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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870155/timing-of-maternal-exposure-and-fetal-sex-determine-the-effects-of-low-level-chemical-mixture-exposure-on-the-fetal-neuroendocrine-system-in-sheep
#1
M Bellingham, P A Fowler, E S MacDonald, B Mandon-Pepin, C Cotinot, S Rhind, R M Sharpe, N P Evans
We have shown that continuous maternal exposure to the complex mixture of environmental chemicals (ECs) found in human biosolids (sewage sludge), disrupts mRNA expression of genes crucial for development and long-term regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal (HPG) function in sheep. This study investigated whether exposure to ECs only during preconceptional period or only during pregnancy perturbed key regulatory genes within the hypothalamus and pituitary gland and whether these effects were different from chronic (life-long) exposure to biosolid ECs...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867878/prevalence-of-hypothalamo-pituitary-dysfunction-in-patients-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
K V S Hari Kumar, M N Swamy, M A Khan
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in young soldiers of armed forces leading to significant morbidity and mortality. We studied the prevalence of hypopituitarism following TBI and its association with trauma severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a 12-month prospective study of 56 TBI patients for the presence of hormonal dysfunction. Hormonal parameters were estimated during the early phase (0-10 days posttraumatically) and after 6 and 12 months...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856292/the-challenge-hypothesis-where-it-began-and-relevance-to-humans
#3
REVIEW
John C Wingfield
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Over 40years ago assay methods that allowed the accurate measurement of circulating levels of hormones were developed for the first time enabling us to sample free-living as well as captive animals. This led to a new concept called "field endocrinology". It quickly became apparent that endocrine profiles of animals under natural conditions were very different from congeners in captivity. Furthermore, hormone data could be organized by functional units (e...
November 14, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849113/late-night-exercise-affects-the-autonomic-nervous-system-activity-but-not-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-the-next-morning
#4
Cihat Ucar, Tuba Özgöçer, Sedat Yildiz
BACKGROUND: Exercise activates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) and generally causes beneficial changes in homeostatic balance. However, the health benefits of late-night exercise programs on the activity of HPA and ANS is not known. The aim of this study was to assess effects of late-night exercise on sleep quality and on the activities of the HPA axis (as cortisol awakening response, CAR) and the ANS (as heart rate variability, HRV) measurements in the following morning...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843437/paraventricular-hypothalamic-mechanisms-of-chronic-stress-adaptation
#5
REVIEW
James P Herman, Jeffrey G Tasker
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the primary driver of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses. At least part of the role of the PVN is managing the demands of chronic stress exposure. With repeated exposure to stress, hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons of the PVN display a remarkable cellular, synaptic, and connectional plasticity that serves to maximize the ability of the HPA axis to maintain response vigor and flexibility. At the cellular level, chronic stress enhances the production of CRH and its co-secretagogue arginine vasopressin and rearranges neurotransmitter receptor expression so as to maximize cellular excitability...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809356/the-effect-of-growth-hormone-replacement-on-the-thyroid-axis-in-patients-with-hypopituitarism-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-studies
#6
Nigel Glynn, Helena Kenny, Leah Quisenberry, David J Halsall, Paul Cook, Tommy Kyaw Tun, John H McDermott, Diarmuid Smith, Christopher J Thompson, Donal J O'Gorman, Anita Boelen, Joaquin Lado-Abeal, Amar Agha
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) replacement. The aim was examine the relationship between changes in serum concentration of thyroid hormones and deiodinase activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue, before and after GH replacement. DESIGN: A prospective, observational study of patients receiving GH replacement as part of routine clinical care. PATIENTS: Twenty adult hypopituitary men...
November 3, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806418/-insomnia-between-neuro-and-social-sciences-a%C3%A2-psycho-socio-somatic-outview
#7
S Cohrs, T Hacker, I Marx, M Goerke
Insomnia is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders throughout Europe. It is associated with a number of health-relevant problems including an increased risk of psychiatric and organic disorders. A variety of organic, social and psychological risk factors takes part in the genesis of these sleep disturbances. A key component of the pathophysiology is the multifaceted hyperarousal that is expressed in the cognitive, emotional, neuronal, neuroendocrine, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and further neurovegetative domains...
