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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812389/evolocumab-for-the-treatment-of-hypercholesterolemia
#1
Brian Tomlinson, Miao Hu, Yuzhen Zhang, Paul Chan, Zhong-Min Liu
Evolocumab is a fully human monoclonal immunoglobulin G2 directed against human proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). It is administered by subcutaneous injection every 2 weeks or once monthly. Area covered: Herein, the authors discuss the rationale for inhibiting PCSK9 and describe the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and clinical trials with evolocumab. Evolocumab reduces low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 50 to 60% in most patients with and without background treatment with statins or other lipid lowering agents...
August 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812362/nitrogen-doped-porous-graphdiyne-a-highly-efficient-metal-free-electrocatalyst-for-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#2
Qing Lv, Wenyan Si, Ze Yang, Ning Wang, Zeyi Tu, Yuanping Yi, Changshui Huang, Li Jiang, Mingjia Zhang, Jianjiang He, Yun-Ze Long
Metal-free catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are the desired materials for low-cost proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Graphdiyne (GDY), a novel type of 2D carbon allotrope, is featured by sp and sp2 hybridized carbon, different from the other existed carbon materials. Thus nitrogen (N) can be doped in new styles by substituting sp hybridized carbon atoms, effective for ORR, which has been displayed in this study using both experimental and theorical technologies. The N doped GDY was synthesized with pyridine and NH3 as N sources, successively, expressing similar electrocatalytic activity at potential above 0...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811489/high-temperature-stress-during-flowering-and-grain-filling-offsets-beneficial-impact-of-elevated-co2-on-assimilate-partitioning-and-sink-strength-in-rice
#3
Ashish K Chaturvedi, Rajeev N Bahuguna, Divya Shah, Madan Pal, S V Krishna Jagadish
Elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]) environments have been predicted to improve rice yields under future climate. However, a concomitant rise in temperature could negate e[CO2] impact on plants, presenting a serious challenge for crop improvement. High temperature (HT) stress tolerant NL-44 and high yielding basmati Pusa 1121 rice cultivars, were exposed to e[CO2] (from panicle initiation to maturity) and a combination of e[CO2] + HT (from heading to maturity) using field based open top chambers. Elevated [CO2] significantly increased photosynthesis, seed-set, panicle weight and grain weight across both cultivars, more prominently with Pusa 1121...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811148/metagenomes-from-deep-baltic-sea-sediments-reveal-how-past-and-present-environmental-conditions-determine-microbial-community-composition
#4
Ian P G Marshall, Søren M Karst, Per H Nielsen, Bo Barker Jørgensen
Microbial communities that lived near the sediment surface in the past become slowly buried and are the source of deep subsurface communities thousands of years later. We used metagenomes to analyse how the composition of buried microbial communities may change to conform to altered environmental conditions at depth. Sediment samples were collected from down to 85m below sea floor during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347, "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment". The sediments vary in age, organic carbon content, porewater salinity, and other parameters that reflect the changing Baltic environment from the last ice age and throughout the Holocene...
August 12, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810831/application-of-a-bayesian-non-linear-model-hybrid-scheme-to-sequence-data-for-genomic-prediction-and-qtl-mapping
#5
Tingting Wang, Yi-Ping Phoebe Chen, Iona M MacLeod, Jennie E Pryce, Michael E Goddard, Ben J Hayes
BACKGROUND: Using whole genome sequence data might improve genomic prediction accuracy, when compared with high-density SNP arrays, and could lead to identification of casual mutations affecting complex traits. For some traits, the most accurate genomic predictions are achieved with non-linear Bayesian methods. However, as the number of variants and the size of the reference population increase, the computational time required to implement these Bayesian methods (typically with Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampling) becomes unfeasibly long...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809383/increasing-symptoms-in-irritable-bowel-symptoms-with-ingestion-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-are-mitigated-by-%C3%AE-galactosidase-treatment
#6
C J Tuck, K M Taylor, P R Gibson, J S Barrett, J G Muir
OBJECTIVES: Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are dietary FODMAPs (fermentable carbohydrates) associated with triggering gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial aimed to assess whether oral α-galactosidase co-ingestion with foods high in GOS and low in other FODMAPs would reduce symptoms. METHODS: Patients meeting the Rome III criteria for IBS who were hydrogen-producers on breath testing were recruited...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808443/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-and-parathyroid-hormone-secretion
#7
