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Marcio A Torsoni, Beatriz C Borges, Jessica L Cote, Susan J Allen, Erica Mahany, David Garcia-Galiano, Carol F Elias
A temporary and reversible inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is adaptive when energy reserves are diminished, allowing individual survival and energy accumulation for eventual reproduction. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) works as a cellular sensor of the AMP/ATP ratio and ultimately of energy availability. Activation of AMPK suppresses ATP-consuming processes and stimulates ATP-producing pathways. The AMPK α2 catalytic subunit is expressed in multiple hypothalamic nuclei including those associated with reproductive control, i...
October 12, 2016: Endocrinology
David Krahulik, Darina Aleksijevic, Vratislav Smolka, Eva Klaskova, Petra Venhacova, Miroslav Vaverka, Vladimir Mihal, Jirina Zapletalova
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Retrospective studies of TBI have found a neuroendocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury in 23 to 60% of adults and 15 to 21% of children. Our aims were to determine the prevalence of hypothalamo-hypophyseal dysfunction in children following brain injury, assess its relationship to the type of injury and the course of the acute post-traumatic phase. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Body development (growth, pubertal development, and skeletal maturity) were evaluated in 58 patients (21 girls) after a brain injury rated 3 to 12 on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)...
September 19, 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Emilia Sbardella, Andrea M Isidori, Conor P Woods, Nicola Argese, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Brian Shine, Bahram Jafar-Mohammadi, Ashley B Grossman
CONTEXT: The short ACTH stimulation test (250 μg) is the dynamic test most frequently used to assess adrenal function. It is possible that a single basal cortisol could be used to predict the dynamic response, but research has been hampered by the use of different assays and thresholds. OBJECTIVE: To propose a morning baseline cortisol criterion of three of the most commonly used modern cortisol immunoassays - Advia Centaur (Siemens), Architect (Abbott) and the Roche Modular System (Roche) - that could predict adrenal sufficiency...
September 12, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Yi Zhan, Yu Guo, Qianjin Lu
Great progress has been made in the last decades in understanding the complex immune dysregulation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), yet the efforts to pursue an effective treatment of SLE proved to be futile. The pathoetiology of SLE involves extremely complicated and multifactorial interaction among various genetic and epigenetic factors. Multiple gene loci predispose to disease susceptibility, and the interaction with epigenetic modifications mediated through sex, hormones, and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis complicates susceptibility and manifestations of this disease...
September 9, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Xiaoxiao Gao, Kaifa Zhang, Min Song, Xiumei Li, Lei Luo, Yuan Tian, Yunhai Zhang, Yunsheng Li, Xiaorong Zhang, Yinghui Ling, Fugui Fang, Ya Liu
Nesfatin-1 is an important molecule in the regulation of reproduction. However, its role in the reproductive axis in male animals remains to be understood. Here, we found that nesfatin-1 was mainly distributed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), periventricular nucleus (PeN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the hypothalamus; adenohypophysis and Leydig cells in male rats. Moreover, the concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 and its mRNA in hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) vary with the age of the male rat...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sara Yang, Pedro Orta, Elizabeth M Renk, Jared C Inman
Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) coexists in 34%-65% of patients initially diagnosed with congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis. SMMCI, a genetic syndrome, warrants consideration for further screening because of its high prevalence of other diagnostic possibilities-specifically central defects, like nasal obstruction and hypothalamo-pituitary axis abnormalities. We report on a presentation of SMMCI with congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis which highlights the unique radiologic features and notes the relationship between these two central associated findings in the literature...
