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Diabetic retinopathy barrier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746877/liraglutide-attenuates-the-migration-of-retinal-pericytes-induced-by-advanced-glycation-end-products
#1
Wen-Jian Lin, Xue-Fei Ma, Ming Hao, Huan-Ran Zhou, Xin-Yang Yu, Ning Shao, Xin-Yuan Gao, Hong-Yu Kuang
Retinal pericyte migration represents a novel mechanism of pericyte loss in diabetic retinopathy (DR), which plays a crucial role in the early impairment of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been shown to protect the diabetic retina in the early stage of DR; however, the relationship between GLP-1 and retinal pericytes has not been discussed. In this study, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) significantly increased the migration of primary bovine retinal pericytes without influencing cell viability...
May 7, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721978/vegf-as-a-trophic-factor-for-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-in-hypoxic-retinal-diseases
#2
Shuhua Fu, Shuqian Dong, Meili Zhu, Yun-Zheng Le
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR), leading causes of blindness, share a common retinal environment: hypoxia which is a major stimulator for the upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a cardinal pathogenic factor for the breakdown of blood-retina barrier (BRB). As a result of intensive studies on VEGF pathobiology, anti-VEGF strategy has become a major therapeutics for wet AMD and DR. To investigate the potential impact of anti-VEGF strategy on major retinal supporting cells, Müller glia (MG), we disrupted VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) in MG with conditional knockout (CKO) and examined the effect of VEGFR2-null on MG viability and neuronal integrity in mice...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686307/mousetap-a-novel-technique-to-collect-uncontaminated-vitreous-or-aqueous-and-expand-usefulness-of-mouse-models
#3
Seth D Fortmann, Valeria E Lorenc, Jikui Shen, Sean F Hackett, Peter A Campochiaro
Vitreous or aqueous humour taps are widely used in patients or large animals with retinal diseases to monitor disease biomarkers, search for novel biomarkers, assess the integrity of the blood-retinal barrier, or perform pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamics studies. Although there are many useful mouse models of retinal diseases, the small size of mouse eyes has precluded vitreous or aqueous taps. Herein we describe a novel technique, mousetap, which allows collection of vitreous or aqueous humour uncontaminated by blood or tissue surrounding the vitreous cavity...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675844/delivery-of-therapeutics-for-deep-seated-ocular-conditions-status-quo
#4
REVIEW
Hubert Nguyen, Shawn Eng, Thanh Ngo, Crispin R Dass
OBJECTIVES: There is a need for research into designing effective pharmaceutical systems for delivering therapeutic drugs to the posterior of the eye for glaucoma-related pathology, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, macular oedema, retinitis and choroiditis. Conventionally, eye drops have been extensively utilised for topical drug delivery to the anterior segment of the eye, but are less effective for delivery of therapeutics to the back of the eye due to significant barriers hampering drug penetration into the target intraocular tissue...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626555/behavioral-economics-and-diabetic-eye-exams
#5
REVIEW
Andrew M Williams, Peggy J Liu, Kelly W Muir, Evan L Waxman
Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is the leading cause of new blindness among working-age adults in the United States. Timely intervention to prevent vision loss is possible with early detection by regular eye examinations. Unfortunately, adherence to recommended annual diabetic eye exams is poor. Public health interventions have targeted traditional barriers to care, such as cost and transportation, with limited success. Behavioral economics provides an additional framework of concepts and tools to understand low screening rates and to promote regular diabetic eye exams for populations at risk...
April 4, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620816/introduction-to-basal-insulin-therapy-clinical-management-of-diabetes
#6
Jasmine D Gonzalvo
Diabetes is a series of metabolic conditions associated with many serious comorbidities, such as heart disease and stroke, peripheral arterial disease and lower-extremity amputations, retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy. The American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, and the International Diabetes Federation recommend that individuals with diabetes be as near to normoglycemic as possible. There are many glycemic management barriers among patients, such as cost, patient perceptions, and clinical inertia...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614818/potential-interplay-between-hyperosmolarity-and-inflammation-on-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-in-pathogenesis-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#7
REVIEW
François Willermain, Lisa Scifo, Célia Weber, Laure Caspers, Jason Perret, Christine Delporte
Diabetic retinopathy is a frequent eyesight threatening complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Under physiological conditions, the inner and the outer blood-retinal barriers protect the retina by regulating ion, protein, and water flux into and out of the retina. During diabetic retinopathy, many factors, including inflammation, contribute to the rupture of the inner and/or the outer blood-retinal barrier. This rupture leads the development of macular edema, a foremost cause of sight loss among diabetic patients...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608341/methylene-blue-attenuates-diabetic-retinopathy-by-inhibiting-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#8
Jingfang Hao, Hongkui Zhang, Jibing Yu, Xi Chen, Lu Yang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of methylene blue (MB) on diabetic retinopathy (DR) and explored the molecular mechanisms of MB as a retina protection agent. METHODS: The thicknesses of retinal layers and permeability of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) were measured by histology analysis, and the expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, procaspase-1, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 were measured by western blotting. Lentivirus-based knockdown of NLRP3 gene was used to confirm the role of NLRP3 inflammasome...