October 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791297/sex-specific-effects-of-chronic-administration-of-relaxin-3-on-food-intake-body-weight-and-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-rats
#8
Juliane Calvez, Camila de Ávila, Geneviève Guèvremont, Elena Timofeeva
This study examined the effects of chronic central administration of relaxin-3 (RLN3) on food intake, body weight and fat mass in intact and sterilized male and female rats as well as on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity in intact male and female rats that received intracerebroventricular (icv) infusions of RLN3 (400 pmol/day) or vehicle during a 14-day period. The intact RLN3-injected rats displayed higher body weight than the vehicle-treated groups, and this increase was statistically significantly stronger in the female rats compared to the male rats...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732087/ampk%C3%AE-2-in-kiss1-neurons-is-required-for-reproductive-adaptations-to-acute-metabolic-challenges-in-adult-female-mice
#9
Marcio A Torsoni, Beatriz C Borges, Jessica L Cote, Susan J Allen, Erica Mahany, David Garcia-Galiano, Carol F Elias
A temporary and reversible inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is adaptive when energy reserves are diminished, allowing individual survival and energy accumulation for eventual reproduction. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) works as a cellular sensor of the AMP to ATP ratio and ultimately of energy availability. Activation of AMPK suppresses ATP-consuming processes and stimulates ATP-producing pathways. The AMPK α2 catalytic subunit is expressed in multiple hypothalamic nuclei including those associated with reproductive control, ie, the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the arcuate nucleus...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646495/prospective-study-of-hypothalamo-hypophyseal-dysfunction-in-children-and-adolescents-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
David Krahulik, Darina Aleksijevic, Vratislav Smolka, Eva Klaskova, Petra Venhacova, Miroslav Vaverka, Vladimir Mihal, Jirina Zapletalova
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Retrospective studies of TBI have found a neuroendocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury in 23 to 60% of adults and 15 to 21% of children. Our aims were to determine the prevalence of hypothalamo-hypophyseal dysfunction in children following brain injury, assess its relationship to the type of injury and the course of the acute post-traumatic phase. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Body development (growth, pubertal development, and skeletal maturity) were evaluated in 58 patients (21 girls) after a brain injury rated 3 to 12 on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)...
September 19, 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616279/baseline-morning-cortisol-level-as-a-predictor-of-pituitary-adrenal-reserve-a-comparison-across-three-assays
#11
Emilia Sbardella, Andrea M Isidori, Conor P Woods, Nicola Argese, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Brian Shine, Bahram Jafar-Mohammadi, Ashley B Grossman
CONTEXT: The short ACTH stimulation test (250 μg) is the dynamic test most frequently used to assess adrenal function. It is possible that a single basal cortisol could be used to predict the dynamic response, but research has been hampered by the use of different assays and thresholds. OBJECTIVE: To propose a morning baseline cortisol criterion of three of the most commonly used modern cortisol immunoassays - Advia Centaur (Siemens), Architect (Abbott) and the Roche Modular System (Roche) - that could predict adrenal sufficiency...
September 12, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607472/aberrant-epigenetic-regulation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-its-implication-in-precision-medicine
#12
Yi Zhan, Yu Guo, Qianjin Lu
Great progress has been made in the last decades in understanding the complex immune dysregulation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), yet the efforts to pursue an effective treatment of SLE proved to be futile. The pathoetiology of SLE involves extremely complicated and multifactorial interaction among various genetic and epigenetic factors. Multiple gene loci predispose to disease susceptibility, and the interaction with epigenetic modifications mediated through sex, hormones, and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis complicates susceptibility and manifestations of this disease...
2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599613/role-of-nesfatin-1-in-the-reproductive-axis-of-male-rat
#13
Xiaoxiao Gao, Kaifa Zhang, Min Song, Xiumei Li, Lei Luo, Yuan Tian, Yunhai Zhang, Yunsheng Li, Xiaorong Zhang, Yinghui Ling, Fugui Fang, Ya Liu
Nesfatin-1 is an important molecule in the regulation of reproduction. However, its role in the reproductive axis in male animals remains to be understood. Here, we found that nesfatin-1 was mainly distributed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), periventricular nucleus (PeN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the hypothalamus; adenohypophysis and Leydig cells in male rats. Moreover, the concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 and its mRNA in hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) vary with the age of the male rat...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594945/congenital-nasal-pyriform-aperture-stenosis-in-association-with-solitary-median-maxillary-central-incisor-unique-radiologic-features
#14
Sara Yang, Pedro Orta, Elizabeth M Renk, Jared C Inman
Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) coexists in 34%-65% of patients initially diagnosed with congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis. SMMCI, a genetic syndrome, warrants consideration for further screening because of its high prevalence of other diagnostic possibilities-specifically central defects, like nasal obstruction and hypothalamo-pituitary axis abnormalities. We report on a presentation of SMMCI with congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis which highlights the unique radiologic features and notes the relationship between these two central associated findings in the literature...
