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Cocaine equivalent

Sherri Rauenzahn, Adam Sima, Brian Cassel, Danielle Noreika, Teny Henry Gomez, Lynn Ryan, Carl E Wolf, Luke Legakis, Egidio Del Fabbro
PURPOSE: Professional organizations provide no guidelines regarding assessment and management of opioid abuse risk in cancer. Universal precautions (UP) developed for non-cancer pain, include assessments for aberrant behavior, screening questionnaires, and urine drug screens (UDS). The role of UDS for identifying opioid abuse risk in cancer is uncertain. Our aim is to characterize inappropriate UDS, and identify a potential role for UDS in therapeutic decision-making. METHODS: An observational retrospective chart review of 232 consecutive supportive care clinic patients were seen during the study...
January 25, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Bridgette Kram, Shawn J Kram, Michelle L Sharpe, Michael L James, Maragatha Kuchibhatla, Mark L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanically ventilated trauma patients with a positive urine drug screen (UDS) for cocaine and/or amphetamines have different opioid analgesic and sedative requirements compared with similar patients with a negative drug screen for these stimulants. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center cohort study at a tertiary care, academic medical and level 1 trauma center in the United States included patients ≥16 years of age who were admitted to an adult intensive care unit with a diagnosis of trauma between 2009 and 2013 with a UDS documented within 24 hours of admission, and were mechanically ventilated for >24 hours...
March 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ryan M Glynn, J Amiel Rosenkranz, Marina E Wolf, Aaron Caccamise, Freya Shroff, Alyssa B Smith, Jessica A Loweth
A major challenge for treating cocaine addiction is the propensity for abstinent users to relapse. Two important triggers for relapse are cues associated with prior drug use and stressful life events. To study their interaction in promoting relapse during abstinence, we used the incubation model of craving and relapse in which cue-induced drug seeking progressively intensifies ('incubates') during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. We tested rats for cue-induced cocaine seeking on withdrawal day (WD) 1...
November 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
Frank J Meye, Mariano Soiza-Reilly, Tamar Smit, Marco A Diana, Martin K Schwarz, Manuel Mameli
Cocaine withdrawal produces aversive states and vulnerability to relapse, hallmarks of addiction. The lateral habenula (LHb) encodes negative stimuli and contributes to aversive withdrawal symptoms. However, it remains unclear which inputs to LHb promote this and what the consequences are for relapse susceptibility. We report, using rabies-based retrolabeling and optogenetic mapping, that the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN, the mouse equivalent of the globus pallidus interna) projects to an LHb neuronal subset innervating aversion-encoding midbrain GABA neurons...
August 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Joshua A Lile, William W Stoops, Craig R Rush, S Stevens Negus, Paul E A Glaser, Kevin W Hatton, Lon R Hays
BACKGROUND: A medication for treating cocaine use disorder has yet to be approved. Laboratory-based evaluation of candidate medications in animals and humans is a valuable means to demonstrate safety, tolerability and initial efficacy of potential medications. However, animal-to-human translation has been hampered by a lack of coordination. Therefore, we designed homologous cocaine self-administration studies in rhesus monkeys (see companion article) and human subjects in an attempt to develop linked, functionally equivalent procedures for research on candidate medications for cocaine use disorder...
August 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
P B Tirupathi Pichiah, Suk-Ho Cho, Seong-Kyu Han, Youn-Soo Cha
Dietary fiber and proteins are individually known to decrease feeding, but could result greater weight management benefit when both are combined. We hypothesized that supplementing the diet with fermented barley, being rich in both dietary fiber and proteins, could lower energy intake by modulating the mRNA expression level of hypothalamic genes associated with the regulation of feeding behavior and satiety; thereby decreasing body weight gain. To test our hypothesis, four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design (n = 6), low-fat diet with either guar gum (LFD-G) or fermented barley (LFD-FB) and high-fat diet with either guar gum (HFD-G) or fermented barley (HFD-FB)...
