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community acquired pneumonia review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889013/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-a-review-of-the-currently-available-treatment-options
#1
REVIEW
S M Purrello, J Garau, E Giamarellos, T Mazzei, F Pea, A Soriano, S Stefani
This review is the result of discussions that took place at the 5th MRSA Working Group Consensus Meeting and explores the possible treatment options available for different types of infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), focusing on those antibiotics that could represent a valid alternative to vancomycin. In fact, whilst vancomycin remains a viable option, its therapy is moving towards individualised dosing. Other drugs, such as the new lipoglycopeptides (oritavancin, dalbavancin and telavancin) and fifth-generation cephalosporins (ceftaroline and ceftobiprole), are showing good in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy, especially for patients infected with micro-organisms with higher vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs)...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878212/obesity-paradox-obesity-orthodox-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-approach-to-unity
#2
Jesse Roth, Navneet Sahota, Priya Patel, Syed Faizan Mehdi, Mohammad Masum Wiese, Hafiz B Mahboob, Michelle Bravo, Daniel J Eden, Muhammad A Bashir, Amrat Kumar, Farah Alsaati, Irwin J Kurland, Wunnie Brima, Ann Danoff, Alessandra L Szulc, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey, Huan Yang
Obesity and the accompanying metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with heightened morbidity and mortality in older adults. In our review of more than 20 epidemiologic studies of major infectious diseases, including leaders such as tuberculosis, community-acquired pneumonia, and sepsis, obesity was associated with better outcomes. A cause-and-effect relationship between over-nutrition and survival with infection is suggested by results of two preliminary studies of infections in mice, where high fat feeding for 8-10 weeks provided much better outcomes...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847383/rare-purulent-cardiac-tamponade-caused-by-streptococcus-constellatus-in-a-young-immunocompetent-patient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Zakaria Hindi
BACKGROUND Purulent pericardial tamponade is a very rare occurrence in the current era of widespread antibiotic use. It is even rarer when caused by Streptococcus constellatus: a microorganism usually classified among the normal flora of the human body. It is occasionally diagnosed with certain predisposing factors. CASE REPORT We present the third case of Streptococcus constellatus cardiac tamponade reported in the current medical literature, occurring in a previously healthy young man who was initially admitted and treated for possible community-acquired pneumonia...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846240/efficacy-and-safety-of-adjunctive-corticosteroids-therapy-for-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Jirui Bi, Jin Yang, Ying Wang, Cijiang Yao, Jing Mei, Ying Liu, Jiyu Cao, Youjin Lu
BACKGROUND: Adjunctive corticosteroids therapy is an attractive option for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) treatment. However, the effectiveness of adjunctive corticosteroids on mortality of CAP remains inconsistent, especially in severe CAP. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive corticosteroids in severe CAP patients. METHODS: Three databases of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched for related studies published in English up to December, 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803507/role-of-atypical-bacteria-in-hospitalized-patients-with-nursing-home-acquired-pneumonia
#5
Laura Meyer-Junco
Background: Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) has been identified as one of the leading causes of mortality and hospitalization for long-term care residents. However, current and previous pneumonia guidelines differ on the appropriate management of NHAP in hospitalized patients, specifically in regard to the role of atypical bacteria such as Chlamydiae pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella. Objectives: The purpose of this review is to evaluate clinical trials conducted in hospitalized patients with NHAP to determine the prevalence of atypical bacteria and thus the role for empiric antibiotic coverage of these pathogens in NHAP...
October 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766567/ceftaroline-fosamil-a-review-in-complicated-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-and-community-acquired-pneumonia
#6
Lesley J Scott
Intravenous ceftaroline fosamil (Zinforo™), a prodrug that is rapidly converted to its active metabolite ceftaroline, is approved for use in adults and children (from 2 months of age) with complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In several multinational trials, ceftaroline fosamil was an effective and generally well tolerated treatment in adult and paediatric patients with cSSTIs or CAP. In the phase 3 CANVAS trials, ceftaroline fosamil treatment was noninferior to vancomycin plus aztreonam in adults with cSSTIs...
