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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288690/mifepristone-reduces-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activation-and-restores-weight-loss-in-rats-subjected-to-dietary-restriction-and-methylphenidate-administration
#1
Rami Bou Khalil, Viviane Smayra, Youakim Saliba, Joelle Hajal, Jules-Joël Bakhos, Lama Souaiby, Sami Richa, Jean Tamraz, Nassim Farès
This study evaluates the efficacy of mifepristone on weight restoration in rats subjected to dietary restriction and methylphenidate administration. 25 female rats aged between 9 and 12 months were divided into 2 groups: 5 controls (exposed only to dietary restriction) and 20 rats that were administered 5 mg/kg/d of methylphenidate before meal exposure, for 36 days. Among rats who responded to methylphenidate (weight loss of 15-25%) weeks after its administration, a group of 6 rats continued to receive only methylphenidate ("Met" group), and another group received 10 mg/kg/d of mifepristone in addition to methylphenidate for 18 days ("Met+Mif" group; n = 6)...
December 27, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288425/polymorphisms-of-caprine-gnrhr-gene-and-their-association-with-litter-size-in-west-african-dwarf-goats
#2
M N Bemji, A M Isa, E M Ibeagha-Awemu, M Wheto
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) gene is considered a candidate gene for litter size due to its critical role in regulating the activities of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis which synthesizes and releases gonadotropins. This study was designed to identify mutations within the caprine GnRHR gene and investigate their association with litter size at various parities. Polymorphisms scanning and genotyping of GnRHR gene in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats (n = 226) revealed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one mutation (g...
December 29, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286254/patterns-of-circulating-corticosterone-in-a-population-of-rattlesnakes-afflicted-with-snake-fungal-disease-stress-hormones-as-a-potential-mediator-of-seasonal-cycles-in-disease-severity-and-outcomes
#3
Craig Lind, Ignacio T Moore, Çağlar Akçay, Ben J Vernasco, Jeffrey M Lorch, Terence M Farrell
Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging threat to snake populations in the United States. Fungal pathogens are often associated with a physiological stress response mediated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), and afflicted individuals may incur steep coping costs. The severity of SFD can vary seasonally; however, little is known regarding (1) how SFD infection relates to HPA activity and (2) how seasonal shifts in environment, life history, or HPA activity may interact to drive seasonal patterns of infection severity and outcomes...
March 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284809/evaluation-of-endocrine-parameters-as-predictor-of-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Soma Gupta, Amrita Mukherjee, Sangita Biswas, Smarajit Bose, Saswati Nath, Harendra Nath Das
Background: The diagnosis of the disease, major depressive disorder (MDD), entirely depends on the presence of some symptoms without any biochemical parameter to support it. Depletion of dopamine though is an established feature, is not the sole causative factor of MDD. Moreover, it has very little diagnostic value due to a short half-life. Other chemical messengers like hormones have also been found to get altered due to significant over activity of hypothalamo-pituitary axis. Literature review suggests that cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL) are mostly altered in MDD, which can be utilized to diagnose the condition...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248667/the-lateral-habenula-interacts-with-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-response-upon-stressful-cognitive-demand-in-rats
#5
Victor Mathis, Brigitte Cosquer, Alexandra Barbelivien, Karine Herbeaux, Béatrice Bothorel, Dominique Sage-Ciocca, Vincent-Joseph Poirel, Chantal Mathis, Lucas Lecourtier
The lateral habenula (LHb) is involved in emotional and cognitive behaviors. Recently, we have shown in rats that blockade of excitatory inputs to the LHb not only induced deficits of memory retrieval in the water maze, but also altered swim strategies (i.e., induced excessive thigmotaxis). The latter observation, although consistent with the occurrence of memory deficits, could also possibly be the consequence of an excessive level of stress, further suggesting a role for the LHb in the stress response in our behavioral paradigm...
