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Internal limiting membrane

Jie Huang, Ning Gan, Fangying Lv, Yuting Cao, Changrong Ou, Haiqing Tang
In this work, a facile and environmentally friendly solid-phase microextraction assay based on on-fiber derivatization coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was developed for determining four nonvolatile index biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine) in fish samples. In the assay, the fiber was firstly dipped into a solution with isobutyl chloroformate as derivatization reagent and isooctane as extraction solvent. Thus, a thin organic liquid membrane coating was developed...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Ramesh Venkatesh, Prachi Gurav, Prachi A Dave
PURPOSE: To report a case of choroidal neovascular membrane after vitreoretinal surgery in a patient with macular hole-induced retinal detachment. METHODS: Retrospective observational case report. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 64-year-old lady presented with sudden drop in vision in the right eye since 20 days. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 6/36 in the right eye and 6/18 in the left eye. She was diagnosed with retinal detachment with a macular hole in the right eye...
October 3, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Ikuhiko Nakase, Kosuke Noguchi, Ikuo Fujii, Shiroh Futaki
Extracellular vesicles (EVs, exosomes) are approximately 30- to 200-nm-long vesicles that have received increased attention due to their role in cell-to-cell communication. Although EVs are highly anticipated to be a next-generation intracellular delivery tool because of their pharmaceutical advantages, including non-immunogenicity, their cellular uptake efficacy is low because of the repulsion of EVs and negatively charged cell membranes and size limitations in endocytosis. Here, we demonstrate a methodology for achieving enhanced cellular EV uptake using arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to induce active macropinocytosis...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Robert A Sisk, Okan Toygar
Purpose. To introduce a clinical sign on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), which may indicate high risk for full-thickness macular hole formation after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Methods. The preoperative SDOCT images of two patients-one with multilaminar hemorrhage from ruptured retinal artery macroaneurysm and one with serous retinal detachment and severe macular schisis from optic pit maculopathy-who developed full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) after ILM peeling were evaluated retrospectively...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Timothy A Johnson, Elisa A Rehak, Sushant P Sahu, David A Ladner, Ezra L Cates
Germicidal UVC radiation is a highly effective, chemical-free tool for bacteria inactivation, but its application is limited to reactors and open areas that can accommodate lamps/LEDs and wiring. A relevant example of problematic bacterial colonization within UV-inaccessible confines where chemical techniques have found only limited success is biofouling of feed channels in high-pressure membrane elements for water treatment. Herein we demonstrate a unique method of generating UV internally using embedded radioluminescent (RL) particles excited by an external X-ray source...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Joachim Behar, Ambhighainath Ganesan, Jin Zhang, Yael Yaniv
Sinoatrial nodal cells (SANCs) generate spontaneous action potentials (APs) that control the cardiac rate. The brain modulates SANC automaticity, via the autonomic nervous system, by stimulating membrane receptors that activate (adrenergic) or inactivate (cholinergic) adenylyl cyclase (AC). However, these opposing afferents are not simply additive. We showed that activation of adrenergic signaling increases AC-cAMP/PKA signaling, which mediates the increase in the SANC AP firing rate (i.e., positive chronotropic modulation)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Vandana Sharma, Rajaram Purushotham, Rupinder Kaur
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), which phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol and produces PI3P, has been implicated in protein trafficking, intracellular survival and virulence in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata Here, we demonstrate PI3-kinase (CgVps34) to be essential for maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis. We examine how CgVps34 regulates the fundamental process of iron acquisition, and underscore its function in vesicular trafficking as a central determinant. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed iron homeostasis genes to be differentially expressed upon CgVps34 disruption...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Elad Moisseiev, Glenn Yiu
We report the case of a 69-year-old patient who underwent vitrectomy for vitreomacular traction (VMT) and developed a postoperative macular hole that was observed 1 week after surgery. The hole did not close by in-office fluid-gas exchange alone, but was achieved after repeat surgery with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Intraoperative OCT (iOCT) images from the first surgery revealed an occult macular hole that formed after VMT release. We discuss how iOCT findings provide insight into the role of the ILM in macular hole formation and emphasize the importance of carefully inspecting iOCT images in real time to avoid missing small but important findings...
May 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Henry Hui, Kathy A Fuller, Wendy N Erber, Matthew D Linden
Platelets are subcellular blood elements with a well-established role in haemostasis. Upon activation platelets undergo granule exocytosis, resulting in α-granule P-Selectin being expressed on the cell membrane. This allows binding of activated platelets to P-Selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) expressing leukocytes, forming leukocyte-platelet aggregates (LPAs). Whole blood flow cytometry (FCM) has demonstrated that elevated circulating LPAs (especially monocyte LPAs) are linked to atherothrombosis in high risk patients, and that activated platelet binding influences monocytes towards a pro-adhesive and pro-atherogenic phenotype...
October 5, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Xiangjie Sun, Hui Zeng, Amrita Kumar, Jessica A Belser, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey
: A role for pulmonary endothelial cells in the orchestration of cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment during influenza virus infection, leading to severe lung damage, has been recently identified. As the mechanistic pathway for this ability is not fully known, we extended previous studies on influenza virus tropism in cultured human pulmonary endothelial cells. Here, we found that a subset of avian influenza viruses, including potentially pandemic H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 viruses, could infect human pulmonary endothelial cells (HULEC) with high efficiency compared to human H1N1 or H3N2 viruses...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Kazuyuki Kumagai, Masanori Hangai, Mariko Furukawa, Tetsuyuki Suetsugu, Nobuchika Ogino
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of vitreomacular adhesion (VMA), vitreomacular separation (VMS) and absence of vitreous gel due to vitrectomy on macular thickness measured in the spectral domain optical coherence tomographic (SD-OCT) images. DESIGN: A longitudinal, retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Secondary multicentre study. PARTICIPANTS: 218 eyes of 218 healthy patients and 119 vitrectomised eyes of 119 patients were studied...
