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durg analysis

Jayanand Manjhi, Maneesh Gupta, Anvesha Sinha, Beena Rawat, Durg V Rai
Context • Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of the musculoskeleton, causing functional disability among older adults. Management of OA includes conventional pharmacological treatments consisting primarily of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, physiotherapy, and surgical procedures. The medications are not ideal therapeutic agents; NSAIDs in particular can cause serious side effects. Objective • The study was conducted to investigate the effects of Balsamodendron mukul (BDM) gum resin extract on cartilage damage and microstructural changes in the subchondral bone of rats with papain-induced, osteoarthritic knee joints...
July 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Sasmita Panda, Sarita Kar, Savitri Sharma, Durg V Singh
This study aimed to determine the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), SCCmec elements and genetic relatedness among Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolated from patients with a variety of eye infections (n=11) and from healthy conjunctiva (n=7). Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for 14 antimicrobials according to BSAC guidelines. PCR was used to identify the presence of mecA, mecC, SCCmec type and ARGs. Sequencing was used to determine mutations in gyrA, gyrB, topoisomerase IVA and IVB genes...
September 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Moon Moon Das, Tilothama Bhotra, Dolatsinh Zala, Durg Vijai Singh
Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, the causative agent of the seventh pandemic, has recently been replaced by strains carrying classical and Haitian ctxB in India, Haiti and other parts of the world. We conducted phenotypic and genetic tests to characterize V. cholerae O1 isolated between 2012 and 2014 from Silvassa, India, to examine the presence of virulence and regulatory genes, seventh pandemic marker, ctxB type and biofilm formation and to study genomic diversity. Of the 59 V. cholerae O1, eight isolates belong to El Tor prototype, one to classical prototype and the remaining isolates have attributes of both classical and El Tor biotypes...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Dharmendra Kumar Soni, Durg Vijai Singh, Suresh Kumar Dubey
Listeria monocytogenes, a life-threatening pathogen, poses severe risk during pregnancy, may cause abortion, fetal death or neonatal morbidity in terms of septicemia and meningitis. The present study aimed at characterizing L. monocytogenes isolated from pregnant women based on serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility, virulence genes, in vivo pathogenicity test and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. The results revealed that out of 3700 human clinical samples, a total of 30 (0.81%) isolates [12 (0.80%) from placental bit (1500), 18 (0...
September 2015: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Sharanbasappa Durg, Shivsharan B Dhadde, Ravichandra Vandal, Badamaranahalli S Shivakumar, Chabbanahalli S Charan
OBJECTIVES: Withania somnifera has been in use for several thousand years in Ayurveda to treat various neurological disorders. There is, however, not much scientific data on its protective role in neuronal pathology specifically against brain oxidative stress. Hence, an attempt is made in this work for systematic review and meta-analysis of W. somnifera on neurobehavioural disorders induced by brain oxidative stress in rodents. METHODS: A systematic search of the effect of W...
July 2015: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
E Naomi Smith, Vijay Durge, Samrat Sengupta, Mrigendra Das
INTRODUCTION: Asenapine is a novel, recently introduced antipsychotic drug. It has a unique receptor profile and it is licensed in the UK for the treatment of bipolar-affective disorder. However, there is some evidence for its effectiveness in schizophrenia and it is licensed for schizophrenia treatment in a number of countries. Significant numbers of patients within the high-secure hospital setting suffer from treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Many patients fail to respond to adequate antipsychotic trials, and require trials of augmentation with other medications...
October 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Jadiswami C, Megha H M, Shivsharan B Dhadde, Sharanbasappa Durg, Pandharinath P Potadar, Thippeswamy B S, Veerapur V P
3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a fungal toxin that produces Huntington's disease like symptoms in both animals and humans. Piroxicam, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, used as anti-inflammatory agent and also known to decrease free oxygen radical production. In this study, the effect of piroxicam was evaluated against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were injected with vehicle/piroxicam (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before 3-NP challenge (15 mg/kg, i...
