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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902350/trophic-and-neurotrophic-factors-in-human-pituitary-adenomas-review
#1
Marialuisa Spoletini, Samanta Taurone, Mario Tombolini, Antonio Minni, Giancarlo Altissimi, Venceslao Wierzbicki, Felice Giangaspero, Pier Paolo Parnigotto, Marco Artico, Lia Bardella, Enzo Agostinelli, Francesco Saverio Pastore
The pituitary gland is an organ that functionally connects the hypothalamus with the peripheral organs. The pituitary gland is an important regulator of body homeostasis during development, stress, and other processes. Pituitary adenomas are a group of tumors arising from the pituitary gland: they may be subdivided in functional or non-functional, depending on their hormonal activity. Some trophic and neurotrophic factors seem to play a key role in the development and maintenance of the pituitary function and in the regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity...
October 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895001/regulation-of-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical-responses-to-stressors-by-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-dorsal-vagal-complex
#2
REVIEW
James P Herman
Hindbrain neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are critical for regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses to stress. It is well known that noradrenergic (as well as adrenergic) neurons in the NTS send direct projections to hypophysiotropic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons and control activation of HPA axis responses to acute systemic (but not psychogenic) stressors. Norepinephrine (NE) signaling via alpha1 receptors is primarily excitatory, working either directly on CRH neurons or through presynaptic activation of glutamate release...
September 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866668/emerging-roles-of-kisspeptin-in-sexual-and-emotional-brain-processing
#3
Alexander N Comninos, Waljit S Dhillo
<br>The emergence of kisspeptin as a crucial regulator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis over the last 14 years has answered many questions as to the control of reproductive hormone secretion from the hypothalamus. More recently the role of kisspeptin outside the HPG axis has received increasing attention in the hope of delineating the pathways linking various sensory and social behaviours to reproduction. These studies, in a range of species from zebrafish to humans, have identified a role for kisspeptin in behavioural networks related to reproduction including olfaction, audition, fear, anxiety, mood and sexual arousal...
August 31, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863348/biological-and-perceived-stress-in-motor-functional-neurological-disorders
#4
Kalliopi Apazoglou, Viridiana Mazzola, Jennifer Wegrzyk, Giulia Frasca Polara, Selma Aybek
BACKGROUND: Current models explaining motor functional neurological disorders (FND) integrate both the neurobiological mechanisms underlying symptoms production and the role of psychosocial stressors. Imaging studies have suggested abnormal motor control linked to impaired emotional and stress regulation. However, little is known on the biological stress regulation in FND. Our aim was to study the biological and perceived response to stress in patients with motor FND. METHODS: Sixteen patients with motor FND (DSM-5 criteria) and fifteen healthy controls underwent the Trier Social Stress Test...
August 29, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859972/increased-oxytocin-monomeric-red-fluorescent-protein-1-fluorescent-intensity-with-urocortin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system-of-aged-transgenic-rats
#5
Shigeo Ohno, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Hiroaki Fujihara, Nobuhiro Fujiki, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Hiromichi Ueno, Satomi Sonoda, Motoko Ohno, Yuichi Umezu, Akinori Hamamura, Satoru Saeki, Yoichi Ueta
To visualize oxytocin in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system, we generated a transgenic rat that expresses the oxytocin-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion gene. In the present study, we examined the age-related changes of oxytocin-mRFP1 fluorescent intensity in the posterior pituitary (PP), the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of transgenic rats. The mRFP1 fluorescent intensities were significantly increased in the PP, the SON and the PVN of 12-, 18- and 24-month-old transgenic rats in comparison with 3-month-old transgenic rats...
August 28, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851616/regulation-of-gonadotropins-by-urocortin-2-in-gonadotropic-tumor-l%C3%AE-t2-cells
#6
Kazunori Kageyama, Shingo Murasawa, Kanako Niioka, Fumio Otsuka, Hiroko Yagi, Makoto Daimon
A close interaction has been shown between the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Urocortin 2 (Ucn2) has a very high affinity for the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 2 (CRF2) receptor. Pituitary Ucn2 regulates expression and secretion of gonadotropins in response to stress. The CRF2 receptor in the pituitary contributes to the modulation of gonadotropins. To explore the possible function of Ucn2 and the CRF2 receptor in pituitary gonadotropic tumor cells, we examined the direct regulation of gonadotropins by Ucn2 in a representative pituitary gonadotropic tumor, mouse LβT2 cells...
August 26, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845039/preoperative-and-postoperative-pituitary-function-in-patients-with-tuberculum-sellae-meningioma-based-on-pituitary-provocation-tests
#7
Shingo Fujio, Hirofumi Hirano, Mami Yamashita, Satoshi Usui, Yasuyuki Kinoshita, Atsushi Tominaga, Tomoko Hanada, Hitoshi Yamahata, Hiroshi Tokimura, Ryosuke Hanaya, Kaoru Kurisu, Kazunori Arita
Given the anatomical proximity of tuberculum sellae meningioma (TSM) to the hypothalamo-pituitary system, pituitary function impairments are of great concern. We retrospectively investigated pituitary function changes following surgery in patients with TSM using pituitary provocation tests (PPTs). Thirty-one patients (27 females and 4 males) with TSM underwent initial transcranial surgery (29 patients) or transsphenoidal surgery (two patients); surgeries were performed carefully to avoid injuring the pituitary stalk...
