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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935044/tau-uptake-in-agrammatic-primary-progressive-aphasia-with-and-without-apraxia-of-speech
#1
Rene L Utianski, Jennifer L Whitwell, Christopher G Schwarz, Joseph R Duffy, Hugo Botha, Heather M Clark, Mary M Machulda, Matthew L Senjem, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Val J Lowe, Keith A Josephs
BACKGROUND: The nonfluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (agPPA) is a heterogeneous diagnosis, wherein some individuals have apraxia of speech (AOS). When agPPA includes AOS, a tauopathy is likely the underlying pathology. Recently, [18F]AV-1451 was developed for the in vivo assessment of tau. In this study, we compare patterns of tau tracer uptake in agPPA patients, with and without apraxia of speech. METHODS: Nine agPPA patients (four without AOS) underwent tau-PET imaging with [18F]AV-1451...
June 23, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933490/assessment-of-individuals-with-primary-progressive-aphasia
#2
Maya L Henry, Stephanie M Grasso
Speech-language pathologists play a crucial role in the assessment and treatment of individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA). The speech-language evaluation is a critical aspect of the diagnostic and rehabilitative process, informing differential diagnosis as well as intervention planning and monitoring of cognitive-linguistic status over time. The evaluation should include a thorough case history and interview and a detailed assessment of speech-language and cognitive functions, with tasks designed to detect core and associated deficits outlined in current diagnostic criteria...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932424/eegnet-a-compact-convolutional-neural-network-for-eeg-based-brain-computer-interfaces
#3
Vernon Lawhern, Amelia Solon, Nicholas Waytowich, Stephen M Gordon, Chou Hung, Brent J Lance
OBJECTIVE: Brain computer interfaces (BCI) enable direct communication with a computer, using neural activity as the control signal. This neural signal is generally chosen from a variety of well-studied electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. For a given BCI paradigm, feature extractors and classifiers are tailored to the distinct characteristics of its expected EEG control signal, limiting its application to that specific signal. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), which have been used in computer vision and speech recognition to perform automatic feature extraction and classification, have successfully been applied to EEG-based BCIs; however, they have mainly been applied to single BCI paradigms and thus it remains unclear how these architectures generalize to other paradigms...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931285/transfer-of-learning-what-does-it-tell-us-about-speech-production-units
#4
Tiphaine Caudrelier, Jean-Luc Schwartz, Pascal Perrier, Silvain Gerber, Amélie Rochet-Capellan
Purpose: Words, syllables, and phonemes have each been regarded as basic encoding units of speech production in various psycholinguistic models. The present article investigates the role of each unit in the interface with speech articulation, using a paradigm from motor control research. Method: Seventy-six native speakers of French were trained to change their production of /be/ in response to an auditory feedback perturbation (auditory-motor learning). We then assessed the magnitude of learning transfer from /be/ to the syllables in 2 pseudowords (/bepe/ and /pebe/) and 1 real word (/bebe/) as well as the aftereffect on the same utterance (/be/) with a between-subjects design...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928197/inhibiting-basal-ganglia-regions-reduces-syllable-sequencing-errors-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-computer-simulation-study
#5
Valentin Senft, Terrence C Stewart, Trevor Bekolay, Chris Eliasmith, Bernd J Kröger
Background: Parkinson's disease affects many motor processes including speech. Besides drug treatment, deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) has developed as an effective therapy. Goal: We present a neural model that simulates a syllable repetition task and evaluate its performance when varying the level of dopamine in the striatum, and the level of activity reduction in the STN or GPi. Method: The Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) is used to build a model of syllable sequencing through a cortico-basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuit...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923267/technology-enabled-management-of-communication-and-swallowing-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-scoping-review
#6
REVIEW
Deborah Theodoros, Danielle Aldridge, Anne J Hill, Trevor Russell
BACKGROUND: Communication and swallowing disorders are highly prevalent in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Maintenance of functional communication and swallowing over time is challenging for the person with PD and their families and may lead to social isolation and reduced quality of life if not addressed. Speech and language therapists (SLTs) face the conundrum of providing sustainable and flexible services to meet the changing needs of people with PD. Motor, cognitive and psychological issues associated with PD, medication regimens and dependency on others often impede attendance at a centre-based service...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922639/narrowing-the-genetic-causes-of-language-dysfunction-in-the-1q21-1-microduplication-syndrome
#7
