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community acquired pneumonia review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943342/mechanisms-of-platelet-activation-by-the-pneumococcus-and-the-role-of-platelets-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#1
REVIEW
Ronald Anderson, Charles Feldman
There is increasing recognition of the involvement of platelets in orchestrating inflammatory responses, driving the activation of neutrophils, monocytes and vascular endothelium, which, if poorly controlled, may lead to microvascular dysfunction. Importantly, hyperreactivity of platelets has been implicated in the pathogenesis of myocardial injury and the associated particularly high prevalence of acute cardiovascular events in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), of which Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the most commonly encountered aetiologic agent...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922613/the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-mainland-china-2001-2015-a-systematic-review
#2
Guijun Ning, Xuxia Wang, Dan Wu, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 years and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments. METHODS: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919348/prevalence-of-colistin-resistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-enterobacteriaceae-a-four-year-cross-sectional-study
#3
Núria Prim, Miquel Turbau, Alba Rivera, Judith Rodríguez-Navarro, Pere Coll, Beatriz Mirelis
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to determine the prevalence of colistin resistance in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, and to gain knowledge on the epidemiological and clinical features of the patients. METHODS: All colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae consecutively isolated from clinical samples in our institution from 2012 to 2015, were included in this cross-sectional study. Intrinsic-resistant species were excluded. Minimum inhibitory concentration was performed by gradient diffusion...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876159/implementing-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-enhance-compliance-with-guideline-recommended-prechemotherapy-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-a-military-based-medical-oncology-practice
#4
Wilfred Delacruz, Sandra Terrazzino, Michael Osswald, Casey Payne, Brian Haney
PURPOSE: Patients with cancer are at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease, including community-acquired pneumonia. Current Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and National Cancer Comprehensive Network guidelines recommend pneumococcal vaccination for immunocompromised patients, including patients with cancer. METHODS: We conducted a quality improvement (QI) project to enhance compliance with pneumococcal vaccination in patients before their chemotherapy...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861211/adverse-effects-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-in-older-adults-a-review-of-the-evidence
#5
REVIEW
Marina L Maes, Danielle R Fixen, Sunny Anne Linnebur
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a widely prescribed class of medications used to treat acid-related disorders and use has significantly increased over the last few decades. PPIs are often inappropriately prescribed and since they have been on the market, a number of post-marketing studies have been published demonstrating associations between longer duration of PPI therapy and a number of adverse effects that are a concern in older adults. The objective of this review is to discuss the existing literature of potential adverse effects with long-term PPI use in older adults and to summarize the implications in clinical practice...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859018/analysis-of-invasive-community-acquired-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-during-a-period-of-declining-ca-mrsa-infections-at-a-large-children-s-hospital
#6
Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Linda B Lamberth, Andrea R Forbes, Paula A Revell, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of community acquired (CA) Staphylococcus aureus infections is changing in the United States. We investigated the current epidemiology of S. aureus infections at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH). METHODS: Patients with CA-S. aureus skin and soft tissue (SSTI) and invasive infections were retrospectively identified from 1/1/2007-12/31/2014. Invasive CA-MSSA isolates were characterized by PFGE, Spa typing, agr type and presence of lukSF-PV (pvl) genes...
August 28, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854991/validation-and-incidence-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-the-bifap-database
#7
L C Saiz, J Garjón, J Gorricho, J Erviti, M J Gil-García, E Martín-Merino
Oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) have been associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to validate the recording of CAP in the Spanish Database for Pharmacoepidemiological Research in Primary Care (BIFAP) for the future evaluation of OAD-CAP association. The incidence rate (IR/1000 person-years) of CAP in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was also determined. In total, 2966 pneumonia records (2040 listed as diagnosis and 926 as identified from comments added by physicians) were identified from 76 009 patients with T2DM after the first OAD in 2002-2013...
