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Cocaine equivalent

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524683/highly-sensitive-and-specific-on-site-detection-of-serum-cocaine-by-a-low-cost-aptasensor
#1
Rania Oueslati, Cheng Cheng, Jayne Wu, Jiangang Chen
Cocaine is one of the most used illegal recreational drugs. Developing an on-site test for cocaine use detection has been a focus of research effort, since it is essential to the control and legal action against drug abuse. Currently most of cocaine detection methods are time-consuming and require special or expensive equipment, and the detection often suffers from high cross-reactivity with cocaine metabolites and relative low sensitivity with the best limit of detection reported at sub nanomolar (nM) level...
June 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486339/low-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-peptide-levels-in-human-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-major-depressive-disorder-mdd-patients
#2
Hyung Shin Yoon, Kotaro Hattori, Daimei Sasayama, Hiroshi Kunugi
BACKGROUND: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is a candidate neuropeptide as a biomarker for major depressive disorder (MDD) because of its effects on emotion and distribution covering brain areas involved in the pathophysiology of MDD symptoms. However, it is unknown whether CART peptide levels are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MDD patients and are correlated with MDD symptoms. METHODS: Subjects were 24 patients with MDD and 25 healthy controls matched for age, gender and ethnicity (Japanese)...
May 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469750/a-case-of-probable-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-induced-circulating-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-positive-small-vessel-vasculitis
#3
Therese Woodring, Ronnie Abraham, Stephanie Frisch
Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) can occur as skin-limited disease or as part a systemic vasculitis. Appropriate workup includes the evaluation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs), with a positive titer raising concern for the associated primary vasculitides including microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). In the absence of systemic findings, however, a drug etiology must also be considered. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, propylthiouracil, levamisole-adulterated cocaine, hydralazine, and minocycline have been previously documented to induce ANCA-positive vasculitis (APV), which may present with conspicuously high ANCA titers...
August 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431453/relations-between-facets-and-personality-domains-with-impulsivity-new-evidence-using-the-dsm-5-section-iii-framework-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorders
#4
Enrique Moraleda-Barreno, Carmen Díaz-Batanero, Pedro Juan Pérez-Moreno, Jesús Gómez-Bujedo, Oscar M Lozano
Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition proposes an alternative diagnostic model for personality disorders based on the identification of pathological personality facets. Despite the existing evidence for the relationship between personality disorders and impulsivity in patients with substance use disorders, no study has yet been conducted within this framework. Thus, using a sample of 110 patients with substance use disorders, the present work aims to (a) analyze the relationship between the different personality facets and domains evaluated by the Personality Inventory for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (PID-5) and impulsivity and (b) explore the relationships between severity of dependency and personality facets and dimensions of impulsivity...
February 12, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367281/prison-environment-and-non-communicable-chronic-disease-modifiable-risk-factors-length-of-incarceration-trend-analysis-in-mexico-city
#5
Omar Silverman-Retana, Edson Servan-Mori, Stefano Michele Bertozzi, Emanuel Orozco-Nuñez, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo, Ruy Lopez-Ridaura
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence regarding chronic disease modifiable risk factors among prisoner populations in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases and to assess their relationship with length of incarceration. METHODS: We analysed data from a cross sectional study in which 4241 prisoners were randomly selected to answer a questionnaire with socio-demographic and health behaviour content using an audio computer-assisted self-interview format...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240757/rct-of-an-integrated-cbt-hiv-intervention-on-depressive-symptoms-and-hiv-risk
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Karin Tobin, Melissa A Davey-Rothwell, Bareng A S Nonyane, Amy Knowlton, Lawrence Wissow, Carl A Latkin
Depression and depressive symptoms mediate the association between drug use and HIV risk. Yet, there are few interventions that target depressive symptoms and HIV risk for people who use drugs (PWUD). This study was a randomized controlled trial of an integrated cognitive behavioral therapy and HIV prevention intervention to reduce depressive symptoms, injection risk behaviors and increase condom use in a sample of urban people who used heroin or cocaine in the prior 6 months. A total of 315 individuals aged 18-55, who self-reported at least one HIV drug and sex risk behavior and scored ≥16 and <40 on the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale were randomized using a two-block design, stratified by sex to ensure equivalent numbers, to a 10 session intervention arm (n = 162) or a single session control arm (n = 153)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197982/dissociation-of-place-preference-and-tolerance-responses-to-sucrose-using-a-dopamine-antagonist-in-the-planarian
#7
Rafat A Mohammed Jawad, Claire V Hutchinson, Jose Prados
In rodents, sucrose has been found to elicit addictive-like behaviours like the development of tolerance and the association with cues present at the time of consumption. Furthermore, the neurochemical response to sucrose binges is equivalent to the one observed in response to the abuse of addictive substances like cocaine. The experiments reported here address the effects of sucrose on an invertebrate model, the Platyhelminth brown planarian. The animals exposed to a 10% sucrose solution in one context developed a conditioned place preference (CPP) which was subsequently extinguished in the absence of the rewarding agent...