December 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229849/obligatory-role-of-hypothalamic-neuroestradiol-during-the-estrogen-induced-lh-surge-in-female-ovariectomized-rhesus-monkeys
#6
Brian P Kenealy, Kim L Keen, James P Garcia, Lucille K Kohlenberg, Ei Terasawa
Negative and positive feedback effects of ovarian 17β-estradiol (E2) regulating release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are pivotal events in female reproductive function. While ovarian feedback on hypothalamo-pituitary function is a well-established concept, the present study shows that neuroestradiol, locally synthesized in the hypothalamus, is a part of estrogen's positive feedback loop. In experiment 1, E2 benzoate-induced LH surges in ovariectomized female monkeys were severely attenuated by systemic administration of the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223281/human-studies-on-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis
#7
REVIEW
Kamani Liyanarachchi, Richard Ross, Miguel Debono
The daily rhythm of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, acts as a secondary messenger between the central clock and the peripheral tissues. Changes in clock time, as seen in shift workers, alters the HPA axis and results in metabolic disturbances associated with ill health. Depression, anorexia nervosa and obstructive sleep apnoea, are associated with cortisol rhythm phase shifts and increased cortisol exposure...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223280/circadian-and-ultradian-patterns-of-hpa-axis-activity-in-rodents-significance-for-brain-functionality
#8
REVIEW
Femke S den Boon, R Angela Sarabdjitsingh
The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis comprises interactions between the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands and its activation results in the release of corticosteroid hormones. Corticosteroids are secreted from the adrenal gland in a distinct 24-h circadian rhythm overarching an ultradian rhythm, which consists of hourly corticosteroid pulses exposing target tissues to rapidly changing steroid levels. On top of these rhythms surges can take place after stress. HPA-axis rhythms promote adaptation to predictable (i...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197784/simulated-photoperiod-influences-testicular-activity-in-quail-via-modulating-local-gnrhr-gnihr-gh-r-cnx-43-and-14-3-3
#9
Somanshu Banerjee, Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi
The hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis mediated differential photosexual responses in quail kept under different simulated photoperiodic conditions have been studied in details. Local testicular GnRH-GnIH and their receptor system has been hypothesized to be modulated in quail showing different photo-sexual responses and thus influence the testicular activity and steroidogenesis through local (paracrine and autocrine) action. To validate this hypothesis, we studied the expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R), gonadotropin inhibiting hormone receptor (GnIH-R) mRNA, growth hormone receptor (GH-R), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), 14-3-3, Connexin-43 (Cnx-43), steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR), steroidogenic enzyme (3β HSD) in testis as well as androgen receptor (AR) in testis and epididymis of photosensitive (PS), scotorefractory (SR), photorefractory (PR) and scotosensitive (SS) quail...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185147/predicting-pituitary-stalk-position-by-in-vivo-visualization-of-the-hypothalamo-hypophyseal-tract-in-craniopharyngioma-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography
#10
Fuyu Wang, Jinli Jiang, Jiashu Zhang, Qun Wang
The pituitary stalk (PS) is crucial to endocrine function and water-electrolyte equilibrium. Preservation of the PS during craniopharyngioma (CP) surgery is critical; however, in a pathological state, it is difficult to identify. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract (HHT) connects the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary gland and projects through the PS. Thus, visualization of the HHT can help locate the PS. Preoperative visualization of the neural fasciculus has been widely achieved using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography...
November 28, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166811/adolescent-environmental-enrichment-prevents-behavioral-and-physiological-sequelae-of-adolescent-chronic-stress-in-female-but-not-male-rats
#11
Brittany L Smith, Rachel L Morano, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai, Brent Myers, Matia B Solomon, James P Herman
The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood...
November 22, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144817/seasonal-variation-of-vitamin-d-and-serum-thyrotropin-levels-and-its-relationship-in-a-euthyroid-caucasian-population
#12
Gautam Das, Peter N Taylor, Heather Javaid, Brian P Tennant, John Geen, Andrew Aldridge, Onyebuchi Okosieme
OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether seasonal variations in vitamin D concentrations affect the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. We investigated the seasonal variability of vitamin D and serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels and their inter-relationship. METHODS: Analysis of 401 patients referred with non-specific symptoms of tiredness who had simultaneous measurements of 25(OH)D3 and thyroid function. Patients were categorised according to the season of blood sampling and their vitamin D status...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144801/utility-of-a-single-late-night-plasma-cortisol-and-acth-for-the-diagnosis-of-cushing-s-syndrome
#13
Kush Dev Singh Jarial, Anil Bhansali, Kanchan K Mukherjee, Rimesh Pal, Akhilesh Sharma, Rakesh K Vashishtha, Suja P Sukumar, Naresh Sachdeva, Rama Walia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various screening tests for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS). METHODS: 35 patients of Cushing's syndrome and 16 patients of pseudo-Cushing's syndrome were enrolled. Assessment of 24h urinary free cortisol (UFC), late night salivary cortisol (LNSC), over night dexamethasone suppression test (ONDST), late night plasma cortisol (LNPC) and ACTH on outpatient basis, and during sleep as well as in awake state after 48 hours of hospital admission...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107171/progression-from-isolated-growth-hormone-deficiency-to-combined-pituitary-hormone-deficiency
#14
REVIEW
Manuela Cerbone, Mehul T Dattani
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) can present at any time of life from the neonatal period to adulthood, as a result of congenital or acquired insults. It can present as an isolated problem (IGHD) or in combination with other pituitary hormone deficiencies (CPHD). Pituitary deficits can evolve at any time from GHD diagnosis. The number, severity and timing of occurrence of additional endocrinopathies are highly variable. The risk of progression from IGHD to CPHD in children varies depending on the etiology (idiopathic vs organic)...