December 2014: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Chinmay K Mantri, Saswat S Mohapatra, Rita R Colwell, Durg V Singh
A multiplex PCR was developed to detect pre-CTXΦ and CTXΦ in Vibrio cholerae. A total of 115 V. cholerae were tested, of which 42 V. cholerae O1 and 18 V. cholerae O139 contained CTXΦ. Six V. cholerae O139 contained only pre-CTXΦ and three V. cholerae O1 and 23 V. cholerae O139 contained both pre-CTXΦ and CTXΦ. None of the V. cholerae non-O1 and non-O139 that were tested had pre-CTXΦ or CTXΦ. Results of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis revealed the V. cholerae isolates possessed single or multiple copies of pre-CTXΦ and CTXΦ, always proceeded by a tandemly arranged RS1 element...
February 2010: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Saswat S Mohapatra, Chinmay K Mantri, Harapriya Mohapatra, Rita R Colwell, Durg V Singh
In this study, we report the presence of SXT in environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated before 1992 from Varanasi, India. All isolates, except one, were resistant to Tm, and/or Sul, Sm, Fr, Na and Am. None contained plasmids. PCR and DNA sequencing revealed the presence of SXT containing dfrA1 and/or sulII, strAB in six isolates and dfr18, sulII and strAB in five isolates. Three clinical V. cholerae O1 isolated during 1992 contained the antibiotic resistance gene cassette aadA1 in the class 1 integron...
February 2010: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Payal Bhardwaj, Durg Vijay Rai, Mohan Lal Garg
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we have investigated the role of zinc supplementation (a nutritional antioxidant) in an ovariectomized osteopenic rat model. METHODS: Forty-eight female Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: control, zinc, ovariectomy (OVX), and OVX + zinc. Analysis was performed to compare the study groups on bone metabolism markers, bone antioxidant enzymes, and zinc and copper levels in serum and bone tissues. Electron microscopy was also performed to assess morphological changes...
November 2013: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Dharmendra K Soni, Rakesh K Singh, Durg V Singh, Suresh K Dubey
Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, serotype identification, detection of virulence genes and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. All isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin, except two isolates, and showed variable resistance to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. Of the 20 isolates found positive for pathogens, seven (four human and three water isolates) belong to serogroups 4b, 4d and 4e; six (one human and five water isolates) belong to serogroups 1/2c and 3c; four milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2b and 3b; and three milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2a and 3a...
March 2013: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Dhananjay K Deshmukh, Ying I Tsai, Manas K Deb, Pavlos Zarmpas
PM(10) aerosol samples were collected in Durg City, India from July 2009 to June 2010 using an Andersen aerosol sampler and analyzed for eight water-soluble ionic species, namely, Na(+), NH(4) (+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3) (-) and SO(4) (2-) by ion chromatography. The annual average concentration of PM(10) (253.5 ± 99.4 μg/m(3)) was four times higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 60 μg/m(3) prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board, India. The three most abundant ions were SO(4) (2-), NO(3) (-), and NH(4) (+), with average concentrations of 8...
November 2012: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mobashar Hussain Urf Turabe Fazil, Sunil Kumar, Naidu Subba Rao, Chandrabose Selvaraj, Sanjeev Kumar Singh, Haushila Prasad Pandey, Durg Vijai Singh
Vibrio cholerae uses quorum sensing communication system to interact with other bacteria and for gauzing environmental parameters. This organism dwells equally well in both human host and aquatic environments. Quorum sensing regulates multitude of activities and is one of the lucrative targets presently pursued for drug design in bacteria to encounter virulence. Histidine phosphotransfer protein LuxU and response regulator LuxO of V. cholerae are known to play important roles in biofilms and virulence machinery...
2012: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Amine Abderrezak, Philippe Bourassa, Jean-Sebastian Mandeville, Reza Sedaghat-Herati, Heidar-Ali Tajmir-Riahi
Synthetic polymers of a specific shape and size play major role in drug delivery systems. Dendrimers are unique synthetic macromolecules of nanometer dimensions with a highly branched structure and globular shape with potential applications in gene and drug delivery. We examine the interaction of several dendrimers of different compositions mPEG-PAMAM (G3), mPEG-PAMAM (G4) and PAMAM (G4) with hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs cisplatin, resveratrol, genistein and curcumin at physiological conditions. FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to analyse drug binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of drug complexation on dendrimer stability and conformation...
