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Emergency use of ultrasounds

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906261/impact-of-nonstationary-optical-illumination-on-image-reconstruction-in-optoacoustic-tomography
#1
Yang Lou, Kun Wang, Alexander A Oraevsky, Mark A Anastasio
Optoacoustic tomography (OAT), also known as photoacoustic tomography, is a rapidly emerging hybrid imaging technique that possesses great potential for a wide range of biomedical imaging applications. In OAT, a laser is employed to illuminate the tissue of interest and acoustic signals are produced via the photoacoustic effect. From these data, an estimate of the distribution of the absorbed optical energy density within the tissue is reconstructed, referred to as the object function. This quantity is defined, in part, by the distribution of light fluence within the tissue that is established by the laser source...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904860/interventional-therapy-for-pancreatic-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Jianwei Zhu, Zhendong Jin
BACKGROUND: Palliative therapy and primarily chemoradiotherapy are the mainstream treatments in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC). Conventional endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided interventional therapy has emerged as an important procedure for PC management. In this review, the progress in conventional endoscopy and EUS for PC management is discussed. SUMMARY: For local palliative therapy against PC, EUS-guided fine needle injection (FNI) could deliver different kinds of agents, such as radioactive seeds and fiducials...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904260/sonographic-identification-of-peripheral-nerves-in-the-forearm
#3
Saundra A Jackson, Charlotte Derr, Anthony De Lucia, Marvin Harris, Zuheily Closser, Branko Miladinovic, Rahul Mhaskar, Theresa Jorgensen, Lori Green
BACKGROUND: With the growing utilization of ultrasonography in emergency medicine combined with the concern over adequate pain management in the emergency department (ED), ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blockade in ED is an area of increasing interest. The medical literature has multiple reports supporting the use of ultrasound guidance in peripheral nerve blocks. However, to perform a peripheral nerve block, one must first be able to reliably identify the specific nerve before the procedure...
October 2016: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899166/pain-management-of-acute-appendicitis-in-canadian-pediatric-emergency-departments
#4
Andrea L Robb, Samina Ali, Naveen Poonai, Graham C Thompson
OBJECTIVES: Children with suspected appendicitis are at risk for suboptimal pain management. We sought to describe pain management patterns for suspected appendicitis across Canadian pediatric emergency departments (PEDs). METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was undertaken at 12 Canadian PEDs. Children ages 3 to 17 years who were admitted to the hospital in February or October 2010 with suspected appendicitis were included. Patients were excluded if partially assessed or treated at another hospital...
November 30, 2016: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895878/evaluation-of-visibility-of-foreign-bodies-in-the-maxillofacial-region-comparison-of-computed-tomography-cone-beam-computed-tomography-ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Solmaz Valizadeh, Hamidreza Pouraliakbar, Leila Kiani, Yaser Safi, Leila Alibakhshi
BACKGROUND: Detection of foreign bodies (FBs) is challenging. Selection of a fast and affordable imaging modality to locate the FB with minimal patient radiation dose is imperative. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare four commonly used imaging modalities namely cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US) for detection of FBs in the head and neck region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this in vitro study, iron, glass, stone, wood, asphalt, and tooth samples measuring 0...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895189/how-to-do-it-bedside-ultrasound-to-assist-lumbar-puncture
#6
Stefan Williams, Modar Khalil, Asoka Weerasinghe, Anu Sharma, Richard Davey
For many neurologists, lumbar puncture is the only practical procedure that they undertake on a regular basis. Although anaesthetists and emergency physicians routinely employ ultrasound to assist lumbar puncture, neurologists do not. In this article, we outline the technique that we use for an ultrasound-assisted lumbar puncture, together with the evidence base that suggests that ultrasound has significant benefits. We aim to raise awareness of a method that can make lumbar puncture more likely to succeed and to be more comfortable for the patient...
November 28, 2016: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893402/a-convolutional-neural-network-for-automatic-characterization-of-plaque-composition-in-carotid-ultrasound
#7
Karim Lekadir, Alfiia Galimzianova, Angels Betriu, Maria Del Mar Vila, Laura Igual, Daniel Rubin, Elvira Fernandez, Petia Radeva, Sandy Napel
Characterization of carotid plaque composition, more specifically the amount of lipid core, fibrous tissue, and calcified tissue, is an important task for the identification of plaques that are prone to rupture, and thus for early risk estima-tion of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Due to its low costs and wide availability, carotid ultrasound has the potential to become the modality of choice for plaque characterization in clinical practice. However, its significant image noise, coupled with the small size of the plaques and their complex appearance, makes it difficult for automated techniques to discriminate be-tween the different plaque constituents...