November 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755118/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-post-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#7
Erin E Shaughnessy, Erika L Stalets, Samir S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers the outpatient management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), discussing the changing microbiology of CAP since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, and providing an overview of national guideline recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance have plummeted since widespread 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742734/pleuromutilins-potent-drugs-for-resistant-bugs-mode-of-action-and-resistance
#8
Susanne Paukner, Rosemarie Riedl
Pleuromutilins are antibiotics that selectively inhibit bacterial translation and are semisynthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring tricyclic diterpenoid pleuromutilin, which received its name from the pleuromutilin-producing fungus Pleurotus mutilus Tiamulin and valnemulin are two established derivatives in veterinary medicine for oral and intramuscular administration. As these early pleuromutilin drugs were developed at a time when companies focused on major antibacterial classes, such as the β-lactams, and resistance was not regarded as an issue, interest in antibiotic research including pleuromutilins was limited...
October 14, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739904/clinical-utility-of-testing-for-legionella-pneumonia-in-central-texas
#9
Christopher Henry, Carl Boethel, Laurel A Copeland, Shekhar Ghamande, Alejandro C Arroliga, Heath D White
RATIONALE: Legionella pneumophila is an uncommon cause of community-acquired pneumonia in south central United States and regular testing may not be cost-effective in areas of low incidence. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of Legionella in central Texas and determine the costeffectiveness of Legionella urinary antigen testing. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with pneumonia between January 2001 and December 2013...
October 14, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737908/point-of-care-crp-testing-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumonia-in-adults
#10
(no author information available yet)
Respiratory tract infections (RTI) are among the most common acute conditions leading to GP consultations and to antibiotic prescribing in primary care, even though 70% are viral, and many others are minor self-limiting bacterial infections.(1-4) Between 0.5% and 1.1% of adults have community-acquired pneumonia every year in the UK, most of whom are managed in primary care.(4,5) The decision to prescribe antibiotics for an acute RTI in primary care is often based on clinical symptoms, which have low sensitivity and specificity, and high inter-observer variability...
October 2016: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717486/legionellosis-in-the-occupational-setting
#11
REVIEW
Luigi Principe, Paola Tomao, Paolo Visca
Legionellosis is the common name for two infections, Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF), both caused by Legionella bacteria. Although with low incidence, LD is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among community-acquired cases, an increasing number was reported to be linked to the occupational setting, posing the need for better recognition of work activities at risk of legionellosis. In this work, we selected and reviewed relevant literature on cases of occupational legionellosis published between 1978 and 2016 in order to define the: i) etiology; ii) sources of infection, iii) work activities at risk, iv) infection rates, v) predisposing factors, vi) mortality and vii) country distribution...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714962/utility-of-blood-cultures-in-children-admitted-to-hospital-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#12
Tessa R Davis, Hannah R Evans, Jennifer Murtas, Aimee Weisman, J Lynn Francis, Ahmed Khan
AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the utility of blood cultures in children admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia. The primary outcome was the number of positive blood culture results, and secondary outcomes included the effect of positive blood culture results on management, and the identification of other clinical/biochemical variables that could predict blood culture results or the course of illness. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis was carried out on all children admitted to Gosford Hospital during the 2-year period from July 2013 to June 2015...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703671/epidemiology-virulence-factors-and-management-of-the-pneumococcus
#13
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
Pneumococcal infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients throughout the world. This microorganism remains the most common bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia and is associated with a considerable burden of disease and health-care costs in both developed and developing countries. Emerging antibiotic resistance has been a concern because of its potential negative impact on the outcome of patients who receive standard antibiotic therapy. However, there have been substantial changes in the epidemiology of this pathogen in recent years, not least of which has been due to the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children, with subsequent herd protection in unvaccinated adults and children...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690702/clinical-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-elderly-patient
#14
Catia Cilloniz, Adrian Ceccato, Alicia San Jose, Antoni Torres
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major health problem in elderly persons and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Areas covered: This article reviews the most recent publications relative to CAP in the elderly population, with a focus on epidemiology, prognostic factors, microbial etiology, therapy and prevention. The data discussed in this review were mainly obtained from a non-systematic review using Medline, and references from relevant articles. Expert Commentary: CAP can occur at any age, but its incidence and risk of death are linked to increasing age...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667580/insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-review
#15
Jun He, Mihua Liu, Zhufeng Ye, Tianping Tan, Xinghui Liu, Xiaoxing You, Yanhua Zeng, Yimou Wu
Mycoplasma are the smallest prokaryotic microbes present in nature. These wall‑less, malleable organisms can pass through cell filters, and grow and propagate under cell‑free conditions in vitro. Of the pathogenic Mycoplasma Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been examined the most. In addition to primary atypical pneumonia and community‑acquired pneumonia with predominantly respiratory symptoms, M. pneumoniae can also induce autoimmune hemolytic anemia and other diseases in the blood, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract and skin, and can induce pericarditis, myocarditis, nephritis and meningitis...