Sarah Zaheer, Jenifer M Brown, Molly Connors, Jonathan S Williams, Gail K Adler, Anand Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) on serum PTH in participants with and without primary hyperparathyroidism (P-HPT). METHODS: An open-label, single-arm, pilot study whereby participants with and without P-HPT had PTH were evaluated before and after 1 week of maximally tolerated lisinopril therapy...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808013/disaggregating-sorghum-yield-reductions-under-warming-scenarios-exposes-narrow-genetic-diversity-in-us-breeding-programs
#8
Jesse Tack, Jane Lingenfelser, S V Krishna Jagadish
Historical adaptation of sorghum production to arid and semiarid conditions has provided promise regarding its sustained productivity under future warming scenarios. Using Kansas field-trial sorghum data collected from 1985 to 2014 and spanning 408 hybrid cultivars, we show that sorghum productivity under increasing warming scenarios breaks down. Through extensive regression modeling, we identify a temperature threshold of 33 °C, beyond which yields start to decline. We show that this decline is robust across both field-trial and on-farm data...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807848/hydroalcoholic-extract-from-bark-of-persea-major-meisn-l-e-kopp-lauraceae-exerts-antiulcer-effects-in-rodents-by-the-strengthening-of-the-gastric-protective-factors
#9
Lincon Bordignon Somensi, Thaise Boeing, Benhur Judah Cury, Viviane Miranda Bispo Steimbach, Rivaldo Niero, Lauro Mera de Souza, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
ETHOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Persea major (Meisn.) L.E. Kopp (Lauraceae) (botanical synonym: Persea pyrifolia (D. Don) Spreng, Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart., Persea cordata var. major (Meisn.) Mez and Persea willdenovii Kosterm) is a medicinal plant native in the south of Brazil, where is popularly known as Pau de Andrade, Maçaranduba or Abacate-do-Mato. Its barks are commonly used to prepare an infusion which is administered orally or topically to treat ulcers and wounds, respectively...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807393/treatment-trends-effectiveness-and-safety-of-statins-on-lipid-goal-attainment-in-chinese-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-patients-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Yundai Chen, Dandan Li, Jing Jing, Hongbing Yan, Jinghua Liu, Zhujun Shen, Stefan James, Christoph Varenhorst
PURPOSE: Limited data exist on the use of statins in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We therefore conducted this study to observe the usage trend and the effectiveness of statins on LDL-C goal attainment and other lipid parameters among PCI-treated patients. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study was conducted in PCI-treated patients with CAD between July 1, 2011, and February 28, 2015...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806726/replication-fork-slowing-and-stalling-are-distinct-checkpoint-independent-consequences-of-replicating-damaged-dna
#11
Divya Ramalingam Iyer, Nicholas Rhind
In response to DNA damage during S phase, cells slow DNA replication. This slowing is orchestrated by the intra-S checkpoint and involves inhibition of origin firing and reduction of replication fork speed. Slowing of replication allows for tolerance of DNA damage and suppresses genomic instability. Although the mechanisms of origin inhibition by the intra-S checkpoint are understood, major questions remain about how the checkpoint regulates replication forks: Does the checkpoint regulate the rate of fork progression? Does the checkpoint affect all forks, or only those encountering damage? Does the checkpoint facilitate the replication of polymerase-blocking lesions? To address these questions, we have analyzed the checkpoint in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe using a single-molecule DNA combing assay, which allows us to unambiguously separate the contribution of origin and fork regulation towards replication slowing, and allows us to investigate the behavior of individual forks...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806650/floating-rice-culture-system-for-nutrient-remediation-and-feed-production-in-a-eutrophic-lake
#12
Ankita Srivastava, Seong-Jun Chun, So-Ra Ko, Junhwan Kim, Chi-Yong Ahn, Hee-Mock Oh
The increased inputs of nutrients have been demonstrated to be a major contributing factor to the eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs which can lead to the production of harmful algal/cyanobacterial blooms and deleteriously affect the aesthetics of water-bodies. Floating plant-culture systems have been widely used for the ecological remediation of eutrophic water in a cost-effective manner. We investigated the applicability of Korean japonica rice variety 'Nampyeong' in a floating-culture system in a eutrophic lake for nutrient uptake and biomass production...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806104/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-administration-to-heavy-cannabis-users
#13
Gregory L Sahlem, Nathaniel L Baker, Mark S George, Robert J Malcolm, Aimee L McRae-Clark
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is a common condition with few treatments. Several studies in other substance use disorders have found that applying repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) decreases cue-elicited craving and possibly decreases use. To date, there have been no studies attempting to use rTMS in CUD. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine if rTMS could be feasibly delivered to a group of non-treatment seeking CUD participants...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805336/matrix-stimulation-in-cancer-pain-methodology-safety-and-effectiveness
#14
M Mücke, M Tils, R Conrad, D Kravchenko, H Cuhls, L Radbruch, M Marinova, V Peuckmann-Post, R Rolke
