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Hyponatremia physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780935/incidence-and-physiological-mechanism-of-carboplatin-induced-electrolyte-abnormality-among-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Yushui Ma, Likun Hou, Fei Yu, Xiaoming Zhong, Gaixia Lu, Shanshan Qin, Ruting Xie, Huiqiong Yang, Tingmiao Wu, Pei Luo, Chengyou Jia, Li Chai, Haidong Cai, Zhongwei Lv, Chunyan Wu, Da Fu
To clarify the association between carboplatin and electrolyte abnormality, a pooled-analysis was performed with the adverse event reports of non-small cell lung cancer patients. A total of 19901 adverse events were retrieved from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Pooled reporting odds ratios (RORs) and 95% CIs suggested that carboplatin was significantly associated with hyponatremia (pooled ROR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.18-2.09, P = 1.99×10-3) and hypokalemia (pooled ROR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.80-3.10, P = 5...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748304/cleistanthus-collinus-poisoning-experience-at-a-medical-intensive-care-unit-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-south-india
#2
Alladi Mohan, G Sivaram Naik, J Harikrishna, D Prabath Kumar, M H Rao, Kvs Sarma, K K Guntupalli
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Ingestion of Cleistanthus collinus causes hypokalemia and cardiac arrhythmias leading to mortality in most cases. We undertook this retrospective study to evaluate the clinical presentation and predictors of outcome in critically ill patients admitted with C. collinus poisoning. METHODS: The case records of 56 patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) of a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India (2000-2014) with C...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747968/perioperative-intravenous-fluid-therapy-in-children-guidelines-from-the-association-of-the-scientific-medical-societies-in-germany
#3
Robert Sümpelmann, Karin Becke, Sebastian Brenner, Christian Breschan, Christoph Eich, Claudia Höhne, Martin Jöhr, Franz-Josef Kretz, Gernot Marx, Lars Pape, Markus Schreiber, Jochen Strauss, Markus Weiss
This consensus- based S1 Guideline for perioperative infusion therapy in children is focused on safety and efficacy. The objective is to maintain or re-establish the child's normal physiological state (normovolemia, normal tissue perfusion, normal metabolic function, normal acid- base- electrolyte status). Therefore, the perioperative fasting times should be as short as possible to prevent patient discomfort, dehydration, and ketoacidosis. A physiologically composed balanced isotonic electrolyte solution (BS) with 1-2...
October 17, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637165/the-effect-of-hyponatremia-and-sodium-variability-on-outcomes-in-adults-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#4
James Bales, Susan Cho, Thao Kim Tran, Gina Alvis Korab, Nita Khandelwal, Charles F Spiekerman, Aaron M Joffe
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is common in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, but its effect on outcomes remains contentious. Fluctuation in sodium has been reported to negatively affect perioperative outcomes in general surgical patients, but not specifically in patients with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The primary aim was to describe the relationship between 1) hyponatremia and/or 2) sodium fluctuations during intensive care and neurologic outcome at hospital discharge. METHODS: Adults suffering aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage between January 2012 and September 2013 were retrospectively reviewed...
September 13, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507113/hypochloremia-and-diuretic-resistance-in-heart-failure-mechanistic-insights
#5
Jennifer S Hanberg, Veena Rao, Jozine M Ter Maaten, Olga Laur, Meredith A Brisco, F Perry Wilson, Justin L Grodin, Mahlet Assefa, J Samuel Broughton, Noah J Planavsky, Tariq Ahmad, Lavanya Bellumkonda, W H Wilson Tang, Chirag R Parikh, Jeffrey M Testani
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological studies have implicated chloride, rather than sodium, as the driver of poor survival previously attributed to hyponatremia in heart failure. Accumulating basic science evidence has identified chloride as a critical factor in renal salt sensing. Our goal was to probe the physiology bridging this basic and epidemiological literature. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two heart failure cohorts were included: (1) observational: patients receiving loop diuretics at the Yale Transitional Care Center (N=162) and (2) interventional pilot: stable outpatients receiving ≥80 mg furosemide equivalents were studied before and after 3 days of 115 mmol/d supplemental lysine chloride (N=10)...
August 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464739/-electrolyte-disturbances-in-geriatric-patients-with-focus-on-hyponatremia
#6
F Grundmann
Disturbances of water and electrolyte balance are commonly encountered in older patients due to a multitude of physiological changes and preexisting morbidities with hyponatremia being the most common disorder. Even mild chronic hyponatremia can lead to cognitive deficits and gait instability and is associated with an increased rate of falls and fractures. Additionally, experimental and epidemiological data suggest that hyponatremia promotes bone resorption and therefore increases the risk of osteoporosis. Furthermore, osteoporosis and sarcopenia can be stimulated by hypomagnesemia...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350025/hyponatremia-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Rui Zhang, Songyan Wang, Mian Zhang, Lijuan Cui
Hyponatremia is a common condition encountered in clinical practice. A number of studies have associated low serum sodium levels with increased mortality in various patient populations, such as hospitalized patients and patients with various comorbid conditions; recent studies have shown that individuals with chronic kidney disease also are afflicted by hyponatremia. However, few studies have focused on patients with hemodialysis. Evidence supporting the incidence and prevalence of hyponatremia, clinical characteristics and the association with patient outcomes with hemodialysis is limited...