April 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Kayla N Ellefsen, Marta Concheiro, Sandrine Pirard, David A Gorelick, Marilyn A Huestis
Accurate on-site devices to screen for drug intake are critical for establishing whether an individual is driving under the influence of drugs (DUID); however, on-site oral fluid (OF) cocaine device performance is variable. We evaluated the performance of a newly developed benzoylecgonine (BE) test-strip for the Draeger® DrugTest 5000 device (20 µg/L cut-off) with equivalent cross reactivity for cocaine and BE. Ten cocaine users provided OF, collected with the Draeger cassette and Oral-Eze® and StatSure Saliva Sampler(TM) devices, up to 69 h following 25 mg intravenous cocaine administration...
March 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Kenneth M Carpenter, Paul C Amrhein, Krysten W Bold, Kaitlyn Mishlen, Frances R Levin, Wilfrid N Raby, Suzette M Evans, Richard W Foltin, Edward V Nunes
The psycholinguistic analysis of client-counselor interactions indicates that how individuals talk about their substance use is associated with treatment outcome. However, the processes by which client speech influences out-of-session behaviors have not been clearly delineated. This study investigated the relationships between deriving relations-a key behavioral process by which language and cognition may come to influence behavior, shifts in the strength of client talk in favor of change, and treatment outcome among 75 cocaine-dependent participants (23% Female)...
April 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Laurent Karila, Claire Leroy, Manon Dubol, Christian Trichard, Audrey Mabondo, Catherine Marill, Albertine Dubois, Nadège Bordas, Jean-Luc Martinot, Michel Reynaud, Eric Artiges
Modafinil is a candidate compound for the treatment of cocaine addiction that binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT) in healthy humans, as observed by positron emission tomography (PET). This mechanism, analogous to that of cocaine, might mediate a putative therapeutic effect of modafinil on cocaine dependence, though the binding of modafinil to DAT has never been assessed in cocaine-dependent patients. We aimed at quantifying the DAT availability during a controlled treatment by modafinil, and its clinical and psychometric correlates in cocaine-dependent patients at the onset of abstinence initiation...
August 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Yi-Ni Tsai, Wen-Yu Tzeng, Chianfang G Cherng, Tien You Liao, Hsin-Hua Wu, Jie-Kuan Lin, Lung Yu
Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor can facilitate the extinction of various maladaptive memories. Sodium benzoate (NaB) has been known to enhance a naturally occurring full agonist on the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor. This study aimed to test whether systemic NaB treatment can affect the extinction of a cocaine-supported memory, the cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Following the establishment of the cocaine (10 mg/kg/conditioning × 3)-induced CPP, an extinction protocol, consisting of two consecutive extinction training bouts at an 8-h interval, was used...
February 29, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Andrew Jones, Karen P Hayhurst, Tim Millar, Matthias Pierce, Graham Dunn, Michael Donmall
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The English drug treatment population doubled in size between 1998 and 2008, increasingly characterised by crack cocaine use and criminal justice system (CJS) referral. We assessed short-term (median 3.5 month) behaviour changes following participation in drug treatment and the moderating effect of CJS referral/crack use. METHODS: Opiate and/or crack cocaine users (n = 1,267) were recruited from 342 agencies. Outcome effects were assessed via interaction term regression, clustered at participant level, controlling for client characteristics...
2016: European Addiction Research
A M Saif, A Farboud, E Delfosse, L Pope, M Adke
BACKGROUND: Local anaesthetics and vasoconstrictors are essential for pain control and to aid intra-operative haemostasis in nasal procedures. They also improve access, and reduce discomfort when performing nasal endoscopy. There are no clear guidelines on preparing the nose despite evermore diagnostic and therapeutic procedures utilising the nose as a point of access. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: This review aims to identify nasal preparations used in diagnostic and therapeutic nasal procedures and to examine their safety and efficacy...
