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community acquired pneumonia of bacterial origin

Rumbidzai Majangara, Muchabayiwa Francis Gidiri, Zvavahera Mike Chirenje
The objectives of this study were to determine the identity and antibacterial susceptibility profiles of bacteria colonising the female genital tract and blood stream and their association with clinical outcomes in women with puerperal sepsis. A prospective descriptive cohort study was conducted at two tertiary hospitals in Zimbabwe. Endocervical swabs and blood were collected for culture and susceptibility testing from 151 consecutive women who met the World Health Organisation criteria for puerperal sepsis...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Rémi Poirier, Jean Rodrigue, Jasmin Villeneuve, Yves Lacasse
PURPOSE: Legionnaires' disease (LD) may occur sporadically or in the course of outbreaks, where the typical radiological manifestations of the disease may better be delineated. We took advantage of a rare community-based epidemic of LD (181 patients) that occurred in 2012 in Quebec City, Canada, to describe the radiographic features of LD and compare the its tomographic presentation with that of community-acquired pneumonia caused by common bacteria other than Legionella pneumophila. METHODS: From the 181 individuals affected in the outbreak, we obtained the chest radiographs of 159 individuals (mean 63 ± 15 years of age) for detailed analysis; 33 patients had a computed tomography (CT) scan performed during the course of their illness...
August 2017: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
Kiyoshi Itagaki, Ingred Riça, Jing Zhang, Dave Gallo, Melissa DePrato, Leo E Otterbein, Carl J Hauser
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonias are common in trauma patients and so interventions to prevent and treat nosocomial pneumonia may improve outcomes. Our prior work strongly suggests that tissue injury predisposes to infections like nosocomial pneumonia because mitochondrial debris originating from injured cells contains damage-associated molecular patterns that can reduce neutrophil (PMN) migration into the airway and diminish PMN function in response to bacterial inoculation of the airway...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Bryan Pinckney White, Katie E Barber, Kayla R Stover
PURPOSE: The utility of ceftaroline for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) is reviewed. SUMMARY: Ceftaroline was originally approved for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) but recently received an additional approval for the treatment of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) associated with ABSSSIs. Ceftaroline has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of MRSAB, including isolates with elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations to conventional therapy when used alone or in combination with other agents...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
N V Cavalcanti, L C Torres, M C da Matta, C D Lindoso, L N A Carvalho, M C M B Duarte, J B Correia
Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that are mainly involved in the migratory patterns of immune cells. Few studies have evaluated the levels of chemokines in children with acute bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of chemokines MCP-1, RANTES, MIG and IP-10 in children with sepsis, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and skin abscess. Serum levels of MCP-1, RANTES, MIG and IP-10 were measured in 37 children with sepsis, 27 children with CAP, 25 children with skin abscess and 20 controls with no signs of infection...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Amanda C Nascimento-Carvalho, Olli Ruuskanen, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: The comparison of the frequencies of bacterial and viral infections among children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) admitted in distinct severity categories, in an original study, is lacking in literature to-date. We aimed to achieve this goal. METHODS: Children aged 2-59-months-old hospitalized with CAP were included in this prospective study in Salvador, Brazil. Clinical data and biological samples were collected to investigate 11 viruses and 8 bacteria...
July 22, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Ira Erlichman, Oded Breuer, David Shoseyov, Malena Cohen-Cymberknoh, Benjamin Koplewitz, Diana Averbuch, Matti Erlichman, Elie Picard, Eitan Kerem
The incidence of pediatric community acquired complicated pneumonia (PCACP) is increasing. Questions addressed: Are different types of PCACP one disease? How do different treatment protocols affect the outcome? METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records of PCACP hospitalizations in the three major hospitals in Jerusalem in the years 2001-2010 for demographics, clinical presentation, management, and outcome. RESULTS: Of the 144 children (51% aged 1-4 years), 91% of Jewish origin; 40% had para-pneumonic effusion (PPE), 40% empyema (EMP), and 20% necrotizing pneumonia (NP)...
February 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
Lindsay Kim, Lesley McGee, Sara Tomczyk, Bernard Beall
Streptococcus pneumoniae inflicts a huge disease burden as the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and meningitis. Soon after mainstream antibiotic usage, multiresistant pneumococcal clones emerged and disseminated worldwide. Resistant clones are generated through adaptation to antibiotic pressures imposed while naturally residing within the human upper respiratory tract. Here, a huge array of related commensal streptococcal strains transfers core genomic and accessory resistance determinants to the highly transformable pneumococcus...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
B Davido, C Badr, A Lagrange, S Makhloufi, P De Truchis, C Perronne, J Salomon, A Dinh
29-69 % of pneumonias are microbiologically documented because it can be considered as an invasive procedure with variable test sensitivity. However, it drastically impacts therapeutic strategy in particular the use of antibiotics. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) is a routine and non-invasive test commonly used to identify serum protein disorders. As virus and bacteria may induce different globulins production, we hypothesize that SPEP can be used as an etiological diagnosis test. Retrospective study conducted from 1/1/13 until 5/1/15 among patient hospitalized for an acute community-acquired pneumonia based on fever, crackles and radiological abnormalities...
June 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Suzanne L Groah, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Ljubica Caldovic, Inger H Ljungberg, Bruce M Sprague, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Neel J Chandel, Michael H Hsieh, Hans G Pohl
PURPOSE: We used the PathoScope platform to perform species level analyses of publicly available, 16S rRNA pyrosequenced, asymptomatic urine data to determine relationships between microbiomes, and clinical and functional phenotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reanalyzed previously reported, cross-sectionally acquired urine samples from 47 asymptomatic subjects, including 23 controls and 24 subjects with neuropathic bladder. Urine was originally collected by the usual method of bladder drainage and analyzed by urinalysis, culture and pyrosequencing...