June 27, 2016: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27156765/vasopressin-receptor-antagonists-characteristics-and-clinical-role
#8
REVIEW
Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Tomas Berl
Hyponatremia, the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients is associated with increased risk of mortality even when mild and apparently asymptomatic. Likewise morbidity manifested as attention deficits, gait disturbances, falls, fractures, and osteoporosis is more prevalent in hyponatremic subjects. Hyponatremia also generates a significant financial burden. Therefore, it is important to explore approaches that effectively and safely treat hyponatremia. Currently available strategies are physiologically sound and affordable but lack evidence from clinical trials and are limited by variable efficacy, slow response, and/or poor compliance...
March 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911677/loss-of-carbonic-anhydrase-xii-function-in-individuals-with-elevated-sweat-chloride-concentration-and-pulmonary-airway-disease
#9
Melissa Lee, Briana Vecchio-Pagán, Neeraj Sharma, Abdul Waheed, Xiaopeng Li, Karen S Raraigh, Sarah Robbins, Sangwoo T Han, Arianna L Franca, Matthew J Pellicore, Taylor A Evans, Kristin M Arcara, Hien Nguyen, Shan Luan, Deborah Belchis, Jozef Hertecant, Joseph Zabner, William S Sly, Garry R Cutting
Elevated sweat chloride levels, failure to thrive (FTT), and lung disease are characteristic features of cystic fibrosis (CF, OMIM #219700). Here we describe variants in CA12 encoding carbonic anhydrase XII in two pedigrees exhibiting CF-like phenotypes. Exome sequencing of a white American adult diagnosed with CF due to elevated sweat chloride, recurrent hyponatremia, infantile FTT and lung disease identified deleterious variants in each CA12 gene: c.908-1 G>A in a splice acceptor and a novel frameshift insertion c...
May 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26860312/sodium-and-potassium-relating-to-parkinson-s-disease-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Yonghwang Ha, Jeong A Jeong, Youngsam Kim, David G Churchill
Alkali metals, especially sodium and potassium, are plentiful and vital in biological systems. They take on important roles in health and disease. Such roles include the regulation of homeostasis, osmosis, blood pressure, electrolytic equilibria, and electric current. However, there is a limit to our present understanding; the ions have a great ability and capacity for action in health and disease, much greater than our current understanding. For the regulation of physiological homeostasis, there is a crucial regulator (renin-angiotensin system, RAS), found at both peripheral and central levels...
2016: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26809857/the-impact-of-chronic-carrier-of-hepatitis-b-virus-on-liver-function-in-a-7-day-ultramarathon-race
#11
Shang-Lin Chou, Ming-Yueh Chou, Yu-Hsuan Wang, Fon-Chu Kuo, Wei-Fong Kao
BACKGROUND: Several changes in physiological characteristics occur during long-distance and 24-hour ultramarathons, including hyponatremia, skeletal muscle breakdown, plasma volume changes, iron depletion, anemia, and possible hepatic damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier status on liver function during multi-day races. METHODS: This prospective study recruited 10 Taiwanese runners who were scheduled to participate in the 7-day 2008 Athens Ultramarathon Festival Race, and three of them were chronic carriers of HBV...
April 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26767083/are-the-dysnatremias-a-permanent-threat-to-the-critically-ill-patients
#12
Anibal Basile-Filho, Mayra Goncalves Menegueti, Edson Antonio Nicolini, Alessandra Fabiane Lago, Edson Zangiacomi Martinez, Maria Auxiliadora-Martins
BACKGROUD: The dysnatremias (hyponatremia and hypernatremia) are relatively common findings on admission of intensive care unit (ICU) patients and may represent a major risk. The aim of the study was to assess the ability of serum sodium levels and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) to predict mortality of surgical critically ill patients. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-five surgical patients (62% males and 38% females; mean age of 51...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26702084/magnitude-of-and-prognostic-factors-associated-with-1-year-mortality-after-hospital-discharge-for-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-based-on-ejection-fraction-findings
#13
Andrew H Coles, Mayra Tisminetzky, Jorge Yarzebski, Darleen Lessard, Joel M Gore, Chad E Darling, Robert J Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist about the magnitude of and the factors associated with prognosis within 1 year for patients discharged from the hospital after acute decompensated heart failure. Data are particularly limited from the more generalizable perspective of a population-based investigation and should be further stratified according to currently recommended ejection fraction (EF) findings. METHODS AND RESULTS: The hospital medical records of residents of the Worcester, Massachusetts, metropolitan area who were discharged after acute decompensated heart failure from all 11 medical centers in central Massachusetts during 1995, 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006 were reviewed...
