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Internal limiting membrane

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913439/retinitis-pigmentosa-associated-cystoid-macular-oedema-pathogenesis-and-avenues-of-intervention
#1
REVIEW
S Strong, G Liew, M Michaelides
Hereditary retinal diseases are now the leading cause of blindness certification in the working age population (age 16-64 years) in England and Wales, of which retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common disorder. RP may be complicated by cystoid macular oedema (CMO), causing a reduction of central vision. The underlying pathogenesis of RP-associated CMO (RP-CMO) remains uncertain, however, several mechanisms have been proposed, including: (1) breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier, (2) failure (or dysfunction) of the pumping mechanism in the retinal pigment epithelial, (3) Müller cell oedema and dysfunction, (4) antiretinal antibodies and (5) vitreous traction...
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911448/inverted-internal-limiting-membrane-flap-technique-as-a-useful-procedure-for-macular-hole-associated-retinal-detachment-in-highly-myopic-eyes
#2
H Sasaki, A Shiono, J Kogo, R Yomoda, Y Munemasa, M Syoda, H Otake, H Kurihara, Y Kitaoka, H Takagi
PurposeTo determine whether the inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique contributes to high reattachment and closure rates in patients with macular hole-associated retinal detachment (MHRD).Patients and methodsIn all, 15 eyes of 15 patients with MHRD undergoing 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with the inverted ILM flap technique or ILM peeling. The patients were divided into the inverted ILM flap technique group (6 eyes) and ILM peeling group (9 eyes). The logarithm of minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and retinal attachment and macular hole closure rates were compared between the two groups before and after surgery...
December 2, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902639/air-tamponade-combined-with-nonsupine-positioning-in-macular-hole-surgery-for-pseudophakic-eyes
#3
Vegard A Forsaa, Jørgen Krohn
PURPOSE: To investigate the closure rate of primary full-thickness macular hole, following intraocular air tamponade combined with a nonsupine positioning regimen. METHODS: A prospective study of patients with full-thickness macular hole, who underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and intraocular air tamponade followed by 3 days of nonsupine positioning. Outcome measures were primary full-thickness macular hole closure and improvement in best-corrected visual acuity after 6 months...
November 29, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895122/reciprocal-regulation-of-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-and-potassium-accumulation
#4
Cecilia Primo, Alba Ferri-Blázquez, Robbie Loewith, Lynne Yenush
The proper maintenance of potassium homeostasis is crucial for cell viability. Among the major determinants of potassium uptake in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the Trk1 high affinity potassium transporter and the functionally redundant Hal4 (Sat4) and Hal5 protein kinases. These kinases are required for the plasma membrane accumulation of not only Trk1, but also several nutrient permeases. Here, we show that overexpression of the Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) effector NPR1 improves hal4 hal5 growth defects by stabilizing nutrient permeases at the plasma membrane...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895120/ankyrin-g-expression-regulates-apical-delivery-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac
#5
Christine A Klemens, Robert S Edinger, Lindsay Kightlinger, Xiaoning Liu, Michael B Butterworth
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is the limiting entry point for Na(+) reabsorption in the distal kidney nephron and is regulated by numerous hormones, including the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone. Previously we identified ankyrin G (AnkG), a cytoskeletal protein involved in vesicular transport, as a novel aldosterone-induced protein that can alter Na(+) transport in mouse cortical collecting duct (mCCD) cells. However, the mechanisms underlying AnkG's regulation of Na(+) transport were unknown. Here we report that AnkG expression directly regulates Na(+) transport by altering ENaC activity in the apical membrane...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881666/how-and-why-intralumenal-membrane-fragments-form-during-vacuolar-lysosome-fusion
#6
Sevan Mattie McNally, Erin K Karim, Mahmoud A Vali, Hojatollah Brett, Christopher L Brett
Lysosomal membrane fusion mediates the last step of the autophagy and endocytosis pathways, and supports organelle remodeling and biogenesis. Because fusogenic proteins and lipids concentrate in a ring at the vertex between apposing organelle membranes, the encircled area of membrane can be severed and internalized within the lumen as a fragment upon lipid bilayer fusion. How or why this intralumenal fragment forms during fusion, however, is not entirely clear. To better understand this process, we studied fragment formation during homotypic vacuolar lysosome membrane fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using cell-free fusion assays and light microscopy, we find that GTPase activation and trans-SNARE complex zippering have opposing effects on fragment formation, and verify that this impacts the morphology of the fusion product and regulates transporter protein degradation...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881586/iatrogenic-parafoveal-macular-hole-following-nd-yag-posterior-hyaloidotomy-for-premacular-haemorrhage
#7
Ravi Bypareddy, Rohan Chawla, Shorya Vardhan Azad, Brijesh Takkar
Premacular sub-internal limiting membrane (sub-ILM) haemorrhage is a known cause of sudden profound loss of vision. Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (ND-YAG) posterior hyaloidotomy is an inexpensive, effective and safe treatment modality for rapid drainage of haemorrhage covering the macula. An 18-year-old male patient presented to us with a history of Nd-YAG posterior hyaloidotomy for Valsalva-related premacular bleed. At the posterior pole, a cavity formed by the detached ILM with a central defect in ILM-posterior hyaloid complex was evident...