April 2, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607861/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-diabetic-retinopathy-among-physicians-in-northwestern-nigeria
#9
S Abdulsalam, A Ibrahim, H Saidu, M Muazu, U T Aliyu, H I Umar, I D Gezawa, L F Owolabi
Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the productive population that poses a considerable global public health burden. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of DR screening among physicians in Northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Survey responses were obtained from 105 physicians in 4 tertiary hospitals using a Likert scale questionnaire. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient...
April 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605771/the-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-dpp-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-ameliorates-retinal-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-triggered-by-inflammation
#10
Andreia Gonçalves, Luísa Almeida, Ana Paula Silva, Carlos Fontes-Ribeiro, António F Ambrósio, Armando Cristóvão, Rosa Fernandes
Diabetic retinopathy is considered a low-grade chronic inflammatory disease and several inflammatory molecules, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, are known to play a major role in the degeneration of retinal capillaries. Previous studies have reported that sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, prevents the increase in blood-retinal barrier (BRB) permeability and inhibits the tight junction disassembly induced by diabetes. AIM: Our goal was to investigate whether sitagliptin is able to prevent retinal endothelial cells (EC) dysfunction triggered by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α...
March 29, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560091/epigenetic-modifications-in-hyperhomocysteinemia-potential-role-in-diabetic-retinopathy-and-age-related-macular-degeneration
#11
Khaled Elmasry, Riyaz Mohamed, Isha Sharma, Nehal M Elsherbiny, Yutao Liu, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Amany Tawfik
To study Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced epigenetic modifications as potential mechanisms of blood retinal barrier (BRB) dysfunction, retinas isolated from three- week-old mice with elevated level of Homocysteine (Hcy) due to lack of the enzyme cystathionine β-synthase ( cbs-/- , cbs+/- and cbs+/+ ), human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs), and human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19) treated with or without Hcy were evaluated for (1) histone deacetylases (HDAC), (2) DNA methylation (DNMT), and (3) miRNA analysis...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557361/dyslipidemia-modulates-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-sensing-and-transduction-of-ambient-information
#12
REVIEW
Monika Lakk, Felix Vazquez-Chona, Oleg Yarishkin, David Križaj
Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes) and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545417/prevalence-and-causes-of-vision-loss-in-high-income-countries-and-in-eastern-and-central-europe-in-2015-magnitude-temporal-trends-and-projections
#13
Rupert R A Bourne, Jost B Jonas, Alain M Bron, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Aditi Das, Seth R Flaxman, David S Friedman, Jill E Keeffe, John H Kempen, Janet Leasher, Hans Limburg, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Tunde Peto, Jinan Saadine, Alexander J Silvester, Nina Tahhan, Hugh R Taylor, Rohit Varma, Tien Y Wong, Serge Resnikoff
BACKGROUND: Within a surveillance of the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in high-income regions and Central/Eastern Europe, we update figures through 2015 and forecast expected values in 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness, moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI), mild vision impairment and presbyopia was estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015, and 2020. RESULTS: Age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI for all ages decreased from 1990 to 2015 from 0...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527739/task-sharing-in-the-eye-care-workforce-screening-detection-and-management-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-pakistan-a-case-study
#14
Mufarriq Shah, Ayesha Noor, Lil Deverell, Gail M Ormsby, C Alex Harper, Jill Elizabeth Keeffe
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a preventable cause of vision loss. Reducing vision loss due to DR and providing access to eye care services for people with diabetes have been severely constrained by a shortage in the number of ophthalmologists. This study aimed to explore the potential for task sharing in the eye care workforce for screening, detection, and management of DR. METHODS: Using purposive sampling, 24 participants were recruited from four selected hospitals in 2 provinces in Pakistan...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484995/biodegradable-microspheres-as-intravitreal-delivery-systems-for-prolonged-drug-release-what-is-their-eminence-in-the-nanoparticle-era
#15
Elisabetta Gavini, Maria Cristina Bonferoni, Giovanna Rassu, Antonella Obinu, Franca Ferrari, Paolo Giunchedi
Drug administration to the posterior segment of the eye has many challenges due to the natural barriers and consequent problems of low and unpredictable bioavailability. There is an increasing need for managing severe posterior eye diseases, such as age related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, etc.: most of these diseases, if untreated, lead to blindness. Traditional ocular formulations and topical administrations are almost inefficient and the drug delivery to the back of the eye requires direct administrations through intravitreal injections of innovative drug delivery systems...