September 2016: Radiology case reports
Ferdinand Roelfsema, Paul Aoun, Johannes D Veldhuis
CONTEXT: Factors that regulate physiological feedback by pulses of glucocorticoids on the hypothalamic-pituitary unit are sparsely defined in humans in relation to gluco- or mineralocorticoid receptor pathways, gender, age and the sex-steroid milieu. OBJECTIVE: To test (the clinical hypothesis) that glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor-selective mechanisms differentially govern pulsatile cortisol-dependent negative feedback on ACTH output( by the hypothalamo-pituitary unit) in men and women studied under experimentally defined testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) depletion and repletion, respectively...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Shane B Johnson, Eric B Emmons, Rachel M Anderson, Ryan M Glanz, Sara A Romig-Martin, Nandakumar S Narayanan, Ryan T LaLumiere, Jason J Radley
UNLABELLED: The bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) are critically important for integrating stress-related signals between the limbic forebrain and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) effector neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH). Nevertheless, the circuitry underlying BST control over the stress axis and its role in depression-related behaviors has remained obscure. Utilizing optogenetic approaches in rats, we have identified a novel role for the anteroventral subdivision of BST in the coordinated inhibition of both HPA output and passive coping behaviors during acute inescapable (tail suspension, TS) stress...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yali Zhao, Chanpreet Singh, David A Prober, Nancy L Wayne
GnRH neurons integrate internal and external cues to control sexual maturation and fertility. Homeostasis of energy balance and food intake correlates strongly with the status of reproduction. Neuropeptides secreted by the hypothalamus involved in modulating energy balance and feeding may play additional roles in the regulation of reproduction. Hypocretin (Hcrt) (also known as orexin) is one such peptide, primarily controlling sleep/wakefulness, food intake, and reward processing. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that Hcrt/orexin (Hcrt) modulates reproduction through interacting with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in mammals...
October 2016: Endocrinology
Daniel Peterlik, Christina Stangl, Amelie Bauer, Anna Bludau, Jana Keller, Dominik Grabski, Tobias Killian, Dominic Schmidt, Franziska Zajicek, Georg Jaeschke, Lothar Lindemann, Stefan O Reber, Peter J Flor, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt
Etiology and pharmacotherapy of stress-related psychiatric conditions and somatoform disorders are areas of high unmet medical need. Stressors holding chronic plus psychosocial components thereby bear the highest health risk. Although the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) is well studied in the context of acute stress-induced behaviors and physiology, virtually nothing is known about its potential involvement in chronic psychosocial stress. Using the mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator CTEP (2-chloro-4-[2-[2,5-dimethyl-1-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]imidazol-4yl]ethynyl]pyridine), a close analogue of the clinically active drug basimglurant - but optimized for rodent studies, as well as mGlu5-deficient mice in combination with a mouse model of male subordination (termed CSC, chronic subordinate colony housing), we demonstrate that mGlu5 mediates multiple physiological, immunological, and behavioral consequences of chronic psychosocial stressor exposure...
August 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Hui Zhang, Song-Tao Qi, Jun Fan, Lu-Xiong Fang, Bing-Hui Qiu, Yi Liu, Xiao-Yu Qiu
Whether bifocal germinomas (BFGs) synchronously presenting within the pineal region and the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal axis (HNA) are primary germinomas of dual-origin remains to be elucidated. We analyzed MRI images and clinical features of 95 neurohypophyseal germinomas and 21 BFG patients and developed a tentative definition of the BFGs. We found dual-primary BFGs (true BFGs) do exist. The fundamental difference between primary and metastatic HNA germinomas was the direction of tumor growth. For a true BFG, the primary HNA tumor grew from the neurohypophysis toward the hypothalamus and almost invaded the whole pituitary stalk...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Johannes D Veldhuis, Dana Erickson, Rebecca Yang, Paul Takahashi, Cyril Bowers
BACKGROUND: Systemic concentrations of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), GH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 decline in healthy aging individuals. Conversely, T and E2 stimulate GH and IGF-I production in hypogonadal patients. HYPOTHESIS: Since (1) E2 stimulates GH secretion, putatively via the nuclear estrogen receptor (ER-alpha), and (2) E2 and GH fall with menopause, we postulated that diminished endogenous E2 contributes to low GH output in older women. LOCATION: Mayo Center for Clinical and Translational Science...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Atsushi Takeda, Haruna Tamano, Ryusuke Nishio, Taku Murakami
Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Milica Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nataša Nestorović, Svetlana Trifunović, Nataša Ristić, Ivana Jarić, Branko Filipović, Verica Milošević
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) drives the stress response by activating the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, particularly vulnerable to glucocorticoid exposure during development. To evaluate the effects of fetal dexamethasone (Dx) exposure on the stereological features of PVN and HPA axis activity in female rat fetuses, pregnant rats received 0.5mg Dx/kg/b.w./day on days 16, 17 and 18 of pregnancy and 21-day-old fetuses were obtained; controls received the same volume of saline. In an unbiased stereological approach, Cavalieri's principle and an optical fractionator were used for estimating volume and total cell number of the PVN, respectively...
