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community acquired pneumonia review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781594/-monoclonal-spread-of-multi-drug-resistant-ctx-m-15-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-impact-of-measures-to-control-the-outbreak
#1
M A Asencio Egea, M Huertas Vaquero, C Muñoz-Cuevas, J Gaitán Pitera, O Herráez Carrera, P Alcázar Carmona, H D Patiño Ortega, M Franco Huerta, C Román Ortiz, M C Conde García, R Carranza González, J R Barberá, V Bautista Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To describe an outbreak of multi-drug resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR-ESBL-KPN) and the impact of measures for its control. METHODS: We reviewed the patients´ clinical records with MDR-ESBL-KPN isolation during 2013-2016 with resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin; susceptible to imipenem, meropenem, colistin, and tigecycline and variable to ertapenem and cotrimoxazole (Vitek-2)...
May 18, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776398/primary-bacterial-ventriculitis-in-adults-an-emergent-diagnosis-challenge-report-of-a-meningoccal-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Anaïs Lesourd, Nicolas Magne, Anaïs Soares, Caroline Lemaitre, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Isabelle Gueit, Michel Wolff, François Caron
BACKGROUND: Defined by an infection of the ventricular system of the brain, ventriculitis is usually known as a health-care associated infection. In contrast, primary pyogenic ventriculitis complicating community-acquired meningitis is uncommon, and mainly described in infants. Only seven cases that have occured in adults have been found in the international literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here a new case due to Neisseria meningitidis occurring in an 85 year-old-man...
May 18, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764747/correlation-between-clinical-features-high-resolution-computed-tomography-findings-and-a-visual-scoring-system-in-patients-with-pneumonia-due-to-mycoplasma-pneumoniae
#3
Takeshi Saraya, Kosuke Ohkuma, Yayoi Tsukahara, Takayasu Watanabe, Daisuke Kurai, Haruyuki Ishii, Hirokazu Kimura, Hajime Goto, Hajime Takizawa
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is the primary cause of community-acquired pneumonia. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between clinical features, with special reference to hypoxemia and the total affected area obtained using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). METHODS: Medical records of MP pneumonia patients > 15 years of age at Kyorin University Hospital between January 2006 and November 2013 were reviewed retrospectively and compared to patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia, diagnosed between January 2013 and September 2014...
April 4, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759424/lung-ultrasound-findings-undetectable-by-chest-radiography-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#4
Giulio Iorio, Maria Capasso, Salvatore Prisco, Giuseppe De Luca, Carlo Mancusi, Bruno Laganà, Maria Antonietta Piscopo, Vincenzo Comune
The purpose of our study was to evaluate any differences between lung ultrasonography and chest radiography (CR) images in children with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and, if there are any, to analyze the reasons and possible clinical implications. We reviewed the medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric ward from January 2014 to December 2016 and selected only cases discharged with a diagnosis of CAP who had undergone performed lung ultrasound (LUS) and CR within 24 h of each other...
May 11, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754466/temporal-trends-in-paediatric-bacterial-meningitis-in-a-tropical-australian-region-1992-2014
#5
Stephanie White, Hala Katf, Rob Baird, Joshua Francis
AIM: The epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis has changed following the introduction of routine immunisation against common causative organisms. Indigenous children living in the Northern Territory, Australia, have high rates of bacterial infections. This study describes changes in the epidemiology of childhood bacterial meningitis and the distribution of the burden of disease in the Top End. METHODS: A retrospective review of cases derived from hospital medical records and laboratory data was performed...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746377/risk-factors-for-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-hospitalized-with-cap-younger-than-5-years-of-age
#6
Wei Shan, Ting Shi, Kaile Chen, Jian Xue, Yin Wang, Jia Yu, Genming Zhao, Jianmei Tian, Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: CAP causes great morbidity and mortality as well as enormous economic burden worldwide. This study intended to describe the clinical characteristics of CAP and explore the risk factors of severe CAP among children in downtown Suzhou, China. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of childhood hospitalizations in Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH) from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Children who were residents of downtown Suzhou, 29 days to <5 years of age, with discharge diagnosis codes (ICD-10) J09 to J18 and J20 to J22 were included...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712613/bacteriology-and-comorbidities-in-patients-requiring-surgical-management-of-empyema
#7
Aaron Pinnola, Yen-Hong Kuo, Jason D Sciarretta, Alexander McIntyre, Robert Messier, John M Davis
Concern over the changing bacteriology of empyema has led to numerous attempts to characterize the most common locoregional bacterial isolates. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the bacteriology and demographics in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia requiring surgery for empyema. All patients diagnosed with empyema preoperatively and had either a video-assisted thoracoscopic or open decortication surgery from January 2010 to September 2015 were reviewed...
