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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441891/investigational-and-experimental-gnrh-analogs-and-associated-neurotransmitters
#1
Zeev Blumenfeld
The GnRH agonistic analogs enable for desensitizing the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in malignant and benign conditions where minimizing the production of sex hormones, or blocking ovulation is necessary. The possible indications are prostate cancer, benign prostate hyperplasia, breast cancer, endometriosis, precocious puberty, uterine leiomyomata, assisted reproduction (ART)/in vitro fertilization (IVF), PCOS, minimizing the gonadotoxic effect of chemotherapy in young women, and possibly ovarian cancer...
April 25, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418336/intracranial-lesions-in-children-and-adolescents-with-morbid-obesity
#2
Ayça Törel Ergür, Sevinç Odabaşı Güneş, Sinan Tan, Ü Ayşe Tandırcıoğlu
BACKGROUND: Intracranial lesions may affect the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis and lead to some neuro-endocrinological dysfunctions (hyperphagia, sleep disorders and hormonal dysfunctions). There is a very limited number of studies about childhood obesity and intracranial lesions. AIMS: To evaluate the incidence of intracranial lesions and its role in clinical symptoms and aetiology in cases with morbid obesity who have been admitted to the paediatric endocrinology department with this complaint...
April 5, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412090/pituitary-gland-in-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depression-evidence-from-structural-mri-studies
#3
G Delvecchio, A C Altamura, J C Soares, P Brambilla
BACKGROUND: The function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) has been widely investigated in mood disorders based on its role in regulating stress response. Particularly, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reports have explored pituitary gland (PG) in both bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In this context, the present review summarizes the results from MRI studies with the final aim of commenting on the presence of common or distinct PG structural alterations between these two disabling illnesses...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377717/biomarkers-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-in-treated-cancer-patients-potential-predisposition-and-risk-factors
#4
REVIEW
Hélène Castel, Angeline Denouel, Marie Lange, Marie-Christine Tonon, Martine Dubois, Florence Joly
Purpose: Cognitive impairment in cancer patients induced, at least in part, by treatment are frequently observed and likely have negative impacts on patient quality of life. Such cognitive dysfunctions can affect attention, executive functions, and memory and processing speed, can persist after treatment, and their exact causes remain unclear. The aim of this review was to create an inventory and analysis of clinical studies evaluating biological markers and risk factors for cognitive decline in cancer patients before, during, or after therapy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348023/a-homozygous-mutation-of-gnrhr-in-a-familial-case-diagnosed-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#5
Sandrine Caburet, Ronit Beck Fruchter, Bérangère Legois, Marc Fellous, Stavit Shalev, Reiner A Veitia
CONTEXT: PCOS is a heterogeneous condition characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation and affects about 10% of women. Its etiology is poorly known, but a dysregulation of gonadotropin secretion is one of its hallmarks. OBJECTIVE: As the etiology of PCOS is unclear, we have performed a genome-wide analysis of a consanguineous family with three sisters diagnosed with PCOS. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing confirmation...
May 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339602/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-kisspeptin-and-gonadal-steroids-directly-modulate-nucleobindin-2-nesfatin-1-in-murine-hypothalamic-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-and-gonadotropes%C3%A2
#6
A Hatef, S Unniappan
Neuroendocrine regulation of metabolism and reproduction are tightly interlinked. Nesfatin-1 is an 82 amino acid metabolic peptide derived from nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). NUCB2 mRNA and protein significantly increase in the hypothalamus of rats during puberty-to-adult transition. Administration of nesfatin-1 modulates circulating LH and testosterone in male rats. However, whether nesfatin-1 acts directly on neurons and gonadotropes remain unknown. In addition, whether reproductive hormones of the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis modulate NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is unclear...
