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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523209/using-online-respondent-driven-sampling-for-vietnamese-youths-alcohol-use-and-associated-risk-factors
#1
Melvyn W B Zhang, Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Nguyen Hoang Long, Huong Thi Le, Nguyen Duc Hinh, Tran Dinh Tho, Bao Nguyen Le, Vu Thi Minh Thuc, Chau Ngo, Nguyen Huu Tu, Carl A Latkin, Roger Cm Ho
OBJECTIVES: The average alcohol consumption per capita among Vietnamese adults has consistently increased. Although alcohol-related disorders have been extensively studied, there is a paucity of research shedding light on this issue among Internet users. The study aimed to examine the severity of alcohol-related disorders and other associated factors that might predispose individuals towards alcohol usage in a sample of youths recruited online. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,080 Vietnamese youths...
April 2017: Healthcare Informatics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522563/biomarkers-of-exposure-to-new-and-emerging-tobacco-and-nicotine-delivery-products
#2
Suzaynn F Schick, Benjamin C Blount, Peyton Jacob, Najat A Saliba, John T Bernert, Ahmad El Hellani, Peter Jatlow, R Steve Pappas, Lanqing Wang, Jonathan Foulds, Arunava Ghosh, Stephen S Hecht, John C Gomez, Jessica R Martin, Clementina Mesaros, Sanjay Srivastava, Gideon St Helen, Robert Tarran, Pawel K Lorkiewicz, Ian A Blair, Heather L Kimmel, Claire M Doerschuk, Neal L Benowitz, Aruni Bhatnagar
Accurate and reliable measurements of exposure to tobacco products are essential for identifying and confirming patterns of tobacco product use and for assessing their potential biological effects in both human populations and experimental systems. Due to the introduction of new tobacco-derived products and the development of novel ways to modify and use conventional tobacco products, precise and specific assessments of exposure to tobacco are now more important than ever. Biomarkers that were developed and validated to measure exposure to cigarettes are being evaluated to assess their utility for measuring exposure to these new products...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521045/effects-of-ambient-temperature-and-water-vapor-on-chamber-pressure-and-oxygen-level-during-low-atmospheric-pressure-stunning-of-poultry
#3
Paul H Holloway, David G Pritchard
The characteristics of the vacuum used in a low atmospheric pressure stunning system to stun (render unconscious) poultry prior to slaughter are described. A vacuum chamber is pumped by a wet screw compressor. The vacuum pressure is reduced from ambient atmospheric pressure to an absolute vacuum pressure of ∼250 Torr (∼33 kPa) in ∼67 sec with the vacuum gate valve fully open. At ∼250 Torr, the sliding gate valve is partially closed to reduce effective pumping speed, resulting in a slower rate of decreasing pressure...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520397/laser-induced-graphene-layers-and-electrodes-prevents-microbial-fouling-and-exerts-antimicrobial-action
#4
Swatantra P Singh, Yilun Li, Avraham Be'er, Yoram Oren, James M Tour, Christopher J Arnusch
Prevention of fouling on surfaces is a major challenge that broadly impacts society. Water treatment technologies, hospital infrastructure, and seawater pipes exemplify surfaces that are susceptible to biofouling. Here we show that laser-induced graphene (LIG) printed on a polyimide film by irradiation with a CO2 infrared laser under ambient conditions is extremely biofilm resistant while as an electrode is strongly antibacterial. We investigated the antibacterial activity of the LIG surface using LIG powder in suspension or deposited on surfaces, and its activity depended on the particle size and oxygen content...
May 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513143/interactive-effects-of-corrosion-copper-and-chloramines-on-legionella-and-mycobacteria-in-hot-water-plumbing
#5
William J Rhoads, Amy Pruden, Marc A Edwards
Complexities associated with drinking water plumbing systems can result in undesirable interactions among plumbing components, undermining engineering controls for opportunistic pathogens (OPs). In this study, we examine the effects of plumbing system materials and two commonly applied disinfectants, copper and chloramines, on water chemistry and the growth of Legionella and mycobacteria across a transect of bench- and pilot-scale hot water experiments carried out with the same municipal water supply. We discovered that copper released from corrosion of plumbing materials can initiate evolution of >1,100 times more hydrogen (H2) from water heater sacrificial anode rods than does presence of copper dosed as soluble cupric ions...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510465/cigarette-and-water-pipe-use-in-iran-geographical-distribution-and-time-trends-among-the-adult-population-a-pooled-analysis-of-national-steps-surveys-2006-2009
#6
Saeed Nemati, Ali Rafei, Neal D Freedman, Akbar Fotouhi, Fereshteh Asgary, Kazem Zendehdel
OBJECTIVE: To assess the geographical distribution and time trends of manufactured cigarette and water-pipe use among Iranian adult population. METHOD: Pooled data from four consecutive nationally and provincially representative STEPS surveys, 2006-2009, were analyzed. Prevalence of current daily manufactured cigarette smokers, current daily water-pipe and current daily dual users and associated 95%CIs were estimated using complex sample analysis techniques. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of current daily tobacco use, including cigarette and water-pipe, was estimated 23...