August 25, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805746/melanocortins-melanocortin-receptors-and-multiple-sclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Robert P Lisak, Joyce A Benjamins
The melanocortins and their receptors have been extensively investigated for their roles in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, but to a lesser extent in immune cells and in the nervous system outside the hypothalamic axis. This review discusses corticosteroid dependent and independent effects of melanocortins on the peripheral immune system, central nervous system (CNS) effects mediated through neuronal regulation of immune system function, and direct effects on endogenous cells in the CNS. We have focused on the expression and function of melanocortin receptors in oligodendroglia (OL), the myelin producing cells of the CNS, with the goal of identifying new therapeutic approaches to decrease CNS damage in multiple sclerosis as well as to promote repair...
August 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757456/prenatal-developmental-origins-of-behavior-and-mental-health-the-influence-of-maternal-stress-in-pregnancy
#9
REVIEW
Bea R H Van den Bergh, Marion I van den Heuvel, Marius Lahti, Marijke Braeken, Susanne R de Rooij, Sonja Entringer, Dirk Hoyer, Tessa Roseboom, Katri Räikkönen, Suzanne King, Matthias Schwab
Accumulating research shows that prenatal exposure to maternal stress increases the risk for behavioral and mental health problems later in life. This review systematically analyzes the available human studies to identify harmful stressors, vulnerable periods during pregnancy, specificities in the outcome and biological correlates of the relation between maternal stress and offspring outcome. Effects of maternal stress on offspring neurodevelopment, cognitive development, negative affectivity, difficult temperament and psychiatric disorders are shown in numerous epidemiological and case-control studies...
July 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744866/effect-of-moderate-30-percent-global-maternal-nutrient-reduction-on-fetal-and-postnatal-baboon-phenotype
#10
Cun Li, Susan Jenkins, Vicki Mattern, Anthony G Comuzzie, Laura A Cox, Hillary F Huber, Peter W Nathanielsz
BACKGROUND: Most developmental programming studies on maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) are in altricial rodents whose maternal nutritional burden and offspring developmental trajectory differ from precocial non-human primates and humans. METHODS: Control (CTR) baboon mothers ate ad libitum; MNR mothers ate 70% global control diet in pregnancy and lactation. RESULTS: We present offspring morphometry, blood cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) during second half of gestation (G) and first three postnatal years...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744256/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-as-the-homeostatic-rheostat-of-feto-maternal-symbiosis-and-developmental-programming-in-utero-and-neonatal-life
#11
REVIEW
Viridiana Alcántara-Alonso, Pamela Panetta, Patricia de Gortari, Dimitris K Grammatopoulos
A balanced interaction between the homeostatic mechanisms of mother and the developing organism during pregnancy and in early neonatal life is essential in order to ensure optimal fetal development, ability to respond to various external and internal challenges, protection from adverse programming, and safeguard maternal care availability after parturition. In the majority of pregnancies, this relationship is highly effective resulting in successful outcomes. However, in a number of pathological settings, perturbations of the maternal homeostasis disrupt this symbiosis and initiate adaptive responses with unpredictable outcomes for the fetus or even the neonate...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741070/late-onset-x-linked-adrenal-hypoplasia-dax-1-nr0b1-two-new-adult-onset-cases-from-a-single-center
#12
Nikolaos Kyriakakis, Tolulope Shonibare, Julie Kyaw-Tun, Julie Lynch, Carlos F Lagos, John C Achermann, Robert D Murray
PURPOSE: DAX-1 (NR0B1) is an orphan nuclear receptor, which plays a critical role in development and regulation of the adrenal gland and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Mutations in NR0B1 lead to adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC), hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and azoospermia in men. Presentation is typically with adrenal insufficiency (AI) during infancy or childhood. To date only eight cases/kindreds are reported to have presented in adulthood. METHODS: We describe two new cases of men with DAX-1 mutations who presented in adulthood and who were diagnosed at a large University Hospital...
July 24, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722251/alteration-in-the-relationship-between-tanycytes-and-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-neurosecretory-terminals-following-long-term-metabolic-manipulation-in-the-sheep
#13
Robert Pouchain Ribeiro Neto, Iain J Clarke, Gregory Conductier
The activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis is influenced by energy reserves, such that an increase or a decrease in adiposity may perturb the secretion and action of GnRH. This is thought to be due to the signalling of hormones such as leptin, which act upon neuronal systems controlling GnRH secretion. Other work shows plasticity in the relationship between tanycytes and GnRH neurosecretory terminals in the median eminence across the estrous cycle and we hypothesised that similar plasticity may occur with altered metabolic status...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719905/childhood-onset-adult-growth-hormone-deficiency-clinical-hormonal-and-radiological-assessment-in-a-single-center-in-china
#14
Hongbo Yang, Huijuan Zhu, Kemin Yan, Hui Pan
BACKGROUND: Although growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is an important issue in pediatric patients, adult GHD (AGHD) is a neglected field of endocrinology in China. The aim of this study is to characterize the clinical, hormonal, and radiological features in childhood-onset AGHD (CO AGHD) in a single center in China and to compare them with counterparts from Japan. METHODS: The medical records of 78 Chinese patients with CO AGHD were reviewed and compared with data from the HypoCCS database study from Japan (N = 69)...
