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Water pipe

Guiwei Li, Yuanxun Ding, Hongfu Xu, Junwei Jin, Baoyou Shi
Inorganic contaminants accumulation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) is a great threat to water quality and safety. This work assessed the main risk factors for different water pipes and discovered the release profile of accumulated materials in a full scale distribution system frequently suffered from water discoloration problem. Physicochemical characterization of pipe deposits were performed using X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
January 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Maryam Salehi, Chad T Jafvert, John A Howarter, Andrew J Whelton
The influence of polymer aging, water pH, and aqueous Pb concentration on Pb deposition onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) was investigated. LDPE pellets were aged by ozonation at 85 °C. ATR-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of aged LDPE surfaces showed that a variety of polar functional groups (>CO<, >CO, >COO) were formed during aging. These functional groups likely provided better nucleation sites for Pb(OH)2 deposition compared to new LDPE, which did not have these oxygen-containing functional groups...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Agni Nhirmal Kumar, Chun Ian Soo, Boon Hau Ng, Tidi Hassan, Andrea Yu-Lin Ban, Roslina Abdul Manap
The use of Cannabis sativa, also known as marijuana, is believed to have dated back to thousands of years B.C. More than 200 decades later, it remains a popular recreational psychoactive substance that can be smoked through a water pipe. We report a case of marijuana smoking via a "bong" device, which has resulted in severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa necrotizing pneumonia treated with conservative medical therapy. This case highlights the importance of recognizing that life-threatening pneumonia can potentially be linked to marijuana and "bong" usage...
February 2018: Respirology Case Reports
M Caschetto, W Robertson, M Petitta, R Aravena
Natural attenuation of nitrogen (N) was investigated in a well characterized septic system plume at a campground in Ontario, Canada. Total inorganic N (TIN) concentrations in deeper portions of the plume were about one third of the septic tank value of 40.7mgL-1. NH4+ and NO3- isotopic characterization were used to provide insight into potential attenuation processes. Concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- were highly variable in the plume, but approached the septic tank TIN value in some shallow zones and exhibited δ15N values like the tank value of +6‰...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Erika L English, Kristin C Schutz, Graham G Willsey, Matthew J Wargo
Many Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are derived from residential, recreational, or surface water sources, thus, these environments represent an important pre-infection niche. To better understand P. aeruginosa biology in these environments, we quantified transcriptional changes by microarray after exposure to diluted LB, diluted R2B, potable tap water, and freshwater from a eutrophic pond. qRT-PCR confirmed conservation of these responses in other water sources, and competition experiments were used to test the importance of three implicated metabolic pathways...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Alexander Adair, Igor V Mastikhin, Benedict Newling
The pressure variations experienced by a liquid flowing through a pipe constriction can, in some cases, result in the formation of a bubble cloud (i.e., hydrodynamic cavitation). Due to the nature of the bubble cloud, it is ideally measured through the use of non-optical and non-invasive techniques; therefore, it is well-suited for study by magnetic resonance imaging. This paper demonstrates the use of Conical SPRITE (a 3D, centric-scan, pure phase-encoding pulse sequence) to acquire time-averaged void fraction and velocity information about hydrodynamic cavitation for water flowing through a pipe constriction...
January 2, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Caitlin R Proctor, Mauro Reimann, Bas Vriens, Frederik Hammes
Shower hoses offer an excellent bacterial growth environment in close proximity to a critical end-user exposure route within building drinking water plumbing. However, the health risks associated with and processes underlying the development of biofilms in shower hoses are poorly studied. In a global survey, biofilms from 78 shower hoses from 11 countries were characterized in terms of cell concentration (4.1 × 104-5.8 × 108 cells/cm2), metal accumulation (including iron, lead, and copper), and microbiome composition (including presence of potential opportunistic pathogens)...
December 14, 2017: Water Research
Nicholas I Goldenson, Rubin Khoddam, Matthew D Stone, Adam M Leventhal
Objective: Recently, use of alternative tobacco products, such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and hookah (water-pipe tobacco), has increased among adolescents. It is unknown whether attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with initiation of alternative tobacco product use. Methods: Ninth grade high school students who never used any tobacco product at baseline (N = 1,921) participated in a longitudinal survey from 2014 to 2015...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Zhao Li, Liwen Jing, Ross Murch
Acoustic wave propagation (up to 50 kHz) within a water-filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipeline is studied using laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis. Experiments were carried out in a 15 m length of cylindrical HDPE pipeline using acoustic transducers to acquire signals uniformly spaced along the axis of the pipe. By proposing the use of the iterative quadratic maximum likelihood algorithm to this experimental configuration, wavenumbers, attenuations, and mode amplitudes could be accurately extracted from the measurement data...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
Epidemiological, preclinical and interventional clinical studies have demonstrated that environmental stressors are associated with health problems, namely cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations of the World Health Organization environmental risk factors account for an appreciable part of global deaths and life years spent with disability. This Forum issue addresses the impact of the environmental risk factors traffic noise exposure, air pollution by particulate matter, mental stress / loneliness as well as the life style risk factor (water-pipe) smoking on health and disease with focus on the cardiovascular system...
