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Diabetic retinopathy barrier

Khaled Elmasry, Riyaz Mohamed, Isha Sharma, Nehal M Elsherbiny, Yutao Liu, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Amany Tawfik
To study Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced epigenetic modifications as potential mechanisms of blood retinal barrier (BRB) dysfunction, retinas isolated from three- week-old mice with elevated level of Homocysteine (Hcy) due to lack of the enzyme cystathionine β-synthase ( cbs-/- , cbs+/- and cbs+/+ ), human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs), and human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19) treated with or without Hcy were evaluated for (1) histone deacetylases (HDAC), (2) DNA methylation (DNMT), and (3) miRNA analysis...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Monika Lakk, Felix Vazquez-Chona, Oleg Yarishkin, David Križaj
Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes) and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Rupert R A Bourne, Jost B Jonas, Alain M Bron, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Aditi Das, Seth R Flaxman, David S Friedman, Jill E Keeffe, John H Kempen, Janet Leasher, Hans Limburg, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Tunde Peto, Jinan Saadine, Alexander J Silvester, Nina Tahhan, Hugh R Taylor, Rohit Varma, Tien Y Wong, Serge Resnikoff
BACKGROUND: Within a surveillance of the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in high-income regions and Central/Eastern Europe, we update figures through 2015 and forecast expected values in 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness, moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI), mild vision impairment and presbyopia was estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015, and 2020. RESULTS: Age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI for all ages decreased from 1990 to 2015 from 0...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Mufarriq Shah, Ayesha Noor, Lil Deverell, Gail M Ormsby, C Alex Harper, Jill Elizabeth Keeffe
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a preventable cause of vision loss. Reducing vision loss due to DR and providing access to eye care services for people with diabetes have been severely constrained by a shortage in the number of ophthalmologists. This study aimed to explore the potential for task sharing in the eye care workforce for screening, detection, and management of DR. METHODS: Using purposive sampling, 24 participants were recruited from four selected hospitals in 2 provinces in Pakistan...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Elisabetta Gavini, Maria Cristina Bonferoni, Giovanna Rassu, Antonella Obinu, Franca Ferrari, Paolo Giunchedi
Drug administration to the posterior segment of the eye has many challenges due to the natural barriers and consequent problems of low and unpredictable bioavailability. There is an increasing need for managing severe posterior eye diseases, such as age related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, etc.: most of these diseases, if untreated, lead to blindness. Traditional ocular formulations and topical administrations are almost inefficient and the drug delivery to the back of the eye requires direct administrations through intravitreal injections of innovative drug delivery systems...
February 26, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Kevin Miller, Jorge A Fortun
Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema comprise a major source of visual disability throughout the developed world. The etiology and pathogenesis of macular edema is intricate and multifactorial, in which the hyperglycemic state in diabetes induces a microangiopathy. Through several inflammatory and vasogenic mediators, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upregulation and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, pathologic changes are induced in the vascular endothelium triggering breakdown of the blood retinal barrier, causing extravasation of fluid into the extracellular space and manifesting clinically as macular edema, resulting in visual loss...
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
N A Ariffin, G J Nason, S I Omer, S W Considine, P Sweeney, D G Power
Diabetic retinopathy is a significant complication of diabetes, and the most common cause of blindness in people under the age of 65. The National Diabetic Retinal Screening Programme (Diabetic RetinaScreen) was established to detect sight threatening retinopathies. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to determine the barriers to the uptake of Diabetic RetinaScreen, to investigate discrepancies in attendance, if any, between patients whose diabetes care is delivered in a large tertiary referral hospital out-patient setting or in general practice, and to evaluate general practitioner's satisfaction with the service...
