Angélica R da Costa, Clyselen F Souza, Fernanda Fogagnoli Simas Tosin, Edwin E Garcia-Rojas
The complexation between lysozyme and pectin was studied by acidification using zeta potential, turbidity measurements and calorimetry titration. The complexes were analyzed in various NaCl concentrations with different ratios. At ratio 1:1 with 0.01M NaCl, is worth mentioning that the insoluble complexes were formed between pH 2.0 and 7.0, which represents a great range to apply this complex to different food matrices. When the ratio was increased from 1:1 to 3:1, the pH range between the pHφ1 and pHφ2 increased even more...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Frances Camille Masim-Wu, Cheng-Hsien Tsai, Yi-Feng Lin, Ming-Lai Fu, Minghua Liu, Fei Kang, Ya-Fen Wang
The increasing number of bacteria-related problems and presence of trace amounts of phosphate in treated wastewater effluents have been become a growing concern in environmental research. The use of antibacterial agents and phosphate adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater effluents are of great importance. In this study, the potential applications of a synthesized PANI-ZrO2composite as an antibacterial, phosphate adsorbent and anti-corrosion material were systematically investigated. The results of an antibacterial test reveal an effective area of inhibition of 14 and 18 mm for the E...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Technology
Senjuti Sen, Joydeep Chakraborty, Prithwi Ghosh, Debabrata Basu, Sampa Das
Drought and salinity are the two major environmental constraints that severely affect global agricultural productivity. Plant-specific HD-Zip transcription factors are involved in plant growth, development and stress responses. In the present study, we explored the functional characteristics and regulation of a novel HD-Zip (I) gene from chickpea, CaHDZ12, in response to water-deficit and salt-stress conditions. Transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing CaHDZ12 exhibited improved tolerance to osmotic stresses and increased sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA)...
September 11, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yong-Wei Yan, Bin Zou, Ting Zhu, Wael N Hozzein, Zhe-Xue Quan
RNA-seq-based SSU (small subunit) rRNA (ribosomal RNA) analysis has provided a better understanding of potentially active microbial community within environments. However, for RNA-seq library construction, high quantities of purified RNA are typically required. We propose a modified RNA-seq method for SSU rRNA-based microbial community analysis that depends on the direct ligation of a 5' adaptor to RNA before reverse-transcription. The method requires only a low-input quantity of RNA (10-100 ng) and does not require a DNA removal step...
2017: PloS One
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