May 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502052/variation-of-microbial-communities-and-functional-genes-during-the-biofilm-formation-in-raw-water-distribution-systems-and-associated-effects-on-the-transformation-of-nitrogen-pollutants
#7
Wei Chen, Yanmei Gu, Hang Xu, Zhigang Liu, Chunhui Lu, Chenshuo Lin
This study aimed to investigate the variation of microbial communities and functional genes during the biofilm formation in raw water distribution systems without prechlorination and associated effects on the transformation of nitrogen pollutants by using a designed model pipe system. The results showed the transformation of nitrogen pollutants was obvious during the biofilm formation. The richness and diversity of the microbial communities changed significantly. The higher abundance of Nitrospirae in biofilm samples significantly contributed to biological nitrification...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498484/sinkholes-due-to-groundwater-withdrawal-in-tazerbo-wellfield-se-libya
#8
Nawal Alfarrah, Gebremedhin Berhane, Abdelrahim Hweesh, Kristine Walraevens
The desert of eastern Libya forms one of the most arid regions of the Sahara. The Great Man-Made River Project (GMRP) was established. It transports millions of cubic meters of water a day from desert wellfields to the coastal cities, where over 80% of the population lives. The Tazerbo Wellfield is one of the wellfields designed within the GMRP, delivering water to the eastern coast of Libya through an underground pipe network. Tazerbo Wellfield consists of 108 production wells; each well was designed to pump 100 L/s...
May 12, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482301/effects-of-inequality-of-supply-hours-on-consumers-coping-strategies-and-perceptions-of-intermittent-water-supply-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#9
B Guragai, S Takizawa, T Hashimoto, K Oguma
To investigate the effects of unequal supply hours on consumers' coping strategies and perceptions of the intermittent water supply (IWS) in the Kathmandu Valley (KV), Nepal we conducted a randomized household survey (n=369) and on-site water quality tests. Half of the households received piped water for 6 or fewer hours per week. To augment or cope with the inadequate supply, 28% of the households used highly contaminated and expensive tanker-delivered water. Half of the piped water samples (n=13) were contaminated with Escherichia coli...
May 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481881/comparing-multi-criteria-decision-analysis-and-integrated-assessment-to-support-long-term-water-supply-planning
#10
Lisa Scholten, Max Maurer, Judit Lienert
We compare the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)-or more precisely, models used in multi-attribute value theory (MAVT)-to integrated assessment (IA) models for supporting long-term water supply planning in a small town case study in Switzerland. They are used to evaluate thirteen system scale water supply alternatives in four future scenarios regarding forty-four objectives, covering technical, social, environmental, and economic aspects. The alternatives encompass both conventional and unconventional solutions and differ regarding technical, spatial and organizational characteristics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481308/a-dual-conductance-sensor-for-simultaneous-measurement-of-void-fraction-and-structure-velocity-of-downward-two-phase-flow-in-a-slightly-inclined-pipe
#11
Yeon-Gun Lee, Woo-Youn Won, Bo-An Lee, Sin Kim
In this study, a new and improved electrical conductance sensor is proposed for application not only to a horizontal pipe, but also an inclined one. The conductance sensor was designed to have a dual layer, each consisting of a three-electrode set to obtain two instantaneous conductance signals in turns, so that the area-averaged void fraction and structure velocity could be measured simultaneously. The optimum configuration of the electrodes was determined through numerical analysis, and the calibration curves for stratified and annular flow were obtained through a series of static experiments...
May 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459563/how-much-will-it-cost-to-monitor-microbial-drinking-water-quality-in-sub-saharan-africa
#12
Caroline Delaire, Rachel Peletz, Emily Kumpel, Joyce Kisiangani, Robert Bain, Ranjiv Khush
Microbial water quality monitoring is crucial for managing water resources and protecting public health. However, institutional testing activities in sub-Saharan Africa are currently limited. Because the economics of water quality testing are poorly understood, the extent to which cost may be a barrier to monitoring in different settings is unclear. This study used cost data from eighteen African monitoring institutions (piped water suppliers and health surveillance agencies in six countries) and estimates of water supply type coverage from fifteen countries to assess the annual financial requirements for microbial water testing at both national and regional levels, using World Health Organization recommendations for sampling frequency...
May 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458121/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-water-pipe-smoking-in-canada-results-from-the-canadian-tobacco-use-monitoring-survey
#13
P Abdullah, C Costanian, N Khanlou, H Tamim
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of water-pipe smoking (WPS) nationally in Canada. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data from the Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey 2011 and 2012 was used. Outcomes investigated were ever and current WPS. Demographic, socio-economic and smoking-related variables were included in a multivariable logistic regression model to determine associations with the outcomes...
