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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775763/photoreceptor-mediated-regulation-of-the-cop1-spa-e3-ubiquitin-ligase
#1
REVIEW
Roman Podolec, Roman Ulm
Plants have evolved specific photoreceptors that capture informational cues from sunlight. The phytochrome, cryptochrome, and UVR8 photoreceptors perceive red/far-red, blue/UV-A, and UV-B light, respectively, and control overlapping photomorphogenic responses important for plant growth and development. A major repressor of such photomorphogenic responses is the E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) and SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) proteins, which acts by regulating the stability of photomorphogenesis-promoting transcription factors...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775759/-938-rhrk-941-is-responsible-for-ubiquitin-specific-protease-48-nuclear-translocation-which-can-stabilize-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-in-the-nucleus
#2
Ying-Li Liu, Jing Yan, Jie Zheng, Qing-Bao Tian
The transcription factor NF-κB is a key regulator of cellular processes. A mechanism that contributes to timely termination of NF-κB activity is UPS-dependent degradation of p65 in the nucleus or on chromatin. The ubiquitin-specific protease that takes part in this process and its molecular mechanisms are shown in previous study, but which structural feature of USP48 was responsible for these effects is unknown. Here, we show that maybe the stability of NF-κB is controlled by proteasome-mediated degradation and ubiquitin-specific protease 48 (USP48), also known as synaptic ubiquitin-specific protease (synUSP) or USP31, can enhance NF-κB stability through proteasome-dependent regulation in the nucleus...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775751/expression-pattern-and-functional-analysis-of-the-two-ring-box-protein-rbx-in-spermatogenesis-of-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#3
Jia-Shun Zhang, Xue-Jie Li, Lei Yang, Wei-Wei Li, Qun Wang
Studies in E. sinensis have shown that ubiquitination mediated by Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) plays important roles in spermatogenesis. In other species, CRLs are also essential in cell cycle progression, DNA replication, signal transduction, gene transcription, and development. The catalytic RING component, the RING box protein, is an important part of CRLs. However, there have been few studies on CRLs in crustaceans. In this study, we cloned two RING box protein genes from the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, termed Es-RBX1 and Es-RBX2 The full length Es-RBX1 cDNA comprises 741 nucleotides, and encodes a protein of 124 amino acid residues, whereas the Es-RBX2 cDNA comprises 1325 nucleotides, and encodes a protein of 110 amino acid residues...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775578/c-terminal-end-directed-protein-elimination-by-crl2-ubiquitin-ligases
#4
Hsiu-Chuan Lin, Chi-Wei Yeh, Yen-Fu Chen, Ting-Ting Lee, Pei-Yun Hsieh, Domnita V Rusnac, Sung-Ya Lin, Stephen J Elledge, Ning Zheng, Hsueh-Chi S Yen
The proteolysis-assisted protein quality control system guards the proteome from potentially detrimental aberrant proteins. How miscellaneous defective proteins are specifically eliminated and which molecular characteristics direct them for removal are fundamental questions. We reveal a mechanism, DesCEND (destruction via C-end degrons), by which CRL2 ubiquitin ligase uses interchangeable substrate receptors to recognize the unusual C termini of abnormal proteins (i.e., C-end degrons). C-end degrons are mostly less than ten residues in length and comprise a few indispensable residues along with some rather degenerate ones...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775575/at-long-last-a-c-terminal-bookend-for-the-ubiquitin-code
#5
Andrew Chatr-Aryamontri, Almer van der Sloot, Mike Tyers
The ubiquitin-proteasome system controls the stability of myriad protein substrates via short sequence motifs called degrons. Studies by Koren et al. (2018) and Lin et al. (2018) have uncovered a broad new class of degrons located at the extreme C terminus of substrates.
May 17, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774376/roles-of-heat-shock-factor-1-beyond-the-heat-shock-response
#6
REVIEW
János Barna, Péter Csermely, Tibor Vellai
Various stress factors leading to protein damage induce the activation of an evolutionarily conserved cell protective mechanism, the heat shock response (HSR), to maintain protein homeostasis in virtually all eukaryotic cells. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) plays a central role in the HSR. HSF1 was initially known as a transcription factor that upregulates genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs), also called molecular chaperones, which assist in refolding or degrading injured intracellular proteins. However, recent accumulating evidence indicates multiple additional functions for HSF1 beyond the activation of HSPs...
