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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629192/effects-of-sulfate-chloride-and-bicarbonate-on-iron-stability-in-a-pvc-u-drinking-pipe
#1
Jiaying Wang, Tao Tao, Hexiang Yan
In order to describe iron stability in plastic pipes and to ensure the drinking water security, the influence factors and rules for iron adsorption and release were studied, dependent on the Unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) drinking pipes employed in this research. In this paper, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate, as well as synthesized models, were chosen to investigate the iron stability on the inner wall of PVC-U drinking pipes. The existence of the three kinds of anions could significantly affect the process of iron adsorption, and a positive association was found between the level of anion concentration and the adsorption rate...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619721/hagfish-slime-exudate-stabilization-and-its-effect-on-slime-formation-and-functionality
#2
L J Böni, R Zurflüh, M Widmer, P Fischer, E J Windhab, P A Rühs, S Kuster
Hagfish produce record breaking amounts of slime when under attack, making it the most dilute hydrogel known to date and a highly interesting material for biomaterial research. The slime forms from a glandular secrete called exudate, which deploys upon contact with seawater. To study the slime formation ex vivo and to characterize its material properties, stabilization of the sensitive slime exudate is crucial. In this study we compared the two main stabilization methods, high osmolarity citrate/PIPES (CP) buffer and immersion in oil and tested the influence of time, temperature, and pH on the stability of the exudate and functionality of the slime...
June 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615868/some-probable-factors-affecting-the-malaria-situation-before-and-at-the-beginning-of-a-pre-elimination-program-in-southeastern-iran
#3
Jalil Nejati, Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaei, Masoud Salehi, Abedin Saghafipour, Ehssan Mozafari
The area southeast of Iran still copes with malaria as an unstable infectious disease and includes the most autochthonous malaria reports in the country. This comprehensive study was carried out for the evaluation of environmental factors, welfare indicators and health facilities on the malaria situation before and at the beginning of a pre-elimination programme in this area. The probable factors affecting the malaria situation, including the water-pipe network, electricity, rainfall, long-lasting integrated nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying and malaria diagnosis-treatment centres were analysed using SPSS software...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612312/chemical-and-microbial-characteristics-of-municipal-drinking-water-supply-systems-in-the-canadian-arctic
#4
Kiley Daley, Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen, Rob C Jamieson, Jenny L Hayward, Greg S Piorkowski, Wendy Krkosek, Graham A Gagnon, Heather Castleden, Kristen MacNeil, Joanna Poltarowicz, Emmalina Corriveau, Amy Jackson, Justine Lywood, Yannan Huang
Drinking water in the vast Arctic Canadian territory of Nunavut is sourced from surface water lakes or rivers and transferred to man-made or natural reservoirs. The raw water is at a minimum treated by chlorination and distributed to customers either by trucks delivering to a water storage tank inside buildings or through a piped distribution system. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and microbial drinking water quality from source to tap in three hamlets (Coral Harbour, Pond Inlet and Pangnirtung-each has a population of <2000) on trucked service, and in Iqaluit (population ~6700), which uses a combination of trucked and piped water conveyance...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606417/synthesis-of-single-and-interplant-non-isothermal-water-networks
#5
Nidret Ibrić, Elvis Ahmetović, Zdravko Kravanja, François Maréchal, Maziar Kermani
This paper addresses the synthesis problem of non-isothermal water networks using a mathematical programming approach. A heat-integrated water network superstructure and its corresponding mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model is proposed for the synthesis of individual as well as interplant water networks. A new feature of the proposed model includes piping installation cost within the objective function minimising the total annual cost of the network. This introduces additional trade-offs between operating and investment costs that can impact a final network design...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605482/substantial-toxic-effect-of-water-pipe-smoking-on-the-early-stage-of-embryonic-development
#6
Anas A Ashour, Mahmoud Y Haik, Khaled W Sadek, Huseyin C Yalcin, Joanna Bitharas, Tahar Aboulkassim, Gerald Batist, Amber Yasmeen, Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa
Background: Water-pipe smoking (WPS) is the most widespread tobacco use in the Middle-East, and is rapidly spreading globally. Smoke from WP contains most of the compounds present in cigarette smoke, although in different proportions. WPS is associated with the risk of several human diseases; however, its impact on the early stage of normal development has not been investigated yet. Thus, in this investigation, we assess the effect of WPS on the embryo at the early stage of development...
