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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777689/forever-young-endocrinology-of-paedomorphosis-in-the-mexican-axolotl-ambystoma-mexicanum
#1
REVIEW
Bert De Groef, Sylvia V H Grommen, Veerle M Darras
The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is a salamander species that does not undergo metamorphosis, resulting in the retention of juvenile characteristics in the mature breeding stage (paedomorphosis). Here we review the endocrinological studies investigating the proximate cause of axolotl paedomorphosis with a focus on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. It is well established that axolotl paedomorphosis is a consequence of low activity of the HPT axis. The pituitary hormone thyrotropin (TSH) is capable of inducing metamorphosis in the axolotl, which indicates that all processes and interactions in the HPT axis below the pituitary level are functional, but that TSH release is impaired...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773976/facing-the-challenges-of-neuropeptide-gene-knockouts-why-do-they-not-inhibit-reproduction-in-adult-teleost-fish
#2
REVIEW
Vance L Trudeau
Genetic manipulation of teleost endocrine systems started with transgenic overexpression of pituitary growth hormone. Such strategies enhance growth and reduce fertility, but the fish still breed. Genome editing using transcription activator-like effector nuclease in zebrafish and medaka has established the role of follicle stimulating hormone for gonadal development and luteinizing hormone for ovulation. Attempts to genetically manipulate the hypophysiotropic neuropeptidergic systems have been less successful...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742429/diet-induced-growth-is-regulated-via-acquired-leptin-resistance-and-engages-a-pomc-somatostatin-growth-hormone-circuit
#3
Heiko Löhr, Simon Hess, Mafalda M A Pereira, Philip Reinoß, Sandra Leibold, Christel Schenkel, Claudia M Wunderlich, Peter Kloppenburg, Jens C Brüning, Matthias Hammerschmidt
Anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc)/alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) neurons of the hypothalamic melanocortin system function as key regulators of energy homeostasis, also controlling somatic growth across different species. However, the mechanisms of melanocortin-dependent growth control still remain ill-defined. Here, we reveal a thus-far-unrecognized structural and functional connection between Pomc neurons and the somatotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axis. Excessive feeding of larval zebrafish causes leptin resistance and reduced levels of the hypothalamic satiety mediator pomca...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705908/somatic-mutations-in-neurons-during-aging-and-neurodegeneration
#4
REVIEW
Bert M Verheijen, Marc Vermulst, Fred W van Leeuwen
The nervous system is composed of a large variety of neurons with a diverse array of morphological and functional properties. This heterogeneity is essential for the construction and maintenance of a distinct set of neural networks with unique characteristics. Accumulating evidence now indicates that neurons do not only differ at a functional level, but also at the genomic level. These genomic discrepancies seem to be the result of somatic mutations that emerge in nervous tissue during development and aging...
April 28, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670193/pineal-dependent-increase-of-hypothalamic-neurogenesis-contributes-to-the-timing-of-seasonal-reproduction-in-sheep
#5
Martine Batailler, Didier Chesneau, Laura Derouet, Lucile Butruille, Stéphanie Segura, Juliette Cognié, Joëlle Dupont, Delphine Pillon, Martine Migaud
To survive in temperate latitudes, species rely on the photoperiod to synchronize their physiological functions, including reproduction, with the predictable changes in the environment. In sheep, exposure to decreasing day length reactivates the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis, while during increasing day length, animals enter a period of sexual rest. Neural stem cells have been detected in the sheep hypothalamus and hypothalamic neurogenesis was found to respond to the photoperiod. However, the physiological relevance of this seasonal adult neurogenesis is still unexplored...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663559/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-mineralocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-response-to-acute-mate-pair-separation-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#6
Farrah N Madison, Andrew J Kesner, Beau A Alward, Gregory F Ball
Mate separation has been shown to mediate changes in physiological and behavioral processes via activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in both mammalian and avian species. In order to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with changes in the HPA axis in response to social stress, we investigated the effects of mate pair separation on circulating corticosterone concentrations as well as gene expression levels of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of both male and female zebra finches, a species that forms strong pair bonds...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663392/sushi-repeat-containing-protein-x-linked-2-a-novel-phylogenetically-conserved-hypothalamo-pituitary-protein
#7
Mehwish Anwer, Tamuna Bolkvadze, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Noora Puhakka, Tuomas Rauramaa, Ville Leinonen, Erwin A van Vliet, Dick F Swaab, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Stina Leskelä, Nea Bister, Tarja Malm, Synnöve Carlson, Eleonora Aronica, Asla Pitkänen
Sushi repeat-containing protein X-linked 2 (SRPX2) is a novel protein associated with language development, synaptic plasticity, tissue remodeling, and angiogenesis. We investigated the expression and spatial localization of SRPX2 in normal mouse, rat, monkey, and human brain using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Antibody specificity was determined using in vitro siRNA based silencing of SRPX2. Cell type-specific expression was verified by double-labeling with oxytocin or vasopressin. Western blot was used to detect SRPX2 protein in rat and human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659196/lessons-from-amphioxus-bauplan-about-origin-of-cranial-nerves-of-vertebrates-that-innervates-extrinsic-eye-muscles
