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community acquired pneumonia review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129538/pneumonia-in-the-tropics-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Steve McGloughlin, Pravin R Amin
The aetiology of community acquired pneumonia varies according to the region in which it is acquired. This review discusses those causes of CAP that occur in the tropics and might not be readily recognizable when transplanted to other sites. Various forms of pneumonia including the viral causes such as influenza (seasonal and avian varieties), the coronaviruses and the Hantavirus as well as bacterial causes, specifically the pneumonic form of Yersinia pestis and melioidosis are discussed.
November 3, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118869/proton-pump-inhibitor-use-is-associated-with-an-increased-frequency-of-hospitalization-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#2
Fares Ayoub, Jorge Lascano, Giuseppe Morelli
Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly prescribed medications in clinical practice. PPI use has been associated with the development of community-acquired pneumonia. With a reported prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and PPI use that is higher than the general population, patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are particularly vulnerable to PPI adverse effects. We sought to explore whether PPI use was associated with a higher number of hospitalizations for CF pulmonary exacerbation...
October 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095281/disease-burden-of-hospitalized-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-south-korea-analysis-based-on-age-and-underlying-medical-conditions
#3
Min Joo Choi, Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Jin Gu Yoon, Saem Na Lee, Jung Yeon Heo, Jae Won Yoon, Yu Mi Jo, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
Pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. Despite recognition of the importance of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults, limited epidemiologic information is available in South Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the disease burden of hospitalized CAP in adults aged ≥19 years and its epidemiologic trend using Health Insurance and Review Assessment (HIRA) data.This is a retrospective study using the HIRA database from year 2009 to 2013. We estimated the incidence rate and direct medical cost of hospitalized CAP in adults aged ≥19 years in South Korea...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092707/determining-the-contribution-of-em-streptococcus-pneumoniae-em-to-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-australia
#4
REVIEW
J Kevin Yin, Sanjay H Jayasinghe, Patrick G Charles, Catherine King, Clayton K Chiu, Robert I Menzies, Peter B McIntyre
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the proportion and severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) in Australians aged 18 years and over. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review with unpublished data from the largest study. DATA SOURCES: Multiple key bibliographic databases to June 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Australian studies on the aetiology of CAP in adults. DATA SYNTHESIS: In the 12 studies identified, pneumococcus was the most common cause of CAP...
November 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043422/guidelines-for-the-use-of-chest-radiographs-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-and-adolescents
#5
REVIEW
Savvas Andronikou, Elena Lambert, Jarred Halton, Lucy Hilder, Iona Crumley, Mark D Lyttle, Cara Kosack
National guidance from the United Kingdom and the United States on community-acquired pneumonia in children states that chest radiographs are not recommended routinely in uncomplicated cases. The main reason in the ambulatory setting is that there is no evidence of a substantial impact on clinical outcomes. However clinical practice and adherence to guidance is multifactorial and includes the clinical context (developed vs. developing world), the confidence of the attending physician, the changing incidence of complications (according to the success of immunisation programs), the availability of alternative imaging (and its relationship to perceived risks of radiation) and the reliability of the interpretation of imaging...
October 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043420/lung-ultrasound-for-the-diagnosis-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Jacob A M Stadler, Savvas Andronikou, Heather J Zar
Ultrasound (US) has been proposed as an alternative first-line imaging modality to diagnose community-acquired pneumonia in children. Lung US has the potential benefits over chest radiography of being radiation free, subject to fewer regulatory requirements, relatively lower cost and with immediate bedside availability of results. However, the uptake of lung US into clinical practice has been slow and it is not yet included in clinical guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia in children. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the equipment and techniques used to perform lung US in children with suspected pneumonia and the interpretation of relevant sonographic findings...
