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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051939/ecologically-relevant-cooling-early-in-life-alters-prefledging-adrenocortical-response-in-free-living-songbirds
#1
Sharon E Lynn, Michael D Kern
In vertebrates, exposure to stressful stimuli early in development may alter the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with the potential for fitness consequences later in life. For altricial species, whose young rely on their parents for food, warmth, and protection from predators, adult behavior can modify the impact of some stressors on their offspring after birth or hatching. We have shown that single bouts of cooling that normally occur when brooding females leave the nest elevate corticosterone secretion in very young free-living eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043861/the-importance-of-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-anorexia-nervosa
#2
REVIEW
Rami Bou Khalil, Lama Souaiby, Nassim Farès
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder, mainly affecting women, with a lifetime prevalence of about 1%, that can run a chronic course. While an effective pharmacotherapy is lacking, it is hypothesized that the progesterone and type II glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU486) might be useful, as it is well known that the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is activated in AN. Even if secondary to the eating disorder, an active HPA axis may contribute to maintaining the neuroendocrine, emotional and behavioral effects observed in AN...
December 30, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024269/aromatase-changes-in-depression-a-postmortem-and-animal-experimental-study
#3
Juan-Li Wu, Yang He, Radovan Hrubý, Rawien Balesar, Yang-Jian Qi, Lei Guo, Zhong Ren, Qiong-Bin Zhu, Man-Li Huang, Dick F Swaab, Ai-Min Bao
A hyperactive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a prominent feature in depression. It has been shown that androgens inhibit HPA activity and that estrogens stimulate it. We have therefore investigated, in human postmortem hypothalamus, whether depression features an increase in aromatase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the conversion of androgens to estrogens. In addition, we have tested the effect of an aromatase inhibitor on depression-like symptoms in a frequently used animal model for depression...
November 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012292/behavioral-and-physiological-consequences-of-enrichment-loss-in-rats
#4
Brittany L Smith, Carey E Lyons, Fernanda Guilhaume Correa, Stephen C Benoit, Brent Myers, Matia B Solomon, James P Herman
Significant loss produces the highest degree of stress and compromised well-being in humans. Current rodent models of stress involve the application of physically or psychologically aversive stimuli, but do not address the concept of loss. We developed a rodent model for significant loss, involving removal of long-term access to a rewarding enriched environment. Our results indicate that removal from environmental enrichment produces a profound behavioral and physiological phenotype with depression-like qualities, including helplessness behavior, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis dysregulation and overeating...
December 2, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007534/fkbp5-polymorphism-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity
#5
Marta Fichna, Izabela Krzyśko-Pieczka, Magdalena Żurawek, Bogda Skowrońska, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Piotr Fichna
OBJECTIVE: Since metabolic syndrome shares several clinical features with hypercortisolism, it was hypothesised that genes altering individual glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity might be implicated in pathogenesis of obesity and its adverse outcomes. FKBP5 gene encodes a chaperon protein in the GC receptor (GR) complex, which modulates steroid action upon target genes. Its functional variant, rs1360780, may enhance FKBP5 gene transcription, affect GR signalling and thereby influence the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis...
December 19, 2016: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999963/identification-of-an-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-rat-pars-tuberalis-a-possible-interface-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-system
#6
Arsalan Jafarpour, Faramarz Dehghani, Horst-Werner Korf
Endocannabinoids (ECs) are ubiquitous endogenous lipid derivatives and play an important role in intercellular communication either in an autocrine/paracrine or in an endocrine fashion. Recently, an intrinsic EC system has been discovered in the hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT) of hamsters and humans. In hamsters, this EC system is under photoperiodic control and appears to influence the secretion of hormones such as prolactin from the adenohypophysis. We investigate the EC system in the PT of the rat, a frequently used species in endocrine research...
December 20, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986975/roles-of-hippocampal-somatostatin-receptor-subtypes-in-stress-response-and-emotionality
#7
Thomas D Prévôt, François Gastambide, Cécile Viollet, Nadia Henkousl, Guillaume Martel, Jacques Epelbaum, Daniel Béracochéa, Jean-Louis Guillou
Altered brain somatostatin functions recently appeared as key elements for the pathogenesis of stress related neuropsychiatric disorders. The hippocampus exerts an inhibitory feedback on stress but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated herein the role of hippocampal somatostatin receptor subtypes in both stress response and behavioral emotionality using C57BL/6, wild type and sst2 or sst4 knockout mice. Inhibitory effects of hippocampal infusions of somatostatin agonists on stress-induced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity were tested by monitoring peripheral blood and local hippocampus corticosterone levels, the latter by using microdialysis...