June 12, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604811/managing-urban-runoff-in-residential-neighborhoods-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-in-lawn-irrigation-driven-runoff
#7
Gurpal S Toor, Marti L Occhipinti, Yun-Ya Yang, Tammy Majcherek, Darren Haver, Lorence Oki
Sources and mechanisms of nutrient transport in lawn irrigation driven surface runoff are largely unknown. We investigated the transport of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lawn irrigation driven surface runoff from a residential neighborhood (28 ha) of 56% impervious and 44% pervious areas. Pervious areas encompassing turfgrass (lawns) in the neighborhood were irrigated with the reclaimed water in common areas during the evening to late night and with the municipal water in homeowner's lawns during the morning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573352/risk-based-framework-for-optimizing-residual-chlorine-in-large-water-distribution-systems
#8
Muhammad Nadeem Sharif, Ashraf Farahat, Husnain Haider, Muhammad A Al-Zahrani, Manuel J Rodriguez, Rehan Sadiq
Managing residual chlorine in large water distribution systems (WDS) to minimize human health risk is a daunting task. In this research, a novel risk-based framework is developed and implemented in a distribution network spanning over 64 km(2) for supplying water to the city of Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia) through 473-km-long water mains. The framework integrates the planning of linear assets (i.e., pipes) and placement of booster stations to optimize residual chlorine in the WDS. Failure mode and effect analysis are integrated with the fuzzy set theory to perform risk analysis...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567285/substrate-roughening-improves-swimming-performance-in-two-small-bodied-riverine-fishes-implications-for-culvert-remediation-and-design
#9
Essie M Rodgers, Breeana M Heaslip, Rebecca L Cramp, Marcus Riches, Matthew A Gordos, Craig E Franklin
Worldwide declines in riverine fish abundance and diversity have been linked to the fragmentation of aquatic habitats through the installation of instream structures (e.g. culverts, dams, weirs and barrages). Restoring riverine connectivity can be achieved by remediating structures impeding fish movements by, for example, replacing smooth substrates of pipe culverts with naturalistic substrates (i.e. river stones; culvert roughening). However, empirical evaluations of the efficacy of such remediation efforts are often lacking despite the high economic cost...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561554/urinary-fluoride-excretion-in-preschool-children-after-intake-of-fluoridated-milk-and-use-of-fluoride-containing-toothpaste
#10
M Norman, S Twetman, A Hultgren Talvilahti, E Granström, C Stecksén-Blicks
Objective: To assess the urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after drinking fluoridated milk with 0.185 mg F and 0.375 mg F and to study the impact of use of fluoride toothpaste. Basic research design: Double-blind cross-over study. Participants: Nine healthy children, 2.5-4.5 years of age. Intervention: In a randomized order, participants drank 1.5 dl milk once daily for 7 days with no fluoride added (control), 0...
March 2017: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523209/using-online-respondent-driven-sampling-for-vietnamese-youths-alcohol-use-and-associated-risk-factors
#11
Melvyn W B Zhang, Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Nguyen Hoang Long, Huong Thi Le, Nguyen Duc Hinh, Tran Dinh Tho, Bao Nguyen Le, Vu Thi Minh Thuc, Chau Ngo, Nguyen Huu Tu, Carl A Latkin, Roger Cm Ho
OBJECTIVES: The average alcohol consumption per capita among Vietnamese adults has consistently increased. Although alcohol-related disorders have been extensively studied, there is a paucity of research shedding light on this issue among Internet users. The study aimed to examine the severity of alcohol-related disorders and other associated factors that might predispose individuals towards alcohol usage in a sample of youths recruited online. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,080 Vietnamese youths...
April 2017: Healthcare Informatics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522563/biomarkers-of-exposure-to-new-and-emerging-tobacco-and-nicotine-delivery-products
#12
Suzaynn F Schick, Benjamin C Blount, Peyton Jacob, Najat A Saliba, John T Bernert, Ahmad El Hellani, Peter Jatlow, R Steve Pappas, Lanqing Wang, Jonathan Foulds, Arunava Ghosh, Stephen S Hecht, John C Gomez, Jessica R Martin, Clementina Mesaros, Sanjay Srivastava, Gideon St Helen, Robert Tarran, Pawel K Lorkiewicz, Ian A Blair, Heather L Kimmel, Claire M Doerschuk, Neal L Benowitz, Aruni Bhatnagar
Accurate and reliable measurements of exposure to tobacco products are essential for identifying and confirming patterns of tobacco product use and for assessing their potential biological effects in both human populations and experimental systems. Due to the introduction of new tobacco-derived products and the development of novel ways to modify and use conventional tobacco products, precise and specific assessments of exposure to tobacco are now more important than ever. Biomarkers that were developed and validated to measure exposure to cigarettes are being evaluated to assess their utility for measuring exposure to these new products...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521045/effects-of-ambient-temperature-and-water-vapor-on-chamber-pressure-and-oxygen-level-during-low-atmospheric-pressure-stunning-of-poultry
#13
Paul H Holloway, David G Pritchard
The characteristics of the vacuum used in a low atmospheric pressure stunning system to stun (render unconscious) poultry prior to slaughter are described. A vacuum chamber is pumped by a wet screw compressor. The vacuum pressure is reduced from ambient atmospheric pressure to an absolute vacuum pressure of ∼250 Torr (∼33 kPa) in ∼67 sec with the vacuum gate valve fully open. At ∼250 Torr, the sliding gate valve is partially closed to reduce effective pumping speed, resulting in a slower rate of decreasing pressure...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520397/laser-induced-graphene-layers-and-electrodes-prevents-microbial-fouling-and-exerts-antimicrobial-action
#14
Swatantra P Singh, Yilun Li, Avraham Be'er, Yoram Oren, James M Tour, Christopher J Arnusch
Prevention of fouling on surfaces is a major challenge that broadly impacts society. Water treatment technologies, hospital infrastructure, and seawater pipes exemplify surfaces that are susceptible to biofouling. Here we show that laser-induced graphene (LIG) printed on a polyimide film by irradiation with a CO2 infrared laser under ambient conditions is extremely biofilm resistant while as an electrode is strongly antibacterial. We investigated the antibacterial activity of the LIG surface using LIG powder in suspension or deposited on surfaces, and its activity depended on the particle size and oxygen content...
