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Athlete sudden death

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035985/qt-corrections-for-long-qt-risk-assessment-implications-for-the-preparticipation-examination
#1
David Hadley, David Hsu, David Pickham, Jonathan A Drezner, Victor F Froelicher
BACKGROUND: Because sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young mainly occur in individuals with structurally normal hearts, improved screening techniques for detecting inherited arrhythmic diseases are needed. The QT interval is an important screening measurement; however, the criteria for detecting an abnormal QT interval are based on Bazett formula and older populations. OBJECTIVE: To define the normal upper limits for QT interval from the electrocardiograms (ECGs) of healthy young individuals, compare the major correction formula and propose new QT interval thresholds for detecting those at risk of SCD...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979908/epicardial-ablation-of-ventricular-tachycardia-in-a-patient-with-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-dysplasia-after-failed-conventional-endocardial-ablation-a-case-for-remote-navigation-with-functional-image-integration
#2
Sabine Ernst, Karine Roy, Eric Lim, Glyn Thomas
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is an inheritable heart muscle disease that predominantly affects the right ventricle (RV) and predisposes to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD)(1). The natural history is predominantly related to ventricular electric instability which may lead to arrhythmic SCD, mostly in young people and athletes(2,3), but may progress with significant RV muscle disease and left-ventricular (LV) involvement and can result in right or biventricular heart failure(4)...
December 30, 2016: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975231/death-and-cardiac-arrest-in-u-s-triathlon-participants-1985-to-2016-a-case-series
#3
Kevin M Harris, Lawrence L Creswell, Tammy S Haas, Taylor Thomas, Monica Tung, Erin Isaacson, Ross F Garberich, Barry J Maron
Background: Reports of race-related triathlon fatalities have raised questions regarding athlete safety. Objective: To describe death and cardiac arrest among triathlon participants. Design: Case series. Setting: United States. Participants: Participants in U.S. triathlon races from 1985 to 2016. Measurements: Data on deaths and cardiac arrests were assembled from such sources as the U...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967243/blunt-thoracic-trauma-and-cardiac-injury-in-the-athlete-contemporary-management
#4
Cesare DE Gregorio, Ludovico Magaudda
INTRODUCTION: Commotion cordis and cardiac injuries are rare events usually following a chest blunt trauma during sports activities. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION AND SYNTHESIS: Various aetiologies have been identified to cause electrical (commotion cordis) and/or structural (contusion and further injuries) damage, but high-velocity tools such as baseballs or hockey pucks (also called projectiles) have been chiefly identified. Clinical consequences are challenging, varying from uncomplicated supraventricular arrhythmias to cardiac wall rupture...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951881/state-level-implementation-of-health-and-safety-policies-to-prevent-sudden-death-and-catastrophic-injuries-within-secondary-school-athletics
#5
William M Adams, Samantha E Scarneo, Douglas J Casa
BACKGROUND: Sudden death and catastrophic injuries during sport can be attenuated with the implementation of evidence-based health and safety policies. However, the extent of the implementation of these policies within secondary school athletics is unknown. PURPOSE: To provide an assessment of the implementation of health and safety policies pertaining to the leading causes of sudden death and catastrophic injuries in sport within secondary school athletics in the United States...
September 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928069/comments-on-the-new-international-criteria-for-electrocardiographic-interpretation-in-athletes
#6
Luis Serratosa-Fernández, Domingo Pascual-Figal, María Dolores Masiá-Mondéjar, María Sanz-de la Garza, Zigor Madaria-Marijuan, Juan Ramón Gimeno-Blanes, Carmen Adamuz
Sudden cardiac death is the most common medical cause of death during the practice of sports. Several structural and electrical cardiac conditions are associated with sudden cardiac death in athletes, most of them showing abnormal findings on resting electrocardiogram (ECG). However, because of the similarity between some ECG findings associated with physiological adaptations to exercise training and those of certain cardiac conditions, ECG interpretation in athletes is often challenging. Other factors related to ECG findings are race, age, sex, sports discipline, training intensity, and athletic background...
September 16, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912183/arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#7
REVIEW
Domenico Corrado, Cristina Basso, Daniel P Judge
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is an inherited heart muscle disorder, predisposing to sudden cardiac death, particularly in young patients and athletes. Pathological features include loss of myocytes and fibrofatty replacement of right ventricular myocardium; biventricular involvement is often observed. It is a cell-to-cell junction cardiomyopathy, typically caused by genetically determined abnormalities of cardiac desmosomes, which leads to detachment of myocytes and alteration of intracellular signal transduction...