October 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Ken T Wakabayashi, Suelynn E Ren, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is generally considered to be a more potent cocaine-like psychostimulant, as it shares a similar pharmacological profile with cocaine and induces similar physiological and locomotor responses. Recently, we showed that intravenous cocaine induces rapid rise in nucleus accumbens (NAc) glucose and established its relation to neural activation triggered by the peripheral drug actions. This study was conducted to find out whether MDPV, at a behaviorally equivalent dose, shares a similar pattern of NAc glucose dynamics...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Tao Zhao, Ran Liu, Xiaofan Ding, Juncai Zhao, Haixiang Yu, Lei Wang, Qing Xu, Xuan Wang, Xinhui Lou, Miao He, Yi Xiao
It is quite challenging to improve the binding affinity of antismall molecule aptamers. We report that the binding affinity of anticocaine split aptamer pairs improved by up to 66-fold by gold nanoparticles (AuNP)-attached aptamers due to the substantially increased local concentration of aptamers and multiple and simultaneous ligand interactions. The significantly improved binding affinity enables the detection of small molecule targets with unprecedented sensitivity, as demonstrated in nanoprobe-enhanced split aptamer-based electrochemical sandwich assays (NE-SAESA)...
August 4, 2015: Analytical Chemistry
Peter Fonagy
This paper provides a comprehensive review of outcome studies and meta-analyses of effectiveness studies of psychodynamic therapy (PDT) for the major categories of mental disorders. Comparisons with inactive controls (waitlist, treatment as usual and placebo) generally but by no means invariably show PDT to be effective for depression, some anxiety disorders, eating disorders and somatic disorders. There is little evidence to support its implementation for post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, cocaine dependence or psychosis...
June 2015: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
José P Prieto, Martín Galvalisi, Ximena López-Hill, María N Meikle, Juan A Abin-Carriquiry, Cecilia Scorza
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Caffeine is an active adulterant found in several drugs of abuse including coca paste (CP). We had previously demonstrated that caffeine potentiated the acute stimulant effect induced by CP seized samples. The role of caffeine in the expression of sensitization elicited by a CP seized sample (CP1) was here evaluated. METHODS: CP1 (equivalent dose of 10 mg/kg of cocaine), cocaine (pure, 10 mg/kg), a combination of cocaine 10 mg/kg plus caffeine 2...
August 2015: American Journal on Addictions
Vishakantha Murthy, Liyi Geng, Yang Gao, Bin Zhang, Jordan D Miller, Santiago Reyes, Stephen Brimijoin
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) gene therapy is emerging as a promising concept for treatment of cocaine addiction. BChE levels after gene transfer can rise 1000-fold above those in untreated mice, making this enzyme the second most abundant plasma protein. For months or years, gene transfer of a BChE mutated into a cocaine hydrolase (CocH) can maintain enzyme levels that destroy cocaine within seconds after appearance in the blood stream, allowing little to reach the brain. Rapid enzyme action causes a sharp rise in plasma levels of two cocaine metabolites, benzoic acid (BA) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), a smooth muscle relaxant that is mildly hypotensive and, at best, only weakly rewarding...
August 2015: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Satyajit Mohite, Ikenna Ngana, Olaoluwa O Okusaga
OBJECTIVES: Despite the high prevalence of cocaine use disorder in schizophrenia, the impact of cocaine on antipsychotic requirement has not been studied in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cocaine on doses of antipsychotic medication prescribed during periods of acute exacerbation of psychotic symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of individuals with schizophrenia discharged from hospitals between 2008 and 2012...
May 2015: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Catherine Feliu, Aurélie Fouley, Hervé Millart, Claire Gozalo, Hélène Marty, Zoubir Djerada
In several circumstances, determination and quantification of illicit drugs in biological fluids are determinant. Contexts are varied such as driving under influence, traffic accident, clinical and forensic toxicology, doping analysis, chemical submission. Whole blood is the favoured matrix for the quantification of illicit drugs. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is the gold standard for these analyses. All methods developed must be at least equivalent to gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer...
January 2015: Annales de Biologie Clinique
Barbara A Sorg, Ryan P Todd, Megan Slaker, Lynn Churchill
We tested the hypothesis that infusion of anisomycin into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) disrupts the reconsolidation of a cocaine-associated memory in the rat cocaine self-administration model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to lever press for cocaine self-administration (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) along with a cue light presentation on an FR1 followed by an FR3 schedule of reinforcement for 2 h/day. Rats were then given extinction sessions or an equivalent forced abstinence period followed by a 5 min memory reactivation session during which time they received an ip cocaine injection (10 mg/kg, ip) and were allowed to press for contingent cue light presentation...
May 2015: Neuropharmacology
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