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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898791/high-removal-of-effluent-borne-nitrogen-with-multiple-external-electron-donors-in-the-engineered-drainfield-of-an-advanced-septic-system
#1
Mriganka De, Gurpal S Toor
Septic systems can be a major source of nitrogen (N) in shallow groundwater. We designed an in situ engineered drainfield with aerobic-anaerobic (sand-woodchips) and anaerobic (elemental sulfur-oyster shell) media to remove N in the vadose zone and reduce N transport to groundwater. Effluent was dispersed on top of the engineered drainfield (3.72 m infiltrative surface) and then infiltrated through the aerobic-anaerobic and anaerobic media before reaching natural soil. Water samples were collected over 64 sampling events (May 2012-December 2013) from three parts of the drainfield: (i) a suction cup lysimeter installed at the sand-woodchips interface, (ii) a pipe after effluent passed through the aerobic-anaerobic media, and (iii) a tank containing anaerobic media...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883920/nano-exploration-of-organic-conditioning-film-formed-on-polymeric-surfaces-exposed-to-drinking-water
#2
Grégory Francius, Racha El Zein, Laurence Mathieu, Florence Gosselin, Armand Maul, Jean-Claude Block
Adsorption of organic macromolecules onto surfaces in contact with waters forms a so-called conditioning film and induces modifications of the surface properties. Here, we characterized conditioning films formed onto two hydrophobic materials (used as pipe liner) and immersed for 24 h in tap water. Using combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and chemical force microscopy (CFM), we detected some changes in roughness and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance of the surface of the tested coupons, and also the deposition of numerous organic polymers (few millions/cm(2)) randomly distributed on the surface...
November 14, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882278/heat-transfer-analysis-of-underground-u-type-heat-exchanger-of-ground-source-heat-pump-system
#3
Guihong Pei, Liyin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. METHODS: Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882202/computed-tomography-colonography-phantom-construction-validation-and-literature-review
#4
Lukas Lambert, Alena Lambertova, Jan Danes, Gabriela Grusova
BACKGROUND: Several dedicated computed tomography (CT) colonography phantoms have been described previously. OBJECTIVES: To compare their pros and cons and describe the construction of a dedicated phantom that can be easily manufactured. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We found 15 different phantom designs by literature search and compared their advantages and disadvantages based on their description and images. We tested various materials for density and mechanical properties and constructed a phantom from polypropylene pipes (30 mm and 50 mm in diameter, 52 cm in length)...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881883/aquatic-methane-dynamics-in-a-human-impacted-river-floodplain-of-the-danube
#5
Anna Katarzyna Sieczko, Katalin Demeter, Gabriel Andreas Singer, Michael Tritthart, Stefan Preiner, Magdalena Mayr, Karin Meisterl, Peter Peduzzi
River-floodplain systems are characterized by changing hydrological connectivity and variability of resources delivered to floodplain water bodies. Although the importance of hydrological events has been recognized, the effect of flooding on CH4 concentrations and emissions from European, human-impacted river-floodplains is largely unknown. This study evaluates aquatic concentrations and emissions of CH4 from a highly modified, yet partly restored river-floodplain system of the Danube near Vienna (Austria)...
November 2016: Limnology and Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869111/determination-of-genotoxic-effects-of-hookah-smoking-by-micronucleus-and-chromosome-aberration-methods
#6
Ebru Derici Eker, Hayri Koyuncu, Nefise Özlen Şahin, Altan Yüksel, Mehmet Berköz, Songul Budak Diler, Sema Altan Akgül
BACKGROUND Use of a hookah (a type of water pipe) is a traditional way of smoking tobacco, particularly in the Middle East. In Turkey, its popularity has been growing in recent years, especially among young people. It is known that cigarette smoking has genotoxic effects and causes mutations, but no comprehensive study has been done on the genotoxic effects of hookah usage, particularly in Turkey. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected peripheral blood/buccal smear samples from 30 subjects who did not smoke cigarettes but who regularly smoke a hookah an average of 2 times per week, and from 30 control subjects who had never smoked cigarettes or a hookah...
November 21, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866895/empty-niches-after-extinctions-increase-population-sizes-of-modern-corals
#7
Carlos Prada, Bishoy Hanna, Ann F Budd, Cheryl M Woodley, Jeremy Schmutz, Jane Grimwood, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, John M Pandolfi, Don Levitan, Kenneth G Johnson, Nancy Knowlton, Hiroaki Kitano, Michael DeGiorgio, Mónica Medina
Large environmental fluctuations often cause mass extinctions, extirpating species and transforming communities [1, 2]. While the effects on community structure are evident in the fossil record, demographic consequences for populations of individual species are harder to evaluate because fossils reveal relative, but not absolute, abundances. However, genomic analyses of living species that have survived a mass extinction event offer the potential for understanding the demographic effects of such environmental fluctuations on extant species...
