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Athlete sudden death

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864776/sudden-cardiac-and-noncardiac-death-in-sports-epidemiology-causes-pathogenesis-and-prevention
#1
Giuseppe Lippi, Emmanuel J Favaloro, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar
Although few doubts remain that physical exercise should be widely promoted for maintenance of health and fitness, the risk of adverse events such as sudden death (especially due to cardiac causes, i.e., sudden cardiac death [SCD]) during exercise remains tangible. The overall risk of sudden death in athletes is relatively low (i.e., usually comprised between 0.1 and 38/100,000 person-years), and globally comparable to that of the general population. However, up to 20% of all sudden death cases are still recorded while exercising...
June 4, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861322/differentiating-athlete-s-heart-from-cardiomyopathies-the-right-side
#2
David Prior
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a recognised cause of sudden cardiac death during exercise in young athletes. Competitive exercise is also known to accelerate progression of ARVC and exercise restriction is an important part of disease management. Regular endurance training can induce physiological changes detectable on electrocardiography and imaging which may overlap with pathological findings caused by ARVC, thus making differentiation of athlete's heart from ARVC difficult in some cases...
May 19, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843381/elevated-lv-mass-and-lv-mass-index-sign-on-the-athlete-s-ecg-athletes-hearts-are-prone-to-ventricular-arrhythmia
#3
Mücahid Yılmaz, Hidayet Kayançiçek
OBJECTIVES: Intense exercise elevates all heart chambers' dimensions, left ventricular mass (LV mass), and left ventricular mass index (LV mass index). The relationship between increased ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death with LV dilatation and elevated LV mass has been previously demonstrated. We investigated whether sports-related LV dilatation and elevated LV mass and LV mass index cause an increase in ventricular repolarization heterogeneity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study recruited 565 participants...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802319/frequency-of-genetic-variants-associated-with-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy-in-the-genome-aggregation-database
#4
Charlotte L Hall, Henry Sutanto, Chrysoula Dalageorgou, William John McKenna, Petros Syrris, Marta Futema
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare inherited heart-muscle disorder, which is the most common cause of life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young adults and athletes. Early and accurate diagnosis can be crucial in effective ARVC management and prevention of SCD.The genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) population of 138,632 unrelated individuals was searched for previously identified ARVC variants, classified as pathogenic or unknown on the disease genetic variant database ( http://www...
May 25, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796715/sickle-cell-trait-and-sudden-death
#5
REVIEW
Bruce L Mitchell
Sickle cell trait has long been considered a benign condition but continues to be the leading cause of death in young African Americans in military basic training and civilian organized sports. There continues to be a great deal of controversy surrounding sickle cell trait and its association with exercise-related morbidity and sudden death. Even though sickle cell trait has a high prevalence among African Americans, many clinicians believe the potential adverse consequences should have been mitigated by actions such as universal screening in the USA at birth for sickle hemoglobin, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) rule changes, and changes in the US Military boot camp system...
May 23, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792780/cardiovascular-screening-practices-and-attitudes-from-the-ncaa-autonomous-power-5-conferences
#6
Christopher W Miars, Andreas Stamatis, Grant B Morgan, Jonathan A Drezner
BACKGROUND: The development of athlete-specific electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation standards, along with recent rates of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes being higher than previously estimated, has heightened the debate in the sports medicine community regarding cardiovascular screening of the college athlete, including whether certain high-risk subsets, such as male basketball athletes, should undergo more intensive screening. HYPOTHESIS: ECG and/or echocardiography screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association Autonomous 5 Division I (A5DI) schools will be more common than previous reports, and there will be more frequent use of noninvasive cardiac screening for men's basketball players than the general athlete population...
May 1, 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782639/sudden-cardiac-death-in-athletes-and-the-value-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance
#7
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, Flora Bacopoulou, Despoina Apostolaki, George P Chrousos
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the non-traumatic death, due to loss of heart function that occurs suddenly and unexpectedly within 6 hours of a previously normal state of health. It is related to intense competitive sports promoting ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF) in the presence of underlying abnormal substrate. A serial evaluation of cardiac physiologic changes taking place during training will allow the better understanding of athlete's heart and will facilitate its discrimination from other gray-zone cardiomyopathies...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720507/comprehensive-assessment-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-sports-related-sudden-cardiac-arrest
#8
Nicole Karam, Louis Pechmajou, Florence Dumas, Wulfran Bougouin, Ardalan Sharifzadehgan, Frankie Beganton, Guillaume Bonnet, Daniel Jost, Lionel Lamhaut, Olivier Varenne, Pierre Aubry, Georgios Sideris, Christian Spaulding, Alain Cariou, Eloi Marijon, Xavier Jouven
Despite the cardiovascular benefits of regular sports, sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) risk is increased during or shortly after exercise. Association with coronary artery disease (CAD) has been described in small studies, mainly autopsic with potential bias given the high sports-related SCA survival, and focusing on young competitive athletes, whereas sports-related SCA occurs mostly in recreational athletes.1-5 Through the Paris Sudden Death Expertise Center prospective registry that includes all SCAs in Paris and suburbs since May 2011, we performed the first broad comprehensive CAD description in sports-related SCAs, with a comparison with matched non-sports-related SCAs...
