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Cocaine equivalent

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711810/cocaine-dependence-modulates-the-effect-of-hiv-infection-on-brain-activation-during-intertemporal-decision-making
#1
Christina S Meade, Andrea L Hobkirk, Sheri L Towe, Nan-Kuei Chen, Ryan P Bell, Scott A Huettel
BACKGROUND: Both HIV infection and chronic cocaine use alter the neural circuitry of decision making, but the interactive effects of these commonly comorbid conditions have not been adequately examined. This study tested how cocaine moderates HIV-related neural activation during an intertemporal decision-making task. METHODS: The sample included 73 participants who differed on cocaine and HIV status (18 COC+/HIV+, 19 COC+/HIV-, 19 COC-/HIV+, 17 COC-/HIV-). Participants made choices between smaller, sooner and larger, delayed rewards while undergoing functional MRI...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557129/recreational-stimulants-herbal-and-spice-cannabis-the-core-psychobiological-processes-that-underlie-their-damaging-effects
#2
Andrew C Parrott, Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey
AIMS: Recreational drugs are taken for their positive mood effects, yet their regular usage damages well-being. The psychobiological mechanisms underlying these damaging effects will be debated. METHODS: The empirical literature on recreational cannabinoids and stimulant drugs is reviewed. A theoretical explanation for how they cause similar types of damage is outlined. RESULTS: All psychoactive drugs cause moods and psychological states to fluctuate...
May 30, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393896/effects-of-ibudilast-on-the-subjective-reinforcing-and-analgesic-effects-of-oxycodone-in-recently-detoxified-adults-with-opioid-dependence
#3
Verena E Metz, Jermaine D Jones, Jeanne Manubay, Maria A Sullivan, Shanthi Mogali, Andrew Segoshi, Gabriela Madera, Kirk W Johnson, Sandra D Comer
Ibudilast, a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is used clinically in Asia for the treatment of asthma and poststroke dizziness. Recent preclinical studies have suggested that it also inhibits glial cell activation in rodents, and may alter opioid-mediated effects, including analgesia and withdrawal symptoms. The effects of ibudilast on the abuse potential of opioids in humans are largely unknown. The present study was designed to examine the influence of ibudilast on subjective (including drug craving), reinforcing, and analgesic effects of oxycodone in human volunteers diagnosed with opioid dependence (equivalent to moderate-severe opioid use disorder)...
May 10, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340233/increase-in-drug-overdose-deaths-involving-fentanyl-rhode-island-january-2012-march-2014
#4
Melissa C Mercado, Steven A Sumner, M Bridget Spelke, Michele K Bohm, David E Sugerman, Christina Stanley
Objective.:  This study identified sociodemographic, substance use, and multiple opioid prescriber and dispenser risk factors among drug overdose decedents in Rhode Island, in response to an increase in overdose deaths (ODs) involving fentanyl. Methods.:  This cross-sectional investigation comprised all ODs reviewed by Rhode Island's Office of the State Medical Examiners (OSME) during January 2012 to March 2014. Data for 536 decedents were abstracted from OSME's charts, death certificates, toxicology reports, and Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) databases...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120116/urine-drug-screen-findings-among-ambulatory-oncology-patients-in-a-supportive-care-clinic
#5
Sherri Rauenzahn, Adam Sima, Brian Cassel, Danielle Noreika, Teny Henry Gomez, Lynn Ryan, Carl E Wolf, Luke Legakis, Egidio Del Fabbro
PURPOSE: Professional organizations provide no guidelines regarding assessment and management of opioid abuse risk in cancer. Universal precautions (UP) developed for non-cancer pain, include assessments for aberrant behavior, screening questionnaires, and urine drug screens (UDS). The role of UDS for identifying opioid abuse risk in cancer is uncertain. Our aim is to characterize inappropriate UDS, and identify a potential role for UDS in therapeutic decision-making. METHODS: An observational retrospective chart review of 232 consecutive supportive care clinic patients were seen during the study...