April 1, 2018: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698412/clinical-manifestations-in-infants-and-children-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#8
Mia Johanna Søndergaard, Martin Barfred Friis, Dennis Schrøder Hansen, Inger Merete Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in older children. Pulmonary and extra-pulmonary symptoms associated with M. pneumoniae infection are reported. M. pneumoniae is mainly epidemic in Denmark with the recurrence every 4-7th year. AIMS: Retrospectively, to describe the epidemiology and clinical features, in infants and children, during the M. pneumoniae epidemic in 2010 and 2011. METHODS: All children under the age of 16 that were tested for M...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696826/lung-ultrasound-compared-to-chest-x-ray-for-diagnosis-of-pediatric-pneumonia-a-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Daniel S Balk, Christine Lee, Jesse Schafer, Jeremy Welwarth, John Hardin, Victor Novack, Shaked Yarza, Beatrice Hoffmann
OBJECTIVE: Although a clinical diagnosis, the standard initial imaging modality for patients with concern for pediatric community acquired pneumonia (pCAP) is a chest x-ray (CXR), which has a relatively high false negative rate, exposes patients to ionizing radiation, and may not be available in resource limited settings. The primary objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the accuracy of lung ultrasound (LUS) compared to CXR for the diagnosis of pCAP. METHODS: Data were collected via a systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science with dates up to August 2017...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692381/current-status-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
REVIEW
De-Shun Liu, Xiu-Di Han, Xue-Dong Liu
Objective: Worldwide, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infection that occurs in older adults, who may have pulmonary comorbidities, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there have been clinical studies on the coexistence of CAP with COPD, there remain some controversial findings. This review presents the current status of COPD in CAP patients, including the disease burden, clinical characteristics, risk factors, microbial etiology, and antibiotic treatment...
May 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679383/shortened-courses-of-antibiotics-for-bacterial-infections-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Alexandra M Hanretty, Jason C Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Commonly prescribed durations of therapy for many, if not most, bacterial infections are not evidence-based. Misunderstandings by clinicians and patients alike influence perspectives on antibiotic use, including duration of therapy and its role in antibiotic resistance. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that shorter durations of antibiotic therapy are as efficacious as longer durations for many infections. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of English language articles using PubMed were identified for inclusion...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658199/the-added-value-of-the-lateral-chest-radiograph-for-diagnosing-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#12
Michalle Soudack, Semion Plotkin, Aviva Ben-Shlush, Lisa Raviv-Zilka, Jeffrey M Jacobson, Michael Benacon, Arie Augarten
BACKGROUND: Opinions differ as to the need of a lateral radiograph for diagnosing community acquired pneumonia in children referred to the emergency department. A lateral radiograph increases the ionizing radiation burden but at the same time may improve specificity and sensitivity in this population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of the frontal and lateral chest radiographs compared to frontal view stand-alone images for the management of children with suspected community acquired pneumonia seen in a pediatric emergency department...
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623187/moxifloxacin-induced-tinnitus-in-an-older-adult
#13
Amber Onoh, Sunny A Linnebur, Danielle R Fixen
An increased risk of bacterial resistance toward fluoroquinolones and the increased risk of disabling and serious adverse effects prompted the US Food and Drug Administration to recommend limiting fluoroquinolone use to the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, skin and skin-structure infections, bacterial sinusitis, plague, chronic bronchitis exacerbations, and complicated intra-abdominal infections. We report a case of moxifloxacin-induced tinnitus in an older adult prescribed oral moxifloxacin 400 mg for 5 days for the treatment of acute diverticulitis, due to allergies to nonfluoroquinolone preferred agents...
April 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607301/contemporary-situation-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-china-a-systematic-review
#14
Ying-Gang Zhu, Xiao-Dan Tang, Yun-Tao Lu, Jing Zhang, Jie-Ming Qu
The prevalence and microbial pattern reported for Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) differ considerably and contemporary situation remains changing over time. We therefore searched both international and domestic databases for relevant references and pooled incidence of CAP and etiological distribution were estimated separately between children and adults groups. The results showed that CAP remained a major public health issue in China, with a relatively higher incidence than that reported in Western countries...