March 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056351/estradiol-increases-choice-of-cocaine-over-food-in-male-rats
#8
Jared R Bagley, Julia Adams, Rachel V Bozadjian, Lana Bubalo, Kyle L Ploense, Tod E Kippin
Estradiol modulates the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cocaine in females, including an increase in selection of cocaine over alternative reinforcers. However, the effects of estradiol on male cocaine self-administration behavior are less studied despite equivalent levels of estradiol in the brains of adult males and females, estradiol effects on motivated behaviors in males that share underlying neural substrates with cocaine reinforcement as well as expression of estrogen receptors in the male brain...
October 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941296/ghrelin-receptor-antagonism-of-hyperlocomotion-in-cocaine-sensitized-mice-requires-%C3%AE-arrestin-2
#9
Krisztian Toth, Lauren M Slosky, Thomas F Pack, Nikhil M Urs, Peter Boone, Lan Mao, Dennis Abraham, Marc G Caron, Lawrence S Barak
The "brain-gut" peptide ghrelin, which mediates food-seeking behaviors, is recognized as a very strong endogenous modulator of dopamine (DA) signaling. Ghrelin binds the G protein-coupled receptor GHSR1a, and administration of ghrelin increases the rewarding properties of psychostimulants while ghrelin receptor antagonists decrease them. In addition, the GHSR1a signals through βarrestin-2 to regulate actin/stress fiber rearrangement, suggesting βarrestin-2 participation in the regulation of actin-mediated synaptic plasticity for addictive substances like cocaine...
January 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922652/a-pilot-study-of-loss-aversion-for-drug-and-non-drug-commodities-in-cocaine-users
#10
Justin C Strickland, Joshua S Beckmann, Craig R Rush, William W Stoops
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies in behavioral economics have demonstrated that individuals are more sensitive to the prospect of a loss than a gain (i.e., loss aversion). Although loss aversion has been well described in "healthy" populations, little research exists in individuals with substance use disorders. This gap is notable considering the prominent role that choice and decision-making play in drug use. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate loss aversion in active cocaine users...
November 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774856/modafinil-improves-attentional-performance-in-healthy-non-sleep-deprived-humans-at-doses-not-inducing-hyperarousal-across-species
#11
Zackary A Cope, Arpi Minassian, Dustin Kreitner, David A MacQueen, Morgane Milienne-Petiot, Mark A Geyer, William Perry, Jared W Young
The wake-promoting drug modafinil is frequently used off-label to improve cognition in psychiatric and academic populations alike. The domain-specific attentional benefits of modafinil have yet to be quantified objectively in healthy human volunteers using tasks validated for comparison across species. Further, given that modafinil is a low-affinity inhibitor for the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters (DAT/NET respectively) it is unclear if any effects are attributable to a non-specific increase in arousal, a feature of many catecholamine reuptake inhibitors (e...
October 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742624/impact-of-a-mandated-change-in-buprenorphine-formulation
#12
Ryan Graddy, Darius A Rastegar
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the impact of an insurance-mandated change in formulation of buprenorphine/naloxone (BNX) for patients with opioid use disorder treated in a primary care clinic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the proportion of patients who were switched back to the previous BNX formulation and rates of aberrant urine drug tests for the 3 months before and 3 months after a mandated change in BNX from the sublingual film to the rapidly dissolving tablet (BNX-RDT)...
November 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711810/cocaine-dependence-modulates-the-effect-of-hiv-infection-on-brain-activation-during-intertemporal-decision-making
#13
Christina S Meade, Andrea L Hobkirk, Sheri L Towe, Nan-Kuei Chen, Ryan P Bell, Scott A Huettel
BACKGROUND: Both HIV infection and chronic cocaine use alter the neural circuitry of decision making, but the interactive effects of these commonly comorbid conditions have not been adequately examined. This study tested how cocaine moderates HIV-related neural activation during an intertemporal decision-making task. METHODS: The sample included 73 participants who differed on cocaine and HIV status (18 COC+/HIV+, 19 COC+/HIV-, 19 COC-/HIV+, 17 COC-/HIV-). Participants made choices between smaller, sooner and larger, delayed rewards while undergoing functional MRI...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557129/recreational-stimulants-herbal-and-spice-cannabis-the-core-psychobiological-processes-that-underlie-their-damaging-effects
#14
Andrew C Parrott, Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey
AIMS: Recreational drugs are taken for their positive mood effects, yet their regular usage damages well-being. The psychobiological mechanisms underlying these damaging effects will be debated. METHODS: The empirical literature on recreational cannabinoids and stimulant drugs is reviewed. A theoretical explanation for how they cause similar types of damage is outlined. RESULTS: All psychoactive drugs cause moods and psychological states to fluctuate...