August 2016: Journal of Urology
Bin Cao, Jiu-Xin Qu, Yu-Dong Yin, Johan Van Eldere
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease affecting children and adults of any age. Mycoplasma pneumoniae has emerged as leading causative agent of CAP in some region, and the abrupt increasing resistance to macrolide that widely used for management of M. pneumoniae has reached to the level that it often leads to treatment failures. OBJECTIVE: We aim to discuss the drivers for development of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae, antimicrobial stewardship and also the potential treatment options for patients infected with macrolide-resistant M...
July 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Gustavo Lopardo, Adriana Basombrío, Liliana Clara, Javier Desse, Lautaro De Vedia, Eugenia Di Libero, Marcelo Gañete, María José López Furst, Analía Mykietiuk, Corina Nemirovsky, Carolina Osuna, Claudia Pensotti, Pablo Scapellato
Community-acquired pneumonia in adults is a common cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in the elderly and in patients with comorbidities. Most episodes are of bacterial origin, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequently isolated pathogen. Epidemiological surveillance provides information about changes in microorganisms and their susceptibility. In recent years there has been an increase in cases caused by community-acquired meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Legionella sp. The chest radiograph is essential as a diagnostic tool...
2015: Medicina
Kelley C Henderson, Alvaro J Benitez, Amy E Ratliff, Donna M Crabb, Edward S Sheppard, Jonas M Winchell, Richard A Dluhy, Ken B Waites, T Prescott Atkinson, Duncan C Krause
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use...
2015: PloS One
Mosavir Ansarie, Aneeka Kasmani
This article reviews literature pertaining to community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults published over the last decade (2003-2013) and includes ten studies and one guideline document. The review was done to identify the trend in etiologies and antimicrobial susceptibilities in order to recognize the need to update treatment guidelines for CAP in adults. Except for one laboratory based study, no articles were published between 2003 and 2008. Thereafter, most of the studies are retrospective in nature and published with a time lag hence reducing the relevance of the data...
December 2014: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Zheng Wang, Xiaoju Zhang, Jizhen Wu, Wenping Zhang, Hongyan Kuang, Xiao Li, Weixia Xuan, Kai Wang, Lijun Ma
OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin(PCT) in identifying the etiology of non-responding community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) after initial antibiotic therapy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for 232 hospitalized CAP patients admitted to the People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University during June 2013 and January 2014. Early treatment failure was defined as the presence of persistent fever (>38 °C) and/or clinical symptoms (malaise, cough, expectoration, dyspnea) or deterioration after at least 72 h of initial antimicrobial treatment, or development of respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, or septic shock...
November 2014: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Joseph J Carreno, Thomas P Lodise
Ceftaroline fosamil (ceftaroline hereafter) is the latest addition to the armamentarium for the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), which is a recent FDA indication that centers on individuals with documented bacterial pneumonias that arise in the community setting. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss the major findings from the Phase III CAP clinical trials as well as the clinical experience with ceftaroline among patients with CAP in the "Ceftaroline Assessment Program and Teflaro(®) Utilization Registry" (CAPTURE)...
December 2014: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Nafsika H Georgopapadakou
Ketolides are erythromycin A derivatives with a keto group replacing the cladinose sugar and an aryl-alkyl group attached to the lactone macrocycle. The aryl-alkyl extension broadens its antibacterial spectrum to include all pathogens responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis as well as atypical pathogens (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila). Ketolides have extensive tissue distribution, favorable pharmacokinetics (oral, once-a-day) and useful anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory properties...
October 2014: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Byeong-Ho Jeong, Won-Jung Koh, Hongseok Yoo, Hye Yun Park, Gee Young Suh, Man Pyo Chung, O Jung Kwon, Kyeongman Jeon
BACKGROUND: The concept of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) exists to identify patients infected with highly resistant pathogens who are exposed to the healthcare environment. However, many studies have included immunosuppressed patients who were excluded from the original concept. OBJECTIVES: The risk factors of potentially drug-resistant (PDR) pathogens in patients with pneumonia developed outside the hospital were reevaluated after excluding the patients who had immunosuppression...
2014: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Aymeric Cantais, Olivier Mory, Sylvie Pillet, Paul O Verhoeven, Julie Bonneau, Hugues Patural, Bruno Pozzetto
BACKGROUND: The management of children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is largely influenced by the development of new molecular diagnostic tests that allow the simultaneous detection of a wide range of pathogens. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of a diagnostic approach including multiplex PCR assays for revisiting the epidemiology and etiology of CAP in children at hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Children of all ages consulting at the Emergency Department of the University hospital of Saint-Etienne, France, during the 2012-2013 winter period were included...
August 2014: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Sebastian Haubitz, Fabienne Hitz, Lena Graedel, Marcus Batschwaroff, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Paula Peyrani, Julio A Ramirez, Christoph Andreas Fux, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
BACKGROUND: Assessing the likelihood for Legionella sp. in community-acquired pneumonia is important because of differences in treatment regimens. Currently used antigen tests and culture have limited sensitivity with important time delays, making empirical broad-spectrum coverage necessary. Therefore, a score with 6 variables recently has been proposed. We sought to validate these parameters in an independent cohort. METHODS: We analyzed adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia from a large multinational database (Community Acquired Pneumonia Organization) who were treated between 2001 and 2012 with more than 4 of the 6 prespecified clinical variables available...
October 2014: American Journal of Medicine
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