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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355900/let-s-talk-about-stress-baby-infant-feeding-practices-and-stress-in-the-ancient-atacama-desert-northern-chile
#1
Charlotte L King, Siân E Halcrow, Andrew R Millard, Darren R Gröcke, Vivien G Standen, Marco Portilla, Bernardo T Arriaza
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The transition to an agricultural economy is often presumed to involve an increase in female fertility related to changes in weaning practice. In particular, the availability of staple crops as complementary foods is hypothesized to allow earlier weaning in agricultural populations. In this study, our primary aim is to explore whether this model fits the agricultural transition in the Atacama Desert using incremental isotopic analysis. A secondary aim of this study is to identify isotopic patterns relating to weaning, and assess how these may be differentiated from those relating to early life stress...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355726/pathways-to-depression-by-age-16-years-examining-trajectories-for-self-reported-psychological-and-somatic-phenotypes-across-adolescence
#2
Jan Scott, Tracey A Davenport, Richard Parker, Daniel F Hermens, Penelope A Lind, Sarah E Medland, Margaret J Wright, Nicholas G Martin, Nathan A Gillespie, Ian B Hickie
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in rates of depression emerge during adolescence. However, it is unclear whether symptom patterns and trajectories differ significantly according to gender in youth. Barriers to research include the fact that most self-report tools are weighted towards psychological rather than somatic symptoms. METHODS: Data were collected on symptoms of depression in about 1800 individuals at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to examine the trajectory of psychological and somatic phenotypes and self-reported depression caseness over time...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355547/%C3%AE-blockers-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-cohort-study-from-the-tonado%C3%A2-research-programme
#3
François Maltais, Roland Buhl, Andrea Koch, Valeria C Amatto, Jim Reid, Lars Grönke, Ulrich Bothner, Florian Voß, Lorcan McGarvey, Gary T Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a frequent co-morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many clinicians, particularly pulmonologists, are reluctant to use β-adrenoceptor blocking agents (β-blockers) in patients with COPD, despite their proven effectiveness in preventing cardiovascular events. METHODS: The large (5,162 patients) phase III TONADO® 1 and 2 studies assessed lung function and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with moderate to very severe COPD receiving long-acting bronchodilator treatment over 1 year...
January 16, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355090/combining-morphology-and-molecular-data-to-improve-drosophila-paulistorum-diptera-drosophilidae-taxonomic-status
#4
Rebeca Zanini, Mário Josias Müller, Gilberto Cavalheiro Vieira, Victor Hugo Valiati, Maríndia Deprá, Vera Lúcia da Silva Valente
The willistoni species subgroup has been the subject of several studies since the latter half of the past century and is considered a Neotropical model for evolutionary studies, given the many levels of reproductive isolation and different evolutionary stages occurring within them. Here we present for the first time a phylogenetic reconstruction combining morphological characters and molecular data obtained from 8 gene fragments (COI, COII, Cytb, Adh, Ddc, Hb, kl-3 and per). Some relationships were incongruent when comparing morphological and molecular data...
January 22, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355068/predicting-performance-of-junior-doctors-association-of-workplace-based-assessment-with-demographic-characteristics-emotional-intelligence-selection-scores-and-undergraduate-academic-performance
#5
Sandra E Carr, Antonio Celenza, Annette M Mercer, Fiona Lake, Ian B Puddey
INTRODUCTION: Predicting workplace performance of junior doctors from before entry or during medical school is difficult and has limited available evidence. This study explored the association between selected predictor variables and workplace based performance in junior doctors during their first postgraduate year. METHODS: Two cohorts of medical students (n = 200) from one university in Western Australia participated in the longitudinal study. Pearson correlation coefficients and multivariate analyses utilizing linear regression were used to assess the relationships between performance on the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool (JDAT) and its sub-components with demographic characteristics, selection scores for medical school entry, emotional intelligence, and undergraduate academic performance...
January 21, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354898/-clinicopathological-characteristics-and-prognosis-analysis-of-colorectal-synchronous-multiple-primary-cancer
#6
Liyun Niu, Junling Zhang, Tianye Liu, Tao Wu, Weiguo Chen, Yong Jiang, Yingchao Wu, Pengyuan Wang, Yisheng Pan, Xin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological features and prognosis of colorectal synchronous multiple primary cancer(SMPC). METHODS: From January 2008 to June 2011, 51 patients diagnosed with colorectal SMPC underwent surgery at Department of General Surgery of Peking University First Hospital. Their clinicopathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis were summarized and analyzed. SMPC was diagnosed according to the following criteria: each tumor must have a definite pathologic picture of malignancy; metastasis or recurrence from another colorectal cancer was excluded; tumors must be distinctly separated by at least 5 cm of all intact bowel wall from each other; SMPC has abnormal cells between tumor and normal mucosa and abnormal gland of transitional zone; each cancer is infiltrating carcinoma except the carcinoma in situ; all the cancers are detected at the same time or within 6 months...
