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Water pipe

Razieh Zahedi, Alireza Noroozi, Ahmad Hajebi, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Hamid Sharifi, Ali Mirzazadeh
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of substance use among university students measured by direct and indirect methods, and to calculate the visibility factor (VF) defined as ratio of indirect to direct estimates of substance use prevalence. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: Using a multistage non-random sampling approach, we recruited 2157 students from three universities in Kerman, Iran, in 2016. We collected data on substance use by individual face-to-face interview using direct (i...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
Manuchehr Aminian, Francesca Bernardi, Roberto Camassa, Daniel M Harris, Richard M McLaughlin
A simple method to experimentally observe and measure the dispersion of a passive tracer in a laminar fluid flow is described. The method consists of first injecting fluorescent dye directly into a pipe filled with distilled water and allowing it to diffuse across the cross-section of the pipe to obtain a uniformly distributed initial condition. Following this period, the laminar flow is activated with a programmable syringe pump to observe the competition of advection and diffusion of the tracer through the pipe...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mohammad Hoseini, Ramin Nabizadeh, Juana Maria Delgado-Saborit, Ata Rafiee, Kamyar Yaghmaeian, Saeid Parmy, Sasan Faridi, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Masud Yunesian, Kazem Naddafi
The aim of this study was to investigate environmental and lifestyle factors affecting exposure to PAHs in the general population in a large city of the Middle East (Tehran) by measuring urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and establishing relationships between PAHs exposure and related factors. Urine samples were collected from 222 randomly chosen subjects who were living in the urban area of Tehran, Iran. Subjects were required to complete a detailed questionnaire aimed to document their personal and sociodemographic information, activities, cooking-related appliances, smoking history/exposure, and consumed foodstuff...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
David D J Taylor, Alexander H Slocum, Andrew J Whittle
Intermittent water supplies (IWS) deliver piped water to one billion people; this water is often microbially contaminated. Contaminants that accumulate while IWS are depressurized are flushed into customers' homes when these systems become pressurized. In addition, during the steady-state phase of IWS, contaminants from higher-pressure sources (e.g., sewers) may continue to intrude where pipe pressure is low. To guide the operation and improvement of IWS, this paper proposes an analytic model relating supply pressure, supply duration, leakage, and the volume of intruded, potentially-contaminated, fluids present during flushing and steady-state...
2018: PloS One
Hua Jin, Yi Guo, Hongkai Deng, Xin Qi, Jinpeng Gui
Ground source heat pump (GSHP) system has been installed as the air-conditioning system worldwide due to it has the characteristics of high efficiency, easy access and environmental protection. Since ground heat exchanger (GHE) plays a key role in the performance of GSHPs, many models of GHE have been proposed to simulate temperature distribution around the borehole. However, most of these models depict only the heat conduction process between buried pipes and surrounding soil based on the line source model or cylindrical source model...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adam Fershtman, Dvora Barnea, Lev Shemer
This manuscript provides step by step description of the manufacturing process of a test section designed to measure the local instantaneous heat transfer coefficient as a function of the liquid flow rate in a transparent pipe. With certain amendments, the approach is extended to gas-liquid flows, with a particular emphasis on the effect of a single elongated (Taylor) air bubble on heat transfer enhancement. A non-invasive thermography technique is applied to measure the instantaneous temperature of a thin metal foil heated electrically...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yingying Zhao, Y Jeffrey Yang, Yu Shao, Jill Neal, Tuqiao Zhang
Simultaneous chlorine decay and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation have been discussed extensively because of their regulatory and operational significance. This study further examines chemical reaction variability in the water quality changes under various hydrodynamic conditions in drinking water distribution. The variations of kinetic constant for overall chlorine decay (kE ) and trihalomethane (THM) formation were determined under stagnant to turbulent flows using three devices of different wall demand and two types of natural organic matters (NOM) in water...
