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Water pipe

Jennyfer Wolf, Paul R Hunter, Matthew C Freeman, Oliver Cumming, Thomas Clasen, Jamie Bartram, Julian P T Higgins, Richard Johnston, Kate Medlicott, Sophie Boisson, Annette Prüss-Ustün
OBJECTIVES: Safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene are protective against diarrhoeal disease; a leading cause of child mortality. The main objective was an updated assessment of the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) on childhood diarrhoeal disease. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of articles published between 1970 and February 2016. Study results were combined and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. RESULTS: A total of 135 studies met the inclusion criteria...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Karen M Miernyk, Lisa R Bulkow, Benjamin D Gold, Michael G Bruce, Debby H Hurlburt, Patricia M Griffin, David L Swerdlow, Kim Cook, Thomas W Hennessy, Alan J Parkinson
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infections in the world, and studies in Alaska Native people, as well as other Indigenous peoples, have shown a high prevalence of this gastric infection. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection by urea breath test (UBT) and anti- H. pylori IgG among Alaskans living in four regions of the state and to identify factors associated with infection. METHODS: A convenience sample of persons > 6 months old living in five rural and one urban Alaskan community were recruited from 1996 to 1997...
March 14, 2018: Helicobacter
Shahrzad Nematollahi, MohammadAli Mansournia, Abbas Rahimi-Foroushani, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Azin Alavi, Mohammad Shekari, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni
Objectives: Consecutive community health assessments revealed that water pipe smoking in ‎women as well as child impaired growth are amongst the main health concerns of the ‎suburban communities in south of Iran. The aim of the present study was to identify the ‎effects of water pipe smoking during pregnancy on birthweight of the infant.‎. Methods: The data of a population-based prospective cohort study in 714 singleton live ‎pregnancies in the suburbs of Bandar Abbas, south of Iran in 2016-2018 were used in this ‎study...
March 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Huanhuan Zhang, Wenbiao Wu
A method capable of accurately and selectively measuring Cr3+ in water is required and was therefore studied. The precision and reproducibility of chlorophosphonazo I color reaction spectrophotometry (CCRS) for the selective determination of Cr3+ was improved to be acceptable standards. The CCRS established is therefore an accurate, reproducible and inexpensive method. It also has reasonably good sensitivity and selectivity, and a high sample output. This method should be readily adapted for the routine and selective determination of Cr3+ in bottled mineral drinking water with (or without) the supplementation of Cr3+ or in natural water such as mineral or pipe water with the presence of Cr6+ ...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Özgür Özdemir
The aim of this study is to design a district metered area (DMA) at water distribution network (WDN) for determination and reduction of water losses in the city of Malatya, Turkey. In the application area, a pilot DMA zone was built by analyzing the existing WDN, topographic map, length of pipes, number of customers, service connections, and valves. In the DMA, International Water Association standard water balance was calculated considering inflow rates and billing records. The ratio of water losses in DMAs was determined as 82%...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ramon Ganigué, Guangming Jiang, Yiqi Liu, Keshab Sharma, Yue-Cong Wang, José Gonzalez, Tung Nguyen, Zhiguo Yuan
Water utilities worldwide spend annually billions of dollars to control sulfide-induced corrosion in sewers. Iron salts chemically oxidize and/or precipitate dissolved sulfide in sewage and are especially used in medium- and large-size sewers. Iron salt dosing rates are defined ad hoc, ignoring variation in sewage flows and sulfide levels. This often results in iron overdosing or poor sulfide control. Online dosing control can adjust the chemical dosing rates to current (and future) state of the sewer system, allowing high-precision, stable and cost-effective sulfide control...
February 13, 2018: Water Research
Kabindra Regmi, Dinesh Kaphle, Sabina Timilsina, Nik Annie Afiqah Tuha
BACKGROUND: Economic evidence relating to tobacco control is generally derived from the cost effectiveness of smoking-cessation programs or the economic impact of tobacco-induced disease, based on revealed-preference data. However, empirical estimates from stated-preference data on tobacco users' preferences, smoking behaviour and smoking cessation aids using analytical techniques such as discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) could be important for policy decision making in tobacco control...