November 22, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884633/recent-trends-in-imaging-use-in-hospital-settings-implications-for-future-planning
#8
David C Levin, Laurence Parker, Vijay M Rao
PURPOSE: To compare trends in utilization rates of imaging in the three hospital-based settings where imaging is conducted. METHODS: The nationwide Medicare Part B databases for 2004-2014 were used. All discretionary noninvasive diagnostic imaging (NDI) CPT codes were selected and grouped by modality. Procedure volumes of each code were available from the databases and converted to utilization rates per 1,000 Medicare enrollees. Medicare's place-of-service codes were used to identify imaging examinations done in hospital inpatients, hospital outpatient departments (HOPDs), and emergency departments (EDs)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884577/low-pressure-pericardial-tamponade-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Brooks M Walsh, Lauren A Tobias
BACKGROUND: Focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) is accurate for determining the presence of a pericardial effusion. Using FoCUS to evaluate for pericardial tamponade, however, is more involved. Many experts teach that tamponade is unlikely if the inferior vena cava (IVC) shows respiratory variation and is not distended. CASE REPORT: A 53-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED) with severe orthostatic hypotension, exertional dyspnea, and hypoxia...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880884/anti-atherosclerosis-and-cardio-protective-effects-of-the-angong-niuhuang-pill-on-a-high-fat-and-vitamin-d3-induced-rodent-model-of-atherosclerosis
#10
Wen-Juan Fu, Ting Lei, Zhen Yin, Jian-Hao Pan, Yu-Shuang Chai, Xiao-Yun Xu, Yi-Xi Yan, Zhi-Hua Wang, Jian Ke, Gang Wu, Ren-He Xu, Manish Paranjpe, Lintao Qu, Hong Nie
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Angong Niuhuang Pill (ANP) is a well known Chinese traditional therapeutic for the treatment for diseases affecting the Central Nervous System (CNS). Components of the ANP formulation, including Bovis Calculus Sativus, Pulvis Bubali Comus Concentratus, Moschus, Margarita, Cinnabaris, Realgar, Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Gardeniae Fructus, Curcumae Radix, and Bomeolum Syntheticum, have been used for the treatment of stroke, encephalitis and emergency meningitis across Asia, especially in China for hundreds of years...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876328/best-clinical-practice-controversies-in-transient-ischemic-attack-evaluation-and-disposition-in-the-emergency-department
#11
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) affects over 200,000 patients annually in the United States, and it precedes approximately 14% to 23% of strokes. Patients are typically admitted for evaluation and management. OBJECTIVE: This review investigates the controversies of emergency department (ED) evaluation of TIA, including imaging, clinical risk scores, rapid diagnostic protocols, and disposition. DISCUSSION: TIA is a common condition, with over 200,000 patients affected annually, and is associated with risk of stroke...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875660/successful-use-of-targeted-temperature-management-after-repair-of-myocardial-rupture-from-blunt-chest-trauma-a-case-report
#12
Wook-Jin Choi, Yun Seok Kim, Jung Seok Hong, Jeong Won Kim
Targeted temperature management (TTM) improves survival and neurological outcome after nontraumatic cardiac arrest. However, TTM is not used widely after traumatic cardiac arrest because of concerns that it might exacerbate bleeding. We report the use of postarrest TTM after repair of blunt myocardial rupture. A 48-year-old man was admitted after being rescued from a major traffic accident by the local emergency service. Focused sonography showed pericardial fluid without cardiac tamponade. Computed tomography showed a large hematoma in the anterior mediastinum associated with hemopericardium...
November 22, 2016: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874191/nitrate-and-nitrite-determination-in-gunshot-residue-samples-by-capillary-electrophoresis-in-acidic-run-buffer
#13
Özge Ö Erol, Behice Y Erdoğan, Atiye N Onar
Simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite in gunshot residue has been conducted by capillary electrophoresis using an acidic run buffer (pH 3.5). In previously developed capillary electrophoretic methods, alkaline pH separation buffers were used where nitrite and nitrate possess similar electrophoretic mobility. In this study, the electroosmotic flow has been reversed by using low pH running buffer without any additives. As a result of reversing the electroosmotic flow, very fast analysis has been actualized, well-defined and separated ion peaks emerge in less than 4 min...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873370/the-magnitude-of-change-in-the-fetal-cerebroplacental-ratio-in-the-third-trimester-and-the-risk-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcome
#14
Christopher Flatley, Ristan M Greer, Sailesh Kumar
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate if the magnitude of change in the cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) after 30 weeks gestation was better predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome compared to a single measurement at 35-37 weeks. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether the utility of CPR measured at 35-37 weeks was enhanced after adjusting for the gestational change. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of women who had had at least two ultrasound scans between 30-37 weeks gestation with the final scan taking place at 35-37 weeks...