December 16, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965624/ru486-mitigates-hippocampal-pathology-following-status-epilepticus
#8
Aynara C Wulsin, James P Herman, Steve C Danzer
Status epilepticus (SE) induces rapid hyper-activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. HPA axis hyperactivity results in excess exposure to high levels of circulating glucocorticoids, which are associated with neurotoxicity and depression-like behavior. These observations have led to the hypothesis that HPA axis dysfunction may exacerbate SE-induced brain injury. To test this hypothesis, we used the mouse pilocarpine model of epilepsy to determine whether use of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 can attenuate hippocampal pathology following SE...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930953/adolescent-binge-alcohol-exposure-increases-risk-assessment-behaviors-in-male-wistar-rats-after-exposure-to-an-acute-psychological-stressor-in-adulthood
#9
Audrey Torcaso, AnnaDorothea Asimes, Margaret Meagher, Toni R Pak
Teenage binge drinking is a common practice that has been shown to increase the risk for developing mood disorders in adulthood. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often dysfunctional in mood disorder patients, and animal models of adolescent binge alcohol exposure similarly show disordered HPA axis function, even after long periods of alcohol abstinence. Here, we sought to investigate the anxiety-like behavioral consequences of binge alcohol exposure in a Wistar rat model. Male rats were administered alcohol in a binge pattern during peri-puberty, and one month later, anxiety-like behaviors were measured using the elevated plus maze...
November 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870155/timing-of-maternal-exposure-and-fetal-sex-determine-the-effects-of-low-level-chemical-mixture-exposure-on-the-fetal-neuroendocrine-system-in-sheep
#10
M Bellingham, P A Fowler, E S MacDonald, B Mandon-Pepin, C Cotinot, S Rhind, R M Sharpe, N P Evans
We have shown that continuous maternal exposure to the complex mixture of environmental chemicals (ECs) found in human biosolids (sewage sludge), disrupts mRNA expression of genes crucial for development and long-term regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal (HPG) function in sheep. This study investigated whether exposure to ECs only during preconceptional period or only during pregnancy perturbed key regulatory genes within the hypothalamus and pituitary gland and whether these effects were different from chronic (life-long) exposure to biosolid ECs...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867878/prevalence-of-hypothalamo-pituitary-dysfunction-in-patients-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
K V S Hari Kumar, M N Swamy, M A Khan
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in young soldiers of armed forces leading to significant morbidity and mortality. We studied the prevalence of hypopituitarism following TBI and its association with trauma severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a 12-month prospective study of 56 TBI patients for the presence of hormonal dysfunction. Hormonal parameters were estimated during the early phase (0-10 days posttraumatically) and after 6 and 12 months...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856292/the-challenge-hypothesis-where-it-began-and-relevance-to-humans
#12
REVIEW
John C Wingfield
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Over 40years ago assay methods that allowed the accurate measurement of circulating levels of hormones were developed for the first time enabling us to sample free-living as well as captive animals. This led to a new concept called "field endocrinology". It quickly became apparent that endocrine profiles of animals under natural conditions were very different from congeners in captivity. Furthermore, hormone data could be organized by functional units (e...
November 14, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849113/late-night-exercise-affects-the-autonomic-nervous-system-activity-but-not-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-the-next-morning
#13
Cihat Ucar, Tuba Özgöçer, Sedat Yildiz
BACKGROUND: Exercise activates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) and generally causes beneficial changes in homeostatic balance. However, the health benefits of late-night exercise programs on the activity of HPA and ANS is not known. The aim of this study was to assess effects of late-night exercise on sleep quality and on the activities of the HPA axis (as cortisol awakening response, CAR) and the ANS (as heart rate variability, HRV) measurements in the following morning...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843437/paraventricular-hypothalamic-mechanisms-of-chronic-stress-adaptation
#14
REVIEW
James P Herman, Jeffrey G Tasker
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the primary driver of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses. At least part of the role of the PVN is managing the demands of chronic stress exposure. With repeated exposure to stress, hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons of the PVN display a remarkable cellular, synaptic, and connectional plasticity that serves to maximize the ability of the HPA axis to maintain response vigor and flexibility. At the cellular level, chronic stress enhances the production of CRH and its co-secretagogue arginine vasopressin and rearranges neurotransmitter receptor expression so as to maximize cellular excitability...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809356/the-effect-of-growth-hormone-replacement-on-the-thyroid-axis-in-patients-with-hypopituitarism-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-studies
#15
Nigel Glynn, Helena Kenny, Leah Quisenberry, David J Halsall, Paul Cook, Tommy Kyaw Tun, John H McDermott, Diarmuid Smith, Christopher J Thompson, Donal J O'Gorman, Anita Boelen, Joaquin Lado-Abeal, Amar Agha
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) replacement. The aim was to examine the relationship between changes in serum concentration of thyroid hormones and deiodinase activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue, before and after GH replacement. DESIGN: A prospective, observational study of patients receiving GH replacement as part of routine clinical care. PATIENTS: Twenty adult hypopituitary men...