October 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043419/computed-tomography-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#7
REVIEW
Savvas Andronikou, Pierre Goussard, Erich Sorantin
Diagnostic imaging plays a significant role in both the diagnosis and treatment of complications of pneumonia in children and chest radiography is the imaging modality of choice. Computed tomography (CT) on the other hand, is not currently a first-line imaging tool for children with suspected uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia and is largely reserved for when complications of pneumonia are suspected or there is difficulty in differentiating pneumonia from other pathology. This review outlines the situations where CT needs to be considered in children with pneumonia, describes the imaging features of the parenchymal and pleural complications of pneumonia, discusses how CT may have a wider role in developing countries where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis are prevalent, makes note of the role of CT scanning for identifying missed foreign body aspiration and, lastly, addresses radiation concerns...
October 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043211/native-valve-endocarditis-caused-by-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Caio Godoy Rodrigues, Jairo Rays, Marcia Yoshie Kanegae
Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a Gram-negative aerobic bacterium first described by Yabuuchi and Ohyama in 1971. A. xylosoxidans is frequently found in aquatic environments. Abdominal, urinary tract, ocular, pneumonia, meningitis, and osteomyelitis are the most common infections. Infective endocarditis is rare. As far as we know, until now, only 19 cases have been described, including this current report. We report the case of community-acquired native valve endocarditis caused by A. xylosoxidans in an elderly patient without a concomitant diagnosis of a malignancy or any known immunodeficiency...
July 2017: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036724/etiology-and-clinical-characteristics-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-with-airway-malacia-in-children
#9
Wang Yu-Qing, Hao Chuang-Li, Ji Wei, Chen Zheng-Rong, Zhang Xin-Xin, Gu Wen-Jing
Objective: The objective of this article is to study the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children with airway malacia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 428 pneumonia patients. All patients underwent bronchoscopy, and bronchoalveolar lavage samples were processed for microbiological assessment. Results: In a total of 428 cases reviewed, 60 were found to have airway malacia. Pathogens were identified in 44 of the 60 specimens (73...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034094/antibiotic-therapy-supportive-treatment-and-management-of-immunomodulation-inflammation-response-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-review-of-recommendations
#10
REVIEW
Marco Mantero, Paolo Tarsia, Andrea Gramegna, Sonia Henchi, Nicolò Vanoni, Marta Di Pasquale
Community-acquired pneumonia is a common and serious disease, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Management and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia are described in three main documents: the 2007 American Thoracic Society guidelines, the 2011 European Respiratory Society guidelines, and the 2009 British Thoracic Society guidelines, updated by the NICE in 2015. Despite the validity of current guidelines in improving prognosis and management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia, not all recommendations have high levels of evidence and there are still some controversial issues...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022532/hiv-positive-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-retrospective-audit
#11
P Mkoko, R I Raine
BACKGROUND: The indications for and outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) admission of HIV-positive patients in resource-poor settings such as sub-Saharan Africa are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify indications for ICU admission and determine factors associated with high ICU and hospital mortality in HIV-positive patients. METHODS: We reviewed case records of HIV-positive patients admitted to the medical and surgical ICUs at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020436/short-course-versus-long-course-intravenous-therapy-with-the-same-antibiotic-for-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-aged-two-months-to-59-months
#12
REVIEW
Zohra S Lassi, Aamer Imdad, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for children with severe pneumonia. Although controversy exists regarding the specific clinical features used to diagnose pneumonia, the criteria for diagnosis of severe pneumonia are better defined and are widely used to triage children for referral and second-line therapy...