November 22, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871502/screening-for-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-in-asymptomatic-adults
#15
REVIEW
Muhammad Usman Ali, Donna Fitzpatrick-Lewis, John Miller, Rachel Warren, Meghan Kenny, Diana Sherifali, Parminder Raina
BACKGROUND: This report was produced for the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care to provide guidelines on screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with ultrasound scan. PURPOSE: The aim of this systematic review is to examine the evidence on benefits and harms of AAA screening. SEARCH STRATEGY: This systematic review considered studies from the most recent United States Preventive Services Task Force review on AAA screening and passed through the screening process with citations identified in our search up to April 2015 (PROSPERO Registration #CRD42015019047)...
December 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864995/a-systematic-review-effectiveness-of-pediatric-peripheral-intravenous-catheterization-strategies
#16
REVIEW
Shannon I A Parker, Karen Benzies, K Alix Hayden
AIM: To identify interventions associated with peripheral intravenous catheterization first attempt success in pediatric inpatients and emergency department patients who require vascular access for therapeutic interventions. BACKGROUND: Unsuccessful peripheral intravenous catheterization puts children at risk for increased pain and treatment delays. Effective interventions to increase peripheral intravenous catheterization first attempt success are unclear. DESIGN: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials according to the Cochrane Handbook for the Systematic Review of Interventions...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862628/history-physical-exam-laboratory-testing-and-emergency-department-ultrasonography-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-cholecystitis
#17
Ashika Jain, Ninfa Mehta, Michael Secko, Joshua Schecter, Dimitri Papanagnou, Shreya Pandya, Richard Sinert
BACKGROUND: Acute Cholecystitis (AC) is a common differential for patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with abdominal pain. The diagnostic accuracy of history, physical exam and bedside lab tests for AC have not been quantitatively described. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review to determine the utility of History/Physical exam (H&P), Laboratory studies and Ultrasonography (US) in diagnosing AC in the ED. METHODS: We searched medical literature from January 1965 to March 2016 in PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS using a strategy derived from the following formulation of our clinical question: Patients: ED patients suspected of AC...
November 15, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859891/diagnostic-performance-of-wells-score-combined-with-point-of-care-lung-and-venous-ultrasound-in-suspected-pulmonary-embolism
#18
Peiman Nazerian, Giovanni Volpicelli, Chiara Gigli, Cecilia Becattini, Giuseppe Francesco Sferrazza Papa, Stefano Grifoni, Simone Vanni
OBJECTIVE: Lung and venous ultrasound are bedside diagnostic tools increasingly used in the early diagnostic approach of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the possibility of improving the conventional prediction rule for PE by integrating ultrasound has never been investigated. METHODS: We performed lung and venous ultrasound in consecutive patients suspected of PE in four emergency departments. Conventional Wells score (Ws) was adjudicated by the attending physician, and ultrasound was performed by one of 20 investigators...
November 12, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858233/utility-of-contemporaneous-dual-read-in-the-setting-of-emergency-teleradiology-reporting
#19
Anjali Agrawal, D B Koundinya, Jayadeepa Srinivas Raju, Anurag Agrawal, Arjun Kalyanpur
PURPOSE: Emergency radiology requires rapid and accurate interpretation of imaging examinations. Missed findings may lead to adverse outcomes. Double reporting may be used to minimize errors. Limited contemporaneous double reporting may be most efficient and cost-effective, but no data exists. This study is intended to examine the benefits of double reading and identify examinations where this would be most useful. METHODS: In this study, dual reporting was conducted in a parallel reading environment in a teleradiology practice for 3779 radiological procedures performed at two radiology centers in the USA over a period of 4 months...
November 18, 2016: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856356/percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-pcnl-a-critical-review
#20
REVIEW
Arvind P Ganpule, Mohankumar Vijayakumar, Ankur Malpani, Mahesh R Desai
INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the preferred treatment of choice for renal calculi. PCNL has evolved remarkably since the eighties when it was first described. APPROACH: Approach might be by either supine or prone and the access is made with the help of either fluoroscopy or ultrasound. Recently endoscopy and ipad guided puncture have also been described. MINIATURIZATION: The traditional PCNl were sung tracts upto 40 fr initially and the most common used was around 30 fr till recently...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
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