September 15, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889167/does-simulation-based-training-increase-athletic-training-students-clinical-confidence-and-competence-in-performing-a-cardiovascular-screening
#8
Jennifer L Doherty-Restrepo, K Erin Harrelson, Tazjanne Swinnie, Alicia M Montalvo
CONTEXT: The incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes is higher than previously estimated. The need for increased screening to detect cardiac diseases in preparticipation physical examinations (PPE) has become a focus in athletic training. The use of simulation-based training in healthcare professionals' education has increased clinical confidence and competence, but research is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine if a simulation-based educational intervention can increase athletic training students' self-reported confidence and clinical competence in conducting a cardiovascular screening...
2017: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878587/arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy-in-an-endurance-athlete-presenting-with-ventricular-tachycardia-and-normal-right-ventricular-function
#9
Jeffrey S Hedley, Ibhar Al Mheid, Zoubin Alikhani, Maria A Pernetz, Jonathan H Kim
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a genetically inherited disease that results in fibrofatty replacement of normal cardiac myocytes, has been associated with sudden cardiac death in athletes. Long-term participation in endurance exercise hastens the development of both the arrhythmic and structural arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy phenotypes. We describe the unusual case of a 34-year-old, symptomatic, female endurance athlete who had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in the presence of a structurally normal right ventricle...
August 2017: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833626/cardiac-imaging-to-detect-coronary-artery-disease-in-athletes-aged-35-years-and-older-a-scoping-review
#10
Thijs L Braber, Johannes B Reitsma, Arend Mosterd, Martin J Willemink, Niek H J Prakken, Martin Halle, Sanjay Sharma, Birgitta K Velthuis
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a devastating event in athletes. Screening efforts that were first directed at athletes younger than 35 years, are now focusing on the rapidly growing group of older sportspersons. Athletes aged ≥35 years have a 10-fold increased risk of exercise-related cardiac arrest, mostly due to coronary artery disease (CAD). Although cardiac imaging is pivotal in identifying CAD, the role of imaging modalities in screening asymptomatic older sportspersons remains unclear. We performed a scoping review to identify the role of cardiac imaging to detect CAD in older sportspersons and to identify gaps in the existing literature...
August 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805553/top-10-research-questions-related-to-preventing-sudden-death-in-sport-and-physical-activity
#11
Rachel K Katch, Samantha E Scarneo, William M Adams, Lawrence E Armstrong, Luke N Belval, Julie M Stamm, Douglas J Casa
Participation in organized sport and recreational activities presents an innate risk for serious morbidity and mortality. Although death during sport or physical activity has many causes, advancements in sports medicine and evidence-based standards of care have allowed clinicians to prevent, recognize, and treat potentially fatal injuries more effectively. With the continual progress of research and technology, current standards of care are evolving to enhance patient outcomes. In this article, we provided 10 key questions related to the leading causes and treatment of sudden death in sport and physical activity, where future research will support safer participation for athletes and recreational enthusiasts...
September 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804588/first-reported-case-of-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy-in-oman
#12
Hatim Al Lawati, Humoud Al Dhuhli
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by fatty degeneration of the right ventricular myocardium with variable involvement of the left ventricle. The condition is associated with exercise-mediated ventricular tachycardia and is one of the recognized causes of sudden cardiac death in the young and in athletes. Here, we report the first confirmed case of ARVC in Oman and present its electrocardiographic, echocardiographic features, and radiological findings on gated, contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography...
July 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795011/cardiac-screening-to-prevent-sudden-death-in-young-athletes
#13
REVIEW
Christopher Schmehil, Devika Malhotra, Dilip R Patel
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden and unexpected death caused by loss of heart of function. SCD may occur in any population, but when it occurs on the playing field in a young individual, communities worldwide are affected. Although these events are rare, media coverage of sudden cardiac arrests in young athletes have created the impression that these events are far more common than they appear. With a heightened awareness of SCD in young athletes, screening methods have been developed to try and prevent these events from occurring...
July 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789718/cardiovascular-pre-participation-screening-in-young-athletes-recommendations-of-the-association-of-european-paediatric-cardiology
#14
Peter Fritsch, Robert Dalla Pozza, Doris Ehringer-Schetitska, Eero Jokinen, Vesna Herceg, Erzsebet Hidvegi, Renate Oberhoffer, Andreas Petropoulos
Sudden death in young competitive athletes can be avoided by implementation of pre-participation screening programmes. A screening programme should be performed only by trained physicians and should include the athlete's personal and family history, physical examination results, and the readings from a 12-lead-electrocardiogram. The athlete should undergo this screening programme every second year to detect progressive diseases. In addition, the programme should include detailed instructions to the athletes to pause training during infections in order to prevent sudden death due to myocarditis...
