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community acquired pneumonia review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094205/legionnaires-disease-at-a-medical-center-in-southern-taiwan
#1
Tzu-Lun Hung, Ming-Chi Li, Li-Rong Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Chia-Wen Li, Po-Lin Chen, Ling-Shan Syue, Nan-Yao Lee, Wen-Chien Ko
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Legionella pneumophila had been recognized as a pathogen for both healthcare-associated and community-acquired pneumonia. We aimed to evaluate clinical features and outcomes of patients with Legionnaires' disease at a tertiary medical center in southern Taiwan. METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2013, a retrospective study of adult cases of Legionnaires' disease was conducted in a 1200-bed tertiary hospital. Their medical records were reviewed for further evaluation and analysis...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088130/vaccine-candidates-against-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Ava Behrouzi, Farzam Vaziri, Fatemeh Rahimi-Jamnani, Parviz Afrough, Mohammad Rahbar, Fereshteh Satarian, Seyed Davar Siadat
Nonencapsulated, nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi) remains an important cause of acute otitis and respiratory diseases in children and adults. NTHi bacteria are one of the major causes of respiratory tract infections, including acute otitis media, cystic fibrosis, and community-acquired pneumonia among children, especially in developing countries. The bacteria can also cause chronic diseases such as chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the lower respiratory tract of adults...
2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079629/duration-of-pneumonia-therapy-and-the-role-of-biomarkers
#3
Katerina Kaziani, Adamantia Sotiriou, George Dimopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide phenomenon that is threatening public health. Lower respiratory infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity that contribute to antibiotic consumption and thus the emergence of multidrug-resistant microbial strains. The goal of shortening antibiotic regimens' duration in common bacterial infections has been prioritized by antimicrobial stewardship programs as an action against this problem. RECENT FINDINGS: Data coming from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews support the shortening of antimicrobial regimens in community-acquired, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070670/the-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-community-acquired-pneumonia-hospitalizations-in-children-with-comorbidity
#4
Ellinor Sterky, Rutger Bennet, Ann Lindstrand, Margareta Eriksson, Anna Nilsson
: The burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in high-income countries is still significant. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has reduced the overall need for hospitalization for CAP. However, it is not clear whether children with underlying disease also have benefitted from the PCV immunization programme. Children 0 to <5 years of age hospitalized with CAP and discharged with an ICD-10 code of J13-J18.9 between November 1, 2005, and April 30, 2007 (pre-vaccination period), and November 1, 2010, and April 30, 2012 (post-vaccination period), were eligible for this study...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067676/severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-optimal-management
#5
Davide Leoni, Jordi Rello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases. Several efforts have been implemented to achieve better outcomes, but an important proportion of patients continue dying. This review focuses on the newest research on prognostic factors and diagnostics, opening new perspectives in the management of CAP. RECENT FINDINGS: CAP survival improved in recent years despite an increasing incidence of severe presentations...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058593/ceftaroline-fosamil-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-a-systematic-review
#6
Maguy Saffouh El Hajj, Ricky D Turgeon, Kyle John Wilby
Background Ceftaroline is a parentally administered cephalosporin that has an in vitro expanded spectrum of activity compared with other cephalosporins yet data is conflicting regarding its place in therapy. Aim of the Review To compare the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline against standard antibiotic regimens for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs). Method The databases of MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Embase were searched up to June 2016. Manual review of references was completed and experts in the field were contacted for unpublished data...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039666/use-of-ceftaroline-fosamil-in-children-review-of-current-knowledge-and-its-application
#7
REVIEW
Juwon Yim, Leah M Molloy, Jason G Newland
Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin recently approved in children for treatment of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other susceptible bacteria. With a favorable tolerability profile and efficacy proven in pediatric patients and excellent in vitro activity against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ceftaroline may serve as a therapeutic option for polymicrobial infections, CABP caused by penicillin- and ceftriaxone-resistant S...
December 30, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031086/respiratory-and-cardiac-characteristics-of-icu-patients-aged-90-years-and-older-a-report-of-12-cases
#8
Hong-Min Zhang, Da-Wei Liu, Xiao-Ting Wang, Yun Long, Quan-Hui Yang
Objective To investigate the respiratory and cardiac characteristics of elderly Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients.Methods Twelve senior ICU patients aged 90 years and older were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively collected all patients' clinical data through medical record review. The basic demographics, primary cause for admission, the condition of respiratory and circulatory support, as well as prognosis were recorded. Shock patients and pneumonia patients were specifically analyzed in terms of clinical manifestations, laboratory variables, echocardiography, and lung ultrasound Results...
March 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024955/pregnancy-as-a-risk-factor-for-severe-outcomes-from-influenza-virus-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#9
REVIEW
Dominik Mertz, Johanna Geraci, Judi Winkup, Bradford D Gessner, Justin R Ortiz, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is considered to be an important risk factor for severe complications following influenza virus infection. As a consequence, WHO recommendations prioritize pregnant women over other risk groups for influenza vaccination. However, the risk associated with pregnancy has not been systematically quantified. PURPOSE: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies that reported on pregnancy as a risk factor for severe outcomes from influenza virus infection...
