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Transitional year

Paolo Usseglio, Alan M Friedlander, Haruko Koike, Johanna Zimmerhackel, Anna Schuhbauer, Tyler Eddy, Pelayo Salinas-de-León
The regionally endemic Galapagos Grouper, locally known as bacalao, is one of the most highly prized finfish species within the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). Concerns of overfishing, coupled with a lack of fishing regulations aimed at this species raises concerns about the current population health. We assessed changes in population health over a 30-year period using three simple indicators: (1) percentage of fish below reproductive size (Lm); (2) percentage of fish within the optimum length interval (Lopt); and (3) percentage of mega-spawners in the catch...
2016: PloS One
Stephanie Lake, M-J Milloy, Huiru Dong, Kanna Hayashi, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
OBJECTIVES: Prescription opioid (PO) injection among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) is an ongoing concern, yet little is known about drug use trajectories associated with initiating PO injection, including potential associations with heroin use. This study aimed to identify predictors of PO injection initiation among PWUD, and examine trends in heroin use before and after initiating PO injection. METHODS: Data were merged from three cohorts of PWUD recruited between September 2005 and November 2015...
October 20, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kelly B Filipkowski, Kristin E Heron, Joshua M Smyth
OBJECTIVE: This study cross-sectionally and prospectively examined the impact of adversity experienced prior to college on the health and well-being of students adjusting to their first college semester. METHODS: Two-hundred sixteen (216) first-year students completed measures of adverse life experiences, perceived stress, physical symptoms, and health-related behaviors during the first 2 weeks of college entry and again at the end of the first semester. RESULTS: Reported adversity prior to college predicted greater perceived stress and physical symptoms at college entry and an increase in physical symptoms over the semester; perceived stress mediated the prospective changes...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Jacynthe Lafrenière, Denis Prud'homme, Martin Brochu, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Jean-Marc Lavoie, Éric Doucet
PURPOSE: The association between the energy density (ED) of foods and adiposity has been reported previously. However, whether the contribution of ED to adiposity remains significant when controlled for energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) remains to be clearly established. We aimed to investigate the independent contribution of ED to variations in body composition in women during the menopausal transition. METHODS: Sixty-seven women from the MONET cohort study were analyzed...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
F Zerbib, L Siproudhis, P-A Lehur, C Germain, F Mion, A-M Leroi, B Coffin, A Le Sidaner, V Vitton, C Bouyssou-Cellier, G Chene
BACKGROUND: Open studies have reported favourable results for sacral nerve stimulation in the treatment of refractory constipation. Here, its efficacy was assessed in a double-blind crossover RCT. METHODS: Patients with at least two of the following criteria were included: fewer than three bowel movements per week; straining to evacuate on more than 25 per cent of attempts; or sensation of incomplete evacuation on more than 25 per cent of occasions. Response to therapy was defined as at least three bowel movements per week and/or more than 50 per cent improvement in symptoms...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Surgery
Anne-Kathrin Bräscher, Dietmar Zuran, Robert E Feldmann, Justus Benrath
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, a novel material SmartTrack(®) was introduced to replace the previous material used for Invisalign(®) aligners. We conducted this study to test how this transition was accepted by patients during ongoing Invisalign(®) treatment. METHODS: We surveyed a total of 72 patients (68 % women, 32 % men, mean age: 29.3 ± 9.2 years) who had worn the new material for a mean of 6 months. They completed a questionnaire with 25 items that compared both materials in terms of pain, pressure upon insertion, comfort, mucosal irritation, phonetics, discoloration, and taste...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
Eungu Kang, Ja Hyang Cho, Jin-Ho Choi, Han-Wook Yoo
PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the etiology, clinical features, and outcomes of patients with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty (GIPP). METHODS: The study included 16 patients (14 female and 2 male patients) who manifested secondary sexual characteristics, elevated sex hormones, or adrenal androgens with prepubertal luteinizing hormone levels after gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation diagnosed between May 1994 and December 2015...
September 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Claudia Boucher-Berry, Elaine A Parton, Ramin Alemzadeh
BACKGROUND: While higher total daily dose (TDD) of insulin has been associated with excess weight gain on insulin pump therapy, the role of higher total basal dose (TBD) of insulin on weight gain has not been studied. We evaluated the impact of higher TBD on weight gain in relationship to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), hypoglycemic episodes, and change in body mass index (BMI) z score in a group of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: One-year data from 91 (54 Female/37 Male) patients (2...
2016: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
Sibel Halfon, Alev Çavdar, Franco Orsucci, Gunter K Schiepek, Silvia Andreassi, Alessandro Giuliani, Giulio de Felice
Aim: Even though there is substantial evidence that play based therapies produce significant change, the specific play processes in treatment remain unexamined. For that purpose, processes of change in long-term psychodynamic play therapy are assessed through a repeated systematic assessment of three children's "play profiles," which reflect patterns of organization among play variables that contribute to play activity in therapy, indicative of the children's coping strategies, and an expression of their internal world...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Don C Des Jarlais, Kamyar Arasteh, Jonathan Feelemyer, Courtney McKnight, David M Barnes, Susan Tross, David C Perlman, Aimee N C Campbell, Hannah L F Cooper, Holly Hagan
OBJECTIVES: Transitioning from injecting to non-injecting routes of drug administration can provide important individual and community health benefits. We assessed characteristics of persons who had ceased injecting while continuing to use heroin and/or cocaine in New York City. METHODS: We recruited subjects entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel detoxification and methadone maintenance programs between 2011 and 2015. Demographic information, drug use histories, sexual behaviors, and "reverse transitions" from injecting to non-injecting drug use were assessed in structured face-to-face interviews...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Sean Esteban McCabe, James A Cranford, Carol J Boyd
This study examined stressful life events and other predictors associated with remission from DSM-IV drug dependence involving cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, non-heroin opioids, sedatives, stimulants, tranquilizers, or other drugs. Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were used to examine the prevalence and predictors of past-year remission status. Among U.S. adults with previous (i.e., prior-to-past-year) drug dependence (n=921) at baseline (wave 1), the prevalence of past-year remission status at wave 1 was: abstinence (60...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
B M Donda, R J Hift, V S Singaram
BACKGROUND: In terms of the Nelson Mandela Fidel Castro Medical Collaboration programme, an agreement between the governments of South Africa and Cuba, cohorts of South African students receive their initial five years medical training at a Cuban university before returning to South Africa for a six to twelve months orientation before integration into the local final year class. It is common for these students to experience academic difficulty on their return. Frequently this is viewed merely as a matter of a knowledge deficit...