November 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760206/prevention-of-sudden-cardiac-death-in-the-young-developing-a-rational-reliable-and-sustainable-national-health-care-resource-a-report-from-the-cardiac-safety-research-consortium
#15
REVIEW
Salim F Idriss, Stuart Berger, Kimberly G Harmon, Allen Kindman, Robert Kleiman, Martha Lopez-Anderson, Silvana Molossi, Tess Elizabeth Saarel, Colette Strnadova, Thomas Todaro, Kaori Shinagawa, Valarie Morrow, Mitchell Krucoff, Victoria Vetter, Theressa J Wright
This White Paper, prepared by members of the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium, discusses important issues regarding sudden cardiac death in the young (SCDY), a problem that does not discriminate by gender, race, ethnicity, education, socioeconomic level, or athletic status. The occurrence of SCDY has devastating impact on families and communities. Sudden cardiac death in the young is a matter of national and international public health, and its prevention has generated deep interest from multiple stakeholders, including families who have lost children, advocacy groups, academicians, regulators, and the medical industry...
August 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711608/do-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-have-performance-enhancing-effects-in-female-athletes
#16
REVIEW
Grace Huang, Shehzad Basaria
Doping with anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is common among both male and female athletes and is a growing public health problem. Review of historical data of systematic state-sponsored doping programs implemented by the German Democratic Republic in elite female athletes and from clinical trials of testosterone administration in non-athlete women suggests that AAS have ergogenic effects in women. The use of AAS in female athletes has been associated with adverse effects that include acne, hirsutism, deepening of the voice and menstrual disturbances; life-threatening adverse effects such as cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death have also been reported...
July 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706583/cardiac-damage-in-athlete-s-heart-when-the-supernormal-heart-fails
#17
REVIEW
Andreina Carbone, Antonello D'Andrea, Lucia Riegler, Raffaella Scarafile, Enrica Pezzullo, Francesca Martone, Raffaella America, Biagio Liccardo, Maurizio Galderisi, Eduardo Bossone, Raffaele Calabrò
Intense exercise may cause heart remodeling to compensate increases in blood pressure or volume by increasing muscle mass. Cardiac changes do not involve only the left ventricle, but all heart chambers. Physiological cardiac modeling in athletes is associated with normal or enhanced cardiac function, but recent studies have documented decrements in left ventricular function during intense exercise and the release of cardiac markers of necrosis in athlete's blood of uncertain significance. Furthermore, cardiac remodeling may predispose athletes to heart disease and result in electrical remodeling, responsible for arrhythmias...
June 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699707/-electrocardiographic-interpretation-in-athletes-2017-recommendations-for-non-cardiologists
#18
Philippe Meyer, Vincent Gabus
A resting electrocardiogram (ECG) is recommended for screening of sudden cardiac death in young athletes. However, ECG interpretation in athletes requires an adequate training because normal physiological training adaptations in athletes can sometimes be hardly distinguished from abnormal findings suggestive of underlying pathology. In 2017, a consensus of international experts established new recommendations for a clear and accurate interpretation of ECGs in athletes. This article aims to guide non-cardiologists according to these new data, allowing a better triage of anomalies requiring further investigations...
July 12, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687478/factors-influencing-the-phenotypic-expression-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-in-genetic-carriers
#19
Inmaculada Pérez-Sánchez, Antonio José Romero-Puche, Esperanza García-Molina Sáez, María Sabater-Molina, José María López-Ayala, Carmen Muñoz-Esparza, David López-Cuenca, Gonzalo de la Morena, Francisco José Castro-García, Juan Ramón Gimeno-Blanes
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disorder with variable expression. It is mainly caused by mutations in sarcomeric genes but the phenotype could be modulated by other factors. The aim of this study was to determine whether factors such as sex, systemic hypertension, or physical activity are modifiers of disease severity and to establish their role in age-related penetrance of HCM. METHODS: We evaluated 272 individuals (mean age 49 ± 17 years, 57% males) from 72 families with causative mutations...
July 4, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670826/current-practices-are-variable-in-the-evaluation-and-management-of-patients-with-anomalous-aortic-origin-of-a-coronary-artery-results-of-a-survey
#20
Hitesh Agrawal, Carlos M Mery, Patrick E Day, S Kristen Sexson Tejtel, E Dean McKenzie, Charles D Fraser, Athar M Qureshi, Silvana Molossi
BACKGROUND: Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) is the second leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young athletes in the USA. Long-term outcome data for these patients are lacking to date. There is insufficient knowledge on the best approach to these patients and they are managed in a nonuniform manner. METHODS: An online survey of 15 questions regarding management of AAOCA was sent out to 198 cardiac healthcare providers. The goal was to define gaps in knowledge to justify a dedicated scientific forum for discussion of AAOCA...
July 2, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
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