December 23, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024740/impact-of-procalcitonin-guided-therapy-for-hospitalized-community-acquired-pneumonia-on-reducing-antibiotic-consumption-and-costs-in-japan
#10
Akihiro Ito, Tadashi Ishida, Hironobu Tokumasu, Yasuyoshi Washio, Akio Yamazaki, Yuhei Ito, Hiromasa Tachibana
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of procalcitonin-guided therapy in hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia patients to reduce antibiotic duration and costs without worsening prognosis. METHODS: 352 hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia patients in an observational cohort study in which procalcitonin was measured three times serially, on admission (Day 1) and 2-3 days (Day 3) and 6-8 days (Day 7) after admission, between October 2010 and February 2016 were reviewed retrospectively...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005910/melioidosis-in-malaysia-a-review-of-case-reports
#11
Paul Vijay Kingsley, Mark Leader, Nandika Suranjith Nagodawithana, Meghan Tipre, Nalini Sathiakumar
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a tropical infectious disease associated with significant mortality due to early onset of sepsis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to review case reports of melioidosis from Malaysia. METHODS: We conducted a computerized search of literature resources including PubMed, OVID, Scopus, MEDLINE and the COCHRANE database to identify published case reports from 1975 to 2015. We abstracted information on clinical characteristics, exposure history, comorbid conditions, management and outcome...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002852/q-fever-pneumonia-in-southwest-germany-radiographic%C3%A2-and-clinical-findings
#12
Andrea Biecker, Michael Bitzer, Erwin Biecker
Purpose Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis that causes clinical symptoms ranging from mild flu-like symptoms to severe pneumonia and/or hepatitis. This retrospective study was conducted to describe the radiographic and clinical signs in patients with acute Q fever pneumonia in Southwest Germany. Patients and Methods 40 patients with IgM-positive Q fever-related pneumonia who were treated in the years 2006 to 2016 in our hospital were retrospectively identified. Clinical and laboratory data were analyzed. Chest radiographs were reviewed by two radiologists and interpreted using a standardized protocol...
December 21, 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999068/linezolid-a-promising-option-in-the-treatment-of-gram-positives
#13
Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Mohammad Rahbar, Mehdi Yousefi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Linezolid, an oxazolidinone antimicrobial agent that acts by inhibiting protein synthesis in a unique fashion, is used in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, skin and soft-tissue infections and other infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria including VRE and methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Currently, linezolid resistance among these pathogens remains low, commonly <1.0%, although the prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing in many countries. Therefore, the development of resistance by clinical isolates should prompt increased attention of clinical laboratories to routinely perform linezolid susceptibility testing for this important agent and should be taken into account when considering its therapeutic use...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965070/fluoroquinolones-or-macrolides-in-combination-with-%C3%AE-lactams-in-adult-patients-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Kyriakos K Trigkidis, Matthew E Falagas
OBJECTIVE: The best treatment option for hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has not been defined. The effectiveness of β-lactam/fluoroquinolone (BLFQ) vs β-lactam/macrolide (BLM) combination for the treatment of patients with CAP was evaluated. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library were searched for observational cohort studies, non-randomized and randomized controlled trials providing data for patients with CAP receiving BLM or BLFQ...
December 10, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960214/principles-of-antibiotic-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#15
Michael T Bender, Michael S Niederman
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) encompasses a broad spectrum of disease severity and may require outpatient, inpatient, or intensive care management. Successful treatment hinges on expedient delivery of appropriate antibiotic therapy tailored to both the likely offending pathogens and the severity of disease. This review summarizes key principles in starting treatment and provides recommended empiric therapy regimens for each site of care. In addition, we discuss the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory role macrolides play in CAP, as well as specific information for managing individual CAP pathogens such as community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960213/complication-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-including-cardiac-complications
#16
Marcos I Restrepo, Luis F Reyes, Antonio Anzueto
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) represents an important public health problem and carries significant morbidity, mortality, and costs. The incidence of CAP is highest among children and elderly patients, but the mortality is much higher in patients older than 65 years. Despite the advances in medicine, the administration of antimicrobials, and the overall better care, there are still patients with CAP dying due to systemic complications all over the world. A continuum of CAP disease progression may involve multiple organs beyond the pulmonary parenchyma...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960209/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Stephen J Aston, Jamie Rylance
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in sub-Saharan Africa is a common cause of adult hospitalization and is associated with significant mortality. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in the region leads to differences in CAP epidemiology compared with most high-income settings: patients are younger, and coinfection with tuberculosis and opportunistic infections is common and difficult to diagnose. Resource limitations affect the availability of medical expertise as well as radiological and laboratory diagnostic services...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960206/role-of-atypical-pathogens-in-the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#18
Forest W Arnold, James T Summersgill, Julio A Ramirez
Atypical pneumonia has been described for over 100 years, but some of the pathogens attributed to it have been identified only in the past decades. The most common pathogens are Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of these three pathogens have been studied since their discovery, and are reviewed herein to provide better insight when evaluating these patients, which hopefully translates into improved care. The incidence of atypical pathogens has been shown to be approximately 22% worldwide, but this probably varies with location...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960205/the-role-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#19
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains one of the most common causes of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), encompassing infections mild enough to be treated on an outpatient basis, as well as those requiring hospital care, or even intensive care unit admission. This microorganism is associated with a significant burden of disease, causing substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, and generating considerable health-care costs. The reason that pneumococcal CAP remains such a common cause of disease relates to the presence of several risk factors for this infection in patients throughout the world...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959904/clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-ipf-patients-hospitalized-for-pulmonary-infection-a-japanese-cohort-study
#20
Ryo Yamazaki, Osamu Nishiyama, Hiroyuki Sano, Takashi Iwanaga, Yuji Higashimoto, Hiroaki Kume, Yuji Tohda
Many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) undergo hospitalizations due to pulmonary infections. We retrospectively investigated the characteristics of hospitalizations due to pulmonary infection in patients with IPF to elucidate causative pathogens and mortality. We reviewed patients with IPF who were admitted between January 2008 and December 2014 for pulmonary infections including pneumonia and bronchitis. The causative pathogen, the relationship between the site of pneumonia and existing IPF radiological patterns on high-resolution chest CT, and predictors of mortality were evaluated...
2016: PloS One
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