April 27, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438158/prevalence-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-among-children-living-in-a-rural-setting-in-sub-saharan-africa
#14
Yaw Asante Awuku, David Larbi Simpong, Ishmael Kunateh Alhassan, Derek Anamaale Tuoyire, Taiba Afaa, Patrick Adu
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection affects more than half of the world's population. It is generally acquired during childhood with no symptoms but has long- term clinical sequelae. This study estimated the prevalence of H. pylori infection amongst children in a rural environment in Africa. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study over a four (4)-month period within two rural communities. 240 asymptomatic children were tested using lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for the qualitative detection of H...
April 24, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437650/indoor-to-outdoor-relationship-of-aerosol-particles-inside-a-naturally-ventilated-apartment-a-comparison-between-single-parameter-analysis-and-indoor-aerosol-model-simulation
#15
Tareq Hussein
The indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles is affected by several mechanisms including penetration, ventilation rate, dry deposition rate and sources. Understanding the effect of these factors is essential for a deeper knowledge of the indoor-to-outdoor relationship. In real-life conditions, it is difficult to analyze these factors in a naturally ventilated environment. In this study, a naturally ventilated and an occupied apartment was used to investigate the indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles by applying two different techniques; single-parameter analysis and indoor aerosol model simulation...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436706/tobacco-use-and-attachment-style-in-appalachia
#16
Mary Heath Wise, Florence Weierbach, Yan Cao, Ken Phillips
Tobacco has been recognized as the number one cause of preventable death in America and results in almost 5.2 million years of potential life lost each year. The use of tobacco products is highly correlated with pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and other forms of chronic illness in America. New tobacco products are trending in the tobacco market such as the water pipe/hookah and e-cigarettes. With e-cigarettes and other newer forms of tobacco on the rise, it is important to look at the underlying factors for using all kinds of tobacco products as a means of prevention...
April 24, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432993/chemical-biological-and-dna-markers-for-tracing-slaughterhouse-effluent
#17
P J Harvey, M P Taylor, H K Handley, S Foster, M R Gillings, A J Asher
Agricultural practices, if not managed correctly, can have a negative impact on receiving environments via waste disposal and discharge. In this study, a chicken slaughter facility on the rural outskirts of Sydney, Australia, has been identified as a possible source of persistent effluent discharge into a peri-urban catchment. Questions surrounding the facility's environmental management practices go back more than four decades. Despite there having never been a definitive determination of the facility's impact on local stream water quality, the New South Wales Environment Protection Authority (NSW EPA) has implemented numerous pollution reduction requirements to manage noise and water pollution at the slaughter facility...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431548/water-pipe-smoke-condensate-increases-the-internalization-of-mycobacterium-bovis-of-type-ii-alveolar-epithelial-cells-a549
#18
Esmaeil Mortaz, Shamila D Alipoor, Masoud Movassaghi, Mohammad Varahram, Jahangir Ghorbani, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen, Ian M Adcock
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, and there is an association between tobacco smoke and TB. Water pipe smoking has become an increasing problem not only in Middle Eastern countries but also globally because users consider it as safer than cigarettes. The presence of high levels of toxic substances in water-pipe smoke may be a predisposing factor that enhances the incidence of pulmonary disorders. For example, uncontrolled macropinocytosis in alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to water-pipe smoke may predispose subjects to pulmonary infection...
April 21, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427621/engineering-design-and-prototype-development-of-a-full-scale-ultrasound-system-for-virgin-olive-oil-by-means-of-numerical-and-experimental-analysis
#19
Maria Lisa Clodoveo, Vito Moramarco, Antonello Paduano, Raffaele Sacchi, Tiziana Di Palmo, Pasquale Crupi, Filomena Corbo, Vito Pesce, Elia Distaso, Paolo Tamburrano, Riccardo Amirante
The aim of the virgin olive oil extraction process is mainly to obtain the best quality oil from fruits, by only applying mechanical actions while guaranteeing the highest overall efficiency. Currently, the mechanical methods used to extract virgin oils from olives are basically of two types: the discontinuous system (obsolete) and the continuous one. Anyway the system defined as "continuous" is composed of several steps which are not all completely continuous, due to the presence of the malaxer, a device that works in batch...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422581/-straight-from-the-heavens-into-your-bucket-domestic-rainwater-harvesting-as-a-measure-to-improve-water-security-in-a-subarctic-indigenous-community
#20
Nicholas Mercer, Maura Hanrahan
BACKGROUND: Black Tickle-Domino is an extremely water-insecure remote Inuit community in the Canadian subarctic that lacks piped-water. Drinking water consumption in the community is less than a third of the Canadian national average. Water insecurity in the community contributes to adverse health, economic, and social effects and requires urgent action. OBJECTIVES: To test the ability of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) for the first time in the subarctic with the goal of improving water access and use in the community...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
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