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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738287/perceived-stress-and-poly-tobacco-product-use-across-adolescence-patterns-of-association-and-gender-differences
#1
Adam M Leventhal, Robert Urman, Jessica L Barrington-Trimis, Nicholas I Goldenson, Katia Gallegos, Chih Ping Chou, Kejia Wang, Kiros Berhane, Tess Boley Cruz, Mary Ann Pentz, Jennifer Unger, Rob S McConnell
Perceived stress-an endophenotype indicative of the tendency to appraise stress as frequent, unpredictable and unmanageable-is associated with adolescent cigarette smoking. It is unclear whether this association: (1) extends to alternative tobacco products, like electronic cigarettes and hookah (tobacco water pipe), which are increasingly popular among youth, and (2) differs by gender. In this report, data were drawn from a population-based longitudinal cohort of youth in Southern California. Perceived stress was assessed at baseline (7th or 8th grade; 2010)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732329/an-experimental-study-on-the-influence-of-water-stagnation-and-temperature-change-on-water-quality-in-a-full-scale-domestic-drinking-water-system
#2
Lj Zlatanović, J P van der Hoek, J H G Vreeburg
The drinking water quality changes during the transport through distribution systems. Domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs), which include the plumbing between the water meter and consumer's taps, are the most critical points in which water quality may be affected. In distribution networks, the drinking water temperature and water residence time are regarded as indicators of the drinking water quality. This paper describes an experimental research on the influence of stagnation time and temperature change on drinking water quality in a full-scale DDWS...
July 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731306/historical-view-on-lead-guidelines-and-regulations
#3
Hana R Pohl, Susan Z Ingber, Henry G Abadin
Lead has been used in many commodities for centuries. As a result, human exposure has occurred through the production and use of these lead-containing products. For example, leaded gasoline, lead-based paint, and lead solder/pipes in water distribution systems have been important in terms of exposure potential to the general population. Worker exposures occur in various industrial activities such as lead smelting and refining, battery manufacturing, steel welding or cutting operations, printing, and construction...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726696/a-novel-freeze-protection-strategy-for-shallow-buried-sewer-pipes-temperature-modelling-and-field-investigation
#4
Youen Pericault, Mikael Risberg, Mattias Vesterlund, Maria Viklander, Annelie Hedström
The burial of sewer and water pipes below the maximum ground frost depth can be very costly and laborious in regions with cold winters. If a freeze protection measure is applied, the utility lines can be installed in a shallower trench to reduce the excavation needs. One freeze protection measure, so called heat tracing, consists of supplying heat along the pipes. In this work, the use of 4th generation district heating as a heat tracing solution was investigated at a pilot site in Kiruna, Sweden. The influence of the system on sewer and water pipe temperatures was studied at a snow-free and snow-covered cross section...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726691/an-exploratory-study-of-the-effects-of-stormwater-pipeline-materials-on-transported-stormwater-quality
#5
Matthias Borris, Heléne Österlund, Jiri Marsalek, Maria Viklander
Implications of three sewer pipe materials (concrete, galvanized corrugated steel, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) for stormwater quality were explored in laboratory experiments, in which three types of stormwater, SW1-SW3, were circulated in 0.5 m long sewer pipe sections. SW1 and SW2 represented synthetic rainwater, without and with fine street sediment added (CTSS = 150 mg/L), respectively, and SW3 was actual stormwater with the same sediment addition as SW2. Following 20-min runs, with an equivalent distance of 500 m travelled by water particles, a number of statistically significant changes in the stormwater chemistry were observed: (i) pH of all the simulated stormwaters increased in the concrete pipe (from 7...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723927/piped-water-supply-interruptions-and-acute-diarrhea-among-under-five-children-in-addis-ababa-slums-ethiopia-a-matched-case-control-study
#6
Metadel Adane, Bezatu Mengistie, Girmay Medhin, Helmut Kloos, Worku Mulat
BACKGROUND: The problem of intermittent piped water supplies that exists in low- and middle-income countries is particularly severe in the slums of sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about whether there is deterioration of the microbiological quality of the intermittent piped water supply at a household level and whether it is a factor in reducing or increasing the occurrence of acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa. This study aimed to determine the association of intermittent piped water supplies and point-of-use (POU) contamination of household stored water by Escherichia coli (E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720083/a-prolonged-community-wide-cholera-outbreak-associated-with-drinking-water-contaminated-by-sewage-in-kasese-district-western-uganda
#7
Benon Kwesiga, Gerald Pande, Alex Riolexus Ario, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Joseph K B Matovu, Bao-Ping Zhu
BACKGROUND: In May 2015, a cholera outbreak that had lasted 3 months and infected over 100 people was reported in Kasese District, Uganda, where multiple cholera outbreaks had occurred previously. We conducted an investigation to identify the mode of transmission to guide control measures. METHODS: We defined a suspected case as onset of acute watery diarrhoea from 1 February 2015 onwards in a Kasese resident. A confirmed case was a suspected case with Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, serotype Inaba cultured from a stool sample...