December 2015: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26664265/clinical-and-laboratory-responses-of-cross-country-skiing-for-a-24-h-world-record-case-report
#14
Markus Niemelä, Jukka Juvonen, Päivikki Kangastupa, Onni Niemelä, Tatu Juvonen
The physiological consequences of ultra-endurance cross-country skiing in cold conditions are poorly known. We report here clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory findings from a 41-y old male elite skier in a world record trial for 24-h skiing. The athlete completed a total of 406.8 km outdoors with the temperature ranging between -24°C and -5°C during the 24-h period. Post exercise, notable increases from baseline values were observed in myoglobin (50-fold), creatinine kinase (30-fold) and proBNP (6-fold), whereas troponin T or troponin I levels remained unchanged...
December 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608493/-is-physiological-saline-really-physiological-hyponatreamia-treatment-small-deviations-from-the-rules-of-appropriate-therapy-create-serious-complications-and-side-effects
#15
REVIEW
Marcin Krotkiewski
Physiological saline can hardly be treated as physiological as it contains qualitatively and quantitatively different amounts of electrolytes. In particular, it contains 50% more chlorine ions than serum. Physiological saline can cause metabolic acidosis and in diabetic patients hyperchloremic acidosis. In comparison with Ringer solution and plasma-lyte, physiological saline is causing higher number of untoward effects and mortality associated with surgery. Ringer solution should be used in the situations requiring expansion of extracellular fluid...
October 2015: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26489684/osmotic-edema-rapidly-increases-neuronal-excitability-through-activation-of-nmda-receptor-dependent-slow-inward-currents-in-juvenile-and-adult-hippocampus
#16
Kelli Lauderdale, Thomas Murphy, Tina Tung, David Davila, Devin K Binder, Todd A Fiacco
Cellular edema (cell swelling) is a principal component of numerous brain disorders including ischemia, cortical spreading depression, hyponatremia, and epilepsy. Cellular edema increases seizure-like activity in vitro and in vivo, largely through nonsynaptic mechanisms attributable to reduction of the extracellular space. However, the types of excitability changes occurring in individual neurons during the acute phase of cell volume increase remain unclear. Using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we report that one of the first effects of osmotic edema on excitability of CA1 pyramidal cells is the generation of slow inward currents (SICs), which initiate after approximately 1 min...
September 2015: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26472056/hyponatremia-in-neurotrauma-the-role-of-vasopressin
#17
Andrea Kleindienst, Mark J Hannon, Michael Buchfelder, Joseph G Verbalis
Hyponatremia is frequent in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or following intracranial procedures, with approximately 20% having a decreased serum sodium concentration to <125 mmol/L. The pathophysiology of hyponatremia in neurotrauma is not completely understood, but in large part is explained by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). The abnormal water and/or sodium handling creates an osmotic gradient promoting the shift of water into brain cells, thereby worsening cerebral edema and precipitating neurological deterioration...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26462796/polyuria-and-cerebral-vasospasm-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#18
Robert J Brown, Brian P Epling, Ilene Staff, Gilbert Fortunato, James J Grady, Louise D McCullough
BACKGROUND: Natriuresis with polyuria is common after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Previous studies have shown an increased risk of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm or delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with hyponatremia and/or the cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW). However, natriuresis may occur in the absence of hyponatremia or hypovolemia and it is not known whether the increase in DCI in patients with CSW is secondary to a concomitant hypovolemia or because the physiology that predisposes to natriuretic peptide release also predisposes to cerebral vasospasm...
October 13, 2015: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26289614/the-kidney-in-pediatric-liver-disease
#19
REVIEW
Robyn Greenfield Matloff, Ronen Arnon
There is an intricate relationship between the liver and the kidney, with renal physiology and function intimately involved in many primary disorders of pediatric liver disease. The hemodynamic changes of progressive cirrhosis affect and are directly affected by changes in renal blood flow and renal handling of sodium and free water excretion. Resulting complications of worsening ascites, hyponatremia, and acute kidney injury frequently complicate the care of children with advanced liver disease and contribute significant morbidity and mortality...
September 2015: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26275173/arginine-vasopressin-receptor-blocker-conivaptan-reduces-brain-edema-and-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-after-experimental-stroke-in-mice
#20
Emil Zeynalov, Susan M Jones, Jeong-Woo Seo, Lawrence D Snell, J Paul Elliott
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Stroke is complicated by brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and is often accompanied by increased release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). AVP acts through V1a and V2 receptors to trigger hyponatremia, vasospasm, and platelet aggregation which can exacerbate brain edema. The AVP receptor blockers conivaptan (V1a and V2) and tolvaptan (V2) are used to correct hyponatremia, but their effect on post-ischemic brain edema and BBB disruption remains to be elucidated...
2015: PloS One
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