#8
José Luis Ferran, Luis Puelles
Amphioxus is the living chordate closest to the ancestral form of vertebrates, and in a key position to reveal essential aspects of the evolution of the brain Bauplan of vertebrates. The dorsal neural cord of this species at the larval stage is characterized by a small cerebral vesicle at its anterior end and a large posterior region. The latter is comparable in some aspects to the hindbrain and spinal cord regions of vertebrates. The rostral end of the cerebral vesicle contains a median pigment spot and associated rows of photoreceptor and other nerve cells; this complex is known as "the frontal eye...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625123/expression-profiling-of-c-kit-and-its-impact-after-esirna-silencing-during-gonadal-development-in-catfish
#9
C Laldinsangi, B Senthilkumaran
C-kit receptor is a member of a family of growth factor receptors that have tyrosine kinase activity, and are involved in the transduction of growth regulatory signals across plasma membrane by activation of its ligand, kitl/scf. The present study analysed mRNA and protein expression profiles of c-kit in the gonads of catfish, Clarias gariepinus, using real time PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Tissue distribution analysis revealed higher expression mainly in the catfish gonads. Ontogeny studies showed minimal expression during early developmental stages and highest during 50-75 days post hatch, and the dimorphic expression in gonads decreased gradually till adulthood, which might suggest an important role for this gene around later stages of sex differentiation and gonadal development...
April 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573324/the-african-turquoise-killifish-a-research-organism-to-study-vertebrate-aging-and-diapause
#10
REVIEW
Chi-Kuo Hu, Anne Brunet
The African turquoise killifish has recently gained significant traction as a new research organism in the aging field. Our understanding of aging has strongly benefited from canonical research organisms-yeast, C. elegans, Drosophila, zebrafish, and mice. Many characteristics that are essential to understand aging-for example, the adaptive immune system or the hypothalamo-pituitary axis-are only present in vertebrates (zebrafish and mice). However, zebrafish and mice live more than 3 years and their relatively long lifespans are not compatible with high-throughput studies...
March 24, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553042/a-rare-cause-of-hypothalamic-obesity-rohhad-syndrome-2-cases
#11
Ülkü Gül Şiraz, Deniz Okdemir, Gül Direk, Leyla Akın, Nihal Hatipoğlu, Mustafa Kendırcı, Selim Kurtoğlu
Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) syndrome is a rare disease that is difficult to diagnosis and distinguish from genetic obesity syndromes. The underlying causes of the disease has not been fully explained. Hypothalamic dysfunction causes endocrine problems, respiratory dysfunction and autonomic alterations. There are around 80 reported patients due to lack of recognition. We present two female patient suspected of ROHHAD due to weight gain since early childhood...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549435/the-accessory-magnocellular-neurosecretory-system-of-the-rostral-human-hypothalamus
#12
Morten Møller, Johannes R Busch, Christina Jacobsen, Sissel B Lundemose, Niels Lynnerup, Martin F Rath, Jytte Banner
The morphology and neurophysin expression of the magnocellular accessory neuroendocrine system located in the rostral human hypothalamus is investigated in a series of brains obtained at autopsy. The hypothalami were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin, or after cryoprotection, frozen for cryostat sectioning. Paraffin sections were either stained with Luxol Fast blue or immunoreacted for neurophysin I or neurophysin II, the precursor molecule for oxytocin and vasopressin. Further, 50-μm-thick serial cryostat sections were immunoreacted with the same antibodies...
March 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544633/gonadotropin-surge-attenuating-factor-a-nonsteroidal-ovarian-hormone-controlling-gnrh-induced-lh-secretion-in-the-normal-menstrual-cycle
#13
Ioannis E Messinis, Christina I Messini, George Anifandis, Antonios Garas, Alexandros Daponte
Gonadotropin surge-attenuating factor (GnSAF) is a nonsteroidal ovarian substance, which attenuates the endogenous LH surge in superovulated women. Different molecular sequences have been found, but only one of them has shown substantial homology to a known substance of the human genome. A molecular mass of 12.5kDa showing identity to the carboxyl-terminal fragment of human serum albumin and expressing GnSAF bioactivity in vitro has been identified. It has been suggested that in the normal menstrual cycle the in vivo bioactivity of GnSAF increases under the influence of the intercycle rise of FSH...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530929/separate-roles-for-med12-and-wnt-signaling-in-regulation-of-oxytocin-expression
#14
Emma D Spikol, Eric Glasgow
Transcriptional control of oxytocinergic cell development influences social, sexual, and appetite related behaviors and is implicated in disorders such as autism and Prader-Willi syndrome. Mediator 12 (Med12) is a transcriptional coactivator required for multiple facets of brain development including subsets of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. We surveyed hormone gene expression within the hypothalamo-pituitary axis of med12 mutant zebrafish embryos with a focus on oxytocin ( oxt ) expression. Some transcripts, such as oxt , vasopressin ( avp ) and corticotrophin releasing hormone ( crh ) are undetectable in the med12 mutant, while others are upregulated or downregulated to varying degrees...
