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Tolerance Reduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334496/oxygen-in-the-critically-ill-friend-or-foe
#1
Elisa Damiani, Abele Donati, Massimo Girardis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the potential harmful effects of hyperoxia and summarize the results of most recent clinical studies evaluating oxygen therapy in critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Excessive oxygen supplementation may have detrimental pulmonary and systemic effects because of enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury includes altered surfactant protein composition, reduced mucociliary clearance and histological damage, resulting in atelectasis, reduced lung compliance and increased risk of infections...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334436/assessment-of-the-effects-of-a-novel-stabilized-stannous-fluoride-dentifrice-on-gingivitis-in-a-two-month-positive-controlled-clinical-study
#2
Tao He, Rachelle Eusebio, C R Goyal, Jimmy G Qaqish
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the antibleeding/antigingivitis effectiveness of a newly formulated 0.454% stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice and a marketed positive control triclosan-containing dentifrice in adults with mild-to-moderate gingivitis. METHODS: This single-center, two-month, randomized and controlled, double-blind, parallel group clinical trial involved adults with preexisting mild-to-moderate gingivitis. Baseline bleeding and gingivitis levels were assessed with the Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Lobene Modified Gingival Index (MGI)...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334435/comparative-antiplaque-effect-of-two-antimicrobial-dentifrices-laboratory-and-clinical-evaluations
#3
Lynn R Friesen, C R Goyal, Jimmy G Qaqish, Tao He, Rachelle Eusebio, Marianne Zsiska, Teresa Farmer, Eva Schneiderman
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of a stannous fluoride dentifrice versus a triclosan-containing dentifrice on the reduction of plaque using in vitro and clinical models. METHODS: Both investigations evaluated a novel 0.454% stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice (Crest® Pro-Health™ smooth formula) versus a sodium fluoride/triclosan positive control dentifrice (Colgate® Total®). The in vitro evaluation utilized the Plaque Glycolysis and Regrowth Model (PGRM), wherein the metabolic effects (acid production/glycolysis inhibition) of the dentifrices were assessed on plaque biofilms grown on glass rods after three days growth and a single dentifrice treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334269/effects-of-a-transient-noise-reduction-algorithm-on-speech-intelligibility-in-noise-noise-tolerance-and-perceived-annoyance-in-cochlear-implant-users
#4
J Gertjan Dingemanse, Jantien L Vroegop, André Goedegebure
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity and efficacy of a transient noise reduction algorithm (TNR) in cochlear implant processing and the interaction of TNR with a continuous noise reduction algorithm (CNR). DESIGN: We studied the effects of TNR and CNR on the perception of realistic sound samples with transients, using subjective ratings of annoyance, a speech-in-noise test and a noise tolerance test. STUDY SAMPLE: Participants were 16 experienced cochlear implant recipients wearing an Advanced Bionics Naida Q70 processor...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334132/oxybutynin-3-gel-for-the-treatment-of-primary-focal-hyperhidrosis-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#5
Nicholas V Nguyen, Jane Gralla, James Abbott, Anna L Bruckner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There are no reliably effective, well-tolerated topical agents for the treatment of hyperhidrosis. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of oxybutynin 3% gel in adolescents and young adults with primary focal hyperhidrosis. METHODS: Patients with severe axillary hyperhidrosis were treated with topical oxybutynin 3% gel for 4 weeks. Response to treatment was assessed by calculating change in Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Score from baseline to weeks 1 and 4...
January 15, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332301/evaluating-risk-tolerance-from-a-systematic-review-of-preferences-the-case-of-patients-with-psoriasis
#6
REVIEW
Juan Marcos Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Stated-preference methods have been widely used to evaluate patient-relative preferences for the benefits and potential harms of psoriasis treatments. However, risk tolerance measures for treatment-related harms, a corollary of preferences, are rare despite their critical role in shared decision making and regulatory benefit-risk evaluations. This article presents a method to enhance information on patient risk tolerance through previously published preference results. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to conduct the first meta-analysis of preferences to characterize the distribution of patients' maximum acceptable risk of harms associated with psoriasis treatments...
