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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192349/development-of-a-model-for-activated-sludge-aeration-systems-linking-air-supply-distribution-and-demand
#1
Oliver Schraa, Leiv Rieger, Jens Alex
During the design of a water resource recovery facility, it is becoming industry practice to use simulation software to assist with process design. Aeration is one of the key components of the activated sludge process, and is one of the most important aspects of modelling wastewater treatment systems. However, aeration systems are typically not modelled in detail in most wastewater treatment process modelling studies. A comprehensive dynamic aeration system model has been developed that captures both air supply and demand...
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192345/towards-advanced-aeration-modelling-from-blower-to-bubbles-to-bulk
#2
Andreia Amaral, Oliver Schraa, Leiv Rieger, Sylvie Gillot, Yannick Fayolle, Giacomo Bellandi, Youri Amerlinck, Séverine T F C Mortier, Riccardo Gori, Ramiro Neves, Ingmar Nopens
Aeration is an essential component of aerobic biological wastewater treatment and is the largest energy consumer at most water resource recovery facilities. Most modelling studies neglect the inherent complexity of the aeration systems used. Typically, the blowers, air piping, and diffusers are not modelled in detail, completely mixed reactors in a series are used to represent plug-flow reactors, and empirical correlations are used to describe the impact of operating conditions on bubble formation and transport, and oxygen transfer from the bubbles to the bulk liquid...
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185880/water-quality-at-points-of-use-in-the-galapagos-islands
#3
William A Gerhard, Wan Suk Choi, Kelly M Houck, Jill R Stewart
Piped drinking water is often considered a gold standard for protecting public health but research is needed to explicitly evaluate the effect of centralized treatment systems on water quality in developing world settings. This study examined the effect of a new drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) on microbial drinking water quality at the point-of-use on San Cristobal Island, Galapagos using fecal indicator bacteria total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Samples were collected during six collection periods before and after operation of the DWTP began from the freshwater sources (n=4), the finished water (n=6), and 50 sites throughout the distribution system (n=287)...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185606/measuring-population-fluctuation-of-jatropha-stem-borer-cophes-notaticeps-marshall-in-the-brazilian-cerrado-using-a-new-trap
#4
C M Oliveira, C N Silva, M R Frizzas, A C Dianese
This study aimed to monitor the population fluctuation of Cophes notaticeps (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in a jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation in the Federal District, Brazil, through the use of a new trap, combined with different attractive lures and trap colors. The study was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF) in a field trial with 720 plants. The new trap, named CPAC16, was made with PVC pipes (100 mm in diameter) of about 40 cm in length, with a window (8 × 10 cm2) in its center to enable insect access...
February 10, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183067/acoustic-power-delivery-to-pipeline-monitoring-wireless-sensors
#5
M E Kiziroglou, D E Boyle, S W Wright, E M Yeatman
The use of energy harvesting for powering wireless sensors is made more challenging in most applications by the requirement for customization to each specific application environment because of specificities of the available energy form, such as precise location, direction and motion frequency, as well as the temporal variation and unpredictability of the energy source. Wireless power transfer from dedicated sources can overcome these difficulties, and in this work, the use of targeted ultrasonic power transfer as a possible method for remote powering of sensor nodes is investigated...
January 23, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178636/comparison-of-three-corrosion-inhibitors-in-simulated-partial-lead-service-line-replacements
#6
Aki Kogo, Sarah Jane Payne, Robert C Andrews
Partial lead service line replacements (PLSLR) were simulated using five recirculating pipe loops treated with either zinc orthophosphate (1mg/L as P), orthophosphate (1mg/L as P) or sodium silicate (10mg/L). Two pipe loops served as "inhibitor-free" (Pb-Cu) and "galvanic free" (Pb-PVC) controls. Changes in water quality (CSMR [0.2 or 1], conductivity [≈330mS/cm or ≈560mS/cm], chlorine [1.4mg/L]) were not observed to provide a significant impact on lead or copper release, although galvanic corrosion was shown to be a driving factor...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173839/characterisation-of-larval-habitats-species-composition-and-factors-associated-with-the-seasonal-abundance-of-mosquito-fauna-in-gezira-sudan
#7
Mostafa M Mahgoub, Eliningaya J Kweka, Yousif E Himeidan
BACKGROUND: Larval source management (LSM), which requires an understanding of the ecology and composition of the local mosquito fauna, is an important parameter in successful vector control programmes. The present study was conducted to understand the distribution of larval habitats, species composition and factors associated with the seasonal abundance of mosquito larvae in Gezira irrigation Scheme in Gezira state, central Sudan. METHODS: Cross-sectional larval surveys were carried out in the communities of Barakat (urban) and El-Kareiba (semi-urban), in Wad Madani, Gezira...