March 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
Frank Tanser, Daniel K Azongo, Alain Vandormael, Till Bärnighausen, Christopher Appleton
Recent work has estimated that sub-Saharan Africa could lose US$3.5 billion of economic productivity every year as a result of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. One of the main interventions to control schistosomiasis is the provision of safe water to limit the contact with infected water bodies and break the cycle of transmission. To date, a rigorous quantification of the impact of safe water supplies on schistosomiasis is lacking. Using data from one of Africa's largest population-based cohorts, we establish the impact of the scale-up of piped water in a typical rural South African population over a seven-year time horizon...
February 20, 2018: ELife
Judith Elger, Christian Berndt, Lars Rüpke, Sebastian Krastel, Felix Gross, Wolfram H Geissler
There is a strong spatial correlation between submarine slope failures and the occurrence of gas hydrates. This has been attributed to the dynamic nature of gas hydrate systems and the potential reduction of slope stability due to bottom water warming or sea level drop. However, 30 years of research into this process found no solid supporting evidence. Here we present new reflection seismic data from the Arctic Ocean and numerical modelling results supporting a different link between hydrates and slope stability...
February 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Breno S Aguiar, Camila Lorenz, Flávia Virginio, Lincoln Suesdek, Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto
OBJECTIVES: While Brazil has witnessed an unprecedented Zika (ZIK) epidemic, in recent times, Chikungunya (CHIK) has also come into prominence as a threat, in the Americas. We aimed to identify the regions with increased probabilities of ZIK and CHIK occurrence, based on environmental and social conditions. METHODS: To assess the potential spatial risk of ZIK and CHIK dissemination, we used a statistical Maxent model, which considered the number of probable autochthonous ZIK and CHIK cases, in 2015 and 2016, with environmental variables and social indicators...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Michael K DeSantis, Simoni Triantafyllidou, Michael Schock, Darren A Lytle
Galvanic corrosion as a mechanism of toxic lead release into drinking water has been under scientific debate in the U.S. for over 30 years. Visual and mineralogical analysis of 28 lead pipe joints, excavated after 60+ years from 8 U.S. water utilities, provided the first direct view of three distinct galvanic corrosion patterns in practice: (1) no evidence of galvanic corrosion; (2) galvanic corrosion with lead cathode; (3) galvanic corrosion with lead anode. Pattern 3 is consistent with empirical galvanic series (lead→brass→copper in order of increasing nobility) and poses the greatest risk of Pb exposure...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jens Karstens, Haflidi Haflidason, Lukas W M Becker, Christian Berndt, Lars Rüpke, Sverre Planke, Volker Liebetrau, Mark Schmidt, Jürgen Mienert
Large amounts of methane are stored in continental margins as gas hydrates. They are stable under high pressure and low, but react sensitively to environmental changes. Bottom water temperature and sea level changes were considered as main contributors to gas hydrate dynamics after the last glaciation. However, here we show with numerical simulations that pulses of increased sedimentation dominantly controlled hydrate stability during the end of the last glaciation offshore mid-Norway. Sedimentation pulses triggered widespread gas hydrate dissociation and explains the formation of ubiquitous blowout pipes in water depths of 600 to 800 m...
February 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Hyo Kan, Kento Yamada, Nobuyuki Sanada, Koyo Nakata, Kazuhiko Tsukagoshi
Tube radial distribution chromatography based on tube radial distribution flow, or annular flow, in an open-tubular capillary has been reported. The chromatographic system requires specific instruments and treatments for microfluidic flow in the capillary tube. In this study, we have developed a new model of tube radial distribution chromatography, which is comprised of a commercially available HPLC system without any packed separation columns. Separation is performed in an open-tubular pipe (100-μm inner diameter and 350-cm length; temperature, 5°C) connected between the pump and the detector in the HPLC system...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Kelly E Jensen, Nehal N Naik, Christina O'Neal, Gabriela Salmón-Mulanovich, Amy R Riley-Powell, Gwenyth O Lee, Stella M Hartinger, Daniel G Bausch, Valerie A Paz-Soldan
BACKGROUND: Madre de Dios, a southern state in the Peruvian Amazon basin, has experienced rapid development as well as an influx of migrants since the construction of the Interoceanic Highway (IOH) connecting Brazil, Bolivia, and the Peruvian coast. We explored perceptions of migration and development in up to eight communities along the IOH in Madre de Dios following construction of the highway. METHODS: We conducted a multiple methods study involving focus group (FG) discussions and interviews with key informants (KIs) in eight communities in Madre de Dios...