January 13, 2018: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332191/genome-wide-characterization-of-differentially-expressed-genes-provides-insights-into-regulatory-network-of-heat-stress-response-in-radish-raphanus-sativus-l
#7
Ronghua Wang, Yi Mei, Liang Xu, Xianwen Zhu, Yan Wang, Jun Guo, Liwang Liu
Heat stress (HS) causes detrimental effects on plant morphology, physiology, and biochemistry that lead to drastic reduction in plant biomass production and economic yield worldwide. To date, little is known about HS-responsive genes involved in thermotolerance mechanism in radish. In this study, a total of 6600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the control and Heat24 cDNA libraries of radish were isolated by high-throughput sequencing. With Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, some genes including MAPK, DREB, ERF, AP2, GST, Hsf, and Hsp were predominantly assigned in signal transductions, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis and abiotic stress-responsive pathways...
January 13, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331924/gene-expression-patterns-regulating-the-seed-metabolism-in-relation-to-deterioration-ageing-of-primed-mung-bean-vigna-radiata-l-seeds
#8
Satyendra Nath Sharma, Ankita Maheshwari, Chitra Sharma, Nidhi Shukla
We are proposing mechanisms to account for the loss of viability (seed deterioration/ageing) and enhancement in seed quality (post-storage priming treatment). In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of these traits, we conducted controlled deterioration (CD) test for up to 8 d using primed mung bean seeds and examined how CD effects the expression of many genes, regulating the seed metabolism in relation to CD and priming. Germination declined progressively with increased duration of CD, and the priming treatment completely/partially reversed the inhibition depending on the duration of CD...
January 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331686/quercetin-decrease-somatic-cells-count-in-mastitis-of-dairy-cows
#9
Artur Burmańczuk, Piotr Hola, Andrzej Milczak, Tomasz Piech, Cezary Kowalski, Beata Wojciechowska, Tomasz Grabowski
Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which has an effect on inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular inflammation. In several other flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, astragalin, alpinetin, baicalein, indirubin), anti-inflammatory mechanism was proven by using mice mastitis model. The aim of the current study was pilot analysis of quercetin tolerability and its impact on somatic cells count (SCC) after multiple intramammary treatment on dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Based on SCC and clinical investigation, 9 dairy cows with clinical mastitis of one quarter were selected for the pilot study...
January 9, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331635/sotatercept-with-long-term-extension-for-the-treatment-of-anaemia-in-patients-with-lower-risk-myelodysplastic-syndromes-a-phase-2-dose-ranging-trial
#10
Rami Komrokji, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Lionel Ades, Thomas Prebet, David P Steensma, Joseph G Jurcic, Mikkael A Sekeres, Jesus Berdeja, Michael R Savona, Odile Beyne-Rauzy, Aspasia Stamatoullas, Amy E DeZern, Jacques Delaunay, Gautam Borthakur, Robert Rifkin, Thomas E Boyd, Abderrhamane Laadem, Bond Vo, Jennie Zhang, Marie Puccio-Pick, Kenneth M Attie, Pierre Fenaux, Alan F List
BACKGROUND: Myelodysplastic syndromes are characterised by ineffective erythropoiesis leading to anaemia. Sotatercept (ACE-011) is a novel activin receptor type IIA fusion protein that acts as a ligand trap to neutralise negative regulators of late-stage erythropoiesis. The aim of the study was to establish a safe and effective dose of sotatercept for the treatment of anaemia in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. METHODS: This open-label, multicentre, dose-ranging, phase 2 trial took place at 11 treatment centres in the USA and France...
