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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143849/water-system-unreliability-and-diarrhea-incidence-among-children-in-guatemala
#1
Jennifer Trudeau, Anna-Maria Aksan, William F Vásquez
OBJECTIVES: This article examines the effect of water system unreliability on diarrhea incidence among children aged 0-5 in Guatemala. METHODS: We use secondary data from a nationally representative sample of 7579 children to estimate the effects of uninterrupted and interrupted water services on diarrhea incidence. The national scope of this study imposes some methodological challenges due to unobserved geographical heterogeneity. To address this issue, we estimate mixed-effects logit models that control for unobserved heterogeneity by estimating random effects of selected covariates that can vary across geographical areas (i...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129463/patterns-of-e-cigarette-use-frequency-national-adult-tobacco-survey-2012-2014
#2
Saida R Sharapova, Tushar Singh, Israel T Agaku, Sara M Kennedy, Brian A King
INTRODUCTION: Accounting for occasional or intermittent e-cigarette use has yielded higher estimates of current use among U.S. adults. However, frequency of e-cigarette use by population subgroups is not well described. This study assessed e-cigarette use frequency by sociodemographic characteristics and other tobacco product use among U.S. adults. METHODS: This study analyzed combined data from the 2012-2013 (n=60,192) and 2013-2014 (n=75,233) National Adult Tobacco Survey, a telephone-based survey of U...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124390/the-liebau-phenomenon-a-translational-approach-to-new-paradigms-of-csf-circulation-and-related-flow-disturbances
#3
Pierluigi Longatti
PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to provide a comparison between Liebau's effect, underlying the working principles of impedance pumps, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. METHODS: Gerhard Liebau was a cardiologist with a specific interest in severe aortic regurgitation. Such interest drew his scientific attention to the flow-driven efficiency of valveless pumps. During one of his experiments, he assembled two rubber tubes of different sizes and documented how water could be aspirated against gravity when the tube of larger diameter underwent rhythmic compression...
November 9, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121001/tobacco-product-use-among-adults-united-states-2015
#4
Elyse Phillips, Teresa W Wang, Corinne G Husten, Catherine G Corey, Benjamin J Apelberg, Ahmed Jamal, David M Homa, Brian A King
Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States (1). Despite declining cigarette smoking prevalence among U.S. adults, shifts in the tobacco product landscape have occurred in recent years (2,3). Previous estimates of tobacco product use among U.S. adults were obtained from the National Adult Tobacco Survey, which ended after the 2013-2014 cycle. This year, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assessed the most recent national estimates of tobacco product use among adults aged ≥18 years using, for the first time, data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an annual, nationally representative, in-person survey of the noninstitutionalized U...
November 10, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111400/comparison-of-biofilm-cell-quantification-methods-for-drinking-water-distribution-systems
#5
Sharon A Waller, Aaron I Packman, Martina Hausner
Drinking water quality typically degrades after treatment during conveyance through the distribution system. Potential causes include biofilm growth in distribution pipes which may result in pathogen retention, inhibited disinfectant diffusion, and proliferation of bad tastes and odors. However, there is no standard method for direct measurement of biofilms or quantification of biofilm cells in drinking water distribution systems. Three methods are compared here for quantification of biofilm cells grown in pipe loops samplers: biofilm heterotrophic plate count (HPC), biofilm biovolume by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and biofilm total cell count by flow cytometry (FCM) paired with Syto 9...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104562/partitioning-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-fecal-indicators-varies-intra-and-inter-storm-during-combined-sewer-overflows
#6
Alessia Eramo, Hannah Delos Reyes, Nicole L Fahrenfeld
Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) degrade water quality through the release of microbial contaminants in CSO effluent. Improved understanding of the partitioning of microbial contaminants onto settleable particles can provide insight into their fate in end-of-pipe treatment systems or following release during CSO events. Sampling was performed across the hydrograph for three storm events as well as during baseflow and wet weather in three surface waters impacted by CSO. qPCR was performed for select antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and a marker gene for human fecal indicator organisms (BacHum) in samples processed the partitioning of microbial contaminants on settleable particles versus suspended in the aqueous phase...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103396/prevalence-risk-factors-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-diarrhoeal-infection-among-children-in-thi-qar-governorate-iraq
#7
A Harb, M O'Dea, Z K Hanan, S Abraham, I Habib
We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study among children aged <5 years in Thi-Qar Governorate, south-eastern Iraq, in order to examine the prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance associated with gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella infection. From 320 diarrhoea cases enrolled between March and August 2016, 33 (10·3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8·4-12·4) cases were stool culture-positive for non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica. The most commonly identified serovar was Typhimurium (54%)...