November 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865434/potential-water-resource-impacts-of-hydraulic-fracturing-from-unconventional-oil-production-in-the-bakken-shale
#8
REVIEW
Namita Shrestha, Govinda Chilkoor, Joseph Wilder, Venkataramana Gadhamshetty, James J Stone
Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects...
November 4, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865123/decontamination-of-bacillus-spores-adhered-to-iron-and-cement-mortar-drinking-water-infrastructure-in-a-model-system-using-disinfectants
#9
Jeffrey G Szabo, Greg Meiners, Lee Heckman, Eugene W Rice, John Hall
Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to common drinking water infrastructure surfaces was evaluated using a variety of disinfectants. Corroded iron and cement-mortar lined iron represented the infrastructure surfaces, and were conditioned in a 23 m long, 15 cm diameter (75 ft long, 6 in diameter) pilot-scale drinking water distribution pipe system. Decontamination was evaluated using increased water velocity (flushing) alone at 0.5 m s(-1) (1.7 ft s(-1)), as well as free chlorine (5 and 25 mg L(-1)), monochloramine (25 mg L(-1)), chlorine dioxide (5 and 25 mg L(-1)), ozone (2...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857210/managing-peatland-vegetation-for-drinking-water-treatment
#10
Jonathan P Ritson, Michael Bell, Richard E Brazier, Emilie Grand-Clement, Nigel J D Graham, Chris Freeman, David Smith, Michael R Templeton, Joanna M Clark
Peatland ecosystem services include drinking water provision, flood mitigation, habitat provision and carbon sequestration. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal is a key treatment process for the supply of potable water downstream from peat-dominated catchments. A transition from peat-forming Sphagnum moss to vascular plants has been observed in peatlands degraded by (a) land management, (b) atmospheric deposition and (c) climate change. Here within we show that the presence of vascular plants with higher annual above-ground biomass production leads to a seasonal addition of labile plant material into the peatland ecosystem as litter recalcitrance is lower...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845476/are-liquids-an-efficient-vehicle-of-healthcare-associated-infections-a-review-of-reported-cases-in-italy-2000-2014
#11
D D'Alessandro, A Nusca, C Napoli
INTRODUCTION: In the field of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), one of the most reported, studied and discussed sources of infections is water, partly due to its controllability, but also because healthcare facilities, especially hospitals, require a significant quantity of water per day. In addition to water, during healthcare procedures, other liquids can serve as source of infections. The present study reports a review of those HCAIs associated to liquid vehicles occurred in Italy during the period 2000-2014...
November 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837574/there-is-no-safe-threshold-for-lead-exposure-%C3%AE-literature-review
#12
Th Vorvolakos, S Arseniou, M Samakouri
: Lead was one of the most dangerous environmental toxic substances for a long time in western countries, and this is still the case for many places on earth today. Its neurotoxic potential is highly significant but its secure blood level concentration remains unknown. The aim of this study was to approach the above issue from the perspective of social psychiatry. A systematic search was made of Dialog and Datastar interfaces for data regarding the neuropsychiatric complications of direct or chronic exposure to lead, and a review of the relevant literature was conducted using the databases Medline, Embase, CAB Global Health and Cochrane...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834889/access-to-drinking-water-and-sanitation-in-rural-kazakhstan
#13
Kamshat Tussupova, Peder Hjorth, Ronny Berndtsson
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require nations to ensure adequate water supply for all. For Kazakhstan, this means that rural areas will need much stronger attention as they have been rather neglected in efforts to comply with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This study aims to establish a baseline data concerning the current situation in villages that will need interventions according to the SDGs. The study was performed by means of questionnaires. The results should be seen as initial guidelines that can help to illuminate some of the uncounted challenges in future efforts to meet the SDG targets...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833834/leakage-diffusion-of-underwater-crude-oil-in-wind-fields
#14
Liqiong Chen, Qi Liu, Yunyun Li, Rui Lu, Shijuan Wu, Xin Li, Tao Hou
Leakage of underwater crude oil pipes causes severe pollution to soil and water, and results in great economic loss. To predict the diffusion area of spilled oil before it reaches the water's surface and to reduce the time required for emergency response, numerical simulations were conducted on underwater spilled oil diffusion of bare crude oil pipes using FLUENT software. The influences of water-surface wind speed, leakage hole diameter, water velocity, and initial leakage velocity on oil diffusion were analyzed...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830418/do-estrogenic-compounds-in-drinking-water-migrating-from-plastic-pipe-distribution-system-pose-adverse-effects-to-human-an-analysis-of-scientific-literature
#15
Ze-Hua Liu, Hua Yin, Zhi Dang
With the widespread application of plastic pipes in drinking water distribution system, the effects of various leachable organic chemicals have been investigated and their occurrence in drinking water supplies is monitored. Most studies focus on the odor problems these substances may cause. This study investigates the potential endocrine disrupting effects of the migrating compound 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (2,4-d-t-BP). The summarized results show that the migration of 2,4-d-t-BP from plastic pipes could result in chronic exposure and the migration levels varied greatly among different plastic pipe materials and manufacturing brands...