2012: PloS One
Mobashar Hussain Urf Turabe Fazil, Durg V Singh
Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. Although antibiotic therapy shortens the duration of diarrhea, excessive use has contributed to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in V. cholerae. Mobile genetic elements have been shown to be largely responsible for the shift of drug resistance genes in bacteria, including some V. cholerae strains. Quorum sensing communication systems are used for interaction among bacteria and for sensing environmental signals. Sequence analysis of the ctxB gene of toxigenic V...
October 2011: Future Microbiology
Mobashar Hussain Urf Turabe Fazil, Sunil Kumar, Rohit Farmer, Haushila Prasad Pandey, Durg Vijai Singh
Vibrio cholerae produces cholera toxin (CT) that consists of two subunits, A and B, and is encoded by a filamentous phage CTXΦ. The A subunit carries enzymatic activity that ribosylates ADP, whereas the B subunit binds to monosialoganglioside (GM1) receptor in epithelial cells. Molecular analysis of toxigenic V. cholerae strains indicated the presence of multiple ctxB genotypes. In this study, we employed a comparative modeling approach to define the structural features of all known variants of ctxB found in O139 serogroup V...
January 2012: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Chinmay K Mantri, Saswat S Mohapatra, Durg V Singh
We examined the effect of storage and sodium chloride on excision of CTXPhi or pre-CTXPhi and CTXPhi from Vibrio cholerae O139 strains. We found that one strain of V. cholerae O139 VO146P showed loss of the complete phage array, and other strain VO170P showed partial loss of the phage array giving rise to altered strains designated as VO146N and VO170N. Results of PCR and RFLP analysis revealed that both strains (VO146P and VO170P) possessed a single copy of pre-CTX(ET)Phi and two copies of CTXPhi comprising CTX(Class)Phi and CTX(Calc)Phi arranged in tandem, and integrated in the large chromosome...
October 2010: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Amitav Mohanty, Sunita Swain, Durg V Singh, Namita Mahapatra, Santanu K Kar, Rupenangshu K Hazra
Generally, clinical data is referred to study drug-resistance patterns of Plasmodium falciparum in an area. This is only possible after a clear manifestation of drug-resistance parasites inside the human host, and thereafter detection by healthcare persons. The detection of spread of drug-resistant P. falciparum in a population, before any pathological symptoms detected in humans is possible by analyzing the anopheline vectors, transmitting malaria. In the present study we implemented a new strategy to detect the spread of chloroquine-resistant (CQR) strains of P...
July 2009: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Saswat S Mohapatra, Dhanya Ramachandran, Chinmay K Mantri, Rita R Colwell, Durg V Singh
Sequencing of three housekeeping genes, mdh, dnaE and recA, and ribotyping for seven non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated from different geographic sources indicate a phylogenetic relationship among the strains. Results of MLST and ribotyping indicate a clear difference between three toxigenic strains (N16961, O395, and 569B) and three non-toxigenic strains from India (GS1, GS2, and GW87) and one Guam strain (X392), the latter of which were similar in both MLST and ribotyping, while two other non-toxigenic strains from the USA and India (2740-80 and OR69) appeared to be more closely related to toxigenic strains than to non-toxigenic strains, although this was not supported by ribotyping...
January 2009: Research in Microbiology
C H Meyer, H-M Helb, N Eter
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the most common causes of blindness in western industrialised nations. Most AMD patients suffer from the dry early form of AMD; however, wet AMD with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the main cause of blindness in all AMD patients. New prospects have been developed in AMD treatment using pharmacological methods available for treating all subtypes of exudative AMD. A number of inhibiting and inducing growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), are particularly important in the pathophysiology of wet AMD...
February 2008: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
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