February 8, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163597/development-of-pre-breeding-technology-for-root-system-study-and-selection-of-kihara-afghan-wheat-landraces-kawlr-to-enhance-wheat-breeding-in-the-rain-fed-region
#8
Emdadul Haque, Aziz Ahmad Osmani, Sayed Hasibullah Ahmadi, Tomohiro Ban
To enhance a root trait-based selection program for rain-fed wheat breeding in Afghanistan, we simulated an efficient pre-breeding drought system. Plants were grown in 1 m pipes as control or 2 m pipes to simulate drought conditions soaking ground water up by capillary action supplemented by two different life supporting irrigations from top of the pipes (T1 and T2 droughts). T1 was used for studying genetic diversity in 360 Kihara Afghan wheat landraces (KAWLR). Both drought treatments were used to evaluate root traits in 30 selected genotypes...
December 2016: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151442/safe-drinking-water-and-waterborne-outbreaks
#9
N A Moreira, M Bondelind
The present work compiles a review on drinking waterborne outbreaks, with the perspective of production and distribution of microbiologically safe water, during 2000-2014. The outbreaks are categorised in raw water contamination, treatment deficiencies and distribution network failure. The main causes for contamination were: for groundwater, intrusion of animal faeces or wastewater due to heavy rain; in surface water, discharge of wastewater into the water source and increased turbidity and colour; at treatment plants, malfunctioning of the disinfection equipment; and for distribution systems, cross-connections, pipe breaks and wastewater intrusion into the network...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145123/flint-water-crisis-caused-by-interrupted-corrosion-control-investigating-ground-zero-home
#10
Kelsey J Pieper, Min Tang, Marc A Edwards
Flint, Michigan switched to the Flint River as a temporary drinking water source without implementing corrosion control in April 2014. Ten months later, water samples collected from a Flint residence revealed progressively rising water lead levels (104, 397, and 707 μg/L) coinciding with increasing water discoloration. An intensive follow-up monitoring event at this home investigated patterns of lead release by flow rate-all water samples contained lead above 15 μg/L and several exceeded hazardous waste levels (>5000 μg/L)...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143462/a-study-on-the-influence-of-internet-addiction-and-online-interpersonal-influences-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-young-vietnamese
#11
Bach Xuan Tran, Le Thi Huong, Nguyen Duc Hinh, Long Hoang Nguyen, Bao Nguyen Le, Vuong Minh Nong, Vu Thi Minh Thuc, Tran Dinh Tho, Carl Latkin, Melvyn Wb Zhang, Roger Cm Ho
BACKGROUND: Internet addiction (IA) is a common problem found in young Asians. This study aimed to study the influence of IA and online activities on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in young Vietnamese. This study also compared the frequencies of anxiety, depression and other addiction of young Vietnamese with and without IA. METHODS: This study recruited 566 young Vietnamese (56.7% female, 43.3% male) ranging from 15 to 25 years of age via the respondent-driven sampling technique...
January 31, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131935/methane-storage-and-ebullition-in-monimolimnetic-waters-of-polluted-mine-pit-lake-vollert-sued-germany
#12
Christin Horn, Philipp Metzler, Karen Ullrich, Matthias Koschorreck, Bertram Boehrer
Reliable gas measurements from supersaturated deep waters still remain a challenge. However, good information is mandatory to investigate the limnic carbon cycle, assess the endangerment through limnic eruptions and evaluate a potential source of exploitable energy. We addressed these three points in a heavily polluted mine pit lake in Germany. We quantified the ebullition of methane from deep waters and the sediment below. Exposed to continuous percolation of gas bubbles, the deep (monimolimnetic) water had accumulated high concentrations of gas: directly measured gas pressures indicated the proximity to spontaneous ebullition...
January 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129928/unsaturated-flow-parameters-of-municipal-solid-waste
#13
REVIEW
Shi-Jin Feng, Qi-Teng Zheng, H X Chen
Leachate pollution/recirculation and landfill gas emission are the major environmental concerns in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. A good understanding and prediction of MSW unsaturated properties are critical for the design of piping systems and the control of these problems within landfills. This paper reviews the recent studies of unsaturated properties of MSW, including experimental methods, theoretical models and corresponding model parameters. For experimental methods, the sample size is a common and significant limitation and large test apparatuses (e...