June 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098590/analgesia-and-sedation-requirements-in-mechanically-ventilated-trauma-patients-with-acute-preinjury-use-of-cocaine-and-or-amphetamines
#6
Bridgette Kram, Shawn J Kram, Michelle L Sharpe, Michael L James, Maragatha Kuchibhatla, Mark L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanically ventilated trauma patients with a positive urine drug screen (UDS) for cocaine and/or amphetamines have different opioid analgesic and sedative requirements compared with similar patients with a negative drug screen for these stimulants. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center cohort study at a tertiary care, academic medical and level 1 trauma center in the United States included patients ≥16 years of age who were admitted to an adult intensive care unit with a diagnosis of trauma between 2009 and 2013 with a UDS documented within 24 hours of admission, and were mechanically ventilated for >24 hours...
March 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859963/repeated-restraint-stress-exposure-during-early-withdrawal-accelerates-incubation-of-cue-induced-cocaine-craving
#7
Ryan M Glynn, J Amiel Rosenkranz, Marina E Wolf, Aaron Caccamise, Freya Shroff, Alyssa B Smith, Jessica A Loweth
A major challenge for treating cocaine addiction is the propensity for abstinent users to relapse. Two important triggers for relapse are cues associated with prior drug use and stressful life events. To study their interaction in promoting relapse during abstinence, we used the incubation model of craving and relapse in which cue-induced drug seeking progressively intensifies ('incubates') during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. We tested rats for cue-induced cocaine seeking on withdrawal day (WD) 1...
November 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348214/shifted-pallidal-co-release-of-gaba-and-glutamate-in-habenula-drives-cocaine-withdrawal-and-relapse
#8
Frank J Meye, Mariano Soiza-Reilly, Tamar Smit, Marco A Diana, Martin K Schwarz, Manuel Mameli
Cocaine withdrawal produces aversive states and vulnerability to relapse, hallmarks of addiction. The lateral habenula (LHb) encodes negative stimuli and contributes to aversive withdrawal symptoms. However, it remains unclear which inputs to LHb promote this and what the consequences are for relapse susceptibility. We report, using rabies-based retrolabeling and optogenetic mapping, that the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN, the mouse equivalent of the globus pallidus interna) projects to an LHb neuronal subset innervating aversion-encoding midbrain GABA neurons...
August 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269368/development-of-a-translational-model-to-screen-medications-for-cocaine-use-disorder-ii-choice-between-intravenous-cocaine-and-money-in-humans
#9
Joshua A Lile, William W Stoops, Craig R Rush, S Stevens Negus, Paul E A Glaser, Kevin W Hatton, Lon R Hays
BACKGROUND: A medication for treating cocaine use disorder has yet to be approved. Laboratory-based evaluation of candidate medications in animals and humans is a valuable means to demonstrate safety, tolerability and initial efficacy of potential medications. However, animal-to-human translation has been hampered by a lack of coordination. Therefore, we designed homologous cocaine self-administration studies in rhesus monkeys (see companion article) and human subjects in an attempt to develop linked, functionally equivalent procedures for research on candidate medications for cocaine use disorder...
August 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27074621/fermented-barley-supplementation-modulates-the-expression-of-hypothalamic-genes-and-reduces-energy-intake-and-weight-gain-in-rats
#10
P B Tirupathi Pichiah, Suk-Ho Cho, Seong-Kyu Han, Youn-Soo Cha
Dietary fiber and proteins are individually known to decrease feeding, but could result greater weight management benefit when both are combined. We hypothesized that supplementing the diet with fermented barley, being rich in both dietary fiber and proteins, could lower energy intake by modulating the mRNA expression level of hypothalamic genes associated with the regulation of feeding behavior and satiety; thereby decreasing body weight gain. To test our hypothesis, four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design (n = 6), low-fat diet with either guar gum (LFD-G) or fermented barley (LFD-FB) and high-fat diet with either guar gum (HFD-G) or fermented barley (HFD-FB)...