November 23, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860356/micro-endoscopy-of-the-human-vas-deferens-a-feasibility-study-of-a-novel-device-in-several-ex-vivo-models
#8
M Trottmann, R Sroka, C Braun, B Liedl, H Schaaf, M Graw, A J Becker, C G Stief, W Y Khoder
The aim of this study was to show limitation as well as potential of micro-endoscopy techniques as an innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approach in andrology. Two kinds of custom-made micro-endoscopes (ME) were tested in ex vivo vas deferens specimen and in post-mortem whole body. The semi-rigid ME included a micro-optic (0.9 mm outer diameter [OD], 10.000 pixels, 120° vision angle [VE], 3-20 mm field depth [FD]) and an integrated fibre-optic light source. The flexible ME was composed of a micro-optic (OD = 0...
November 17, 2016: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859822/expression-of-steroidogenic-enzymes-and-steroid-receptors-in-foetal-gonads-of-domestic-cat-sex-similarities-and-differences
#9
B C Braun, K Jewgenow
Foetal gonads already produce steroid hormones and by this influence the further development of external and internal genitalia as well as of the brain. Beside this, foetal gonads themselves can be influenced by foetal or maternal hormones. The time course of foetal gonadal development can differ between species. As knowledge on processes in domestic cats is very limited, the steroidogenic enzyme expressions as well as these of steroid receptors were analysed in foetal gonads of domestic cats. We investigated a period from beginning of the second half of pregnancy to the beginning of the third trimester; a phase, where also gonadal development proceeds...
November 15, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854124/25-gauge-vitrectomy-with-epiretinal-membrane-and-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling-in-eyes-with-very-good-visual-acuity-author-reply
#10
Elad Moisseiev, Joseph Moisseiev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847628/sulfur-hexafluoride-sf6-versus-perfluoropropane-c3f8-tamponade-and-short-term-face-down-position-for-macular-hole-repair-a-randomized-prospective-study
#11
Giamberto Casini, Pasquale Loiudice, Stefano De Cillà, Paolo Radice, Marco Nardi
BACKGROUND: To compare early visual and anatomical outcomes after either sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) or perfluoropropane (C3F8) tamponade for macular hole repair. METHODS: 147 eyes affected by primary full-thickness macular hole underwent pars plana vitrectomy with dye assisted removal of the internal limiting membrane and gas tamponade. Prone position was prescribed for 48 h after surgery. All patients were divided into 3 groups depending on the size of the hole: small (<250 µm), medium (>250-<400 µm) or large (>400 µm)...
2016: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843233/role-of-pars-plana-vitrectomy-and-membrane-peel-in-vitreomacular-traction-associated-with-retinal-vasoproliferative-tumors
#12
Verónica Castro-Navarro, Jarin Saktanasate, Emil Anthony T Say, Allen Chiang, Carol Lally Shields
To report a case of retinal vasoproliferative tumor (VPT) with secondary epiretinal membrane (ERM) formation and vitreo-macular traction managed by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and membrane peel. A 29-year-old male was referred for management of decreased vision in the right eye (OD) for 1 week. Presenting visual acuity was 20/50 Snellen feet (ft) OD, and fundus examination showed an ERM associated with a reddish-yellow mass in the inferotemporal quadrant with overlying exudation, hemorrhage, and subretinal fluid consistent with VPT, and cryotherapy was recommended...
September 2016: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837541/long-circulating-ph-sensitive-liposomes
#13
Denitsa Momekova, Stanislav Rangelov, Nikolay Lambov
A major limiting factor for the wide application of pH-sensitive liposomes is their recognition and sequestration by the phagocytes of the reticuloendothelial system, which conditions a very short circulation half-life. Typically prolonged circulation of liposomes is achieved by grafting their membranes with pegylated phospholipids (PEG-lipids), which have been shown, however, to deteriorate membrane integrity on one hand and to hamper the pH-responsiveness on the other. Hence, the need for novel alternative surface modifying agents to ensure effective half-life prolongation of pH-sensitive liposomes is a subject of intensive research...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832339/vitrectomy-and-scleral-imbrication-in-patients-with-myopic-traction-maculopathy-and-macular-hole-retinal-detachment
#14
Yoshimasa Ando, Akito Hirakata, Arisa Ohara, Reiji Yokota, Tadashi Orihara, Kazunari Hirota, Takashi Koto, Makoto Inoue
PURPOSE: To determine the outcomes of vitrectomy with scleral imbrication in highly myopic eyes with either myopic traction maculopathy (MTM) or macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD). METHODS: The medical records of 17 patients who had undergone vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and scleral imbrication for MTM or MHRD were reviewed. The best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs), the axial length, the macular hole (MH) closure rate, and the shape of the posterior segment determined by optical coherence tomography were evaluated...