January 24, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128924/safely-managed-sanitation-for-all-means-fecal-sludge-management-for-at-least-1-8-billion-people-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#14
David M Berendes, Trent A Sumner, Joe M Brown
Although global access to sanitation is increasing, safe management of fecal waste is a rapidly growing challenge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The goal of this study was to evaluate the current need for fecal sludge management (FSM) in LMICs by region, urban/rural status, and wealth. Recent Demographic and Health Survey data from 58 countries (847 685 surveys) were used to classify households by sanitation facility (facilities needing FSM, sewered facilities, ecological sanitation/other, or no facilities)...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125625/on-the-identification-of-associations-between-five-world-health-organization-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-phenotypes-and-six-predictors-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#15
Hugh Ellis, Erica Schoenberger
BACKGROUND: According to the most recent estimates, 842,000 deaths in low- to middle-income countries were attributable to inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in 2012. Despite billions of dollars and decades of effort, we still lack a sound understanding of which kinds of WASH interventions are most effective in improving public health outcomes, and an important corollary-whether the right things are being measured. The World Health Organization (WHO) has made a concerted effort to compile comprehensive data on drinking water quality and sanitation in the developing world...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116965/rare-gripping-object-in-electrocution-cadaveric-spasm-at-its-best
#16
Mohit Chauhan, C Behera, Jatin Bodwal, P C Dikshit
Cadaveric spasm causes instantaneous rigor without preceding post-mortem flaccidity. The precise pathophysiological basis of this phenomenon is still unknown. We report a case of accidental electrocution where the deceased was found dead with a metallic water supply pipe of a motor booster pump firmly gripped in his hand. In this report, we review the literature and consider the mechanisms that may cause this phenomenon.
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115676/the-effectiveness-of-sanitary-inspections-as-a-risk-assessment-tool-for-thermotolerant-coliform-bacteria-contamination-of-rural-drinking-water-a-review-of-data-from-west-bengal-india
#17
Christian Snoad, Corey Nagel, Animesh Bhattacharya, Evan Thomas
The use of sanitary inspections combined with periodic water quality testing has been recommended in some cases as screening tools for fecal contamination. We conducted sanitary inspections and tested for thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs), a fecal indicator bacteria, among 7,317 unique water sources in West Bengal, India. Our results indicate that the sanitary inspection score has poor ability to identify TTC-contaminated sources. Among deep and shallow hand pumps, the area under curve (AUC) for prediction of TTC > 0 was 0...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110150/enhanced-degradation-of-iopamidol-by-peroxymonosulfate-catalyzed-by-two-pipe-corrosion-products-cuo-and-%C3%AE-mno2
#18
Jun Hu, Huiyu Dong, Jiuhui Qu, Zhimin Qiang
Peroxymonosulfate (PMS) is a promising alternative for drinking water disinfection; also many organic micropollutants may be present in drinking water sources nowadays. However, pipe corrosion products (PCPs) may impact the reactions between a disinfectant and organic micropollutants in water distribution systems. This study investigated iopamidol (IPM) degradation by PMS under catalysis of two PCPs (i.e., CuO and δ-MnO2). The pseudo-first-order rate constant of IPM degradation in the CuO/PMS system (CuPS) was 3...
January 16, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091884/pre-mining-trace-element-and-radiation-exposure-to-biota-from-a-breccia-pipe-uranium-mine-in-the-grand-canyon-arizona-usa-watershed
#19
Jo Ellen Hinck, Danielle Cleveland, William G Brumbaugh, Greg Linder, Julia Lankton
The risks to wildlife and humans from uranium (U) mining in the Grand Canyon watershed are largely unknown. In addition to U, other co-occurring ore constituents contribute to risks to biological receptors depending on their toxicological profiles. This study characterizes the pre-mining concentrations of total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl), U, and zinc (Zn); radiation levels; and histopathology in biota (vegetation, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals) at the Canyon Mine...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065549/an-experimental-investigation-of-underwater-spread-of-oil-spill-in-a-shear-flow
#20
Hongjun Zhu, Jiahui You, Honglei Zhao
The time taken for spilt oil to appear firstly at the sea surface and its location are two key issues for emergency response. The underwater spread of oil spill in a shear flow was studied experimentally in a re-circulating water channel. The high speed imaging technology was employed to record the whole transport process of oil spilt from a leak of a submarine pipe to the surface. Based on the experimental results, three underwater transport types are identified, which are single droplet pattern (model A), linear chain pattern (model B) and oil plume pattern (model C), respectively...
January 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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