February 26, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473719/diabetic-macular-edema-current-understanding-pharmacologic-treatment-options-and-developing-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Kevin Miller, Jorge A Fortun
Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema comprise a major source of visual disability throughout the developed world. The etiology and pathogenesis of macular edema is intricate and multifactorial, in which the hyperglycemic state in diabetes induces a microangiopathy. Through several inflammatory and vasogenic mediators, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upregulation and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, pathologic changes are induced in the vascular endothelium triggering breakdown of the blood retinal barrier, causing extravasation of fluid into the extracellular space and manifesting clinically as macular edema, resulting in visual loss...
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465837/post-chemotherapy-retroperitoneal-lymph-node-dissection-in-patients-with-non-seminomatous-germ-cell-tumour-nsgct
#17
N A Ariffin, G J Nason, S I Omer, S W Considine, P Sweeney, D G Power
Diabetic retinopathy is a significant complication of diabetes, and the most common cause of blindness in people under the age of 65. The National Diabetic Retinal Screening Programme (Diabetic RetinaScreen) was established to detect sight threatening retinopathies. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to determine the barriers to the uptake of Diabetic RetinaScreen, to investigate discrepancies in attendance, if any, between patients whose diabetes care is delivered in a large tertiary referral hospital out-patient setting or in general practice, and to evaluate general practitioner's satisfaction with the service...
December 18, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445185/iron-overload-accelerates-the-progression-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-association-with-increased-retinal-renin-expression
#18
Kapil Chaudhary, Wanwisa Promsote, Sudha Ananth, Rajalakshmi Veeranan-Karmegam, Amany Tawfik, Pachiappan Arjunan, Pamela Martin, Sylvia B Smith, Muthusamy Thangaraju, Oleg Kisselev, Vadivel Ganapathy, Jaya P Gnana-Prakasam
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness among working-age adults. Increased iron accumulation is associated with several degenerative diseases. However, there are no reports on the status of retinal iron or its implications in the pathogenesis of DR. In the present study, we found that retinas of type-1 and type-2 mouse models of diabetes have increased iron accumulation compared to non-diabetic retinas. We found similar iron accumulation in postmortem retinal samples from human diabetic patients...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436254/therapeutic-targets-for-altering-mitochondrial-dysfunction-associated-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#19
Renu A Kowluru, Manish Mishra
Retinopathy remains as one of the most feared blinding complications of diabetes, and with the prevalence of this life-long disease escalating at an alarming rate, the incidence of retinopathy is also climbing. Although the cutting edge research has identified many molecular mechanisms associated with its development, the exact mechanism how diabetes damages the retina remains obscure, limiting therapeutic options for this devastating disease. Areas covered: This review focuses on the central role of mitochondrial dysfunction/damage in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, and how damaged mitochondria initiates a self-perpetuating vicious cycles of free radicals...
March 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422244/silymarin-prevents-diabetes-induced-hyperpermeability-in-human-retinal-endothelial-cells
#20
Marta García-Ramírez, Mireia Turch, Olga Simó-Servat, Cristina Hernández, Rafael Simó
INTRODUCTION: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an essential role in development of diabetic macular edema (DME). While there is evidence suggesting that silymarin, a flavonoid extracted from Silybum marianum, could be useful for prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy, no studies have been conducted in diabetic retinopathy (DR). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of silymarin on disruption of inner blood retinal barrier (BRB), the primary cause of DME...
April 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
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