September 2016: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548106/pulsatile-cortisol-feedback-on-acth-secretion-is-mediated-by-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-modulated-by-gender
#15
Ferdinand Roelfsema, Paul Aoun, Johannes D Veldhuis
CONTEXT: Factors that regulate physiological feedback by pulses of glucocorticoids on the hypothalamic-pituitary unit are sparsely defined in humans in relation to gluco- or mineralocorticoid receptor pathways, gender, age, and the sex steroid milieu. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test (the clinical hypothesis) that glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor-selective mechanisms differentially govern pulsatile cortisol-dependent negative feedback on ACTH output (by the hypothalamo-pituitary unit) in men and women studied under experimentally defined T and estradiol depletion and repletion, respectively...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535914/a-basal-forebrain-site-coordinates-the-modulation-of-endocrine-and-behavioral-stress-responses-via-divergent-neural-pathways
#16
Shane B Johnson, Eric B Emmons, Rachel M Anderson, Ryan M Glanz, Sara A Romig-Martin, Nandakumar S Narayanan, Ryan T LaLumiere, Jason J Radley
UNLABELLED: The bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) are critically important for integrating stress-related signals between the limbic forebrain and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) effector neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH). Nevertheless, the circuitry underlying BST control over the stress axis and its role in depression-related behaviors has remained obscure. Utilizing optogenetic approaches in rats, we have identified a novel role for the anteroventral subdivision of BST in the coordinated inhibition of both HPA output and passive coping behaviors during acute inescapable (tail suspension, TS) stress...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533887/morphological-and-physiological-interactions-between-gnrh3-and-hypocretin-orexin-neuronal-systems-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#17
Yali Zhao, Chanpreet Singh, David A Prober, Nancy L Wayne
GnRH neurons integrate internal and external cues to control sexual maturation and fertility. Homeostasis of energy balance and food intake correlates strongly with the status of reproduction. Neuropeptides secreted by the hypothalamus involved in modulating energy balance and feeding may play additional roles in the regulation of reproduction. Hypocretin (Hcrt) (also known as orexin) is one such peptide, primarily controlling sleep/wakefulness, food intake, and reward processing. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that Hcrt/orexin (Hcrt) modulates reproduction through interacting with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in mammals...
October 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524668/blocking-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-5-relieves-maladaptive-chronic-stress-consequences
#18
Daniel Peterlik, Christina Stangl, Amelie Bauer, Anna Bludau, Jana Keller, Dominik Grabski, Tobias Killian, Dominic Schmidt, Franziska Zajicek, Georg Jaeschke, Lothar Lindemann, Stefan O Reber, Peter J Flor, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt
Etiology and pharmacotherapy of stress-related psychiatric conditions and somatoform disorders are areas of high unmet medical need. Stressors holding chronic plus psychosocial components thereby bear the highest health risk. Although the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) is well studied in the context of acute stress-induced behaviors and physiology, virtually nothing is known about its potential involvement in chronic psychosocial stress. Using the mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator CTEP (2-chloro-4-[2-[2,5-dimethyl-1-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]imidazol-4yl]ethynyl]pyridine), a close analogue of the clinically active drug basimglurant - but optimized for rodent studies, as well as mGlu5-deficient mice in combination with a mouse model of male subordination (termed CSC, chronic subordinate colony housing), we demonstrate that mGlu5 mediates multiple physiological, immunological, and behavioral consequences of chronic psychosocial stressor exposure...
August 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475314/bifocal-germinomas-in-the-pineal-region-and-hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal-axis-primary-or-metastasis
#19
Hui Zhang, Song-Tao Qi, Jun Fan, Lu-Xiong Fang, Bing-Hui Qiu, Yi Liu, Xiao-Yu Qiu
Whether bifocal germinomas (BFGs) synchronously presenting within the pineal region and the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal axis (HNA) are primary germinomas of dual-origin remains to be elucidated. We analyzed MRI images and clinical features of 95 neurohypophyseal germinomas and 21 BFG patients and developed a tentative definition of the BFGs. We found dual-primary BFGs (true BFGs) do exist. The fundamental difference between primary and metastatic HNA germinomas was the direction of tumor growth. For a true BFG, the primary HNA tumor grew from the neurohypophysis toward the hypothalamus and almost invaded the whole pituitary stalk...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459535/endogenous-estrogen-regulates-somatostatin-induced-rebound-gh-secretion-in-postmenopausal-women
#20
Johannes D Veldhuis, Dana Erickson, Rebecca Yang, Paul Takahashi, Cyril Bowers
BACKGROUND: Systemic concentrations of T, estradiol (E2), GH, IGF-1, and IGF binding protein-3 decline in healthy aging individuals. Conversely, T and E2 stimulate GH and IGF-1 production in hypogonadal patients. HYPOTHESIS: Because E2 stimulates GH secretion, putatively via the nuclear estrogen receptor-α and E2 and GH fall with menopause, we postulated that diminished endogenous E2 contributes to low GH output in older women. LOCATION: The study was conducted at the Mayo Center for Clinical and Translational Science...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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