October 24, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Melanie J Lewis, Rose Ellis, Sunil K Adusumilli, Ian Cameron
INTRODUCTION: The New South Wales Rural Resident Medical Officer Cadetship Program began in 1988 as a strategy to increase the numbers of junior doctors in rural hospitals. This article outlines the results of an evaluation undertaken in 2014. Specifically, it will look at where former cadets who entered the program between 1989 and 2010 were working in 2014, what training programs they chose and their attitudes toward the program. METHOD: Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire sent to all the former cadets who entered the program from 1989 until 2010...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Cunlin Wang, Robert Kane, Mark Levenson, Jeffrey Kelman, Michael Wernecke, Joo-Yeon Lee, Steven Kozlowski, Carmen Dekmezian, Zhiwei Zhang, Aliza Thompson, Kimberly Smith, Yu-Te Wu, Yuqin Wei, Yoganand Chillarige, Qin Ryan, Chris Worrall, Thomas E MaCurdy, David J Graham
Importance: In 2011, the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) changed its reimbursement policy for hemodialysis to a bundled comprehensive payment system that included the cost of erythrocyte-stimulating agents (ESAs). Also in 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration revised the drug label for ESAs, recommending more conservative dosing in patients with chronic kidney disease. In response to concerns that these measures could have adverse effects on patient care and outcomes, the CMS and the FDA initiated a collaboration to assess the effect...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
P Deltell Colomer, N Albertos Mira-Marcelí, N Gallego Mellado, M E Kuan Argüello, M F Bordallo Vázquez, J Mira Navarro, J Gonzálvez Piñera
INTRODUCTION: In more than 50% of the necrotizing enterocolitis that underwent surgery will require an ileostomy. The optimal time to reestablish intestinal transit still is a controversial subject. Many times ileostomies cause medical issues that require early intestinal reconstruction. Our objective is to compare the early closure against late close, being the shift point 35 days according to other published research. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study off all patients that in the last 10 years have had an episode of necrotizing enterocolitis which required an intestinal derivation like ileostomy...
January 15, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
S Des Roches, R Sollmann, K Calhoun, A Rothstein, E B Rosenblum
Measuring links among genotype, phenotype, and survival in the wild has long been a focus of studies of adaptation. We conducted a four-year capture-recapture study to measure survival by genotype and phenotype in the Southwestern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus cowlesi) at the White Sands ecotone (transition area between white sands and dark soil habitats). We report several unanticipated findings. First, in contrast with previous work showing that cryptic blanched colouration in S. cowlesi from the heart of the dunes is associated with mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (Mc1r), ecotonal S...
October 24, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Marissa J Carter, Adrienne M Gilligan, Curtis R Waycaster, Kathleen Schaum, Caroline E Fife
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness (from a payer's perspective) of adding clostridial collagenase ointment (CCO) to selective debridement compared with selective debridement alone (non-CCO) in the treatment of stage IV pressure ulcers among patients identified from the US Wound Registry. METHODS: A 3-state Markov model was developed to determine costs and outcomes between the CCO and non-CCO groups over a 2-year time horizon...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
Jakob Zscheischler, Simone Fatichi, Sebastian Wolf, Peter D Blanken, Gil Bohrer, Kenneth Clark, Ankur R Desai, David Hollinger, Trevor Keenan, Kimberly A Novick, Sonia I Seneviratne
Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their explanatory power is limited and uncertainties remain as to their relative contributions. Recent results show that the annual count of hours where evapotranspiration (ET) is larger than its 95th percentile is strongly correlated with the annual variability of ET and gross primary production (GPP) in an ecosystem model...
August 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences
Frank Spillmann, Uwe Kühl, Sophie Van Linthout, Fernando Dominguez, Felicitas Escher, Heinz-Peter Schultheiss, Burkert Pieske, Carsten Tschöpe
We report the case of a 17-year-old female patient with known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. She came to our department for further evaluation of a new diagnosed dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by an enlargement of the left ventricle and a fall in ejection fraction. Clinically, she complained about atypical chest pain, arrhythmic episodes with presyncopal events, and dyspnea (NYHA III) during the last 6 months. Non-invasive and invasive examinations including magnetic resonance imaging, electrophysiological examinations, and angiography did not lead to a conclusive diagnosis...
June 2016: ESC Heart Failure
Sun-Kyeong Park, Seung-Hoo Park, Min-Young Lee, Ji-Hyun Park, Jae-Hong Jeong, Eui-Kyung Lee
PURPOSE: In south Korea, the price of biologics has been decreasing owing to patent expiration and the availability of biosimilars. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a treatment strategy initiated with etanercept (ETN) compared with leflunomide (LFN) after a 30% reduction in the medication cost of ETN in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX-IR). METHODS: A cohort-based Markov model was designed to evaluate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of treatment sequence initiated with ETN (A) compared with 2 sequences initiated with LFN: LFN-ETN sequence (B) and LFN sequence (C)...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
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