November 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102695/modeling-sewage-leakage-and-transport-in-carbonate-aquifer-using-carbamazepine-as-an-indicator
#8
Noam Zach Dvory, Michael Kuznetsov, Yakov Livshitz, Guy Gasser, Irena Pankratov, Ovadia Lev, Eilon Adar, Alexander Yakirevich
The Western Mountain Aquifer (Yarkon-Taninim) of Israel is one of the country's major water resources and partially flows through a karst system. During late winter 2013, maintenance actions were performed on a central sewage pipe that caused sewage to leak into the creek located in the study area. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was used as an indicator for the presence of sewage in the groundwater. The research goal was to develop a mathematical model for quantifying flow and contaminant transport processes in the karst/fractured-porous unsaturated zone and groundwater system...
October 31, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095605/mimicking-and-inhibiting-urea-hydrolysis-in-nonwater-urinals
#9
Daniella Saetta, Treavor H Boyer
Nonwater urinals are critical in the implementation of building-scale water conservation and urine diversion systems. However, due to the composition of urine and the prevalence of the urease enzyme that hydrolyzes urea, minerals readily precipitate in nonwater urinals and pipes. This leads to clogging, malodor, and possible replacement of nonwater urinals with flush urinals. Accordingly, the goal of this research was to provide an improved understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in nonwater urinals to benefit water conservation and phosphate recovery efforts...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093578/deteriorations-of-pulmonary-function-elevated-carbon-monoxide-levels-and-increased-oxidative-stress-amongst-water-pipe-smokers
#10
Funda Karaduman Yalcin, Mukremin Er, H Canan Hasanoglu, Hatice Kilic, Aysegul Senturk, Aysegul Karalezli, Merve Ergin, Ozcan Erel
OBJECTIVES: A water pipe (hookah) is a tobacco smoking tool which is thought to be more harmless than a cigarette, and there are no adequate studies about its hazards to health. Water-pipe smoking is threatening health of the youth in the world today. The objective of this study has been to investigate the carbon monoxide (CO) levels in breath, examine the changes in pulmonary function tests (PFT) and to assess the change of the oxidative stress parameters in blood after smoking a water pipe...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079084/reasserting-the-primacy-of-human-needs-to-reclaim-the-lost-half-of-sustainable-development
#11
Mark Everard, James W S Longhurst
The concept of sustainable development evolved from growing awareness of the interdependence of social and economic progress with the limits of the supporting natural environment, becoming progressively integrated into global agreements and transposition into local regulatory and implementation frameworks. We argue that transposition of the concept into regulation and supporting tools reduced the focus to minimal environmental and social standards, perceived as imposing constraints rather than opportunities for innovation to meet human needs...
October 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072865/tobacco-use-among-working-adults-united-states-2014-2016
#12
Girija Syamlal, Brian A King, Jacek M Mazurek
Cigarette smoking has declined considerably among U.S. adults over several decades (1); however, increases have occurred in the use of noncigarette tobacco products in recent years, and the use of multiple tobacco products has become common among current users of noncigarette tobacco products (2,3). Differences in tobacco use have also been observed across population subgroups, including among working adults (2,4). CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 2014-2016 to describe the most recent prevalence estimates of current (every day or some days) tobacco product use among working U...
October 27, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072631/opportunistic-pathogens-and-microbial-communities-and-their-associations-with-sediment-physical-parameters-in-drinking-water-storage-tank-sediments
#13
Ke Qin, Ian Struewing, Jorge Santo Domingo, Darren Lytle, Jingrang Lu
The occurrence and densities of opportunistic pathogens (OPs), the microbial community structure, and their associations with sediment elements from eight water storage tanks in Ohio, West Virginia, and Texas were investigated. The elemental composition of sediments was measured through X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. The occurrence and densities of OPs and amoeba hosts (i.e., Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila, Mycobacterium spp., P. aeruginosa, V. vermiformis, Acanthamoeba spp.) were determined using genus- or species-specific qPCR assays...