February 12, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
E Tsagkari, W T Sloan
Biofilms are found at the inner surfaces of drinking water pipes and, therefore, it is essential to understand biofilm processes to control their formation. Hydrodynamics play a crucial role in shaping biofilms. Thus, knowing how biofilms form, develop and disperse under different flow conditions is critical in the successful management of these systems. Here, the development of biofilms after 4 weeks, the initial formation of biofilms within 10 h and finally, the response of already established biofilms within 24-h intervals in which the flow regime was changed, were studied using a rotating annular reactor under three different flow regimes: turbulent, transition and laminar...
February 10, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Francesco Caponio, Giacomo Squeo, Lucio Brunetti, Antonella Pasqualone, Carmine Summo, Vito M Paradiso, Pasquale Catalano, Biagio Bianchi
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, olive oil extraction is basically made by means of two-phase decanters, which allow to reduce water consumption and leaching of phenolic compounds. Despite this, most of the working settings derive from studies carried out on three-phase decanters. Hence, aim of the present study has been assessing the influence of two-phase decanter feed pipe position (FP) on the extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. Three different positions have been considered, at 825 mm (FP1), 610 mm (FP2), and 520 mm (FP3) from the outlet of the oily phase...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Houssein Gbaguidi-Haore, Amélie Varin, Pascal Cholley, Michelle Thouverez, Didier Hocquet, Xavier Bertrand
OBJECTIVE To describe an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in which the hospital waste-pipe system was the likely source of contamination and to report the bundle of measures that facilitated the long-term control of the outbreak. DESIGN Outbreak investigation. SETTING The hematology unit of a tertiary-care referral center. PATIENTS Patients who were colonized or infected with P. aeruginosa belonging to the clonal outbreak. METHODS Patients admitted to our 15-bed stem-cell transplantation hematology unit were screened for P...
February 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Neeti Rustagi, Ajey Singh Rathore, Jitendra Kumar Meena, Ankita Chugh, Ranabir Pal
Background: Ingestion of excess fluoride can cause fluorosis which adversely affects teeth and bones. Fluorosis is a major public health problem in the state of Rajasthan with all its 32 districts having variable fluoride contamination, and many initiatives are currently implemented in this region to mitigate the fluorosis burden. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess fluorosis, its risk factors, and the awareness among school students and teachers in endemic villages of Jodhpur district, Rajasthan...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
David D J Taylor, Ranjiv Khush, Rachel Peletz, Emily Kumpel
Current guidelines for testing drinking water quality recommend that the sampling rate, which is the number of samples tested for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) per year, increases as the population served by the drinking water system increases. However, in low-resource settings, prevalence of contamination tends to be higher, potentially requiring higher sampling rates and different statistical methods not addressed by current sampling recommendations. We analyzed 27,930 tests for FIB collected from 351 piped water systems in eight countries in sub-Saharan Africa to assess current sampling rates, observed contamination prevalences, and the ability of monitoring agencies to complete two common objectives of sampling programs: determine regulatory compliance and detect a change over time...
February 3, 2018: Water Research
Pratibha Dwarkanath, Anil Vasudevan, Tinku Thomas, Sonia S Anand, Dipika Desai, Milan Gupta, Gladys Menezes, Anura V Kurpad, Krishnamachari Srinivasan
OBJECTIVE: High frequency of low birth weight (LBW) is observed in rural compared with urban Indian women. Since maternal BMI is known to be associated with pregnancy outcomes, the present study aimed to investigate factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy of urban and rural South Indian women. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort. SETTING: A hospital-based study conducted at an urban and a rural health centre in Karnataka State...
February 5, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
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