November 3, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806418/-insomnia-between-neuro-and-social-sciences-a%C3%A2-psycho-socio-somatic-outview
#16
S Cohrs, T Hacker, I Marx, M Goerke
Insomnia is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders throughout Europe. It is associated with a number of health-relevant problems including an increased risk of psychiatric and organic disorders. A variety of organic, social and psychological risk factors takes part in the genesis of these sleep disturbances. A key component of the pathophysiology is the multifaceted hyperarousal that is expressed in the cognitive, emotional, neuronal, neuroendocrine, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and further neurovegetative domains...
October 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791297/sex-specific-effects-of-chronic-administration-of-relaxin-3-on-food-intake-body-weight-and-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-rats
#17
Juliane Calvez, Camila de Ávila, Geneviève Guèvremont, Elena Timofeeva
This study examined the effects of chronic central administration of relaxin-3 (RLN3) on food intake, body weight and fat mass in intact and sterilized male and female rats as well as on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity in intact male and female rats that received intracerebroventricular (icv) infusions of RLN3 (400 pmol/day) or vehicle during a 14-day period. The intact RLN3-injected rats displayed higher body weight than the vehicle-treated groups, and this increase was statistically significantly stronger in the female rats compared to the male rats...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732087/ampk%C3%AE-2-in-kiss1-neurons-is-required-for-reproductive-adaptations-to-acute-metabolic-challenges-in-adult-female-mice
#18
Marcio A Torsoni, Beatriz C Borges, Jessica L Cote, Susan J Allen, Erica Mahany, David Garcia-Galiano, Carol F Elias
A temporary and reversible inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is adaptive when energy reserves are diminished, allowing individual survival and energy accumulation for eventual reproduction. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) works as a cellular sensor of the AMP to ATP ratio and ultimately of energy availability. Activation of AMPK suppresses ATP-consuming processes and stimulates ATP-producing pathways. The AMPK α2 catalytic subunit is expressed in multiple hypothalamic nuclei including those associated with reproductive control, ie, the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the arcuate nucleus...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646495/prospective-study-of-hypothalamo-hypophyseal-dysfunction-in-children-and-adolescents-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
David Krahulik, Darina Aleksijevic, Vratislav Smolka, Eva Klaskova, Petra Venhacova, Miroslav Vaverka, Vladimir Mihal, Jirina Zapletalova
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Retrospective studies of TBI have found a neuroendocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury in 23 to 60% of adults and 15 to 21% of children. Our aims were to determine the prevalence of hypothalamo-hypophyseal dysfunction in children following brain injury, assess its relationship to the type of injury and the course of the acute post-traumatic phase. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Body development (growth, pubertal development, and skeletal maturity) were evaluated in 58 patients (21 girls) after a brain injury rated 3 to 12 on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)...
September 19, 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616279/baseline-morning-cortisol-level-as-a-predictor-of-pituitary-adrenal-reserve-a-comparison-across-three-assays
#20
Emilia Sbardella, Andrea M Isidori, Conor P Woods, Nicola Argese, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Brian Shine, Bahram Jafar-Mohammadi, Ashley B Grossman
CONTEXT: The short ACTH stimulation test (250 μg) is the dynamic test most frequently used to assess adrenal function. It is possible that a single basal cortisol could be used to predict the dynamic response, but research has been hampered by the use of different assays and thresholds. OBJECTIVE: To propose a morning baseline cortisol criterion of three of the most commonly used modern cortisol immunoassays - Advia Centaur (Siemens), Architect (Abbott) and the Roche Modular System (Roche) - that could predict adrenal sufficiency...
September 12, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
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