March 2018: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605887/delafloxacin-place-in-therapy-and-review-of-microbiologic-clinical-and-pharmacologic-properties
#15
REVIEW
Sarah C J Jorgensen, Nicholas J Mercuro, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
Delafloxacin (formerly WQ-3034, ABT492, RX-3341) is a novel fluoroquinolone chemically distinct from currently marketed fluoroquinolones with the absence of a protonatable substituent conferring a weakly acidic character to the molecule. This property results in increased intracellular penetration and enhanced bactericidal activity under acidic conditions that characterize the infectious milieu at a number of sites. The enhanced potency and penetration in low pH environments contrast what has been observed for other zwitterionic fluoroquinolones, which tend to lose antibacterial potency under acidic conditions, and may be particularly advantageous against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, for which the significance of the intracellular mode of survival is increasingly being recognized...
March 31, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605556/re-evaluation-of-the-etiology-and-clinical-and-radiological-features-of-community-acquired-lobar-pneumonia-in-adults
#16
Takashi Ishiguro, Yutaka Yoshii, Tetsu Kanauchi, Toshiko Hoshi, Yotaro Takaku, Naho Kagiyama, Kazuyoshi Kurashima, Noboru Takayanagi
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to elucidate the frequency and etiology of community-acquired lobar pneumonia (CALP) and the clinical and radiological differences between CALP and tuberculous lobar pneumonia (TLP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (n = 1032) and tuberculosis (n = 1101) admitted to our hospital. RESULTS: Sixty-nine (6.7%) patients with CAP and 23 (2...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605219/bacterial-pneumonia-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#17
REVIEW
D Wilmes, E Coche, H Rodriguez-Villalobos, N Kanaan
Bacterial pathogens are the most frequent cause of pneumonia after transplantation. Early after transplantation, recipients are at higher risk for nosocomial infections. The most commonly encountered pathogens during this period are gram-negative bacilli (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa …), but gram-positive coccus such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae and anaerobic bacteria can also be found. Empirical antibiotic therapy should be guided by previous colonisation of the recipient and bacterial resistance pattern in the hospital...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605214/burden-of-pneumococcal-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-across-europe-a-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Antoni Torres, Catia Cillóniz, Francesco Blasi, James D Chalmers, Jacques Gaillat, Nathalie Dartois, Heinz-Josef Schmitt, Tobias Welte
BACKGROUND: The burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) among adults in Europe is poorly defined. METHODS: Structured searches of PubMed were conducted to identify the incidence of pneumococcal CAP among adults across Europe. RESULTS: The overall incidence rates for CAP was 68-7000 per 100,000 and the incidence in hospitalised CAP cases of all causes was 16-3581 per 100,000. In general the incidence of CAP increased consistently with age...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596444/incidence-and-case-fatality-rates-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-pneumococcal-diseases-among-korean-adults-catchment-population-based-analysis
#19
Jung Yeon Heo, Yu Bin Seo, Won Suk Choi, Jacob Lee, Jin Gu Yoon, Saem Na Lee, Min Joo Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Jin-Young Ahn, Hye Won Jeong, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim, Hee Young Lee, Joon Young Song
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality among adults. Pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) is the most common vaccine-preventable bacterial etiology of pneumonia. In this study, we estimated the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pneumococcal diseases among Korean adults. METHODS: Clinical and microbiological databases from three hospitals were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and case fatality rates of CAP and pneumococcal diseases in Korean adults aged ≥19 years from 2011 to 2014...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595632/refractory-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-with-concomitant-acute-cerebral-infarction-in-a-child-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Xingnan Jin, Yingxue Zou, Jia Zhai, Jie Liu, Bing Huang
RATIONALE: Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children, is rarely complicated with acute cerebral infarction. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a 7-year-old boy with severe M pneumoniae pneumonia who developed impaired consciousness, aphasia, and reduced limb muscle power 7 days postadmission. DIAGNOSES: Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia with concomitant acute cerebral infarction. INTERVENTIONS: The patient recovered with aggressive antibiotic therapy, antiinflammation therapy with methylprednisolone, and gamma immunoglobulin and anticoagulation therapy with aspirin and low molecular weight heparin along with rehabilitation training...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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