December 18, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
Kapil Chaudhary, Wanwisa Promsote, Sudha Ananth, Rajalakshmi Veeranan-Karmegam, Amany Tawfik, Pachiappan Arjunan, Pamela Martin, Sylvia B Smith, Muthusamy Thangaraju, Oleg Kisselev, Vadivel Ganapathy, Jaya P Gnana-Prakasam
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness among working-age adults. Increased iron accumulation is associated with several degenerative diseases. However, there are no reports on the status of retinal iron or its implications in the pathogenesis of DR. In the present study, we found that retinas of type-1 and type-2 mouse models of diabetes have increased iron accumulation compared to non-diabetic retinas. We found similar iron accumulation in postmortem retinal samples from human diabetic patients...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Renu A Kowluru, Manish Mishra
Retinopathy remains as one of the most feared blinding complications of diabetes, and with the prevalence of this life-long disease escalating at an alarming rate, the incidence of retinopathy is also climbing. Although the cutting edge research has identified many molecular mechanisms associated with its development, the exact mechanism how diabetes damages the retina remains obscure, limiting therapeutic options for this devastating disease. Areas covered: This review focuses on the central role of mitochondrial dysfunction/damage in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, and how damaged mitochondria initiates a self-perpetuating vicious cycles of free radicals...
February 13, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Marta García-Ramírez, Mireia Turch, Olga Simó-Servat, Cristina Hernández, Rafael Simó
INTRODUCTION: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an essential role in development of diabetic macular edema (DME). While there is evidence suggesting that silymarin, a flavonoid extracted from Silybum marianum, could be useful for prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy, no studies have been conducted in diabetic retinopathy (DR). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of silymarin on disruption of inner blood retinal barrier (BRB), the primary cause of DME...
February 5, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
Devy Deliyanti, Saeed F Alrashdi, Sih Min Tan, Colin Meyer, Keith W Ward, Judy B de Haan, Jennifer L Wilkinson-Berka
Purpose: Oxidative stress is a causal factor in the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, clinically relevant strategies to treat the disease by augmenting antioxidant defense mechanisms have not been fully explored. We hypothesized that boosting nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant capacity with the novel Nrf2 activator dh404, would protect the retina in diabetes including vision-threatening breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and associated damage to macroglial Müller cells...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Siwei Cai, Qianhui Yang, Mengzhu Hou, Qian Han, Hanyu Zhang, Jiantao Wang, Chen Qi, Qiyu Bo, Yusha Ru, Wei Yang, Zhongxiu Gu, Ruihua Wei, Yunshan Cao, Xiaorong Li, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and vascular leakage is the leading cause of blindness of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are primary pathogenic factors of this severe DR complication. An effective interventional modality against the pathogenic factors during early DR is needed to curb BRB breakdown and vascular leakage. This study sought to examine the protective effects of α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on early diabetic retina against vascular hyperpermeability, electrophysiological dysfunction, and morphological deterioration in a rat model of diabetes and probe the mechanisms underlying the α-MSH's anti-hyperpermeability in both rodent retinas and simian retinal vascular endothelial cells (RF6A)...
January 25, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Recivall P Salongcay, Paolo S Silva
The emergence of diabetes as a global epidemic is accompanied by the rise in diabetes‑related retinal complications. Diabetic retinopathy, if left undetected and untreated, can lead to severe visual impairment and affect an individual's productivity and quality of life. Globally, diabetic retinopathy remains one of the leading causes of visual loss in the working‑age population. Teleophthalmology for diabetic retinopathy is an innovative means of retinal evaluation that allows identification of eyes at risk for visual loss, thereby preserving vision and decreasing the overall burden to the health care system...
January 26, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
G H Bennett, A Tuthill
Diabetic retinopathy is a significant complication of diabetes, and the most common cause of blindness in people under the age of 65. The National Diabetic Retinal Screening Programme (Diabetic RetinaScreen) was established to detect sight threatening retinopathies. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to determine the barriers to the uptake of Diabetic RetinaScreen, to investigate discrepancies in attendance, if any, between patients whose diabetes care is delivered in a large tertiary referral hospital out-patient setting or in general practice, and to evaluate general practitioner's satisfaction with the service...