BACKGROUND: This feasibility study addresses the applicability of matrix electrodes for the reduction of ongoing pain in cancer patients via low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFS). METHODS: Low-frequency matrix stimulation (4 Hz) was applied to the skin within the 'Head's zones' referring to the tumour localization of cancer pain patients. Pain at baseline was compared to a 3-day treatment interval consisting of 5 min of matrix stimulation in the morning and evening followed by a 3-day follow-up period without therapy...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804493/a-comprehensive-biophysical-model-of-ion-and-water-transport-in-plant-roots-i-clarifying-the-roles-of-endodermal-barriers-in-the-salt-stress-response
#15
Kylie J Foster, Stanley J Miklavcic
In this paper, we present a detailed and comprehensive mathematical model of active and passive ion and water transport in plant roots. Two key features are the explicit consideration of the separate, but interconnected, apoplastic, and symplastic transport pathways for ions and water, and the inclusion of both active and passive ion transport mechanisms. The model is used to investigate the respective roles of the endodermal Casparian strip and suberin lamellae in the salt stress response of plant roots. While it is thought that these barriers influence different transport pathways, it has proven difficult to distinguish their separate functions experimentally...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803660/multiple-sclerosis-skin-induced-antigen-specific-immune-tolerance
#16
REVIEW
Paula Wildner, Krzysztof W Selmaj
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly prevalent demyelinating disorder, presumed to be driven by an autoimmune response toward the central nervous system (CNS) components. All currently available treatments modulate the immune system globally and besides the reduction of disease activity, they may also impose considerable disturbances on the immune protective mechanisms. Thus, induction of antigen-specific immune tolerance remains the ultimate goal of MS therapy. Such approach carries promising therapeutic perspectives and, above all, a desirable safety profile...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803396/early-regression-of-carotid-intima-media-thickness-after-bariatric-surgery-and-its-relation-to-serum-leptin-reduction
#17
G Lambert, Marcelo Miranda de Oliveira Lima, A C Felici, J C Pareja, A C J Vasques, F S Novaes, S Rodovalho, F F P Hirsch, J R Matos-Souza, Élinton A Chaim, B Geloneze
PURPOSE: Bariatric surgery (BS) promotes carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) regression as early as 6 months post-surgery. To verify whether C-IMT regression occurs even earlier, we aimed at the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) on C-IMT 1-2 months and 12 months post-surgery. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Prospective trial. BS was performed on 109 patients either with (RYGBP = 42; BDP = 40) or without type 2 diabetes (RYGBP = 27)...
August 12, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803267/feasibility-and-response-to-nedaplatin-monotherapy-in-older-patients-with-ovarian-cancer
#18
Hiroyuki Yoshida, Daisuke Shintani, Aiko Ogasawara, Keiichi Fujiwara
PURPOSE: Nedaplatin (NDP), a second-generation platinum analog, has been developed to reduce the toxicity of cisplatin. Although the use of NDP for older patients seems suitable because of the reduced risk of toxicity, few studies have investigated its application to older patients with ovarian cancer (OC). The objective of this study was to compare the tolerability and effectiveness of NDP between patients older and younger than 70 years of age with OC. METHODS: We enrolled 56 patients with OC who were treated with NDP monotherapy and divided them into those who were 70 years and older (n = 18) and younger than 70 years (n = 38)...
August 12, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803087/effect-of-prophylactic-fentanyl-buccal-tablet-on-episodic-exertional-dyspnea-a-pilot-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
David Hui, Kelly Kilgore, Susan Frisbee-Hume, Minjeong Park, Diane Liu, Diwakar D Balachandran, Eduardo Bruera
CONTEXT: Episodic dyspnea is one of the most common, debilitating and difficult-to-treat symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a pilot study to examine the effect of prophylactic FBT on exercise-induced dyspnea. METHODS: In this parallel, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, opioid-tolerant patients were asked to complete a 6 minute walk test (6MWT) at baseline, then a second 6MWT 30 minutes after a single dose of FBT (equivalent to 20-50% of their total opioid dose) or matching placebo...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802231/phytochemical-properties-and-pharmacological-effects-of-quercus-ilex-l-aqueous-extract-on-gastrointestinal-physiological-parameters-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Kaïs Rtibi, Imen Hammami, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amri, Lamjed Marzouki
INTRODUCTION: Several research studies have reported on the pharmacological relevance of the medicinal plants used for treating various gastrointestinal disorders and controlling the dietary glucose uptake in the intestinal tract. METHODS: Male rats were used to investigate the pharmacological effects of green oak acorn aqueous extract (GOAE) on gastrointestinal physiological parameters in vivo and in vitro. In this respect, the gastro-intestinal motility and hypersecretion essays were evaluated using a simple test meal (10% charcoal in 5% gum arabic) and castor oil induced diarrhea...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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