October 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020323/corticosteroids-in-patients-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-systematic-review-and-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#13
Matthias Briel, Simone M C Spoorenberg, Dominic Snijders, Antoni Torres, Silvia Fernandez-Serrano, G Umberto Meduri, Albert Gabarrús, Claudine A Blum, Marco Confalonieri, Benjamin Kasenda, Reed A C Siemieniuk, Wim Boersma, Willem Jan W Bos, Mirjam Christ-Crain
Background: We aimed to evaluate the benefits and harms of adjunctive corticosteroids in adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) using individual patients' data of randomized placebo-controlled trials and to explore subgroup differences. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and trial registers (all until July 2017) for eligible trials. Data from 1,506 individual patients in six trials were analyzed using uniform outcome definitions...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964650/community-acquired-legionnaires-disease-at-a-medical-center-in-northern-taiwan
#14
Wei-Fang Kao, Jann-Tay Wang, Wang-Huei Sheng, Yee-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Legionella pneumophila had been recognized as an important pathogen for community-acquired pneumonia. We aimed to investigate clinical features and outcomes of patients with Legionnaires' disease at a tertiary medical center in northern Taiwan. METHODS: From June 2012 to February 2017, a retrospective review of adult community-acquired. Legionnaires' disease at a medical center was conducted. All Legionella infections were confirmed by positive urinary Legionella antigen assay, sera indirect immunofluorescence assay, or sputum culture for Legionella...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955497/pneumococcal-vaccination-in-autoimmune-rheumatic-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Éva Rákóczi, Zoltan Szekanecz
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of the community-acquired pneumonia. The mortality rate of invasive pneumococcal infections is high. Immunocompromised patients suffering from autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIRD) have a high risk for acquiring these infections. Protection against infection can be improved with vaccination. After using polysaccharide vaccines (PPV-23), in July 2013, a 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) was approved for adults. Due to its conjugate form, this vaccine is the recommended choice in pneumococcal vaccine-naive patients...
2017: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952384/investigational-drugs-in-phase-i-and-phase-ii-clinical-trials-for-the-treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
REVIEW
Adamantia Liapikou, Catia Cillóniz, Antoni Torres
Community acquired pneumonia is one of the main infections, remaining as a global cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. Successful treatment hinges on expedient delivery of appropriate antibiotic therapy tailored to both the likely pathogens and the severity of disease. Although antibiotic resistance is increasing and pharmaceutical companies continue to debate the profitability of introducing new antibacterial agents, an encouraging number of new molecules have recently been unveiled which target multidrug-resistant bacteria...
November 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946931/chlamydia-psittaci-psittacosis-as-a-cause-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
L Hogerwerf, B DE Gier, B Baan, W VAN DER Hoek
Psittacosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the transmission of the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci from birds to humans. Infections in humans mainly present as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, most cases of CAP are treated without diagnostic testing, and the importance of C. psittaci infection as a cause of CAP is therefore unclear. In this meta-analysis of published CAP-aetiological studies, we estimate the proportion of CAP caused by C. psittaci infection. The databases MEDLINE and Embase were systematically searched for relevant studies published from 1986 onwards...
September 26, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943342/review-manuscript-mechanisms-of-platelet-activation-by-the-pneumococcus-and-the-role-of-platelets-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#18
REVIEW
Ronald Anderson, Charles Feldman
There is increasing recognition of the involvement of platelets in orchestrating inflammatory responses, driving the activation of neutrophils, monocytes and vascular endothelium, which, if poorly controlled, may lead to microvascular dysfunction. Importantly, hyperreactivity of platelets has been implicated in the pathogenesis of myocardial injury and the associated particularly high prevalence of acute cardiovascular events in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), of which Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the most commonly encountered aetiologic agent...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922613/the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-mainland-china-2001-2015-a-systematic-review
#19
Guijun Ning, Xuxia Wang, Dan Wu, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 y and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments. METHODS: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919348/prevalence-of-colistin-resistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-enterobacteriaceae-a-four-year-cross-sectional-study
#20
Núria Prim, Miquel Turbau, Alba Rivera, Judith Rodríguez-Navarro, Pere Coll, Beatriz Mirelis
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to determine the prevalence of colistin resistance in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, and to gain knowledge on the epidemiological and clinical features of the patients. METHODS: All colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae consecutively isolated from clinical samples in our institution from 2012 to 2015, were included in this cross-sectional study. Intrinsic-resistant species were excluded. Minimum inhibitory concentration was performed by gradient diffusion...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
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