Antonio Benítez-Burraco, Montserrat Barcos-Martínez, Isabel Espejo-Portero, Maite Fernández-Urquiza, Raúl Torres-Ruiz, Sandra Rodríguez-Perales, Ma Salud Jiménez-Romero
The chromosome 1q21.1 duplication syndrome (OMIM# 612475) is characterized by head anomalies, mild facial dysmorphisms, and cognitive problems, including autistic features, mental retardation, developmental delay, and learning disabilities. Speech and language development are sometimes impaired, but no detailed characterization of language problems in this condition has been provided to date. We report in detail on the cognitive and language phenotype of a child who presents with a duplication in 1q21.1 (arr[hg19] 1q21...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916792/alpha-and-beta-oscillations-index-semantic-congruency-between-speech-and-gestures-in-clear-and-degraded-speech
#8
Linda Drijvers, Asli Özyürek, Ole Jensen
Previous work revealed that visual semantic information conveyed by gestures can enhance degraded speech comprehension, but the mechanisms underlying these integration processes under adverse listening conditions remain poorly understood. We used MEG to investigate how oscillatory dynamics support speech-gesture integration when integration load is manipulated by auditory (e.g., speech degradation) and visual semantic (e.g., gesture congruency) factors. Participants were presented with videos of an actress uttering an action verb in clear or degraded speech, accompanied by a matching (mixing gesture + "mixing") or mismatching (drinking gesture + "walking") gesture...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915002/abstract-concepts-language-and-sociality-from-acquisition-to-inner-speech
#9
REVIEW
Anna M Borghi, Laura Barca, Ferdinand Binkofski, Luca Tummolini
The problem of representation of abstract concepts, such as 'freedom' and 'justice', has become particularly crucial in recent years, owing to the increased success of embodied and grounded views of cognition. We will present a novel view on abstract concepts and abstract words. Since abstract concepts do not have single objects as referents, children and adults might rely more on input from others to learn them; we, therefore, suggest that linguistic and social experience play an important role for abstract concepts...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909483/understanding-patient-reported-outcome-measures-in-huntington-disease-at-what-point-is-cognitive-impairment-related-to-poor-measurement-reliability
#10
N E Carlozzi, S Schilling, A L Kratz, J S Paulsen, S Frank, J C Stout
PURPOSE: Symptom progression in Huntington disease (HD) is associated with cognitive decline which may interfere with the self-report of symptoms. Unfortunately, data to support or refute the psychometric reliability of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as HD progresses are limited. This is problematic given that PROs are increasingly recognized as important measures of efficacy for new treatments. METHODS: We examined PRO data from the HDQLIFE Measurement System (Speech Difficulties; Swallowing Difficulties; Chorea) in 509 individuals with premanifest, early-stage, or late-stage HD...
June 16, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906958/fast-social-like-learning-of-complex-behaviors-based-on-motor-motifs
#11
Carlos Calvo Tapia, Ivan Y Tyukin, Valeri A Makarov
Social learning is widely observed in many species. Less experienced agents copy successful behaviors exhibited by more experienced individuals. Nevertheless, the dynamical mechanisms behind this process remain largely unknown. Here we assume that a complex behavior can be decomposed into a sequence of n motor motifs. Then a neural network capable of activating motor motifs in a given sequence can drive an agent. To account for (n-1)! possible sequences of motifs in a neural network, we employ the winnerless competition approach...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906900/vocal-effort-modulates-the-motor-planning-of-short-speech-structures
#12
Alan Taitz, Diego E Shalom, Marcos A Trevisan
Speech requires programming the sequence of vocal gestures that produce the sounds of words. Here we explored the timing of this program by asking our participants to pronounce, as quickly as possible, a sequence of consonant-consonant-vowel (CCV) structures appearing on screen. We measured the delay between visual presentation and voice onset. In the case of plosive consonants, produced by sharp and well defined movements of the vocal tract, we found that delays are positively correlated with the duration of the transition between consonants...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905156/two-cases-of-opercular-myoclonic-anarthric-status-epilepticus
#13
Amaia Muñoz-Lopetegi, Gorka Fernández García de Eulate, Jon Rodríguez-Antigüedad Muñoz, Alberto Bergareche, Juan José Poza
Opercular myoclonic-anarthric status epilepticus (OMASE) is a rare form of epilepsia partialis continua presenting as fluctuating dysarthria, or even anarthria. The condition is caused by an epileptogenic lesion involving the opercular cortex of either hemisphere. Speech impairment is secondary to bilateral epileptic activity affecting the glossopharyngeal muscles. This bilateral nature of the condition is due to the fact that innervation of cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X and XII from the opercular area of the primary motor cortex is bilateral...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905153/chromosome-14q11-2-q21-1-duplication-a-rare-cause-of-west-syndrome
#14
Özdem Ertürk Çetin, Cengiz Yalçınkaya, Birsen Karaman, Veysi Demirbilek, Beyhan Tüysüz
