keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Water pipe

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335539/abundance-of-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-virulence-associated-genes-in-well-and-borehole-water-used-for-domestic-purposes-in-a-peri-urban-community-of-south-africa
#1
Akebe Luther King Abia, Lisa Schaefer, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa, Wouter Le Roux
In the absence of pipe-borne water, many people in Africa, especially in rural communities, depend on alternative water sources such as wells, boreholes and rivers for household and personal hygiene. Poor maintenance and nearby pit latrines, however, lead to microbial pollution of these sources. We evaluated the abundance of Escherichia coli and the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli virulence genes in water from wells, boreholes and a river in a South African peri-urban community. Monthly samples were collected between August 2015 and November 2016...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329709/potential-impacts-of-changing-supply-water-quality-on-drinking-water-distribution-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Gang Liu, Ya Zhang, Willem-Jan Knibbe, Cuijie Feng, Wentso Liu, Gertjan Medema, Walter van der Meer
Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits...
March 19, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323469/social-and-built-environmental-correlates-of-predicted-blood-lead-levels-in-the-flint-water-crisis
#3
Richard Casey Sadler, Jenny LaChance, Mona Hanna-Attisha
OBJECTIVES: To highlight contextual factors tied to increased blood lead level (BLL) risk following the lead-in-water contamination in Flint, Michigan. METHODS: Using geocoded BLL data collected in 2013 and 2015 and areal interpolation, we predicted BLLs at every residential parcel in the city. We then spatially joined social and built environmental variables to link the parcels with neighborhood-level factors that may influence BLLs. RESULTS: When we compared levels before and during the water crisis, we saw the highest estimates of predicted BLLs during the water crisis and the greatest changes in BLLs in neighborhoods with the longest water residence time in pipes (μ = 2...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319720/expert-assessment-of-the-resilience-of-drinking-water-and-sanitation-systems-to-climate-related-hazards
#4
Jeanne Luh, Sarah Royster, Daniel Sebastian, Edema Ojomo, Jamie Bartram
We conducted an expert assessment to obtain expert opinions on the relative global resilience of ten drinking water and five sanitation technologies to the following six climate-related hazards: drought, decreased inter-annual precipitation, flood, superstorm flood, wind damage, and saline intrusion. Resilience scores ranged from 1.7 to 9.9 out of a maximum resilience of 10, with high scores corresponding to high resilience. We find that for some climate-related hazards, such as drought, technologies demonstrated a large range in resilience, indicating that the choice of water and sanitation technologies is important for areas prone to drought...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316609/shoot-and-root-traits-contribute-to-drought-resistance-in-recombinant-inbred-lines-of-md-23-24-%C3%A3-sea-5-of-common-bean
#5
Jose Polania, Idupulapati M Rao, Cesar Cajiao, Miguel Grajales, Mariela Rivera, Federico Velasquez, Bodo Raatz, Stephen E Beebe
Drought is the major abiotic stress factor limiting yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in smallholder systems in Latin America and eastern and southern Africa; where it is a main source of protein in the daily diet. Identification of shoot and root traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of designing bean genotypes adapted to drought. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia to determine the relationship between grain yield and different shoot and root traits using a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population (MD23-24 × SEA 5) of common bean...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314746/protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-stepped-wedge-trial-assessing-the-impact-of-a-community-level-hygiene-intervention-and-a-water-intervention-using-riverbank-filtration-technology-on-diarrhoeal-prevalence-in-india
#6
Sarah L McGuinness, Joanne E O'Toole, Thomas B Boving, Andrew B Forbes, Martha Sinclair, Sumit K Gautam, Karin Leder
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death globally, mostly occurring as a result of insufficient or unsafe water supplies, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. Our study aims to investigate the impact of a community-level hygiene education program and a water quality intervention using riverbank filtration (RBF) technology on diarrhoeal prevalence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We have designed a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial to estimate the health impacts of our intervention in 4 rural villages in Karnataka, India...
March 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282040/impact-of-water-heater-temperature-setting-and-water-use-frequency-on-the-building-plumbing-microbiome
#7
Pan Ji, William J Rhoads, Marc A Edwards, Amy Pruden
Hot water plumbing is an important conduit of microbes into the indoor environment and can increase risk of opportunistic pathogens (for example, Legionella pneumophila). We examined the combined effects of water heater temperature (39, 42, 48, 51 and 58 °C), pipe orientation (upward/downward), and water use frequency (21, 3 and 1 flush per week) on the microbial composition at the tap using a pilot-scale pipe rig. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing indicated that bulk water and corresponding biofilm typically had distinct taxonomic compositions (R(2)Adonis=0...