November 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641310/-vaccination-against-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adult-patients-a-position-paper-by-neumoexpertos-en-prevenci%C3%A3-n
#16
E Redondo, I Rivero, D A Vargas, E Mascarós, J L Díaz-Maroto, M Linares, J Valdepérez, A Gil, J Molina, I Jimeno, D Ocaña, F Martinón-Torres
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults. The annual incidence of CAP in adults in Spain ranges from 3 to 14 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Current clinical guidelines primarily focus on the therapeutic approach to CAP rather than its prevention. The aim of this study is to develop and propose a practical guide for CAP prevention through vaccination in Spain according to available vaccines and evidence. METHODS: A literature review and expert opinion...
October 2016: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639424/best-clinical-practice-blood-culture-utility-in-the-emergency-department
#17
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Bacteremia affects 200,000 patients per year, with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Blood cultures are considered the most sensitive method for detecting bacteremia and are commonly obtained in patients with fever, chills, leukocytosis, focal infections, and sepsis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to provide emergency physicians with a review of the literature concerning blood cultures in the emergency department. DISCUSSION: The utility of blood cultures has been a focus of controversy, prompting research evaluating effects on patient management...
November 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610176/clinical-paraclinical-and-antimicrobial-resistance-features-of-community-acquired-acute-bacterial-meningitis-at-a-large-infectious-diseases-ward-in-tehran-iran
#18
Behrooz Heydari, Hossein Khalili, Iman Karimzadeh, Hamid Emadi-Kochak
In this study demographic, clinical, paraclinical, microbiological, and therapeutic features of patients with community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis admitted to a referral center for infectious diseases in Iran, have been evaluated. Medical records of adult (> 18 years) individuals with confirmed diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis during a 4-year period were retrospectively reviewed. All required data were obtained from patients' medical charts. Available findings about antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated bacteria from CSF and/or blood were also collected...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595539/the-solithromycin-journey-it-is-all-in-the-chemistry
#19
Prabhavathi Fernandes, Evan Martens, Daniel Bertrand, David Pereira
The macrolide class of antibiotics, including the early generation macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin, have been used broadly for treatment of respiratory tract infections. An increase of treatment failures of early generation macrolides is due to the upturn in bacterial macrolide resistance to 48% in the US and over 80% in Asian countries and has led to the use of alternate therapies, such as fluoroquinolones. The safety of the fluoroquinolones is now in question and alternate antibiotics for the outpatient treatment of community acquired bacterial pneumonia are needed...
August 22, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589216/congestive-heart-failure-in-children-with-pneumonia-and-respiratory-failure
#20
Kachaporn Nimdet, Win Techakehakij
BACKGROUND: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one of the most common cardiac complications of pneumonia in adulthood that leads to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. However, little is known of CHF and pneumonia in children. This study aims to explore the characteristics and factors associated with the presence of CHF in under-5 children with pneumonia and respiratory failure. METHODS: A retrospective cohort was conducted in hospitalized patients aged 2-59 months with community-acquired pneumonia and respiratory failure from June 2011 to June 2014 at Suratthani Hospital, Thailand...
September 2, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
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