September 30, 2016: BMJ Open
Arpita Sen, Ligia Acosta-Sampson, Christopher G Alvaro, Jonathan S Ahn, Jamie H D Cate, Jeremy Thorner
: When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using either of two constitutive yeast promoters (PGK1prom and CCW12prom), the transporters CDT-1 and CDT-2 from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa are able to catalyze, respectively, active transport and facilitated diffusion of cellobiose (and, for CDT-2, also xylan and its derivatives). In S. cerevisiae, endogenous permeases are removed from the plasma membrane by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and are marked for internalization through ubiquitinylation catalyzed by Rsp5, a HECT class ubiquitin:protein ligase (E3)...
September 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Thorsten Graunke, Katrin Schmitt, Stefan Raible, Jürgen Wöllenstein
In this paper we report on how to increase the selectivity of gas sensors by using fluoropolymer membranes. The mass transport of polar and non-polar gases through a polymer membrane matrix was studied by systematic selection of polymers with different degrees of fluorination, as well as polymers whose monomers have ether groups (-O-) in addition to fluorine groups (-F). For the study, a set of application-relevant gases including H₂, CO, CO₂, NO₂, methane, ethanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde as well as various concentrations of relative humidity were used...
2016: Sensors
Ryan Ravi Ramsook, Houman Danesh
The use of platelet rich plasma (PRP) spans across many fields owing to its role in healing and as a natural alternative to surgery. PRP continues to grow however much of the literature is anecdotal or case report based and there is a lack of controlled trials to evaluate standards for PRP. The International Cellular Medical Society (ICMS) has developed guidelines to help with the safe advancement of PRP; however there remains a gap in literature concerning the timing of PRP injections in patients who are on antithrombotic therapy...
September 2016: Pain Physician
Trisha E Wong, Thuan Nguyen, Samir S Shah, Thomas V Brogan, Char M Witmer
OBJECTIVE: To describe antithrombin concentrate use and to compare thrombotic and hemorrhagic outcomes throughout the hospital stay in pediatric subjects who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a Pediatric Health Information System-participating children's hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective, multi-center, cohort study. SETTING: Forty-three free-standing children's hospitals participating in Pediatric Health Information System. SUBJECTS: Children older than or equal to 18 years of age who underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation between 2003 and 2012...
September 22, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
S Cointe, C Judicone, S Robert, M J Mooberry, P Poncelet, M Wauben, R Nieuwland, N S Key, F Dignat-George, R Lacroix
BACKGROUND: Microparticles are extracellular vesicles resulting from the budding of cellular membranes that have a high potential as emergent biomarkers; however, their clinical relevance is hampered by methodological enumeration concerns and a lack of standardization. Flow cytometry (FCM) remains the most commonly used technique with the best capability to determine the cellular origin of single MPs. However, instruments behave variably depending on which scatter parameter, (Forward (FSC) or Side scatter (SSC)), provides the best resolution to discriminate submicron particles...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Prethy Rao, Yoshihiro Yonekawa, Benjamin J Thomas, Kimberly A Drenser
PURPOSE: To compare the sensitivities of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) versus time-domain OCT (TD-OCT) in identifying epiretinal membranes (ERM) preoperatively in patients who underwent surgery for full-thickness macular holes (FTMH). METHODS: This is an interventional retrospective case series of 59 eyes diagnosed with FTMHs who underwent 25-G pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling between 2009 and 2015. Preoperative OCTs were obtained by SD-OCT (Spectralis, Heidelberg, Germany) or TD-OCT (Stratus, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA)...
September 17, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Akira Hagiwara, Takayuki Baba, Tomoaki Tatsumi, Eiju Sato, Toshiyuki Oshitari, Shuichi Yamamoto
PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between preoperative and postoperative characteristics and visual outcomes after successful surgery for unclosed macular hole (MH). METHODS: The medical charts of 166 eyes of 161 patients who underwent vitrectomy for a MH were reviewed. The MH was not closed in 9 eyes of 9 patients after the initial surgery. The second vitrectomy with additional internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and gas tamponade was performed. The preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), optical coherence tomographic images, MH size, duration of MH before the first operation, and area of ILM peeling were studied...
September 9, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Marta S Figueroa, Jeroni Nadal, Inés Contreras
PURPOSE: To report the results of vitrectomy with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) application and gas tamponade as a rescue therapy in previously vitrectomized eyes with optic disk pit (ODP) maculopathy. METHODS: Three patients with visual loss due to persistent or recurrent ODP maculopathy who had undergone previous vitrectomy were offered application of PRP. Platelet-rich plasma was obtained by centrifugation of a blood sample from each patient. Surgery consisted of vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling if the membrane had not been already removed (in two eyes)...
September 14, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
David Naranjo, Hans Moldenhauer, Matías Pincuntureo, Ignacio Díaz-Franulic
Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K(+) channels discriminate K(+) over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K(+) channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings...
October 2016: Journal of General Physiology
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