September 18, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
Rahima Muhammad Kashim, Paul Newton, Omorogieva Ojo
Diabetic Retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes, that can go undetected and unnoticed until irreversible damage and even blindness has occurred. Effective screening for diabetic retinopathy has been proven to reduce the risk of sight loss. The National Health Service (NHS) which provides healthcare for all UK citizens, implemented systematic retinal screening for diabetic retinopathy in England in 2003, with the aim of identifying and treating all patients with sight threatening retinopathy...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
David André Barrière, Christophe Noll, Geneviève Roussy, Farah Lizotte, Anissa Kessai, Karyn Kirby, Karine Belleville, Nicolas Beaudet, Jean-Michel Longpré, André C Carpentier, Pedro Geraldes, Philippe Sarret
The epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is fueled by added fructose consumption. Here, we thus combined high-fat/high-fructose diet, with multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin (HF/HF/Stz) to emulate the long-term complications of T2DM. HF/HF/Stz rats, monitored over 56 weeks, exhibited metabolic dysfunctions associated with the different stages of the T2DM disease progression in humans: an early prediabetic phase characterized by an hyperinsulinemic period with modest dysglycemia, followed by a late stage of T2DM with frank hyperglycemia, normalization of insulinemia, marked dyslipidemia, hepatic fibrosis and pancreatic β-cell failure...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaoqin Lei, Jianyu He, Cuicui Ren, Yunyun Zhou, Xi Chen, Jianwei Dou
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigate the protective effects of the Chinese herbal medicine prescription Zhujing pill (ZJP) on the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and explore the potential mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Zhujing pill extract (ZJPE) was prepared, and the main components were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Several serum and tissue (retina) parameters were measured, such as levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)...
December 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Soumaya Hachana, Menakshi Bhat, Jacques Sénécal, Frédéric Huppé-Gourgues, Réjean Couture, Elvire Vaucher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) contributes to vascular inflammation and blood-retinal barrier breakdown in diabetic retinopathy (DR). This study aims at investigating further the changes of expression, the cellular localization and the vascular inflammatory effect of B1R in the retina of streptozotocin diabetic rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The distribution of B1R on retinal cell types was investigated by immunocytochemistry. Impact of intravitreal B1R agonist R-838 and eye-drops application of the B1R antagonist R-954 was measured on retinal leukocytes adhesion, gene expression of the kinin and VEGF systems, B1R immunodetection, microgliosis and capillary leakage...
December 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
Sulaiman I Abuhaiba, Miguel Cordeiro, Andre Amorim, Ângela Cruz, Bruno Quendera, Carlos Ferreira, Luisa Ribeiro, Rui Bernardes, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Blood brain barrier permeability in type 2 diabetic patients has been previously shown to be altered in certain brain regions such as the basal ganglia and the hippocampus. Because of the histological and functional similarities between the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and the blood-retinal-barrier (BRB) we aimed to investigate how the permeability of both barriers predicts visual outcome. We included two control groups (Acute unilateral stroke patients n=9, and type 2 diabetics without BRB leakage n=10) and a case study group of type 2 diabetics with established BRB leakage (n=17)...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Jiong Hu, Sarah Dziumbla, Jihong Lin, Sofia-Iris Bibli, Sven Zukunft, Julian de Mos, Khader Awwad, Timo Frömel, Andreas Jungmann, Kavi Devraj, Zhixing Cheng, Liya Wang, Sascha Fauser, Charles G Eberhart, Akrit Sodhi, Bruce D Hammock, Stefan Liebner, Oliver J Müller, Clemens Glaubitz, Hans-Peter Hammes, Rüdiger Popp, Ingrid Fleming
Diabetic retinopathy is an important cause of blindness in adults, and is characterized by progressive loss of vascular cells and slow dissolution of inter-vascular junctions, which result in vascular leakage and retinal oedema. Later stages of the disease are characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue destruction and neovascularization. Here we identify soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) as a key enzyme that initiates pericyte loss and breakdown of endothelial barrier function by generating the diol 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid, derived from docosahexaenoic acid...
December 14, 2017: Nature
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