2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688266/neural-hormonal-responses-to-negative-affective-stimuli-impact-of-dysphoric-mood-and-sex
#15
K Mareckova, L Holsen, R Admon, S Whitfield-Gabrieli, L J Seidman, S L Buka, A Klibanski, J M Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Maladaptive responses to negative affective stimuli are pervasive, including clinically ill and healthy people, and men and women respond differently at neural and hormonal levels. Inspired by the Research Domain Criteria initiative, we used a transdiagnostic approach to investigate the impact of sex and dysphoric mood on neural-hormonal responses to negative affective stimuli. METHODS: Participants included 99 individuals with major depressive disorder, psychosis and healthy controls...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674775/hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-after-a-single-epidural-triamcinolone-injection
#16
Ali Iranmanesh, Dakshinamurty Gullapalli, Ravinder Singh, Johannes D Veldhuis
PURPOSE: To quantify adrenocorticotropin and cortisol secretion after epidural glucocorticoid injection. METHODS: Eight men (ages 25-63 year) were studied at baseline, 1, 4, and 12 weeks after triamcinolone (80 mg) injection epidurally. Adrenocorticotropin (pg/mL) and cortisol (µg/dL) were measured every 10 min for 4 h, and after Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (1 µg/kg) injection. RESULTS: Epidural triamcinolone markedly suppressed: (1) pre-CRH injection ACTH (from 18 ± 3...
August 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670427/kisspeptin-a-potential-factor-for-unexplained-infertility-and-impaired-embryo-implantation
#17
Aaida Mumtaz, Aqsa Khalid, Zehra Jamil, Syeda Sadia Fatima, Sara Arif, Rehana Rehman
BACKGROUND: Kisspeptin (KP) is a neuropeptide that causes the release of the gonadotropin releasing hormone, which controls hypothalamo pituitary ovarian axis and exerts a number of peripheral effects on reproductive organs. The primary objective of this study was to compare baseline KP levels in females with different types of infertility and identify possible correlations with risk of failure to conceive, preclinical abortion and pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)...
July 2017: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670195/cortisol-response-to-low-dose-1-%C3%A2%C2%B5g-acth-stimulation-for-the-prediction-of-outcome-in-patients-with-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome
#18
Jelica Bjekić-Macut, Vojislav Radosavljević, Zoran Andrić, Dušan Ilić, Olivera Stanojlović, Danijela Vojnović Milutinović, Ivana Božić Antić, Marija Zdravković, Saša Hinić, Djuro Macut, Miloš Žarković
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) changes cortisol dynamics and indicates dissociation between the adrenal cortex and the hypothalamo-pituitary unit. The aim of this study was to assess the cortisol response after stimulation with ACTH1-24 in patients with SIRS at admission to the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) and seven days later. METHODS: Fifty-four subjects were included in the study, and SIRS was defined according to the Consensus Conference criteria from 1992...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670189/acth-cortisol-and-il-6-levels-in-athletes-following-magnesium-supplementation
#19
Gordana Dmitrašinović, Vesna Pešić, Dušanka Stanić, Bosiljka Plećaš-Solarović, Marijana Dajak, Svetlana Ignjatović
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and induces the body's inflammatory response. Due to contemporary dietary habits and increased energy expenditure, athletes are susceptible to depletion of magnesium ions. The aim of our study was to investigate, through assessment of plasma ACTH, serum IL-6, and salivary/serum cortisol levels, if chronic magnesium supplementation might reduce damaging stress effects in amateur rugby players. METHODS: Rugby players (N=23) were randomly assigned to intervention and control group...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614607/anatomical-and-functional-implications-of-crh-neurons-in-a-septal-nucleus-of-the-avian-brain-an-emphasis-on-glial-neuronal-interaction-via-v1a-receptors-in-vitro
#20
Gurueswar Nagarajan, Alexander Jurkevich, Seong W Kang, Wayne J Kuenzel
Previously, we showed that corticotropin releasing hormone immunoreactive (CRH-ir) neurons in a septal structure are associated with stress and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in birds. In this study, we focused upon CRH-ir neurons located within the septal structure called the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure (NHpC). Immunocytochemical and gene expression analyses were used to identify the anatomical and functional characteristics of cells within the NHpC. A comparative morphometry analysis showed that CRH-ir neurons in the NHpC were significantly larger than CRH-ir parvocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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