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community acquired pneumonia review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432048/solithromycin-a-novel-ketolide-antibiotic
#1
Michael J Buege, Jack E Brown, Samuel L Aitken
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antimicrobial activity, clinical safety, and current regulatory status of solithromycin are reviewed. SUMMARY: Solithromycin is a novel ketolide antibiotic developed for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Its pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties provide activity against a broad range of intracellular organisms, including retained activity against pathogens displaying various mechanisms of macrolide resistance...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427381/penicillin-treatment-for-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-denmark-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Gertrud Baunbæk Egelund, Andreas Vestergaard Jensen, Stine Bang Andersen, Pelle Trier Petersen, Bjarne Ørskov Lindhardt, Christian von Plessen, Gernot Rohde, Pernille Ravn
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a severe infection, with high mortality. Antibiotic strategies for CAP differ across Europe. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of CAP in Denmark and evaluate the prognosis of patients empirically treated with penicillin-G/V monotherapy. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including hospitalized patients with x-ray confirmed CAP. We calculated the population-based incidence, reviewed types of empiric antibiotics and duration of antibiotic treatment...
April 20, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397171/pediatric-antibiotic-stewardship-successful-interventions-to-reduce-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-use-on-general-pediatric-wards
#3
Katharina Kreitmeyr, Ulrich von Both, Alenka Pecar, Johannes P Borde, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Johannes Huebner
PURPOSE: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) optimize antibiotic usage and combat antibiotic resistance of bacteria. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of specific ASP interventions on antibiotic consumption in general pediatric wards. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to compare a pre-intervention (Sept.-Dec. 2014) and post-intervention (Sept.-Dec. 2015) period. An ASP bundle was established including (1) infectious diseases (ID) ward rounds (prospective-audit-with-feedback), (2) ID consultation service, (3) internal guidelines on empiric antibiotic therapy...
April 10, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391994/usefulness-and-prognostic-value-of-biomarkers-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-emergency-department
#4
REVIEW
Agustín Julián-Jiménez, Juan González Del Castillo, Francisco Javier Candel
Between all patients treated in the Emergency Department (ED), 1.35% are diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). CAP is the main cause of death due to infectious disease (10-14%) and the most frequent reason of sepsis-septic shock in the ED. In the last decade, the search for objective tools to help establishing an early diagnosis, bacterial aetiology, severity, suspicion of bacteremia and the prognosis of mortality has increased. Biomarkers have shown their usefulness in this matter. Procalcitonin (obtains the highest accuracy for CAP diagnosis, bacterial aetiology and the presence of bacteremia), lactate (biomarker of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion) and proadrenomedullin (which has the greatest accuracy to predict mortality which in combination with the prognostic severity scales obtains even better results)...
April 6, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382572/current-clinical-trials-on-the-use-of-ceftaroline-in-the-pediatric-population
#5
REVIEW
Adam Corey, Tsz-Yin So
The rate of antibiotic resistance in children continues to rise requiring the use of new antibiotics. Ceftaroline fosamil, a newer-generation cephalosporin, was recently approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in children aged >2 months. Ceftaroline provides coverage against staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376442/prevalence-of-atypical-pathogens-in-patients-with-cough-and-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Christian Marchello, Ariella Perry Dale, Thuy Nhu Thai, Duk Soo Han, Mark H Ebell
PURPOSE: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute cough, bronchitis, and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are often caused by infections with viruses or Streptococcus pneumoniae. The prevalence of atypical pathogens Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Bordetella pertussis among patients with these illnesses in the ambulatory setting has not been previously summarized. We set out to derive prevalence information from the existing literature...
November 2016: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375514/clinical-implications-of-genomic-adaptation-and-evolution-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#7
Angela Gomez-Simmonds, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann
Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a major challenge to healthcare worldwide as an important cause of multidrug-resistant infections. Nosocomial clones, including epidemic sequence type 258 (ST258), have shown an affinity for acquiring and disseminating resistance plasmids, particularly variants of the K. pneumoniae carbapenemase. By comparison, the resurgence of severe community-associated K. pneumoniae infections has led to increased recognition of hypervirulent strains belonging to the K1 and K2 capsular serotypes, predominantly in eastern Asia...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369247/the-implications-of-antibiotic-resistance-for-patients-recovery-from-common-infections-in-the-community-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Oliver Van Hecke, Kay Wang, Joseph J Lee, Nia W Roberts, Chris C Butler
Background: Antibiotic use is the main driver for carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The perception exists that failure of antibiotic treatment due to antibiotic resistance has little clinical impact in the community. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science from inception to 15 April 2016 without language restriction. We included studies conducted in community settings which reported patient-level data on laboratory-confirmed infections (respiratory, urinary tract, skin or soft tissue), antibiotic resistance, and clinical outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351556/diagnostic-value-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage%C3%A2-in-children-with-nonresponding-community-acquired-pneumonia
#9
Chih-Min Tsai, Kin-Sun Wong, Wei-Ju Lee, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Pi-Lien Hung, Chen-Kuang Niu, Hong-Ren Yu
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized children. In CAP, causative agents are seldom identified using noninvasive diagnostic procedures. For those children not responding to empiric antibiotic therapy, it is vital to identify the causative pathogens for further management. METHODS: We aimed to determine the usefulness of identifying the causative agents by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in hospitalized children with nonresponding CAP...
February 17, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286263/acute-eosinophilic-pneumonia-correlation-of-clinical-characteristics-with-underlying-cause
#10
Federica De Giacomi, Paul A Decker, Robert Vassallo, Jay H Ryu
BACKGROUND: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is an uncommon disease, often indistinguishable from acute respiratory distress syndrome or community-acquired pneumonia at initial presentation. AEP can be idiopathic but identifiable causes include medications and inhalational exposures including cigarette smoke. METHODS: Using a computer-assisted search, we retrospectively identified and reviewed the medical records of all patients diagnosed with AEP between January 1, 1998 and June 30, 2016 at our institution...