March 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339047/hypothalamo%C3%A2-hypophysial-system-in-rats-with-autotransplantation-of-the-adrenal-cortex
#7
Nae Takizawa, Susumu Tanaka, Souichi Oe, Taro Koike, Tadashi Matsuda, Hisao Yamada
Patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma often require an adrenalectomy. Autotransplantation of the adrenal cortex is an alternative therapy that could potentially be performed instead of receiving glucocorticoid replacement following adrenalectomy. Adrenal cortex autotransplantation aims to avoid the side effects of long‑term steroid treatment and adrenal insufficiency. Although the function of the hypothalamo‑hypophysial system is critical for patients who have undergone adrenal cortex autotransplantation, the details of that system, with the exception of adrenocorticotropic hormone in the subjects with adrenal autotransplantation, have been overlooked for a long time...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330882/adiponectin-and-resistin-a-role-in-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-axis
#8
Agnieszka Rak, Namya Mellouk, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
Adipokines, including adiponectin and resistin, are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue. They play a significant role in the metabolic functions that regulate insulin sensitivity and inflammation. Alteration of adiponectin and resistin plasma levels, or their expression in metabolic and gonadal tissue, are observed in some metabolic pathologies, such as obesity. Several studies have shown that these two hormones and the receptors for adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, are present in various reproductive tissues in both sexes of different species...
March 22, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324042/interleukin-1-antagonism-decreases-cortisol-levels-in-obese-individuals
#9
Sandrine Andrea Urwyler, Philipp Schuetz, Fahim Ebrahimi, Marc Y Donath, Mirjam Christ-Crain
Context: Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). Objective: We hypothesised that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels. Design and participants: In this prospective intervention study we included 73 patients with obesity (BMI >30kg/m2) and at least one additional feature of the metabolic syndrome...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295469/assessing-new-peptides-that-may-be-involved-in-the-physiological-regulation-of-the-gonadal-axis-in-humans-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone
#10
Peter Y Liu
The hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular (HPT) and hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axes are integrated networks that regulate androgenization or estrogenization (including embryonic, infantile, pubertal and adult sexual maturation), male or female sexual behavior, and spermatogenesis or ovulation, respectively. Dysregulation of the HPT axis, for example, results in pubertal delay, eunuchism, impaired spermatogenesis, and reduced systemic androgen exposure; and may also contribute to some of the features of male aging, impair recovery from protracted critical illness, and induce visceral adiposity, sarcopenia, osteopenia, and insulin resistance...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295370/the-human-endolymphatic-sac-expresses-natriuretic-peptides
#11
Martin Nue Møller, Svend Kirkeby, Jonas Vikeså, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Per Cayé-Thomasen
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The function of the human endolymphatic sac (ES) has been enigmatic for decades. Hypotheses include controlling endolymphatic fluid homeostasis and inner ear immunological defense. Additionally, several studies indicate a possible endocrine capacity and a yet undefined role in intracranial pressure homeostasis. However, no direct evidence of such capacity exists. This study aims to explore and identify the hypothesized endocrine capacity of the human ES. STUDY DESIGN: DNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used for analyses of fresh human ES tissue samples...
March 14, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288009/update-on-adrenal-insufficiency-diagnosis-and-management-in-pregnancy
#12
Fabienne Langlois, Dawn S T Lim, Maria Fleseriu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal insufficiency in pregnancy, although relatively rare, has significant clinical implications on both maternal and fetal outcomes. Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis dynamics and physiological changes are complex, thus diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency in pregnancy remain challenging. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies consistently demonstrate a rise in total serum cortisol with pregnancy, but less data are available on free cortisol levels...
March 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275162/leptin-signalling-in-agrp-neurons-modulates-puberty-onset-and-adult-fertility-in-mice
#13
Olivia K Egan, Megan A Inglis, Greg M Anderson
The hormone leptin indirectly communicates metabolic information to brain neurons that control reproduction, using GABAergic circuitry. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in the arcuate nucleus are GABAergic, express leptin receptors (LepR) and are known to influence reproduction. This study tested whether leptin actions on AgRP neurons are required and sufficient for puberty onset and subsequent fertility. Firstly, Agrp-Cre and Lepr-flox mice were used to target deletion of LepR to AgRP neurons. AgRP-LepR knockout female mice exhibited mild obesity and adiposity as previously described, as well as a significant delay in the pubertal onset of estrous cycles compared to control animals...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270187/multiplex-serum-protein-analysis-reveals-potential-mechanisms-and-markers-of-response-to-hyperimmune-caprine-serum-in-systemic-sclerosis
#14
Niamh Quillinan, Kristina E N Clark, Bryan Youl, Jeffrey Vernes, Deirdre McIntosh, Syed Haq, Christopher P Denton
BACKGROUND: Hyperimmune caprine serum (HICS) is a novel biological therapy with potential benefit for skin in established diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Here we report multiplex protein analysis of blood samples from a placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial and explore mechanisms of action and markers of response. METHODS: Patients were treated with HICS (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10) over 26 weeks, with follow-up open-label treatment to 52 weeks in 14 patients...