January 10, 2018: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330966/static-hyperinflation-is-associated-with-ventilatory-limitation-and-exercise-tolerance-in-adult-cystic-fibrosis
#11
Daniel Stevens
INTRODUCTION: Lung hyperinflation is a potential mechanism limiting exercise tolerance. However, available data on the impact of static hyperinflation on exercise performance in adult cystic fibrosis is lacking. Furthermore, the relative contribution of both static and dynamic hyperinflation to exercise performance is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of static hyperinflation on exercise tolerance and lung dynamics in adult cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Clinical data of 107 adult patients with cystic fibrosis, including pulmonary function, lung volumes, and cardiopulmonary exercise from the Toronto Cystic Fibrosis database were collected and analyzed...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330194/telotristat-ethyl-in-carcinoid-syndrome-safety-and-efficacy-in-the-telecast-phase-3-trial
#12
Marianne E Pavel, David J Gross, Marta Benavent, Petros Perros, Raj Srirajaskanthan, Richard R P Warner, Matthew H Kulke, Lowell Anthony, Pamela Kunz, Dieter Hörsch, Martin O Weickert, Pablo Lapuerta, Wenjun Jiang, Kenneth Kassler-Taub, Suman Wason, Rosanna Fleming, Douglas Fleming, Rocio García-Carbonero
Telotristat ethyl, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, was efficacious and well tolerated in the Phase 3 TELESTAR study in patients with carcinoid syndrome (CS) experiencing ≥4 bowel movements per day (BMs/day) while on somatostatin analogs (SSAs). TELECAST, a Phase 3 companion study, assessed safety and efficacy of telotristat ethyl in patients with CS (diarrhea, flushing, abdominal pain, nausea, or elevated urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid [u5-HIAA]) with <4 BMs/day on SSAs (or ≥1 symptom or ≥4 BMs/day if not on SSAs) during a 12-week double-blind treatment period followed by a 36-week open-label extension (OLE)...
January 12, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329493/a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-trial-of-intravenous-meloxicam-in-the-treatment-of-pain-following-dental-impaction-surgery
#13
Steven E Christensen, Stephen A Cooper, Randall J Mack, Stewart W McCallum, Wei Du, Alex Freyer
This randomized, controlled phase 2 study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic efficacy, safety, and tolerability of single intravenous (IV) doses of 15 mg, 30 mg, and 60 mg meloxicam compared with oral ibuprofen 400 mg and placebo after dental impaction surgery. The primary efficacy end point was the sum of time-weighted pain intensity differences for 0-24 hours postdose. Among 230 evaluable subjects, meloxicam IV 60 mg produced the greatest reduction in pain, followed by the 30-mg and 15-mg doses. Statistically significant differences in summed pain intensity differences over 24 hours were demonstrated for each active-treatment group vs placebo (favoring active treatment) and for meloxicam IV 30 mg and 60 mg vs ibuprofen 400 mg (favoring meloxicam IV)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327400/a-vitamin-b12-conjugate-of-exendin-4-improves-glucose-tolerance-without-associated-nausea-or-hypophagia-in-rodents
#14
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase, Claudia G Liberini, Jayme L Workinger, Ron L Bonaccorso, Tito Borner, David J Reiner, Kieran Koch-Laskowski, Lauren E McGrath, Rinzin Lhamo, Lauren M Stein, Bart C De Jonghe, George G Holz, Christian L Roth, Robert P Doyle, Matthew R Hayes
AIMS: While pharmacological glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are FDA-approved for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity, a major side effect is nausea/malaise. We recently developed a conjugate of vitamin B12 bound to the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), which displays enhanced proteolytic stability and retention of GLP-1R agonism. Here, we evaluate whether the conjugate (B12-Ex4) can improve glucose tolerance without producing anorexia and malaise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of systemic B12-Ex4 and unconjugated Ex4 on food intake and body weight change, oral glucose tolerance, and nausea/malaise in male rats, and on intraperitoneal glucose tolerance in mice...