March 9, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276227/-usefulness-of-biomarkers-to-predict-bacteraemia-in-patients-with-infection-in-the-emergency-department
#11
REVIEW
A Julián-Jiménez, F J Candel, J González-Del Castillo
Between all patients attended in the Emergency Department (ED), 14.3% have an infectious disease diagnosis. Blood cultures (BC) are obtained in 14.6% of patients and have a profitability of 20%, whereas 1% are considered as contaminated and 1-3% of positive cultures correspond to discharge patients ("hidden bacteraemia"). The highest number of confirmed bacteraemias comes from the samples of patients with urinary tract infections, followed by community-acquired pneumonia. The suspicion and detection of bacteraemia have an important diagnostic and prognostic significance and could modify some important making-decisions (admission, BC request, administration of appropriate and early antimicrobial, etc)...
March 8, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251510/risk-factors-for-drug-resistant-cap-in-immunocompetent-patients
#12
REVIEW
Francisco Arancibia, Mauricio Ruiz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increase in drug-resistant community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important problem all over the world. This article explores the current state of antimicrobial resistance of different bacteria that cause CAP and also assesses risk factors to identify those pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last two decades, it has been documented that there is a significant increase in drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria causing CAP...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251508/enterovirus-d68-associated-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-age-group
#13
REVIEW
Samantha Bosis, Susanna Esposito
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. RECENT FINDINGS: EV-D68 is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its first isolation in 1962 in California in four children suffering from CAP and bronchiolitis, EV-D68 has been rarely detected from respiratory specimens. However, recently, EV-D68 infection has raised concerns in the international community because of outbreaks in 2014 in the USA and the increased number of children with EV-D68-associated severe respiratory illnesses, including pneumonia, that have been reported in many other countries around the world...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236797/community-acquired-pneumonia-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-critically-ill-patients-systematic-review
#14
Nuria Carballo, Marta De Antonio-Cuscó, Daniel Echeverría-Esnal, Sonia Luque, Esther Salas, Santiago Grau
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) having often been associated with nosocomial pneumonia, the condition of some MRSA CAP patients is severe enough to warrant their being admitted to ICU. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature on antibiotic treatment of MRSA CAP in critically-ill patients...
March 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198726/community-acquired-pneumonia-requiring-hospitalization-rational-decision-making-and-interpretation-of-guidelines
#15
Douwe F Postma, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the evidence base for guideline recommendations on the diagnosis, the optimal choice, timing and duration of empirical antibiotic therapy, and the use of microbiological tests for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): issues for which guidelines are frequently used as a quick reference. Furthermore, we will discuss possibilities for future research in these topics. RECENT FINDINGS: Many national and international guideline recommendations, even on critical elements of CAP management, are based on low-to-moderate quality evidence...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179245/ceftaroline-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#16
Bryan Pinckney White, Katie E Barber, Kayla R Stover
PURPOSE: The utility of ceftaroline for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) is reviewed. SUMMARY: Ceftaroline was originally approved for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) but recently received an additional approval for the treatment of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) associated with ABSSSIs. Ceftaroline has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of MRSAB, including isolates with elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations to conventional therapy when used alone or in combination with other agents...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160220/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-hiv-positive-patients-an-update-on-etiologies-epidemiology-and-management
#17
REVIEW
André Almeida, Matteo Boattini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the cause of a considerable burden of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients. The purpose of this study was to review recent literature for epidemiological trends and management of CAP in HIV patients. RECENT FINDINGS: While the specific infectious etiologies are very diverse, bacterial infection and tuberculosis are the main causes of CAP in this population. Bacterial CAP mostly affects high-income countries, while tuberculosis is mostly in low-/middle-income countries...
January 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159161/atypical-pneumonia-updates-on-legionella-chlamydophila-and-mycoplasma-pneumonia
#18
REVIEW
Lokesh Sharma, Ashley Losier, Thomas Tolbert, Charles S Dela Cruz, Chad R Marion
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has multiple causes and is associated with illness that requires admission to the hospital and mortality. The causes of atypical CAP include Legionella species, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma. Atypical CAP remains a diagnostic challenge and, therefore, likely is undertreated. This article reviews the advancements in the evaluation and treatment of patients and discusses current conflicts and controversies of atypical CAP.
March 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159158/diagnosing-viral-and-atypical-pathogens-in-the-setting-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#19
REVIEW
Grant W Waterer
The 'atypical' pathogens causing pneumonia have long been problematic for physicians because we have had to rely on serologic tests to make a diagnosis. The introduction of polymerase chain reaction techniques revolutionized the diagnosis of respiratory infections and now a new wave of technologies promising faster, cheaper, and more comprehensive testing are becoming available. This review focuses principally on the diagnosis of Legionella, Mycoplasma, and influenza infections, but also covers recent publications on the cutting edge of diagnostic tools likely to transform the field of infectious diseases over the coming decade...
March 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148730/a-multicenter-collaborative-to-improve-care-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-hospitalized-children
#20
Kavita Parikh, Eric Biondi, Joanne Nazif, Faiza Wasif, Derek J Williams, Elizabeth Nichols, Shawn Ralston
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Value in Inpatient Pediatrics Network sponsored the Improving Care in Community Acquired Pneumonia collaborative with the goal of increasing evidence-based management of children hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Project aims included: increasing use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics, decreasing use of macrolides, and decreasing concurrent treatment of pneumonia and asthma. METHODS: Data were collected through chart review across emergency department (ED), inpatient, and discharge settings...
March 2017: Pediatrics
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