May 30, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393896/effects-of-ibudilast-on-the-subjective-reinforcing-and-analgesic-effects-of-oxycodone-in-recently-detoxified-adults-with-opioid-dependence
#15
Verena E Metz, Jermaine D Jones, Jeanne Manubay, Maria A Sullivan, Shanthi Mogali, Andrew Segoshi, Gabriela Madera, Kirk W Johnson, Sandra D Comer
Ibudilast, a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is used clinically in Asia for the treatment of asthma and poststroke dizziness. Recent preclinical studies have suggested that it also inhibits glial cell activation in rodents, and may alter opioid-mediated effects, including analgesia and withdrawal symptoms. The effects of ibudilast on the abuse potential of opioids in humans are largely unknown. The present study was designed to examine the influence of ibudilast on subjective (including drug craving), reinforcing, and analgesic effects of oxycodone in human volunteers diagnosed with opioid dependence (equivalent to moderate-severe opioid use disorder)...
August 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340233/increase-in-drug-overdose-deaths-involving-fentanyl-rhode-island-january-2012-march-2014
#16
Melissa C Mercado, Steven A Sumner, M Bridget Spelke, Michele K Bohm, David E Sugerman, Christina Stanley
Objective: This study identified sociodemographic, substance use, and multiple opioid prescriber and dispenser risk factors among drug overdose decedents in Rhode Island, in response to an increase in overdose deaths (ODs) involving fentanyl. Methods: This cross-sectional investigation comprised all ODs reviewed by Rhode Island's Office of the State Medical Examiners (OSME) during January 2012 to March 2014. Data for 536 decedents were abstracted from OSME's charts, death certificates, toxicology reports, and Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) databases...
March 1, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120116/urine-drug-screen-findings-among-ambulatory-oncology-patients-in-a-supportive-care-clinic
#17
Sherri Rauenzahn, Adam Sima, Brian Cassel, Danielle Noreika, Teny Henry Gomez, Lynn Ryan, Carl E Wolf, Luke Legakis, Egidio Del Fabbro
PURPOSE: Professional organizations provide no guidelines regarding assessment and management of opioid abuse risk in cancer. Universal precautions (UP) developed for non-cancer pain, include assessments for aberrant behavior, screening questionnaires, and urine drug screens (UDS). The role of UDS for identifying opioid abuse risk in cancer is uncertain. Our aim is to characterize inappropriate UDS, and identify a potential role for UDS in therapeutic decision-making. METHODS: An observational retrospective chart review of 232 consecutive supportive care clinic patients were seen during the study...
June 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098590/analgesia-and-sedation-requirements-in-mechanically-ventilated-trauma-patients-with-acute-preinjury-use-of-cocaine-and-or-amphetamines
#18
Bridgette Kram, Shawn J Kram, Michelle L Sharpe, Michael L James, Maragatha Kuchibhatla, Mark L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanically ventilated trauma patients with a positive urine drug screen (UDS) for cocaine and/or amphetamines have different opioid analgesic and sedative requirements compared with similar patients with a negative drug screen for these stimulants. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center cohort study at a tertiary care, academic medical and level 1 trauma center in the United States included patients ≥16 years of age who were admitted to an adult intensive care unit with a diagnosis of trauma between 2009 and 2013 with a UDS documented within 24 hours of admission, and were mechanically ventilated for >24 hours...
March 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859963/repeated-restraint-stress-exposure-during-early-withdrawal-accelerates-incubation-of-cue-induced-cocaine-craving
#19
Ryan M Glynn, J Amiel Rosenkranz, Marina E Wolf, Aaron Caccamise, Freya Shroff, Alyssa B Smith, Jessica A Loweth
A major challenge for treating cocaine addiction is the propensity for abstinent users to relapse. Two important triggers for relapse are cues associated with prior drug use and stressful life events. To study their interaction in promoting relapse during abstinence, we used the incubation model of craving and relapse in which cue-induced drug seeking progressively intensifies ('incubates') during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. We tested rats for cue-induced cocaine seeking on withdrawal day (WD) 1...
November 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348214/shifted-pallidal-co-release-of-gaba-and-glutamate-in-habenula-drives-cocaine-withdrawal-and-relapse
#20
Frank J Meye, Mariano Soiza-Reilly, Tamar Smit, Marco A Diana, Martin K Schwarz, Manuel Mameli
Cocaine withdrawal produces aversive states and vulnerability to relapse, hallmarks of addiction. The lateral habenula (LHb) encodes negative stimuli and contributes to aversive withdrawal symptoms. However, it remains unclear which inputs to LHb promote this and what the consequences are for relapse susceptibility. We report, using rabies-based retrolabeling and optogenetic mapping, that the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN, the mouse equivalent of the globus pallidus interna) projects to an LHb neuronal subset innervating aversion-encoding midbrain GABA neurons...
August 2016: Nature Neuroscience
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