April 27, 2018: Water Research
Marie Reine Ayoub, Pauline Larrouy-Maestri, Dominique Morsomme
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the impact of smoking on voice acoustics. Some studies have found that tobacco affects the fundamental frequency of the voice, whereas others have not. This study aimed to overcome the major methodological limitations observed in previous studies by strictly controlling several variables that could clarify the effect of smoking on the speaking voice. METHODS: Lebanese men were chosen for this study. Thirty nonsmokers, 30 cigarette smokers, and 30 water-pipe smokers were matched on the basis of age, height, and weight...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Sung-Min Kim, Yosoon Choi
Cessation of dewatering following underground mine closure typically results in groundwater rebound, because mine voids and surrounding strata undergo flooding up to the levels of the decant points, such as shafts and drifts. SIMPL (Simplified groundwater program In Mine workings using the Pipe equation and Lumped parameter model), a simplified lumped parameter model-based program for predicting groundwater levels in abandoned mines, is presented herein. The program comprises a simulation engine module, 3D visualization module, and graphical user interface, which aids data processing, analysis, and visualization of results...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tori Klug, Ryan Cronk, Katherine F Shields, Jamie Bartram
In rural sub-Saharan Africa, one in three handpumps are non-functional at any time. While there is some evidence describing factors associated with non-functional water systems, there is little evidence describing the categories of water system breakdowns that commonly occur. Insufficient water availability from broken down systems can force people to use unimproved water sources, which undermines the health benefits of an improved water source. We categorized common water system breakdowns using quantitative and qualitative monitoring data from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda (each N>3600 water systems) and examined how breakdown category varies by water system type and management characteristics...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Marta Pogorzelec, Katarzyna Piekarska
The primary goal of the presented study was the investigation of occurrence and concentration of sixteen selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from various stages of water treatment and verification of the applicability of semi-permeable membrane devices in the monitoring of drinking water. Another objective was to verify if weather seasons affect the concentration and complexity of PAHs. For these purposes, semipermeable membrane devices were installed in a surface water treatment plant located in Lower Silesia (Poland)...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Cunlong Yu, Chuxin Li, Can Gao, Zhichao Dong, Lei Wu, Lei Jiang
Liquid drops impacting on a solid surface is a familiar phenomenon. On rainy days, it is quite important for leaves to drain off impacting raindrops. Water can bounce off or flow down a water-repellent leaf easily, but with difficulty on a hydrophilic leaf. Here, we show an interesting phenomenon in which impacting drops on the hydrophilic pitcher rim of Nepenthes alata can spread outward to prohibit water filling the pitcher tank. We mimic the peristome surface through a designed 3D printing and replicating way and report a time-dependently switchable liquid transport based on biomimetic topological structures, where surface curvature can work synergistically with the surface microtextures to manipulate the switchable spreading performance...
May 2, 2018: ACS Nano
Hussain A Isma'eel, Mohamad M Almedawar, Juliana Breidy, Mona Nasrallah, Nancy Nakhoul, Youssef Mouneimne, Lara Nasreddine, Nathalie Khoueiry-Zgheib, Mohamad Abiad, Hani Tamim
BACKGROUND: Lebanon has no established governmental noncommunicable diseases surveillance and monitoring system to permit reporting on noncommunicable diseases rates. The last World Health Organization-supported surveillance report showed worrying trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. OBJECTIVES: A cardiovascular cohort was established to permit CVD outcomes studies in an urban sample in the Lebanese capital and the study in hand presents the baseline CVD risk factors of this cohort...
April 28, 2018: Global Heart
Karen L Johnson, Clare M McCann, John-Luke Wilkinson, Matt Jones, Bradley M Tebo, Martin West, Christine Elgy, Catherine E Clarke, Claire Gowdy, Karen A Hudson-Edwards
Dissolved Mn(III) has been identified at all stages throughout a Water Treatment Works (WTW) receiving inflow from a peaty upland catchment in NE England. Ninety percent of the influent total manganese into the WTW is particulate Mn, in the form of Mn oxide (>0.2 μm). Approximately 9% (mean value, n = 22, range of 0-100%) of the dissolved (<0.2 μm) influent Mn is present as dissolved Mn(III). Mn(III) concentrations are highest (mean of 49% of total dissolved Mn; n = 26, range of 17-89%) within the WTW where water comes into contact with the organic-rich sludges which are produced as waste products in the WTW...