December 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Takuma Yagasaki, Masakazu Matsumoto, Hideki Tanaka
We investigate the mechanism of a typical kinetic hydrate inhibitor (KHI), polyvinylcaprolactam (PVCap), which has been applied to prevent hydrate plugs from forming in gas pipe lines, using molecular dynamics simulations of crystal growth of ethylene oxide hydrate. Water-soluble ethylene oxide is chosen as a guest species to avoid problems associated with the presence of the gas phase in the simulation cell such as slow crystal growth. A PVCap dodecamer adsorbs irreversibly on the hydrate surface which grows at supercooling of 3K when the hydrophobic part of two pendant groups are trapped in open cages at the surface...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Dahua Shou, Jintu Fan
The speed of capillary flow is a key bottleneck in improving the performance of nano- and microfluidic devices for various applications including microfluidic diagnostics, thermal management heat pipes, micro-molding devices, functional fabrics, and oil-water separators. Here we present a novel nano- or microfibrous hollow wedged channel (named as W-Channel) which can significantly speed up the capillary flow. The capillary flow in the initial 100 seconds in the nanofibrous W-Channel was shown to be 8 times faster than that in the single-layer strip of the same material when placed vertically and over 20 times faster when placed horizontally...
December 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Derek R Faust, Robert Kröger, Matthew T Moore, Scott A Rush
Agricultural non-point sources of nutrients and sediments have caused eutrophication and other water quality issues in aquatic and marine ecosystems, such as the annual occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Management practices have been implemented adjacent to and in agricultural drainage ditches to promote their wetland characteristics and functions, including reduction of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment losses downstream. This review: (1) summarized studies examining changes in nutrient and total suspended solid concentrations and loads associated with management practices in drainage ditches (i...
December 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jenni Inkinen, Balamuralikrishna Jayaprakash, Merja Ahonen, Tarja Pitkänen, Riika Mäkinen, Anna Pursiainen, Jorge W Santo Domingo, Heidi Salonen, Michael Elk, Minna M Keinänen-Toivola
AIMS: To study stability of biofilms and water quality in pilot scale drinking water copper and PEX pipes in changing conditions (extra disinfection, magnetic water treatment MWT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) to describe total bacterial community and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to describe active bacterial members in addition to traditional microbiological methods were applied. Biofilms from control copper and PEX pipes shared same most abundant bacteria (Methylobacterium spp...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ditipriya Bhar, Sharmistha Bhattacherjee, Abhijit Mukherjee, Tapas Kumar Sarkar, Samir Dasgupta
BACKGROUND: With the rapid expansion of urban population, provision of safe water and basic sanitation is becoming a challenge; especially in slums. This is adversely affecting the health of the people living in such areas. OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to measure the proportion of households using improved drinking water and sanitation facilities and to determine the association between diarrhea in under-five children with water and sanitation facilities...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
Ahmad Komarulzaman, Eelke de Jong, Jeroen Smits
In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. We investigate the motives behind the decision to switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Parul Gulati, Moushumi Ghosh
Sphingomonas paucimobilis, an oligotroph, is well recognized for its potential for biofilm formation. The present study explored the biofilm forming ability of a strain isolated from municipal drinking water on plumbing materials. The intensity of biofilm formation of this strain on different plumbing materials was examined by using 1 × 1 cm2 pieces of six different pipe materials, i.e. polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), aluminium (Al), copper (Cu) and rubber (R) and observing by staining with the chemical chromophore, Calcofluor...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Saeid Golbidi, Huige Li, Ismail Laher
SIGNIFICANCE: Modern technologies have eased our lives but these conveniences can impact our lifestyles in destructive ways. Noise pollution, mental stresses, and smoking (as a stress-relieving solution) are some environmental hazards which affect our well-being and health care budgets. Scrutinizing their pathophysiology could lead to solutions to reduce their harmful effects. Recent advances: Oxidative stress plays an important role in initiating local and systemic inflammation following noise pollution, mental stress, and smoking...
December 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Yu Jia, Ludwig Ehlert, Cecilia Wahlskog, Angela Lundberg, Christian Maurice
Monitoring pollutants in stormwater discharge in cold climates is challenging. An environmental survey was performed by sampling the stormwater from Luleå Airport, Northern Sweden, during the period 2010-2013, when urea was used as a main component of aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids (ADAFs). The stormwater collected from the runway was led through an oil trap to an infiltration pond to store excess water during precipitation periods and enhance infiltration and water treatment. Due to insufficient capacity, an emergency spillway was established and equipped with a flow meter and an automatic sampler...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
C Banks, S Rawaf, S Hassounah
Introduction: Tobacco control policy is essential for addressing the growing tobacco consumption seen in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, the single greatest preventable contributor to the non-communicable disease epidemic. Egypt and Iran have had varied success in using policy to combat this issue. The study aims to identify and compare the factors which have influenced different stages of the policy process - evidence generation, development and implementation. Methods: A scoping review was conducted with a systematic search of 7 databases which was conducted along with searches of Google Scholar, and the World Health Organisation and Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office websites to identify influencing factors at each stage of the policy process...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
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