November 9, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825310/prevalence-characteristics-and-correlates-of-enteric-pathogenic-protozoa-in-drinking-water-sources-in-molyko-and-bomaka-cameroon-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Fuh Anold Nsoh, Buh Amos Wung, Julius Atashili, Pokam Thumamo Benjamin, Eba Marvlyn, Keumami Katte Ivo, Assob Jules Clément Nguedia
BACKGROUND: Access to potable water remains a major challenge particularly in resource-limited settings. Although the potential contaminants of water are varied, enteric pathogenic protozoa are known to cause waterborne diseases greatly. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Buea, Cameroon. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using 155 water samples collected from various drinking sources (boreholes, springs, taps and wells)...
November 8, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815848/annual-variations-and-effects-of-temperature-on-legionella-spp-and-other-potential-opportunistic-pathogens-in-a-bathroom
#17
Jingrang Lu, Helen Buse, Ian Struewing, Amy Zhao, Darren Lytle, Nicholas Ashbolt
Opportunistic pathogens (OPs) in drinking water, like Legionella spp., mycobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and free-living amobae (FLA) are a risk to human health, due to their post-treatment growth in water systems. To assess and manage these risks, it is necessary to understand their variations and environmental conditions for the water routinely used. We sampled premise tap (N cold = 26, N hot = 26) and shower (N shower = 26) waters in a bathroom and compared water temperatures to levels of OPs via qPCR and identified Legionella spp...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800445/dissemination-and-persistence-of-pseudomonas-spp-in-small-scale-dairy-farms
#18
Daniele Michele Nucera, Sara Lomonaco, Patrizia Morra, Marco Francesco Ortoffi, Daniele Giaccone, Maria Ausilia Grassi
This study was aimed at collecting data on presence, dissemination and persistence of Pseudomonas in small-scale dairy farms. Six farms (located in Piedmont) were visited three times over 2014: 116 waters (wells and different faucets/pipes) and 117 environmental samples (milking equipments and drains) were collected. Enumeration of Pseudomonadaceae was performed, 3-5 colonies/samples were selected for identification via 16SrDNA/oprI polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and typed by enterobacterial-repetitive-intergenic-consensus (ERIC)-PCR...
April 19, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798380/air-embolism-during-tevar-carbon-dioxide-flushing-decreases-the-amount-of-gas-released-from-thoracic-stent-grafts-during-deployment
#19
Fiona Rohlffs, Nikolaos Tsilimparis, Vasilis Saleptsis, Holger Diener, E Sebastian Debus, Tilo Kölbel
PURPOSE: To investigate the amount of gas released from Zenith thoracic stent-grafts using standard saline flushing vs the carbon dioxide flushing technique. METHODS: In an experimental bench setting, 20 thoracic stent-grafts were separated into 2 groups of 10 endografts. One group of grafts was flushed with 60 mL saline and the other group was flushed with carbon dioxide for 5 minutes followed by 60 mL saline. All grafts were deployed into a water-filled container with a curved plastic pipe; the deployment was recorded and released gas was measured using a calibrated setup...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798320/effects-of-hookah-smoking-on-indoor-air-quality-in-homes
#20
Michael Weitzman, Afzal Hussein Yusufali, Fatma Bali, M J Ruzmyn Vilcassim, Shashank Gandhi, Richard Peltier, Arthur Nadas, Scott Sherman, Lily Lee, Zhang Hong, Jenni Shearston, Su Hyun Park, Terry Gordon
INTRODUCTION: Hookahs (water pipes) are rapidly increasing in popularity worldwide. Evidence suggests that although perceived as safer than cigarette smoke, hookah smoke may be as, or even more, dangerous as cigarette smoke. METHODS: Air samples from 33 homes-11 where only hookah-smoking occurred, 12 with only cigarettes and 10 with no smoking-were collected to analyse concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, elemental and organic carbon and carbon monoxide (CO)...
October 26, 2016: Tobacco Control
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