November 10, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830204/outcomes-of-vitrectomy-membranectomy-and-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling-in-patients-with-refractory-diabetic-macular-edema-and-non-tractional-epiretinal-membrane
#15
Fariba Ghassemi, Fatemeh Bazvand, Ramak Roohipoor, Mehdi Yaseri, Narges Hassanpoor, Mohammad Zarei
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of vitrectomy, membranectomy, and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling on macular thickness and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in patients with refractory diffuse diabetic macular edema (DME) and non-tractional epiretinal membrane (NT-ERM). METHODS: This prospective interventional case series included eyes with refractory DME (central subfield macular thickness [CSMT] > 300 μm) after at least two intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB) and one intravitreal injection of triamcinolone (IVT), and accompanying NT-ERM...
December 2016: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828909/incomplete-repair-of-retinal-structure-after-vitrectomy-with-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling
#16
Toshio Hisatomi, Takashi Tachibana, Shoji Notomi, Shunji Nakatake, Kohta Fujiwara, Yusuke Murakami, Yasuhiro Ikeda, Shigeo Yoshida, Hiroshi Enaida, Toshinori Murata, Taiji Sakamoto, Koh-Hei Sonoda, Tatsuro Ishibashi
PURPOSE: To examine retinal changes after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, we used a cynomolgus monkey model and focused on surgical damages of ILM peeling for long observational period of 3 years. METHODS: Vitrectomy was performed followed by ILM peeling similar to clinical settings in humans. Ultrastructural changes of the retina were investigated by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy at 3 months and 3 years after ILM peeling...
November 8, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828904/the-double-ring-sign-in-anemic-retinopathy-evaluated-by-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography
#17
Neha Goel
PURPOSE: To describe three cases of anemic retinopathy who demonstrated premacular hemorrhage with a "double-ring sign." METHODS: Three patients with anemia were found to have a premacular hemorrhage and a double-ring sign either at presentation or after laser membranotomy. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography was performed to ascertain the level of the hemorrhage. RESULTS: To the best of the author's knowledge, there is no report of a double-ring sign in anemic retinopathy...
November 8, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818272/tetraspanin-3-a-central-endocytic-membrane-component-regulating-the-expression-of-adam10-presenilin-and-the-amyloid-precursor-protein
#18
Lisa Seipold, Markus Damme, Johannes Prox, Björn Rabe, Petr Kasparek, Radislav Sedlacek, Hermann Altmeppen, Michael Willem, Barry Boland, Markus Glatzel, Paul Saftig
Despite existing knowledge about the role of the A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) as the α-secretase involved in the non-amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Notch signalling we have only limited information about its regulation. In this study, we have identified ADAM10 interactors using a split ubiquitin yeast two hybrid approach. Tetraspanin 3 (Tspan3), which is highly expressed in the murine brain and elevated in brains of Alzheimer´s disease (AD) patients, was identified and confirmed to bind ADAM10 by co-immunoprecipitation experiments in mammalian cells in complex with APP and the γ-secretase protease presenilin...
November 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818206/automated-segmentation-errors-when-using-optical-coherence-tomography-to-measure-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-in-glaucoma
#19
Steven L Mansberger, Shivali Menda, Brad Fortune, Stuart K Gardiner, Shaban Demirel
PURPOSE: To characterize the error of optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness when using automated retinal layer segmentation algorithms without manual refinement. DESIGN: cross-sectional study METHODS: Setting: glaucoma clinical practice. STUDY POPULATION: 3490 scans from 412 eyes of 213 individuals with a diagnosis of glaucoma or glaucoma suspect. Observational Procedures: We used spectral domain OCT (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) to measure RNFL thickness in a 6-degree peripapillary circle, and exported the native 'automated segmentation only' results...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810917/subdiffractional-tracking-of-internalized-molecules-reveals-heterogeneous-motion-states-of-synaptic-vesicles
#20
Merja Joensuu, Pranesh Padmanabhan, Nela Durisic, Adekunle T D Bademosi, Elizabeth Cooper-Williams, Isabel C Morrow, Callista B Harper, WooRam Jung, Robert G Parton, Geoffrey J Goodhill, Andreas Papadopulos, Frédéric A Meunier
Our understanding of endocytic pathway dynamics is severely restricted by the diffraction limit of light microscopy. To address this, we implemented a novel technique based on the subdiffractional tracking of internalized molecules (sdTIM). This allowed us to image anti-green fluorescent protein Atto647N-tagged nanobodies trapped in synaptic vesicles (SVs) from live hippocampal nerve terminals expressing vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2)-pHluorin with 36-nm localization precision. Our results showed that, once internalized, VAMP2-pHluorin/Atto647N-tagged nanobodies exhibited a markedly lower mobility than on the plasma membrane, an effect that was reversed upon restimulation in presynapses but not in neighboring axons...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
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