December 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095270/pituitary-insufficiency-following-traumatic-thoracic-injury-in-an-adolescent-male-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska, Łukasz Kluczyński, Małgorzata Wilusz, Jacek Pantofliński, Renata Turek-Jabrocka, Dorota Pach, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk
RATIONALE: Traumatic thoracic injuries in adolescents are rare but could be connected with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and development of chronic hypopituitarism. Early recognition of these endocrine problems is a significant challenge to clinicians. We present difficulties in diagnosis of hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in adolescence. We also review the literature of similar cases. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 24-years-old male...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089885/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-modulates-lipid-metabolism-in-aging-adults
#16
Weicong Ren, Jiang Ma, Juan Li, Zhijie Zhang, Mingwei Wang
Hyperlipidemia, one of the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, is associated with an increase in the risk for dementia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was applied over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to modulate serum lipid levels in older adults. Participants received 10 sessions of rTMS or sham stimulation intervention within 2 weeks. The serum lipid and thyroid hormone-related endocrine levels were assessed before and after the treatment. We found that rTMS significantly decreased serum lipid levels, including the total cholesterol (CHO) and triglyceride (TG); meanwhile, it also increased the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as thyroxine (T4) levels...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038331/ghrelin-stimulation-by-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activation-depends-on-increasing-cortisol-levels
#17
I Azzam, S Gilad, R Limor, N Stern, Y Greenman
Ghrelin plasma concentration increases in parallel to cortisol after a standardized psychological stress in humans, but the physiological basis of this interaction is unknown. We aimed to elucidate this question by studying the ghrelin response to pharmacological manipulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Six lean, healthy male volunteers were examined under four experimental conditions. Blood samples were collected every 30 min for two sequential periods of two hours. Initially, a baseline period was followed by intravenous injection of a synthetic analog of ACTH (250 μg)...
November 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030008/assessment-of-leukocyte-activity-in-mice-devoid-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-the-noradrenergic-system-gr-dbhcre
#18
Adam Roman, Justyna Kuśmierczyk, Grzegorz Kreiner, Irena Nalepa
Disturbances in brain monoamines, overactivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and pro-inflammatory tendency in the immune system are the key features of depressive disorders. Recently, several murine lines with mutations in glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) have been generated and these animals may be utilized for study depressive-like disorders. In the present study, we have investigated whether selective ablation of GRs in noradrenergic neurons affects functional properties of leukocytes and redirects them towards pro-inflammatory activity...
October 8, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989885/impact-of-severity-of-illness-on-the-function-of-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-postmenopausal-women-with-acute-severe-illness-implications-for-predicting-disease-outcome
#19
Suresh Vaikkakara, Marella Neelima Raj, Alok Sachan, Alladi Mohan, Bhuma Vengamma, P V L N Srinivas Rao, Arun Mukka, Chiruvella Sravani, Amaresh P Reddy
BACKGROUND: While elevated levels of estradiol were predictive of mortality in critically ill surgical and trauma patients, their ability to predict outcome in nonsurgical patients has not been studied. We aimed to study the determinants of gonadotropin levels in acutely ill postmenopausal women with nonsurgical disease and the impact of changes in the gonadal axis on the outcome of these patients. METHODS: Thirty-five postmenopausal women admitted to medical intensive care with acute severe illness and having a Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II score) ≥30 (in-hospital mortality rate ≥ 10%) were recruited...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987939/a-hypothalamo-midbrain-medullary-pathway-involved-in-the-inhibition-of-the-respiratory-chemoreflex-response-induced-by-potassium-cyanide-in-rodents
#20
Tabinda Zafar, Charly Brouillard, Laurence Lanfumey, Caroline Sévoz-Couche
Recent studies have demonstrated that a mild stimulation of the dorsomedian nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH), a defense area, induces the inhibition of the carotid chemoreflex tachypnea. DMH activation reduces the cardiac chemoreflex response via the dorsolateral part of the periaqueductal grey matter (dlPAG) and serotonin receptors (5-HT3 subtype) in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). The objectives of this study were to assess whether dlPAG and subsequent NTS 5-HT3 receptors are involved in chemoreflex tachypnea inhibition during mild activation of the DMH...
October 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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