March 28, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528085/soy-isoflavone-effects-on-the-adrenal-glands-of-orchidectomized-adult-male-rats-a-comprehensive-histological-and-hormonal-study
#15
Verica Lj Milošević, Walter B Severs, Nataša M Ristić, Milica N Manojlović-Stojanoski, Florina V Popovska-Perčinić, Branka T Šošić-Jurjević, Lazo B Pendovski, Svetlana L Trifunović, Marko Š Miler, Vladimir Z Ajdžanović
Genistein (G) and related soy phytoestrogens have been studied for potential usefulness in different chronic diseases, and may ameliorate signs of aging. They have a profound influence on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The present study utilized the rat model of mild andropause to thoroughly evaluate the effects of G and soy extract on the adrenal gland and related blood hormones. Adult male rats were orchidectomized (Orx) or sham operated (SO). Orx rats received daily subcutaneous injections for 3 weeks of solvent, or G (Orx+G, 30 mg/kg), or commercial soy extract (Orx+Soy, 30 mg/kg)...
March 12, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517662/prediction-of-pituitary-stalk-position-in-pituitary-adenomas-by-visualization-of-the-hypothalamo-hypophyseal-tract-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography
#16
Fuyu Wang, Jiashu Zhang, Peng Wang, Tao Zhou, Xianghui Meng, Jinli Jiang
The preservation of pituitary stalk during surgery is very important for neurosurgeons. Sometimes, it is hard to identify the pituitary stalk in the operation. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract (HHT) projects through the pituitary stalk to the posterior pituitary gland. If the HHT can be identified, the position of pituitary stalk will be visualized. The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking technique has been widely used for the quantitative assessment of the white matter integrity and thus may be suitable for the evaluation of the HHT...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477344/androst-5-ene-3%C3%AE-7%C3%AE-%C3%AE-17%C3%AE-triols-their-plasma-levels-and-dependence-on-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#17
Luboslav Stárka, Martin Hill, Lucie Kolatorova, Michaela Dušková
Androst-5-ene-triols are metabolites of dehydroepiandrosterone, the most abundant steroid hormone in human circulation. Many observations in rodents have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and immune modulating activity of 7β-hydroxy-androst-5-enes, and on the basis of these experiments androst-5-ene-3β,7β,17β-triol is considered as a potential agent in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In contrast to the fairly abundant information on the levels and effects of androst-5-ene-triols in experimental animals and of their the pharmacological perspective, little is known about androst-5-ene-3β,7α/β,17β-triols circulating in human blood, their regulation by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, or their daily concentration variability...
June 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429352/-extraadrenal-glucocorticoid-synthesis
#18
REVIEW
Ágnes Szappanos, Katalin Mészáros, Zsolt Nagy, Annamária Kövesdi, István Likó, Emese Kiss, Miklós Tóth, Attila Patócs
Endogenous glucocorticoids exert a diverse array of physiological processes and play an important role in immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory responses. The secretion of cortisol by the adrenal gland is regulated through two mechanisms. Systemic regulation is substantiating by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, a tissue-specific local regulatory system, containing the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme responsible for local glucocorticoid synthesis and the glucocorticoid receptor, has also been demonstrated...
February 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397787/gating-of-the-neuroendocrine-stress-responses-by-stressor-salience-in-early-lactating-female-rats-is-independent-of-infralimbic-cortex-activation-and-plasticity
#19
Katharina M Hillerer, Barbara Woodside, Emily Parkinson, Hong Long, Silvanna Verlezza, Claire-Dominique Walker
In early lactation (EL), stressor salience modulates neuroendocrine stress responses, but it is unclear whether this persists throughout lactation and which neural structures are implicated. We hypothesized that this process is specific to EL and that the infralimbic (IL) medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) might provide a critical link between assessment of threat and activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in EL. We measured neuroendocrine responses and neuronal Fos induction to a salient (predator odor) or non-salient (tail pinch) psychogenic stressor in EL and late lactation (LL) females...
May 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389666/metabolic-features-and-changes-in-glucose-induced-serum-glucagon-like-peptide-1-levels-in-children-with-hypothalamic-obesity
#20
Rapeepun Chai-Udom, Suphab Aroonparkmongkol, Taninee Sahakitrungruang
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic damage may alter glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. We aim to evaluate the metabolic features and the dynamic changes of GLP-1 levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in children with hypothalamic obesity (HO) compared with simple obesity controls. METHODS: Subjects included eight patients (six females, aged 9-16 years) with hypothalamo-pituitary tumors who later developed obesity and eight controls with simple obesity matched for age, body mass index (BMI), gender and puberty...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
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