Proximal duplication of chromosome 14q, including the FOXG1 gene located on 14q12, is a rare condition characterised by developmental delay, dysmorphic craniofacial features, epilepsy, and severe speech delay. Here, we report a patient with West syndrome whose chromosome analysis revealed 14q11.2-21.1 duplication. The patient was admitted due to infantile epileptic spasms at eight months of age, motor developmental delay, and dysmorphic features. Chromosome and array-CGH analysis revealed de novo 14q11.2-21...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903439/language-and-the-cerebellum
#15
Peter Mariën, Renato Borgatti
During the past decades neuroanatomic, neuroimaging, and clinical studies have substantially changed the long-standing view of the role of the cerebellum as a sole coordinator of sensorimotor function. Currently, the cerebellum is considered to be crucially implicated in a variety of cognitive, affective, social, and behavioral processes as well. In this chapter we aim to summarize a number of critical insights from different research areas (neuroanatomy, functional neuroimaging, clinical practice) that provide evidence for a role of the cerebellum in motor speech and nonmotor language processing in both adults and children...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903437/cerebellar-motor-syndrome-from-children-to-the-elderly
#16
Mario Manto
More than a century after the description of its cardinal components, the cerebellar motor syndrome (CMS) remains a cornerstone of daily clinical ataxiology, in both children and adults. Anatomically, motor cerebellum involves lobules I-V, VI, and VIII. CMS is typically associated with errors in the metrics of voluntary movements and a lack of coordination. Symptoms and motor signs consist of speech deficits, impairments of limb movements, and abnormalities of posture/gait. Ataxic dysarthria has a typical scanning (explosive with staccato) feature, voice has a nasal character, and speech is slurred...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902994/social-risk-factors-for-speech-scholastic-and-coordination-disorders-a-nationwide-register-based-study
#17
Bianca Arrhenius, David Gyllenberg, Roshan Chudal, Venla Lehti, Minna Sucksdorff, Ona Sourander, Juha-Pekka Virtanen, Jutta Torsti, Andre Sourander
BACKGROUND: Broadly defined learning and coordination disorders (LCDs) are common in the population and have previously been associated with familial social risk factors and male sex. However, comprehensive nationwide studies of these risk factors in LCD subgroups are lacking. Our objective was to assess different LCDs in relation to sex and maternal education, marital status and socioeconomic status based on occupation. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide register-based study...
June 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896086/reduced-performance-during-a-sentence-repetition-task-by-continuous-theta-burst-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-pre-supplementary-motor-area
#18
Susanne Dietrich, Ingo Hertrich, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Hermann Ackermann, Paolo Belardinelli, Debora Desideri, Verena C Seibold, Ulf Ziemann
The pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) is engaged in speech comprehension under difficult circumstances such as poor acoustic signal quality or time-critical conditions. Previous studies found that left pre-SMA is activated when subjects listen to accelerated speech. Here, the functional role of pre-SMA was tested for accelerated speech comprehension by inducing a transient "virtual lesion" using continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS). Participants were tested (1) prior to (pre-baseline), (2) 10 min after (test condition for the cTBS effect), and (3) 60 min after stimulation (post-baseline) using a sentence repetition task (formant-synthesized at rates of 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 syllables/s)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894448/neurologic-outcomes-after-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-a-systematic-review
#19
Katharine Boyle, Ryan Felling, Alvin Yiu, Wejdan Battarjee, Jamie McElrath Schwartz, Cynthia Salorio, Melania M Bembea
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this systematic review of the literature was to summarize neurologic outcomes following neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DATA SOURCES: We conducted electronic searches of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria included publication dates 2000-2016, patient ages 0-18 years, and use of standardized measures to evaluate outcomes after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation...
June 11, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892331/delayed-management-of-unrecognized-bilateral-temporomandibular-joint-dislocation-a-case-report
#20
Siok Yoong Chin, Nazer Bin Berahim, Khairulzaman Bin Adnan, Sundrarajan Naidu Ramasamy
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation is a common occurrence, but diagnosis can be missed if patients do not complain. Delayed presentation complicates the management of a straightforward reduction. We present a case of a 24-year-old man who had bilateral TMJ dislocation of unknown duration after motor vehicle accident. The accident left him bedridden with speech difficulty. He was totally dependent on Ryles' and percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy tubes for feeding. Computed tomography revealed dislocation of condyles anterior to articular eminences...
June 2018: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
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