March 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279879/water-quality-effects-of-intermittent-water-supply-in-arraij%C3%A3-n-panama
#8
John J Erickson, Charlotte D Smith, Amador Goodridge, Kara L Nelson
Intermittent drinking water supply is common in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world and can cause water quality to degrade in the distribution system. In this study, we characterized water quality in one study zone with continuous supply and three zones with intermittent supply in the drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Low or zero pressures occurred in all zones, and negative pressures occurred in the continuous zone and two of the intermittent zones. Despite hydraulic conditions that created risks for backflow and contaminant intrusion, only four of 423 (0...
February 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270388/does-household-access-to-improved-water-and-sanitation-in-infancy-and-childhood-predict-better-vocabulary-test-performance-in-ethiopian-indian-peruvian-and-vietnamese-cohort-studies
#9
Kirk A Dearden, Alana T Brennan, Jere R Behrman, Whitney Schott, Benjamin T Crookston, Debbie L Humphries, Mary E Penny, Lia C H Fernald
OBJECTIVE: Test associations between household water and sanitation (W&S) and children's concurrent and subsequent Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) scores. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Ethiopia, India, Peru, Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: 7269 children. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: PPVT scores at 5 and 8 years. Key exposure variables were related to W&S, and collected at 1, 5 and 8 years, including 'improved' water (eg, piped, public tap or standpipe) and 'improved' toilets (eg, collection, storage, treatment and recycling of human excreta)...
March 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259435/monitoring-the-aftermath-of-flint-drinking-water-contamination-crisis-another-case-of-sampling-bias
#10
Pierre Goovaerts
The delay in reporting high levels of lead in Flint drinking water, following the city's switch to the Flint River as its water supply, was partially caused by the biased selection of sampling sites away from the lead pipe network. Since Flint returned to its pre-crisis source of drinking water, the State has been monitoring water lead levels (WLL) at selected "sentinel" sites. In a first phase that lasted two months, 739 residences were sampled, most of them bi-weekly, to determine the general health of the distribution system and to track temporal changes in lead levels...
March 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256469/epidemiological-investigation-of-an-outbreak-of-typhoid-fever-in-jorhat-town-of-assam-india
#11
Jashbeer Singh Roy, Lahari Saikia, Mithu Medhi, Dipak Tassa
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is a global health problem and is also endemic in India. An outbreak of fever occurred in January 2014 in Jorhat Town in Assam, India. Here we report the results of an investigation done to find out the aetiology and source of the outbreak. METHODS: The affected areas were visited on January 23, 2014 by a team of Jorhat district Integrated Disease Surveillance Project personnel. A total of 13 blood samples from patients with fever as first symptom and six water samples were collected from the affected areas...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253242/oral-cancer-risk-factors-in-new-zealand
#12
Muhammed Yakin, Ratu Osea Gavidi, Brian Cox, Alison Rich
Oral cancer constitutes the majority of head and neck cancers, which are the fifth most common malignancy worldwide, accounting for an estimated 984,430 cases in 2012. Between 2000 and 2010, there were 1,916 cases of OSCC in New Zealand with a male to female ratio of 1.85:1, and an age-standardised incidence rate of 42 persons per 1,000,000 population. This article presents an overview of the main risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and their prevalence in New Zealand. Alcohol consumption is the most prevalent risk factor in New Zealand, followed by tobacco...
March 3, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253085/water-pipe-shisha-hookah-arghile-smoking-and-secondhand-tobacco-smoke-effects-on-cyp1a2-and-cyp2a6-phenotypes-as-measured-by-caffeine-urine-test
#13
Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, Adrián Llerena, Fernando De Andrés, Ümit Karakaş, Hasan Gündoğar, Kamile Erciyas, Sabit Kimyon, Alper Mete, Kıvanç Güngör, Vural Özdemir
Public policies to stop or reduce cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke and associated diseases have yielded successful results over the past decade. Yet, the growing worldwide popularity of another form of tobacco consumption, water pipe smoking, has received relatively less attention. To the best of our knowledge, no study to date has evaluated the effects of water pipe smoking on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activities and drug interaction potential in humans, whereas only limited information is available on the impact of secondhand smoke on drug metabolism...