May 2, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705387/sudden-cardiac-death-in-athletes
#9
REVIEW
Joanna Sweeting, Christopher Semsarian
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes is a rare but tragic complication of a number of cardiovascular diseases. Inherited causes such as the structural and arrhythmogenic genetic heart conditions are often found or suspected to be the underlying cause of death at post mortem examination. Physical activity and intense exercise may trigger cardiac arrhythmias in individuals with these conditions leading to SCD. Prevention and treatment strategies include individual athlete management strategies, coupled with public health measures such as universal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and availability of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) in public places, thereby preventing SCD in both athletes and the general population...
April 5, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705385/diagnosis-of-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy-progress-and-pitfalls
#10
REVIEW
Ad W G J Oomen, Christopher Semsarian, Rajesh Puranik, Raymond W Sy
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy that predominantly affects the right ventricle. With a prevalence in the range of 1:5000 to 1:2000 persons, ARVC is one of the leading causes of sudden cardiac death in young people and in athletes. Although early detection and treatment is important, the diagnosis of ARVC remains challenging. There is no single pathognomonic diagnostic finding in ARVC; rather, current international task force criteria specify diagnostic major and minor criteria in six categories: right ventricular imaging (including echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), histology, repolarisation abnormalities, depolarisation and conduction abnormalities, arrhythmias and family history (including genetic testing)...
April 4, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693422/radius-of-care-in-secondary-schools-in-the-midwest-are-automated-external-defibrillators-sufficiently-accessible-to-enable-optimal-patient-care
#11
Michael Osterman, Tina Claiborne, Victor Liberi
CONTEXT:   Sudden cardiac arrest is the leading cause of death among young athletes. According to the American Heart Association, an automated external defibrillator (AED) should be available within a 1- to 1.5-minute brisk walk from the patient for the highest chance of survival. Secondary school personnel have reported a lack of understanding about the proper number and placement of AEDs for optimal patient care. OBJECTIVE:   To determine whether fixed AEDs were located within a 1- to 1...
April 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678777/a-10-year-review-of-sudden-death-during-sporting-activities
#12
Mark Dennis, Alexander Elder, Christopher Semsarian, John Orchard, Isabel Brouwer, Rajesh Puranik
BACKGROUND: Sudden death during sport is a rare but devastating event. Previous research has mostly focused on sudden deaths in young competitive athletes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the demographics and etiologies of sudden cardiac death during sport in Australia. METHODS: All autopsies conducted at our forensic medicine facility between 2006 and 2015 inclusive were reviewed. Sporting-related deaths among those 7-65 years of age were identified...
April 18, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622970/sudden-cardiac-death-with-triple-pathologies-a-case-report
#13
R Razuin, F Nurquin, M N Shahidan, M N Julina
Sudden cardiac death in young adults may be associated with rare cardiomyopathies such as left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular (ARVC) cardiomyopathies. LVNC is characterised by hypertrabeculations and deep recesses of the left ventricle. ARVC presents with thin myocardium as a result of extensive fibro-fatty infiltrations. In both conditions, death may be due to arrhythmia, thromboembolic events or heart failure. We report a case of a 21-year old athletic young man who collapsed at the futsal court right after the game...
June 2017: The Egyptian heart journal: (EHJ): official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621050/sudden-cardiac-death-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#14
Daria M Adamczak, Zofia Oko-Sarnowska
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heart disease characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricular myocardium and is most often caused by mutations in sarcomere genes. The structural and functional abnormalities are not explained by flow-limiting coronary artery disease or loading conditions. The disease affects at least 0.2% of the population worldwide and is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young people and competitive athletes because of fatal ventricular arrhythmia. In some patients, however, HCM has a benign course...