October 2016: Tissue & Cell
Lubica Horvathova, Alexandra Padova, Andrej Tillinger, Jana Osacka, Jozef Bizik, Boris Mravec
Accumulated evidence indicates that sympathetic nerves may potentiate tumor growth, including melanoma. To elucidate possible mechanisms for this effect, we performed chemical sympathectomy by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (100 mg/kg of body weight); in nine adult male C57BL/6J mice; nine control mice received i.p. vehicle (VEH). Seven days later, all mice were injected subcutaneously with 3 × 10(3) B16-F10 melanoma cells. Mice were euthanized 20 d after injection of melanoma cells, for measurement of tumor weight and expression of genes related to sympathetic signaling, apoptosis, hypoxia and angiogenesis in tumor tissue...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Si Zhang, Yuan Fang, Bo Wen Cai, Jian Guo Xu, Chao You
BACKGROUND: Craniopharyngiomas are the most common benign histological tumours to involve the hypothalamo-pituitary region in childhood. Cystic craniopharyngiomas account for more than 90% of the tumours. The optimal treatment of cystic craniopharyngioma remains controversial. Radical resection is the treatment of choice in patients with favourable tumour localisation. When the tumour localisation is unfavourable, a gross-total or partial resection followed by radiotherapy is the main treatment option in adults...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sakda D Hewagalamulage, Iain J Clarke, Alexandra Rao, Belinda A Henry
Within any population, the cortisol response to ACTH covers a considerable range. High responders (HRs) exhibit a greater cortisol secretory response to stress or ACTH, compared with individuals classified as low cortisol responders (LRs). We administered ACTH (0.2 μg/kg, iv) to 160 female sheep and selected subpopulations of animals as LR and HR. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in HR and LR and to identify factors that underlie the differing cortisol responses to ACTH...
September 2016: Endocrinology
Ismail O Ishola, Moshood O Akinleye, Mariam D Oduola, Olufunmilayo O Adeyemi
We have earlier reported antidepressant-like effect of Cnestis ferruginea and its bioflavonoid constituent, amentoflavone in behavioural paradigms but its effects on neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems are yet to be elucidated. This study sought to investigate the effect of subchronic treatment of C. ferruginea (CF) on monoamines system, hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis and nitrosative/oxidative stresses. Male albino rats (150-200g) randomly divided into seven groups; Group I: vehicle treated (0.2%(v)/v Tween 80 in normal saline (10ml/kg; p...
July 8, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ambarisha Chabbi, C B Ganesh
Although neuroendocrine regulation of stress response involving hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is well established in mammals, the mechanism of functioning of endocrine-stress axis is not completely elucidated in fish. Our previous studies suggested a possible role for the opioidergic mediation of reproductive stress response in fish. In the present investigation, by immunocytochemical approach, we studied the distribution of β-endorphin (β-EP) secreting neurons in the brain of the tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to aquacultural stressors...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Timothy J Greives, Adam M Fudickar, Jonathan W Atwell, Simone L Meddle, Ellen D Ketterson
To optimally time reproduction, animals must coordinate changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The extent of intra-species variation in seasonal timing of reproductive function is considerable, both within and among populations. Dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) populations are known to differ in their reproductive timing response to cues experienced in the same habitat in late winter/early spring. Specifically in juncos cohabitating on shared wintering grounds, residents initiate breeding and reproductive activity but migrants delay reproductive development and prepare to migrate before breeding...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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