October 26, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065112/analytical-equation-for-outflow-along-the-flow-in-a-perforated-fluid-distribution-pipe
#14
Huanfang Liu, Quanli Zong, Hongxing Lv, Jin Jin
Perforated fluid distribution pipes have been widely used in agriculture, water supply and drainage, ventilation, the chemical industry, and other sectors. The momentum equation for variable mass flow with a variable exchange coefficient and variable friction coefficient was developed by using the momentum conservation method under the condition of a certain slope. The change laws of the variable momentum exchange coefficient and the variable resistance coefficient along the flow were analyzed, and the function of the momentum exchange coefficient was given...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047063/life-cycle-impacts-of-shower-water-waste-heat-recovery-case-study-of-an-installation-at-a-university-sport-facility-in-the-uk
#15
Kenneth Ip, Kaiming She, Kemi Adeyeye
Recovering heat from waste water discharged from showers to preheat the incoming cold water has been promoted as a cost-effective, energy-efficient, and low-carbon design option which has been included in the UK's Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) for demonstrating compliance with the Building Regulation for dwellings. Incentivized by its carbon cost-effectiveness, waste water heat exchangers (WWHX) have been selected and incorporated in a newly constructed Sports Pavilion at the University of Brighton in the UK...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040082/determinants-of-the-use-of-alternatives-to-arsenic-contaminated-shallow-groundwater-an-exploratory-study-in-rural-west-bengal-india
#16
Caroline Delaire, Abhijit Das, Susan Amrose, Ashok Gadgil, Joyashree Roy, Isha Ray
Shallow groundwater containing toxic concentrations of arsenic is the primary source of drinking water for millions of households in rural West Bengal, India. Often, this water also contains unpleasant levels of iron and non-negligible fecal contamination. Alternatives to shallow groundwater are increasingly available, including government-built deep tubewells, water purchased from independent providers, municipal piped water, and household filters. We conducted a survey of 501 households in Murshidabad district in 2014 to explore what influenced the use of available alternatives...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028471/water-safety-and-lead-regulation-physicians-community-health-responsibilities
#17
Bruce Jennings, Leslie Lyons Duncan
This article reviews the regulation of lead in drinking water, highlighting its epidemiological, engineering, and ethical aspects with a focus on the Flint water crisis. We first discuss water quality policy and its implementation with a focus on lead contamination of water, primarily from pipe systems between a water treatment facility and a tap. We then discuss physicians' roles and ethical responsibilities regarding safe drinking water using a human rights framework. We argue that physicians can play an important role in safeguarding drinking water in their communities by being vigilant, honoring the community's trust in them, and warning, educating, and empowering patients and broader communities so as to protect tap water safety and public health...
October 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022679/brand-awareness-and-access-to-cigarettes-among-children-8-12-years-old-in-the-czech-republic
#18
Jarmila Kučerová, Jiří Rameš, Keely Fraser, Eva Králíková
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to assess smoking behaviour, knowledge of cigarette brands and access to cigarettes among children 8-12 years old in the Czech Republic. METHOD: Between 2009 and 2012, a cross sectional survey was conducted among 4,439 children aged 8-12 years attending 51 primary schools in Prague and Central Bohemia, Czech Republic. Data including age, gender, ever smoking, parental and sibling smoking, knowledge of cigarette brands, sources of cigarettes, and smoking frequency were collected...
September 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022243/pyrosequencing-analysis-of-source-water-switch-and-sulfate-induced-bacterial-community-transformation-in-simulated-drinking-water-distribution-pipes
#19
Fan Yang, Baoyou Shi, Weiyu Zhang, Jing Cui, Jianbo Guo, Dongsheng Wang, Nan Wu, Xinyuan Liu
Inter-basin water transfer and source water switching will be increasingly launched due to significant population increase and the shortage of the local water resources in cities around the world. Source water switch may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms, and loose deposits in drinking water distribution system (DWDS). Great sulfate alteration during source water switch had been deemed as the main cause of a red water case that occurred in a northern China city...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994808/study-of-siphon-breaker-experiment-and-simulation-for-a-research-reactor
#20
Kwon-Yeong Lee, Wan-Soo Kim
Under the design conditions of a research reactor, the siphon phenomenon induced by pipe rupture can cause continuous outward flow of water. To prevent this outflow, a control device is required. A siphon breaker is a type of safety device that can be utilized to control the loss of coolant water effectively. To analyze the characteristics of siphon breaking, a real-scale experiment was conducted. From the results of the experiment, it was found that there are several design factors that affect the siphon breaking phenomenon...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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