April 17, 2018: Water Research
Mustafa Sikder, Umar Daraz, Daniele Lantagne, Roberto Saltori
Background: Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immediate priorities for human survival and dignity in emergencies. In 2010, > 90% of Syrians had access to improved drinking water. In 2011, armed conflict began and currently 12 million people need WASH services. We analyzed data collected in southern Syria to identify effective WASH response activities for this context. Methods: Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in 17 sub-districts of two governorates in opposition controlled southern Syria...
2018: Conflict and Health
A A Aguilar-Arevalo, B C Brown, L Bugel, G Cheng, E D Church, J M Conrad, R L Cooper, R Dharmapalan, Z Djurcic, D A Finley, R S Fitzpatrick, R Ford, F G Garcia, G T Garvey, J Grange, W Huelsnitz, C Ignarra, R Imlay, R A Johnson, J R Jordan, G Karagiorgi, T Katori, T Kobilarcik, W C Louis, K Mahn, C Mariani, W Marsh, G B Mills, J Mirabal, C D Moore, J Mousseau, P Nienaber, B Osmanov, Z Pavlovic, D Perevalov, H Ray, B P Roe, A D Russell, M H Shaevitz, J Spitz, I Stancu, R Tayloe, R T Thornton, R G Van de Water, M O Wascko, D H White, D A Wickremasinghe, G P Zeller, E D Zimmerman
We report the first measurement of monoenergetic muon neutrino charged current interactions. MiniBooNE has isolated 236 MeV muon neutrino events originating from charged kaon decay at rest (K^{+}→μ^{+}ν_{μ}) at the NuMI beamline absorber. These signal ν_{μ}-carbon events are distinguished from primarily pion decay in flight ν_{μ} and ν[over ¯]_{μ} backgrounds produced at the target station and decay pipe using their arrival time and reconstructed muon energy. The significance of the signal observation is at the 3...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Priya Yuvaraju, Sumaya Beegam, Badreldin H Ali
Water pipe smoking is a tobacco smoking method commonly used in Eastern countries and is gaining popularity in Europe and North America, in particular among adolescents and young adults. Several clinical and experimental studies have reported that exposure to water pipe smoke (WPS) induces lung inflammation and impairment of pulmonary function. However, the mechanisms of such effects are not understood, as are data on the possible palliative effect of exercise training. The present study evaluated the effects of regular aerobic exercise training (treadmill: 5 days/week, 40 min/day) on subchronic exposure to WPS (30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 2 months)...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Catherine A Lippi, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra, Ángel G Muñoz, Mercy J Borbor-Cordova, Raúl Mejía, Keytia Rivero, Katty Castillo, Washington B Cárdenas, Sadie J Ryan
Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne arbovirus, is a major public health concern in Ecuador. In this study, we aimed to describe the spatial distribution of dengue risk and identify local social-ecological factors associated with an outbreak of dengue fever in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. We examined georeferenced dengue cases ( n = 4248) and block-level census data variables to identify social-ecological risk factors associated with the presence/absence and burden of dengue in Guayaquil in 2012. Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA), specifically Anselin&rsquo;s Local Moran&rsquo;s I, and Moran&rsquo;s I tests were used to locate hotspots of dengue transmission, and multimodel selection was used to identify covariates associated with dengue presence and burden at the census block level...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jeffrey Szabo, John Hall, Steve Reese, Jim Goodrich, Sri Panguluri, Greg Meiners, Hiba Ernst
The EPA's Water Security Test Bed (WSTB) facility is a full-scale representation of a drinking water distribution system. In collaboration with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), EPA designed the WSTB facility to support full-scale evaluations of water infrastructure decontamination, real-time sensors, mobile water treatment systems, and decontamination of premise plumbing and appliances. The EPA research focused on decontamination of 1) Bacillus globigii (BG) spores, a non-pathogenic surrogate for Bacillus anthracis and 2) Bakken crude oil...
March 20, 2018: Journal—American Water Works Association
Changyoon Baek, Hyun Jin Yoo, Won-Nyoung Lee, Minho Lee, Junhong Min
Natural organic matter (NOM) is known to cause major problems with drinking water quality management, such as sedimentation of disinfectants during the purification process, microbial growth of water pipes, and corrosion of pipes. For efficient and continuous removal of NOM from drinking water, a packed bed-type platform containing microbeads based on nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) was developed. ZnO was synthesized on graphene oxide (GO)-coated microbeads by optimizing the ZnO concentration and reaction time...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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