January 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354822/ab-initio-calculations-of-heavy-actinide-hexahalide-compounds-do-these-heavy-actinides-behave-like-their-isoelectronic-lanthanide-analogues
#7
Cristian Celis-Barros, Dayán Páez-Hernández, María J Beltrán-Leiva, Ramiro Arratia-Perez
Research on heavy actinides has experienced an increased interest in the last few years due to new synthetic techniques and recent technological advances that have allowed for obtaining important information even from very small samples. This area presents challenges not only from the experimental point of view but also from the theoretical perspective. This work deals with a multiconfigurational CASSCF and NEVPT2 benchmark study based on a two-step methodology that considers first correlation effects and then the spin-orbit coupling applied to berkelium (Bk), californium (Cf), einsteinium (Es) and fermium (Fm) hexahalides...
January 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354609/side-to-side-ileosigmoidostomy-shunting-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-elderly-patients-with-chronic-constipation
#8
Yuda Handaya, Agung Maryanto, Marijata
Constipation is a digestive disorder that often occurs in the elderly; its main cause is bowel motility disorder. Treatments for patients with chronic constipation include pharmacotherapy, diet changes, and surgery if other therapies do not offer satisfactory results. We describe 4 patients, 2 men (70 and 65 years old) and 2 women (75 and 66 years old), who were diagnosed with chronic constipation (slow transit constipation) and treated with conventional therapy, but did not improve. For that reason, side-to-side ileosigmoidostomy shunting surgery was performed...
December 2017: Annals of Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353764/the-influence-of-time-attitudes-profile-membership-on-mental-well-being-and-psychosomatic-symptomatology-a-united-kingdom-based-prospective-study
#9
Svenja Konowalczyk, Michael T McKay, Kevin E Wells, Jon C Cole
Mental well-being is of great importance for emotional, psychological and social functioning, particularly in adolescence, a period characterized by significant physical, social, and emotional changes. The extant literature examining the relationship between temporal attitudes and mental and psychosomatic health outcomes is increasing rapidly. Using Latent Transition Analysis (LTA) of Adolescent and Adult Time Inventory-Time Attitude Scale scores across three waves of data (N = 1667; 13-15 years; 42.0% female), we sought to examine the predictive power of time attitudes profile membership on mental well-being and psychosomatic symptomatology at distal wave four...
January 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353655/cost-effectiveness-of-primary-radiation-therapy-versus-radical-prostatectomy-for-intermediate-to-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#10
Jennifer A Dorth, W Robert Lee, Junzo Chino, Robert Abouassaly, Rodney J Ellis, Evan R Myers
PURPOSE: To compare, using a cost-effectiveness analysis, the quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) and cost between the 2 treatment options for intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer: (1) radiation (RT) with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or (2) radical prostatectomy (RP) followed by adjuvant RT for patients with risk factors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Our Markov model allowed patients to transition between health states with yearly probabilities of developing cancer recurrence and/or toxicity...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353525/reflections-on-a-year-of-transition
#11
Rhonda M Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353220/quantification-of-spheno-occipital-synchondrosis-fusion-in-a-contemporary-malaysian-population
#12
Salina Hisham, Ambika Flavel, Nurliza Abdullah, Mohamad Helmee Mohamad Noor, Daniel Franklin
Timing of fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) is correlated with age. Previous research, however, has demonstrated variation in the timing of closure among different global populations. The present study aims to quantify the timing of SOS fusion in Malaysian individuals as visualised in multi-detector computed tomography (CT) scans and to thereafter formulate age estimation models based on fusion status. Anonymised cranial CT scans of 336 males and 164 females, aged 5-25 years, were acquired from the National Institute of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Kuala Lumpur and Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital Sultanah Aminah...
January 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353101/amyloid-pathology-in-the-progression-to-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
Philip S Insel, Oskar Hansson, R Scott Mackin, Michael Weiner, Niklas Mattsson
The objective of this study was to determine the cognitive and functional decline and development of brain injury in individuals progressing from preclinical (β-amyloid positive cognitively normal) to prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) (β-amyloid positive mild cognitive impairment [MCI]), and compare this with individuals who progress to MCI in the absence of significant amyloid pathology. Seventy-five cognitively healthy participants who progressed to MCI were followed for 4 years on average and up to 10 years...
December 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352843/tocilizumab-after-a-first-line-with-anti-tnf-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-cost-consequence-analysis-in-the-italian-setting
#14
Sergio Iannazzo, Maurizio Benucci, Ennio Giulio Favalli
OBJECTIVES: Switching to a different mechanism of action in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients after a first anti-TNF-α has proved to be effective. The objective of this study was a health economic assessment in Italy. METHODS: The study was conducted using a pharmacoeconomic model with a 3-year time horizon. Effectiveness was measured as days gained in low disease activity (LDA; DAS28-ESR <3.2) or in remission (DAS28-ESR <2.6). The model simulated the response to treatments, based on the Rotation Or Change (ROC) trial, the probability of discontinuation and switch to a 3rd-line biologic, and the transition to death...