March 7, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261833/diagnostic-utility-of-testosterone-priming-prior-to-dynamic-tests-to-differentiate-constitutional-delay-in-puberty-from-isolated-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism
#15
Suja P Sukumar, Anil Bhansali, Naresh Sachdeva, Chirag Kamal Ahuja, Ujjwal Gorsi, Kush Dev Singh Jarial, Rama Walia
CONTEXT: Differentiation between constitutional delay in puberty (CDP) and isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) during adolescence is a great clinical challenge, and the available diagnostic tests are of limited value. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of withdrawal of short-term, low-dose testosterone therapy (testosterone priming) on the discriminatory power of dynamic tests for hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis to differentiate CDP from IHH. DESIGN: A prospective study (n = 30) consisting of 20 boys with delayed puberty (group A) and 10 patients with IHH (group B)...
March 5, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224319/fine-morphological-evaluation-of-hypothalamus-in-patients-with-hyperphagia
#16
Yoshikazu Ogawa, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Teiji Tominaga
BACKGROUND: Various metabolic diseases induced by eating disorders are some of the most serious and difficult problems for modern public healthcare. However, little is known about hyperphagia, partly because of the lack of a clear definition. Several basic studies have analyzed eating habits using endocrinological or neurophysiological approaches, which have suggested a controlled balance between the hunger and satiety centers in the central nervous system. However, more detailed neuro-radiologic evaluations have not been achieved for the hypothalamus, and evaluations were limited only to the floor of the third ventricles...
May 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215679/causes-of-declining-fertility-in-dairy-cows-during-the-warm-season
#17
REVIEW
F De Rensis, F Lopez-Gatius, I García-Ispierto, G Morini, R J Scaramuzzi
In the Northern Hemisphere, from June to September and in the Southern Hemisphere from December to March, there are periods of reduced fertility (sub-fertility) in dairy cows that are described as summer infertility. Several factors contribute to sub-fertility during this time, such as ambient temperature, humidity and photoperiod. During the warm season there is a reduction in feed intake that may compromise the energy balance of the cow and/or induce an imbalance in the activity of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-ovarian axis...
March 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213302/disrupting-effects-of-azocyclotin-to-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-axis-and-reproduction-of-xenopus-laevis
#18
Shuying Li, Meng Li, Wenjun Gui, Qiangwei Wang, Guonian Zhu
Over the past few decades, the hazards associated with the extensive use of organictin compounds have become an issue of extreme concern, while at present the effects of these substances on amphibians remain poorly understood. In the present study, we chose azocyclotin, one of common use acaricides in China. We focused on sexual development and steroidogenesis disrupting effects of azocyclotin in the Xenopus laevis. Tadpoles were exposed to azocyclotin (0.05 and 0.5μg/L) for long-term (4 months) study. Results showed that exposure to azocyclotin caused developmental toxicity, including decreased survival, body weight, body length, gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and female phenotype...
April 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197193/chinese-herbal-medicine-yougui-pill-reduces-exogenous-glucocorticoid-induced-apoptosis-in-anterior-pituitary-cells
#19
Yong-Zhi Ji, Long Geng, Hong-Bo Zhou, Hua-Chen Wei, Hong-Duo Chen
Long-term glucocorticoid use may result in sustained suppression of one or more secreted components from the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and often results in apoptosis. Yougui Pill (YGP), a 10-component traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been shown to be clinically effective for glucocorticoid-induced suppression of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that YGP would exert an anti-apoptosis effect on dexamethasone-treated anterior pituitary cells...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191860/hypothalamic-damage-in-multiple-sclerosis-correlates-with-disease-activity-disability-depression-and-fatigue
#20
E Kantorová, H Poláček, M Bittšanský, E Baranovičová, P Hnilicová, D Čierny, Š Sivák, V Nosáľ, K Zeleňák, E Kurča
OBJECTIVES: Disturbances in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis are supposed to modulate activity of multiple sclerosis (MS). We hypothesised that the extent of HYP damage may determine severity of MS and may be associated with the disease evolution. We suggested fatigue and depression may depend on the degree of damage of the area. METHOD: 33 MS patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive disease, and 24 age and sex-related healthy individuals (CON) underwent 1H-MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the hypothalamus...
April 2017: Neurological Research
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