August 31, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844414/childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-review-of-etiology-and-antimicrobial-treatment-studies
#8
REVIEW
Gerdien A Tramper-Stranders
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity worldwide. Because of the rising antimicrobial resistance rates and adverse effects of childhood antibiotic use on the developing microbiome, rational prescribing of antibiotics for CAP is important. This review summarizes and critically reflects on the available evidence for the epidemiology, etiology and antimicrobial management of childhood CAP. Larger prospective studies on antimicrobial management derive mostly from low- or middle-income countries as they have the highest burden of CAP...
July 15, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837859/systematic-review-of-respiratory-viral-pathogens-identified-in-adults-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-europe
#9
REVIEW
Y Alimi, W S Lim, L Lansbury, J Leonardi-Bee, J S Nguyen-Van-Tam
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important respiratory disease and the fifth leading cause of mortality in Europe. The development of molecular diagnostic tests has highlighted the contributions of respiratory viruses to the aetiology of CAP, suggesting the incidence of viral pneumonia may have been previously underestimated. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to describe the overall identification of respiratory viruses in adult patients with CAP in Europe, following PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO; CRD42016037233)...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837364/to-which-extent-can-we-decrease-antibiotic-duration-in-critically-ill-patients
#10
José Garnacho-Montero, Angel Arenzana-Seisdedos, Jan De Waele, Marin H Kollef
Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy is associated with higher mortality in critically ill patients with severe infections. Nevertheless, prolonged duration of antibiotic treatment is also potentially harmful. Development of new infections with more resistant pathogens is one of the arguments against the administration of prolonged courses of antibiotics. Areas covered: We aim to describe the optimal duration of antimicrobial therapy in the most common infections affecting critically ill patients. A literature search was performed to identify all clinical trials, observational studies, meta-analysis, and reviews about this topic from PubMed...
August 24, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835382/utility-of-blood-culture-among-children-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#11
MULTICENTER STUDY
Mark I Neuman, Matthew Hall, Susan C Lipsett, Adam L Hersh, Derek J Williams, Jeffrey S Gerber, Thomas V Brogan, Anne J Blaschke, Carlos G Grijalva, Kavita Parikh, Lilliam Ambroggio, Samir S Shah
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: National guidelines recommend blood cultures for children hospitalized with presumed bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that is moderate or severe. We sought to determine the prevalence of bacteremia and characterize the microbiology and penicillin-susceptibility patterns of positive blood culture results among children hospitalized with CAP. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of children hospitalized with CAP in 6 children's hospitals from 2007 to 2011...
September 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814258/management-of-complicated-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-review-of-recent-literature
#12
John B Darby, Amrita Singh, Ricardo Quinonez
BACKGROUND: Despite declining rates of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children, complicated pneumonia has been on the rise in the last two decades. The management of complicated pneumonia is challenging and continues to be an area of investigation. Despite recently published guidelines, many gaps exist and recent studies attempt to answer challenging questions. OBJECTIVE: To review recently published literature to inform the clinician on the most up to date management of complicated pneumonia in children...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780309/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-pantoea-agglomerans-infection-in-children
#13
Ayşe Büyükcam, Özlem Tuncer, Deniz Gür, Banu Sancak, Mehmet Ceyhan, Ali Bülent Cengiz, Ateş Kara
Pantoea agglomerans is an environmental Gram-negative bacterium that rarely is responsible for the infections in humans but it is often a causative factor of a number of occupational diseases. This study evaluated the clinical and microbiological characteristics and pathogenicity of P. agglomerans in children. We retrospectively reviewed microbiological test results for all children (1 month old to 18 years old) who were admitted to our pediatric hospital between January 2000 to June 2015 and had positive clinical specimen cultures for P...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777158/pneumonia-with-bacterial-and-viral-coinfection
#14
Kelly Cawcutt, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review the epidemiology of pneumonia with bacterial and viral coinfection, the pathogenesis and clinical impact of coinfection along with the current state of treatment and outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Emphasis is given to the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral co-infection including specific highlighting on influenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus. Updates on the current state of diagnosis and management are included, as well as on areas where future research can be directed to improve patient clinical outcomes regarding viral and bacterial coinfection...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767921/hospitalization-costs-of-severe-bacterial-pneumonia-in-children-comparative-analysis-considering-different-costing-methods
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sheila Elke Araujo Nunes, Ruth Minamisava, Maria Aparecida da Silva Vieira, Alexander Itria, Vicente Porfirio Pessoa, Ana Lúcia Sampaio Sgambatti de Andrade, Cristiana Maria Toscano
Objective: To determine and compare hospitalization costs of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia cases via different costing methods under the Brazilian Public Unified Health System perspective. Methods: Cost-of-illness study based on primary data collected from a sample of 59 children aged between 28 days and 35 months and hospitalized due to bacterial pneumonia. Direct medical and non-medical costs were considered and three costing methods employed: micro-costing based on medical record review, micro-costing based on therapeutic guidelines and gross-costing based on the Brazilian Public Unified Health System reimbursement rates...