March 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245899/comparison-of-mineral-contents-in-three-different-tobacco-formulations
#14
Ikram Houas, Hassen Teyeb, Arancha Rochina-Marco, Wahiba Douki, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar, Lotfi Gaha, Maria Luisa Cervera, Miguel DE LA Guardia
We identified and quantified a variety of mineral elements in 18 tobacco samples purchased from a Tunisian market. In total, 25 mineral elements have been measured in cigarettes, water pipe tobacco, and smokeless tobacco using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy following microwave-assisted digestion. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSSTM, version 18.0. The lowest concentrations of all studied elements were observed in water pipe tobacco. Significantly higher concentrations of Al, Fe, Mg, Na, Ca, Cr, and Co were found in smokeless tobacco, while cigarettes brands contained the highest concentrations of K, Mn, Ni, Ba, and Sr...
January 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245471/water-pipe-smoke-exposure-induced-circulatory-disturbances-in-mice-and-the-influence-of-betaine-supplementation-thereon
#15
Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Abderrahim Oulhaj, Badreldin H Ali
BACKGROUND/AIMS: It has been shown, both experimentally and clinically, that water-pipe smoke (WPS) exposure adversely affects the cardiovascular system (CVS) through the generation of oxidative stress and inflammation. Betaine, a naturally occurring compound in common foods, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. However, its potential to mitigate the adverse effect of WPS on the CVS has never been reported before. This is the subject of this study in mice. METHODS: Mice were exposed daily for 30 min to either normal air (control), or to WPS for two consecutive weeks...
February 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235877/spread-from-the-sink-to-the-patient-in-situ-study-using-green-fluorescent-protein-gfp-expressing-escherichia-coli-to-model-bacterial-dispersion-from-hand-washing-sink-trap-reservoirs
#16
Shireen Kotay, Weidong Chai, William Guilford, Katie Barry, Amy J Mathers
There have been an increasing number of reports implicating Gammaproteobacteria often carrying genes of drug resistance from colonized sink traps to vulnerable hospitalized patients. However, the mechanism of transmission from the wastewater of the sink P-trap to patients remains poorly understood. Herein we report the use of a designated hand washing sink lab gallery to model dispersion of green fluorescent protein (GFP)- expressing Escherichia coli from sink wastewater to the surrounding environment. We found no dispersion of GFP-E...
February 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226251/effects-of-sulfate-on-heavy-metal-release-from-iron-corrosion-scales-in-drinking-water-distribution-system
#17
Huifang Sun, Baoyou Shi, Fan Yang, Dongsheng Wang
Trace heavy metals accumulated in iron corrosion scales within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) could potentially be released to bulk water and consequently deteriorate the tap water quality. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the release of trace heavy metals in DWDS under changing source water conditions. Experimental pipe loops with different iron corrosion scales were set up to simulate the actual DWDS. The effects of sulfate levels on heavy metal release were systemically investigated...
February 13, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222265/modeling-soluble-and-particulate-lead-release-into-drinking-water-from-full-and-partially-replaced-lead-service-lines
#18
Ahmed A Abokifa, Pratim Biswas
Partial replacement of lead service lines (LSLs) often results in the excessive long-term release of lead particulates due to the disturbance of pipe scale and galvanic corrosion. In this study, a modeling approach to simulate the release and transport of particulate and dissolved lead from full and partially replaced LSLs is developed. A mass-transfer model is coupled with a stochastic residential water demand generator to investigate the effect of normal household usage flow patterns on lead exposure. The model is calibrated by comparing simulation results against experimental measurements from pilot-scale setups where lead release under different flow rates and water chemistry scenarios was reported...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192349/development-of-a-model-for-activated-sludge-aeration-systems-linking-air-supply-distribution-and-demand
#19
Oliver Schraa, Leiv Rieger, Jens Alex
During the design of a water resource recovery facility, it is becoming industry practice to use simulation software to assist with process design. Aeration is one of the key components of the activated sludge process, and is one of the most important aspects of modelling wastewater treatment systems. However, aeration systems are typically not modelled in detail in most wastewater treatment process modelling studies. A comprehensive dynamic aeration system model has been developed that captures both air supply and demand...
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192345/towards-advanced-aeration-modelling-from-blower-to-bubbles-to-bulk
#20
Andreia Amaral, Oliver Schraa, Leiv Rieger, Sylvie Gillot, Yannick Fayolle, Giacomo Bellandi, Youri Amerlinck, Séverine T F C Mortier, Riccardo Gori, Ramiro Neves, Ingmar Nopens
Aeration is an essential component of aerobic biological wastewater treatment and is the largest energy consumer at most water resource recovery facilities. Most modelling studies neglect the inherent complexity of the aeration systems used. Typically, the blowers, air piping, and diffusers are not modelled in detail, completely mixed reactors in a series are used to represent plug-flow reactors, and empirical correlations are used to describe the impact of operating conditions on bubble formation and transport, and oxygen transfer from the bubbles to the bulk liquid...
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
keyword
keyword
81605
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"