May 2018: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606362/usefulness-of-genetic-study-by-next-generation-sequencing-in-high-risk-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#15
Amalio Ruiz Salas, José Peña Hernández, Carmen Medina Palomo, Alberto Barrera Cordero, Fernando Cabrera Bueno, José Manuel García Pinilla, Ana Guijarro, Luis Morcillo-Hidalgo, Manuel Jiménez Navarro, Juan José Gómez Doblas, Eduardo de Teresa, Javier Alzueta
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of predominantly right ventricular myocardium. This cardiomyopathy is a frequent cause of sudden cardiac death in young people and athletes. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of pathological or likely pathological desmosomal mutations in patients with high-risk definite ARVC. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective cohort study, which included 36 patients diagnosed with high-risk ARVC in our hospital between January 1998 and January 2015...
March 29, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575042/monitoring-morphologic-changes-in-male-rowers-using-limited-portable-echocardiography-performed-by-a-frontline-physician
#16
Deanna L Kerkhof, Caroline Lucas, Gianmichel D Corrado
Athletes' hearts have been studied for adaptive changes in response to exercise. Physiologic changes are normal responses to intense athletic training regimens, whereas pathologic changes predispose athletes to sudden cardiac death. The two alterations overlap in clinical presentation. Research continues to investigate the upper limits of cardiac remodeling to aid clinical decision making. Studying normal changes that occur in response to exercise will advance physicians' understanding of physiologic responses to exercise and potentially improve clinical distinction...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551755/a-guideline-update-for-the-practice-of-echocardiography-in-the-cardiac-screening-of-sports-participants-a-joint-policy-statement-from-the-british-society-of-echocardiography-and-cardiac-risk-in-the-young
#17
David Oxborough, Daniel Augustine, Sabiha Gati, Keith George, Allan Harkness, Thomas Mathew, Michael Papadakis, Liam Ring, Shaun Robinson, Julie Sandoval, Rizwan Sarwar, Sanjay Sharma, Vishal Sharma, Nabeel Sheikh, John Somauroo, Martin Stout, James Willis, Abbas Zaidi
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an athlete is a rare but tragic event. In view of this, pre-participation cardiac screening is mandatory across many sporting disciplines to identify those athletes at risk. Echocardiography is a primary investigation utilized in the pre-participation setting and in 2013 the British Society of Echocardiography and Cardiac Risk in the Young produced a joint policy document providing guidance on the role of echocardiography in this setting. Recent developments in our understanding of the athlete's heart and the application of echocardiography have prompted this 2018 update...
March 2018: Echo Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532331/athlete-s-heart-and-left-heart-disease
#18
Cesare de Gregorio, Dalia Di Nunzio, Gianluca Di Bella
Physical activity comprises all muscular activities that require energy expenditure. Regular sequence of structured and organized exercise with the specific purpose of improving wellness and athletic performance is defined as a sports activity.Exercise can be performed at various levels of intensity and duration. According to the social context and pathways, it can be recreational, occupational, and competitive. Therefore, the training burden varies inherently and the heart adaptation is challenging.Although a general agreement on the fact that sports practice leads to metabolic, functional and physical benefits, there is evidence that some athletes may be subjected to adverse outcomes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525648/diagnostic-criteria-genetics-and-molecular-basis-of-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#19
REVIEW
Cristina Basso, Kalliopi Pilichou, Barbara Bauce, Domenico Corrado, Gaetano Thiene
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is an inherited heart muscle disease characterized by myocardial atrophy and fibrofatty replacement of the ventricular myocardium, at risk of sudden cardiac death, particularly in the young and athletes. Because there is no "gold standard" to reach the diagnosis of AC, multiple categories of diagnostic information have been combined, including imaging, electrocardiographic changes, arrhythmias, tissue characterization, and family history. However, the routine use of contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance increasingly revealed left dominant AC, a variant that is not well addressed in the diagnostic criteria and still escapes clinical identification...
April 2018: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522557/cardiac-electrophysiological-adaptations-in-the-equine-athlete-restitution-analysis-of-electrocardiographic-features
#20
Mengye Li, Karan R Chadda, Gareth D K Matthews, Celia M Marr, Christopher L-H Huang, Kamalan Jeevaratnam
Exercising horses uniquely accommodate 7-8-fold increases in heart rate (HR). The present experiments for the first time analysed the related adaptations in action potential (AP) restitution properties recorded by in vivo telemetric electrocardiography from Thoroughbred horses. The horses were subjected to a period of acceleration from walk to canter. The QRS durations, and QT and TQ intervals yielded AP conduction velocities, AP durations (APDs) and diastolic intervals respectively. From these, indices of active, λ = QT/(QRS duration), and resting, λ0 = TQ/(QRS duration), AP wavelengths were calculated...
2018: PloS One
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