January 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327229/leopoldia-comosa-prevents-metabolic-disorders-in-rats-with-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#15
T Casacchia, F Scavello, C Rocca, M C Granieri, G Beretta, D Amelio, F Gelmini, A Spena, R Mazza, C C Toma, Tommaso Angelone, Giancarlo Statti, T Pasqua
PURPOSE: Obesity is the main feature of a complex illness known as metabolic syndrome. Anti-obesogenic therapies are often associated with side effects and represent a high cost in conventional pharmacological approaches. New strategies based on natural remedies are under continuous investigation. Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl. (L. comosa) is a spontaneous plant with diuretic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, a hypoglycemic activity mediated by inhibition of carbohydrate digestion has been identified...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325114/distribution-of-pines-in-the-iberian-peninsula-agrees-with-species-differences-in-foliage-frost-tolerance-not-with-vulnerability-to-freezing-induced-xylem-embolism
#16
Laura Fernández-Pérez, Pedro Villar-Salvador, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Andrei Toca, Miguel A Zavala
Drought and frosts are major determinants of plant functioning and distribution. Both stresses can cause xylem embolism and foliage damage. The objective of this study was to analyse if the distribution of six common pine species along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Europe is related to their interspecific differences in frost tolerance and to the physiological mechanisms underlying species-specific frost tolerance. We also evaluate if frost tolerance depends on plant water status. We studied survival to a range of freezing temperatures in 2-year-old plants and assessed the percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) due xylem embolism formation and foliage damage determined by needle electrolyte leakage (EL) after a single frost cycle to -15 °C and over a range of predawn water potential (ψpd) values...
January 9, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321893/opposing-deer-and-caterpillar-foraging-preferences-may-prevent-reductions-in-songbird-prey-biomass-in-historically-overbrowsed-forests
#17
R Keating Godfrey, Ellen H Yerger, Timothy J Nuttle
Overbrowsing by ungulates decimates plant populations and reduces diversity in a variety of ecosystems, but the mechanisms by which changes to plant community composition influence other trophic levels are poorly understood. In addition to removal of avian nesting habitat, browsing is hypothesized to reduce bird density and diversity through reduction of insect prey on browse-tolerant hosts left behind by deer. In this study, we excluded birds from branches of six tree species to quantify differences in songbird prey removal across trees that vary in deer browse preference...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321863/impact-of-moderate-and-extreme-climate-change-scenarios-on-growth-morphological-features-photosynthesis-and-fruit-production-of-hot-pepper
#18
Sang Gyu Lee, Sung Kyeom Kim, Hee Ju Lee, Hee Su Lee, Jin Hyoung Lee
Horticultural crop production and changes in physiological aspects during the growing season may be affected by climate change factors (CC), which include increased temperature and the associated doubling or tripling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, the potential effects are complex and many parameters might impact on the observed effects. To evaluate the effects of CC, the growth, yield, fruit characteristics, photosynthetic traits, and morphological characteristics of hot peppers were investigated...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321466/an-instrument-free-detection-of-antioxidant-activity-using-paper-based-analytical-devices-coated-with-nanoceria
#19
Thirada Piyanan, Anan Athipornchai, Charles S Henry, Yupaporn Sameenoi
This work reports a portable distance-based detection paper device that has a thermometer-like shape for rapid, instrument-free determination of antioxidant activity using a nanoceria assay. The assay is based on partial reduction of cerium ion from Ce4+ to Ce3+ on nanoceria deposited along the detection channel by antioxidants present in food, giving highly reactive oxidation products. Either these products or the parent antioxidant compounds could then bind to the OH-rich ceria nanoparticles and generate charge transfer ceria-antioxidant complexes resulting in a yellow to brown color change...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321275/cd40-mediates-maturation-of-thymic-dendritic-cells-driven-by-self-reactive-cd4-thymocytes-and-supports-development-of-natural-regulatory-t-cells
#20
Jaehak Oh, Nan Wu, Andrea J Barczak, Rebecca Barbeau, David J Erle, Jeoung-Sook Shin
Thymic dendritic cells (tDCs) play an important role in central tolerance by eliminating self-reactive thymocytes or differentiating them to regulatory T (Treg) cells. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these functions are not completely understood. We found that mouse tDCs undergo maturation following cognate interaction with self-reactive CD4+ thymocytes and that this maturation is dependent on CD40 signaling. Ablation of CD40 expression in tDCs resulted in a significant reduction in the number of Treg cells in association with a significant reduction in the number of mature tDCs...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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