April 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968560/cocaine-and-benzoylecgonine-oral-fluid-on-site-screening-and-confirmation
#11
Kayla N Ellefsen, Marta Concheiro, Sandrine Pirard, David A Gorelick, Marilyn A Huestis
Accurate on-site devices to screen for drug intake are critical for establishing whether an individual is driving under the influence of drugs (DUID); however, on-site oral fluid (OF) cocaine device performance is variable. We evaluated the performance of a newly developed benzoylecgonine (BE) test-strip for the Draeger® DrugTest 5000 device (20 µg/L cut-off) with equivalent cross reactivity for cocaine and BE. Ten cocaine users provided OF, collected with the Draeger cassette and Oral-Eze® and StatSure Saliva Sampler(TM) devices, up to 69 h following 25 mg intravenous cocaine administration...
March 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26914460/derived-relations-moderate-the-association-between-changes-in-the-strength-of-commitment-language-and-cocaine-treatment-response
#12
Kenneth M Carpenter, Paul C Amrhein, Krysten W Bold, Kaitlyn Mishlen, Frances R Levin, Wilfrid N Raby, Suzette M Evans, Richard W Foltin, Edward V Nunes
The psycholinguistic analysis of client-counselor interactions indicates that how individuals talk about their substance use is associated with treatment outcome. However, the processes by which client speech influences out-of-session behaviors have not been clearly delineated. This study investigated the relationships between deriving relations-a key behavioral process by which language and cognition may come to influence behavior, shifts in the strength of client talk in favor of change, and treatment outcome among 75 cocaine-dependent participants (23% Female)...
April 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892922/dopamine-transporter-correlates-and-occupancy-by-modafinil-in-cocaine-dependent-patients-a-controlled-study-with-high-resolution-pet-and-11-c-pe2i
#13
Laurent Karila, Claire Leroy, Manon Dubol, Christian Trichard, Audrey Mabondo, Catherine Marill, Albertine Dubois, Nadège Bordas, Jean-Luc Martinot, Michel Reynaud, Eric Artiges
Modafinil is a candidate compound for the treatment of cocaine addiction that binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT) in healthy humans, as observed by positron emission tomography (PET). This mechanism, analogous to that of cocaine, might mediate a putative therapeutic effect of modafinil on cocaine dependence, though the binding of modafinil to DAT has never been assessed in cocaine-dependent patients. We aimed at quantifying the DAT availability during a controlled treatment by modafinil, and its clinical and psychometric correlates in cocaine-dependent patients at the onset of abstinence initiation...
August 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26875563/effects-of-sodium-benzoate-treatment-in-combination-with-an-extinction-training-on-the-maintenance-of-cocaine-supported-memory
#14
Yi-Ni Tsai, Wen-Yu Tzeng, Chianfang G Cherng, Tien You Liao, Hsin-Hua Wu, Jie-Kuan Lin, Lung Yu
Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor can facilitate the extinction of various maladaptive memories. Sodium benzoate (NaB) has been known to enhance a naturally occurring full agonist on the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor. This study aimed to test whether systemic NaB treatment can affect the extinction of a cocaine-supported memory, the cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Following the establishment of the cocaine (10 mg/kg/conditioning × 3)-induced CPP, an extinction protocol, consisting of two consecutive extinction training bouts at an 8-h interval, was used...
February 29, 2016: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26569576/short-term-outcomes-for-opiate-and-crack-users-accessing-treatment-the-effects-of-criminal-justice-referral-and-crack-use
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Andrew Jones, Karen P Hayhurst, Tim Millar, Matthias Pierce, Graham Dunn, Michael Donmall
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The English drug treatment population doubled in size between 1998 and 2008, increasingly characterised by crack cocaine use and criminal justice system (CJS) referral. We assessed short-term (median 3.5 month) behaviour changes following participation in drug treatment and the moderating effect of CJS referral/crack use. METHODS: Opiate and/or crack cocaine users (n = 1,267) were recruited from 342 agencies. Outcome effects were assessed via interaction term regression, clustered at participant level, controlling for client characteristics...