April 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762839/new-treatment-options-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#16
Bela Kocsis, Dora Szabo
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are among the most frequent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). They represent an increased morbidity and mortality rate in adults. Areas covered: This review describes recent advances regarding solithromycin, zabofloxacin and delafoxacin antibacterial agents that have been recently developed for treatment of CAP and in AECOPD. All of them have been introduced into phase III clinical trials. We will be summarising chemical structures, pharmacokinetics, antibacterial efficacy and toxicity of these agents...
September 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761583/challenges-of-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#17
REVIEW
Charlene M C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, responsible for more than 14% of deaths in children younger than 5 years of age. Due to difficulties with pathogen identification and diagnostics of CAP in children, targeted antimicrobial therapy is not possible, hence the widespread use of empirical antibiotics, in particular penicillins, cephalosporin, and macrolides. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to address medical, societal, and political issues associated with the widespread use of empirical antibiotics for CAP in the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758325/community-acquired-pneumonia-management-and-outcomes-in-the-era-of-health-information-technology
#18
REVIEW
Ian D Mecham, Caroline Vines, Nathan C Dean
Pneumonia continues to be a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality. Implementation of health information technology (HIT) can lead to cost savings and improved care. In this review, we examine the literature on the use of HIT in the management of community-acquired pneumonia. We also discuss barriers to adoption of technology in managing pneumonia, the reliability and quality of electronic health data in pneumonia research, how technology has assisted pneumonia diagnosis and outcomes research. The goal of using HIT is to develop and deploy generalizable, real-time, computerized clinical decision support integrated into usual pneumonia care...
July 30, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756639/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-2016-clinical-practice-guidelines-by-the-chinese-thoracic-society-chinese-medical-association
#19
REVIEW
Bin Cao, Yi Huang, Dan-Yang She, Qi-Jian Cheng, Fan Hong, Xin-Lun Tian, Jin-Fu Xu, Jing Zhang, Yu Chen, Ning Shen, Hui Wang, Mei Jiang, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Yi Shi, Bei He, Li-Xian He, You-Ning Liu, Jie-Ming Qu
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults is an infectious disease with high morbidity in China and the rest of the world. With the changing pattern in the etiological profile of CAP and advances in medical techniques in diagnosis and treatment over time, Chinese Thoracic Society of Chinese Medical Association updated its CAP guideline in 2016 to address the standard management of CAP in Chinese adults. Extensive and comprehensive literature search was made to collect the data and evidence for experts to review and evaluate the level of evidence...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756034/efficacy-of-corticosteroid-treatment-for-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-meta-analysis
#20
Wei-Fang Wu, Qiang Fang, Guo-Jun He
BACKGROUND: The benefits and adverse effects of corticosteroids in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have not been well assessed. The aim of this systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy in patients with severe CAP. METHODS: The following databases were searched: PubMed, the Cochrane database, Embase, Wanfang, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and the WeiPu (VIP) database in Chinese...
July 15, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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