January 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351959/diagnosis-and-significance-of-pulmonary-microvascular-disease-in-diabetes
#15
Timothy J Roberts, Andrew T Burns, Richard J MacIsaac, Andrew I MacIsaac, David L Prior, André La Gerche
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pulmonary microvascular disease is detectable in subjects with diabetes and associated with diminished exercise capacity using a novel echocardiographic marker quantifying the pulmonary transit of agitated contrast bubbles (PTAC). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty participants (40 with diabetes and 20 control subjects) performed cardiopulmonary (maximal oxygen consumption [VO2peak]) and semisupine bicycle echocardiography exercise tests within a 1-week period...
January 19, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351740/population-size-may-shape-the-accumulation-of-functional-mutations-following-domestication
#16
Jianhai Chen, Pan Ni, Xinyun Li, Jianlin Han, Ivan Jakovlić, Chengjun Zhang, Shuhong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Population genetics theory predicts an important role of differences in the effective population size (N e ) among species on shaping the accumulation of functional mutations by regulating the selection efficiency. However, this correlation has never been tested in domesticated animals. RESULTS: Here, we synthesized 62 whole genome data in eight domesticated species (cat, dog, pig, goat, sheep, chicken, cattle and horse) and compared domesticates with their wild (or ancient) relatives...
January 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351289/the-rumour-spectrum
#17
Nicolas Turenne
Rumour is an old social phenomenon used in politics and other public spaces. It has been studied for only hundred years by sociologists and psychologists by qualitative means. Social media platforms open new opportunities to improve quantitative analyses. We scanned all scientific literature to find relevant features. We made a quantitative screening of some specific rumours (in French and in English). Firstly, we identified some sources of information to find them. Secondly, we compiled different reference, rumouring and event datasets...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350800/acquisition-remission-and-persistence-of-eczema-asthma-and-rhinitis-in-children
#18
Hongmei Zhang, Akhilesh Kaushal, Nelís Soto-Ramírez, Ali H Ziyab, Susan Ewart, John W Holloway, Wilfried Karmaus, Hasan Arshad
BACKGROUND: Allergic sensitization is associated with eczema, asthma, and rhinitis. However, it is unknown whether and how allergic sensitization is associated over time with acquisition, remission, and persistence of these diseases and their comorbidity. OBJECTIVE: To gain a better understanding of factors including allergic sensitization transitions that influence the temporal pattern of asthma, eczema, and rhinitis and their comorbidity during childhood. METHODS: In the Isle of Wight birth cohort information on allergic sensitization to common allergens was collected at ages 4, 10, and 18 years along with asthma, rhinitis, and eczema status determined by clinical diagnosis...
January 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350639/dynamic-mri-in-the-evaluation-of-the-spine-state-of-the-art
#19
Giulia Michelini, Antonella Corridore, Silvia Torlone, Federico Bruno, Claudia Marsecano, Raffaella Capasso, Ferdinando Caranci, Antonio Barile, Carlo Masciocchi, Alessandra Splendiani
INTRODUCTION: Degenerative disease of the spine is a generic term encompassing a wide range of different disease processes, which leads to spinal instability; traumatic/neoplastic events can accelerate this aging process. Therefore, the dynamic nature of the spine and its mobility across multiple segments is difficult to depict with any single imaging modality. METHODS: A review of PubMed databases for articles published about kMRI in patients with cervical and lumbar spinal desease was performed...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350235/pressure-induced-photoluminescence-modulation-in-a-wide-range-and-synthesis-of-monodispersed-ternary-agcus-nanocrystal-based-on-ag2s-nanocrystals
#20
Yingnan Wang, Xiaoteng Li, Manzhang Xu, Kai Wang, Hongyang Zhu, Wu Zhao, Junfeng Yan, Zhiyong Zhang
Binary Ag2S nanocrystals (NCs) have many potential optical applications because of their low toxicity, narrow direct band gaps and near-infrared photoluminescence (PL) with high emission efficiency. However, due to its small exciton Bohr radius (2.2 nm), the PL spectra of Ag2S NCs can only be modulated below ∼1200 nm with increasing particle size. Meanwhile, ternary silver copper chalcogenides (AgCuX, X = S, Se) have also attracted increased attention in recent years. Temperature-dependent structural phase transformation leads electrical transport to exhibit fascinating transitions between p and n type conduction, which makes AgCuS and AgCuSe ideal materials for diode or transistor devices...
January 19, 2018: Nanoscale
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