July 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713104/oral-health-hazards-of-water-pipe-smoking-current-evidence
#8
A Thirumal Raj, Shankargouda Patil, Sachin Sarode, Gargi Sarode
Water pipe smoking (WPS) has been a traditional habit in the Middle Eastern Society for hundreds of years. The WPS users have a false sense of safety due to its casual use in social gatherings. It was estimated that about 70% of WPS users believe it to be a safe alternative to cigarette smoking.(1) Further, the use of flavored tobacco has led to its growing popularity, especially among youngsters.
July 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709047/persistence-of-immersed-blood-and-hair-dna-a-preliminary-study-based-on-casework
#9
Christophe Frippiat, Agathe Gastaldi, Séverine Van Grunderbeeck
In some cases, evidence is collected from rivers, canals, lakes or sink pipes. To determine the utility of analyzing these samples and for cases in which DNA was recovered from submerged bulletproof vest parts, we evaluated the time necessary to degrade the blood and, subsequently, DNA on bulletproof vests. In a second experiment, also based on cases, blood was diluted in water from a kitchen sink pipe and incubated at room temperature for different times. Subsequently, DNA quality was assessed. In a parallel experiment, hair roots were incubated in spring water for different time periods...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697308/evaluation-of-life-cycle-assessment-lca-for-roadway-drainage-systems
#10
Diana M Byrne, Marta K Grabowski, Amy C B Benitez, Arthur R Schmidt, Jeremy S Guest
Roadway drainage design has traditionally focused on cost-effectively managing water quantity; however, runoff carries pollutants, posing risks to the local environment and public health. Additionally, construction and maintenance incur costs and contribute to global environmental impacts. While life cycle assessment (LCA) can potentially capture local and global environmental impacts of roadway drainage and other stormwater systems, LCA methodology must be evaluated, as stormwater systems differ from wastewater and drinking water systems to which LCA is more frequently applied...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683834/the-refani-s-study-protocol-a-non-randomised-cluster-controlled-trial-to-assess-the-role-of-an-unconditional-cash-transfer-a-non-food-item-kit-and-free-piped-water-in-reducing-the-risk-of-acute-malnutrition-among-children-aged-6-59%C3%A2-months-living-in-camps-for
#11
Mohamed Jelle, Carlos S Grijalva-Eternod, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Sarah King, Cassy L Cox, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Joanna Morrison, Timothy Colbourn, Edward Fottrell, Andrew J Seal
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of acute malnutrition is often high in emergency-affected populations and is associated with elevated mortality risk and long-term health consequences. Increasingly, cash transfer programmes (CTP) are used instead of direct food aid as a nutritional intervention, but there is sparse evidence on their nutritional impact. We aim to understand whether CTP reduces acute malnutrition and its known risk factors. METHODS/DESIGN: A non-randomised, cluster-controlled trial will assess the impact of an unconditional cash transfer of US$84 per month for 5 months, a single non-food items kit, and free piped water on the risk of acute malnutrition in children, aged 6-59 months...
July 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681324/how-do-people-gain-access-to-water-resources-in-the-brazilian-semiarid-caatinga-in-times-of-climate-change
#12
Evaldo de Lira Azevêdo, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves, Thelma Lúcia Pereira Dias, Joseline Molozzi
Climate change is becoming an imminent reality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. Therefore, it is essential to understand the relationships between humans and aquatic ecosystems in order to devise efficient management and conservation strategies. We conducted 126 interviews using a semi-structured form to record water sources, transport strategies, and the use and treatment of water by communities surrounding four reservoirs within two drainage basins in the semiarid region of Brazil. These factors were then compared to the mean water volumes of the respective reservoirs from 2013 to 2015, a period of severe drought in that area...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671481/knowledge-attitudes-beliefs-and-patterns-of-waterpipe-use-among-jordanian-adults-who-exclusively-smoke-waterpipes
#13
Nidal F Eshah, Erika S Froelicher
BACKGROUND: Widespread waterpipe smoking (WPS) is reported worldwide. Although remarkable numbers of waterpipe smokers do not smoke cigarettes, very few studies have explored the phenomenon of WPS in people who smoke water pipes exclusively. The aim of this study was to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and patterns of WPS among Jordanian waterpipe-only smokers. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used; with 247 participants who were recruited through convenience sampling from 23 cafés offering waterpipes...