2016: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26452438/assessing-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-drugs-used-in-preparing-the-nose-for-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-procedures-a-systematic-review
#16
A M Saif, A Farboud, E Delfosse, L Pope, M Adke
BACKGROUND: Local anaesthetics and vasoconstrictors are essential for pain control and to aid intra-operative haemostasis in nasal procedures. They also improve access, and reduce discomfort when performing nasal endoscopy. There are no clear guidelines on preparing the nose despite evermore diagnostic and therapeutic procedures utilising the nose as a point of access. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: This review aims to identify nasal preparations used in diagnostic and therapeutic nasal procedures and to examine their safety and efficacy...
October 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26441499/methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-mimics-cocaine-in-its-physiological-and-behavioral-effects-but-induces-distinct-changes-in-nac-glucose
#17
Ken T Wakabayashi, Suelynn E Ren, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is generally considered to be a more potent cocaine-like psychostimulant, as it shares a similar pharmacological profile with cocaine and induces similar physiological and locomotor responses. Recently, we showed that intravenous cocaine induces rapid rise in nucleus accumbens (NAc) glucose and established its relation to neural activation triggered by the peripheral drug actions. This study was conducted to find out whether MDPV, at a behaviorally equivalent dose, shares a similar pattern of NAc glucose dynamics...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26171721/nanoprobe-enhanced-split-aptamer-based-electrochemical-sandwich-assay-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-small-molecules
#18
Tao Zhao, Ran Liu, Xiaofan Ding, Juncai Zhao, Haixiang Yu, Lei Wang, Qing Xu, Xuan Wang, Xinhui Lou, Miao He, Yi Xiao
It is quite challenging to improve the binding affinity of antismall molecule aptamers. We report that the binding affinity of anticocaine split aptamer pairs improved by up to 66-fold by gold nanoparticles (AuNP)-attached aptamers due to the substantially increased local concentration of aptamers and multiple and simultaneous ligand interactions. The significantly improved binding affinity enables the detection of small molecule targets with unprecedented sensitivity, as demonstrated in nanoprobe-enhanced split aptamer-based electrochemical sandwich assays (NE-SAESA)...
August 4, 2015: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26043322/the-effectiveness-of-psychodynamic-psychotherapies-an-update
#19
Peter Fonagy
This paper provides a comprehensive review of outcome studies and meta-analyses of effectiveness studies of psychodynamic therapy (PDT) for the major categories of mental disorders. Comparisons with inactive controls (waitlist, treatment as usual and placebo) generally but by no means invariably show PDT to be effective for depression, some anxiety disorders, eating disorders and somatic disorders. There is little evidence to support its implementation for post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, cocaine dependence or psychosis...
June 2015: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25974755/caffeine-enhances-and-accelerates-the-expression-of-sensitization-induced-by-coca-paste-indicating-its-relevance-as-a-main-adulterant
#20
José P Prieto, Martín Galvalisi, Ximena López-Hill, María N Meikle, Juan A Abin-Carriquiry, Cecilia Scorza
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Caffeine is an active adulterant found in several drugs of abuse including coca paste (CP). We had previously demonstrated that caffeine potentiated the acute stimulant effect induced by CP seized samples. The role of caffeine in the expression of sensitization elicited by a CP seized sample (CP1) was here evaluated. METHODS: CP1 (equivalent dose of 10 mg/kg of cocaine), cocaine (pure, 10 mg/kg), a combination of cocaine 10 mg/kg plus caffeine 2...
August 2015: American Journal on Addictions
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