May 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513143/interactive-effects-of-corrosion-copper-and-chloramines-on-legionella-and-mycobacteria-in-hot-water-plumbing
#15
William J Rhoads, Amy Pruden, Marc A Edwards
Complexities associated with drinking water plumbing systems can result in undesirable interactions among plumbing components that undermine engineering controls for opportunistic pathogens (OPs). In this study, we examine the effects of plumbing system materials and two commonly applied disinfectants, copper and chloramines, on water chemistry and the growth of Legionella and mycobacteria across a transect of bench- and pilot-scale hot water experiments carried out with the same municipal water supply. We discovered that copper released from corrosion of plumbing materials can initiate evolution of >1100 times more hydrogen (H2) from water heater sacrificial anode rods than does presence of copper dosed as soluble cupric ions...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510465/cigarette-and-water-pipe-use-in-iran-geographical-distribution-and-time-trends-among-the-adult-population-a-pooled-analysis-of-national-steps-surveys-2006-2009
#16
Saeed Nemati, Ali Rafei, Neal D Freedman, Akbar Fotouhi, Fereshteh Asgary, Kazem Zendehdel
OBJECTIVE: To assess the geographical distribution and time trends of manufactured cigarette and water-pipe use among Iranian adult population. METHOD: Pooled data from four consecutive nationally and provincially representative STEPS surveys, 2006-2009, were analyzed. Prevalence of current daily manufactured cigarette smokers, current daily water-pipe and current daily dual users and associated 95%CIs were estimated using complex sample analysis techniques. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of current daily tobacco use, including cigarette and water-pipe, was estimated 23...
May 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502052/variation-of-microbial-communities-and-functional-genes-during-the-biofilm-formation-in-raw-water-distribution-systems-and-associated-effects-on-the-transformation-of-nitrogen-pollutants
#17
Wei Chen, Yanmei Gu, Hang Xu, Zhigang Liu, Chunhui Lu, Chenshuo Lin
This study aimed to investigate the variation of microbial communities and functional genes during the biofilm formation in raw water distribution systems without prechlorination and associated effects on the transformation of nitrogen pollutants by using a designed model pipe system. The results showed the transformation of nitrogen pollutants was obvious during the biofilm formation. The richness and diversity of the microbial communities changed significantly. The higher abundance of Nitrospirae in biofilm samples significantly contributed to biological nitrification...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498484/sinkholes-due-to-groundwater-withdrawal-in-tazerbo-wellfield-se-libya
#18
Nawal Alfarrah, Gebremedhin Berhane, Abdelrahim Hweesh, Kristine Walraevens
The desert of eastern Libya forms one of the most arid regions of the Sahara. The Great Man-Made River Project (GMRP) was established. It transports millions of cubic meters of water a day from desert wellfields to the coastal cities, where over 80% of the population lives. The Tazerbo Wellfield is one of the wellfields designed within the GMRP, delivering water to the eastern coast of Libya through an underground pipe network. Tazerbo Wellfield consists of 108 production wells; each well was designed to pump 100 L/s...
May 12, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482301/effects-of-inequality-of-supply-hours-on-consumers-coping-strategies-and-perceptions-of-intermittent-water-supply-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#19
B Guragai, S Takizawa, T Hashimoto, K Oguma
To investigate the effects of unequal supply hours on consumers' coping strategies and perceptions of the intermittent water supply (IWS) in the Kathmandu Valley (KV), Nepal we conducted a randomized household survey (n=369) and on-site water quality tests. Half of the households received piped water for 6 or fewer hours per week. To augment or cope with the inadequate supply, 28% of the households used highly contaminated and expensive tanker-delivered water. Half of the piped water samples (n=13) were contaminated with Escherichia coli...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481881/comparing-multi-criteria-decision-analysis-and-integrated-assessment-to-support-long-term-water-supply-planning
#20
Lisa Scholten, Max Maurer, Judit Lienert
We compare the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)-or more precisely, models used in multi-attribute value theory (MAVT)-to integrated assessment (IA) models for supporting long-term water supply planning in a small town case study in Switzerland. They are used to evaluate thirteen system scale water supply alternatives in four future scenarios regarding forty-four objectives, covering technical, social, environmental, and economic aspects. The alternatives encompass both conventional and unconventional solutions and differ regarding technical, spatial and organizational characteristics...
2017: PloS One
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