July 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668756/crude-oil-contamination-of-plastic-and-copper-drinking-water-pipes
#14
Xiangning Huang, Stephane Andry, Jessica Yaputri, Devin Kelly, David A Ladner, Andrew J Whelton
This study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of plastic (i.e., PEX, HDPE and CPVC) and copper pipes to short-term contamination by crude oil. Pipes were exposed to highly and slightly contaminated drinking water for the typical duration of Do Not Use drinking water orders. PEX pipes sorbed and desorbed the greatest amount of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), whereas copper pipes were less susceptible to contamination. For benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) quantified in water, only benzene exceeded its health based maximum contaminant level (MCL)...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664708/legionella-risk-assessment-in-cruise-ships-and-ferries
#15
Pasqualina Laganà, Maria Elsa Gambuzza, Santi Delia
<b>Introduction.</b> The increasing development of marine traffic has led to a rise in the incidence of legionellosis among travellers. It occurs in similar environments, especially closed and crowded, and aboard ships Legionella survives and multiplies easily in water pipes, spreading into the environment through air conditioning systems and water distribution points. Although in recent years in the construction of cruise ships preventive measures aimed at curbing the proliferation of Legionella (design, materials, focus on the operation and maintenance of the water system), have been taken account, little or no attention has been paid to small ships which, in many cases, are old and not well maintained...
June 12, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659529/combined-ultrafiltration-electrodeionization-technique-for-production-of-high-purity-water
#16
Anita Kusuma Wardani, Ahmad Nurul Hakim, Khoiruddin, I Gede Wenten
Electrodeionization (EDI) is the most common method to produce high purity water used for boiler feed water, microelectronic, and pharmaceutical industries. Commonly, EDI is combined with reverse osmosis (RO) to meet the requirement of EDI feed water, with hardness less than 1 ppm. However, RO requires a relatively high operating pressure and ultrafiltration (UF) as pretreatment which results in high energy consumption and high complexity in piping and instrumentation. In this work, UF was used as the sole pretreatment of EDI to produce high purity water...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629192/effects-of-sulfate-chloride-and-bicarbonate-on-iron-stability-in-a-pvc-u-drinking-pipe
#17
Jiaying Wang, Tao Tao, Hexiang Yan
In order to describe iron stability in plastic pipes and to ensure the drinking water security, the influence factors and rules for iron adsorption and release were studied, dependent on the Unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) drinking pipes employed in this research. In this paper, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate, as well as synthesized models, were chosen to investigate the iron stability on the inner wall of PVC-U drinking pipes. The existence of the three kinds of anions could significantly affect the process of iron adsorption, and a positive association was found between the level of anion concentration and the adsorption rate...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619721/hagfish-slime-exudate-stabilization-and-its-effect-on-slime-formation-and-functionality
#18
L J Böni, R Zurflüh, M Widmer, P Fischer, E J Windhab, P A Rühs, S Kuster
Hagfish produce vast amounts of slime when under attack. The slime is the most dilute hydrogel known to date, and is a highly interesting material for biomaterial research. It forms from a glandular secrete, called exudate, which deploys upon contact with seawater. To study slime formation ex vivo and to characterize its material properties, stabilization of the sensitive slime exudate is crucial. In this study, we compared the two main stabilization methods, dispersion in high osmolarity citrate/PIPES (CP) buffer and immersion in oil, and tested the influence of time, temperature and pH on the stability of the exudate and functionality of the slime...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615868/some-probable-factors-affecting-the-malaria-situation-before-and-at-the-beginning-of-a-pre-elimination-program-in-southeastern-iran
#19
Jalil Nejati, Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaei, Masoud Salehi, Abedin Saghafipour, Ehssan Mozafari
The area southeast of Iran still copes with malaria as an unstable infectious disease and includes the most autochthonous malaria reports in the country. This comprehensive study was carried out for the evaluation of environmental factors, welfare indicators and health facilities on the malaria situation before and at the beginning of a pre-elimination programme in this area. The probable factors affecting the malaria situation, including the water-pipe network, electricity, rainfall, long-lasting integrated nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying and malaria diagnosis-treatment centres were analysed using SPSS software...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612312/chemical-and-microbial-characteristics-of-municipal-drinking-water-supply-systems-in-the-canadian-arctic
#20
Kiley Daley, Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen, Rob C Jamieson, Jenny L Hayward, Greg S Piorkowski, Wendy Krkosek, Graham A Gagnon, Heather Castleden, Kristen MacNeil, Joanna Poltarowicz, Emmalina Corriveau, Amy Jackson, Justine Lywood, Yannan Huang
Drinking water in the vast Arctic Canadian territory of Nunavut is sourced from surface water lakes or rivers and transferred to man-made or natural reservoirs. The raw water is at a minimum treated by chlorination and distributed to customers either by trucks delivering to a water storage tank inside buildings or through a piped distribution system. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and microbial drinking water quality from source to tap in three hamlets (Coral Harbour, Pond Inlet and Pangnirtung-each has a population of <2000) on trucked service, and in Iqaluit (population ~6700), which uses a combination of trucked and piped water conveyance...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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