May 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774234/the-fission-yeast-stn1-ten1-complex-limits-telomerase-activity-via-its-sumo-interacting-motif-and-promotes-telomeres-replication
#7
Samah Matmati, Mélina Vaurs, José M Escandell, Laetitia Maestroni, Toru M Nakamura, Miguel G Ferreira, Vincent Géli, Stéphane Coulon
Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) complex fulfills numerous functions including rescue of the stalled replication forks and termination of telomerase action. In fission yeast lacking the CTC1 ortholog, the Stn1-Ten1 complex restricts telomerase action via its sumoylation-mediated interaction with Tpz1TPP1 . We identify a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-interacting motif (SIM) in the carboxyl-terminal part of Stn1 and show that this domain is crucial for SUMO and Tpz1-SUMO interactions. Point mutations in the SIM (Stn1-226) lead to telomere elongation, impair Stn1-Ten1 recruitment to telomeres, and enhance telomerase binding, revealing that Stn1 SIM domain contributes to the inhibition of telomerase activity at chromosome ends...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774077/long-noncoding-rna-mir503hg-a-prognostic-indicator-inhibits-tumor-metastasis-by-regulating-the-hnrnpa2b1-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Hui Wang, Linhui Liang, Qiongzhu Dong, Lin Huan, Jia He, Botai Li, Chen Yang, Haojie Jin, Lin Wei, Chengtao Yu, Fangyu Zhao, Jinjun Li, Ming Yao, Wenxin Qin, Lunxiu Qin, Xianghuo He
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying molecular mechanisms of their specific association with hepatocarcinogenesis have not been fully explored. Methods: miR503HG was identified by microarray and validated by real-time PCR. Survival analysis was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and assessed using the log-rank test. In vitro and in vivo assays were preformed to explore the biological effects of miR503HG in HCC cells. The interaction of miR503HG with HNRNPA2B1 was identified by RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774039/a-membrane-bound-nac-like-transcription-factor-osntl5-represses-the-flowering-in-oryza-sativa
#9
Siyi Guo, Shaojun Dai, Prashant K Singh, Hongyan Wang, Yanan Wang, Jeanie L H Tan, Wanyi Wee, Toshiro Ito
In spite of short-day (SD) nature, rice ( Oryza sativa ) shares a conserved photoperiodic network for flowering control with long-day plants like Arabidopsis thaliana. Flowering or heading is an important agronomic trait in rice. NAC transcription factors (TFs) are well-conserved and one of the largest families of plant TFs. However, their function in flowering or heading time is not well-known yet. A preferential expression of a membrane-bound NAC-like TF OsNTL5 in developing leaves and panicles of rice indicated to us its putative role in flowering...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773687/the-role-of-intercalated-cell-nedd4-2-in-bp-regulation-ion-transport-and-transporter-expression
#10
Masayoshi Nanami, Truyen D Pham, Young Hee Kim, Baoli Yang, Roy L Sutliff, Olivier Staub, Janet D Klein, Karen I Lopez-Cayuqueo, Regine Chambrey, Annie Y Park, Xiaonan Wang, Vladimir Pech, Jill W Verlander, Susan M Wall
Background Nedd4-2 is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that associates with transport proteins, causing their ubiquitylation, and then internalization and degradation. Previous research has suggested a correlation between Nedd4-2 and BP. In this study, we explored the effect of intercalated cell (IC) Nedd4-2 gene ablation on IC transporter abundance and function and on BP. Methods We generated IC Nedd4-2 knockout mice using Cre-lox technology and produced global pendrin/ Nedd4-2 null mice by breeding global Nedd4-2 null ( Nedd4-2-/- ) mice with global pendrin null ( Slc26a4-/- ) mice...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773651/usp25m-protease-regulates-ubiquitin-like-processing-of-tug-proteins-to-control-glut4-glucose-transporter-translocation-in-adipocytes
#11
Estifanos N Habtemichael, Don T Li, Abel Alcázar-Román, Xavier O Westergaard, Muyi Li, Max C Petersen, Hanbing Li, Stephen G DeVries, Eric Li, Omar Julca-Zevallos, Joseph S Wolenski, Jonathan S Bogan
Insulin stimulates the exocytic translocation of specialized vesicles in adipocytes, which inserts GLUT4 glucose transporters into the plasma membrane to enhance glucose uptake.  Previous results support a model in which TUG proteins trap these GLUT4 storage vesicles at the Golgi matrix, and in which insulin triggers endoproteolytic cleavage of TUG to translocate GLUT4.  Here, we identify Usp25m as a protease required for insulin-stimulated TUG cleavage and GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes.  Usp25m is expressed in adipocytes, binds TUG and GLUT4, dissociates from TUG-bound vesicles after insulin addition, and colocalizes with TUG and insulin-responsive cargoes in unstimulated cells...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772800/identification-and-expression-of-mirnas-related-to-female-flower-induction-in-walnut-juglans-regia-l
#12
Li Zhou, Shaowen Quan, Hang Xu, Li Ma, Jianxin Niu
Flower induction is an essential stage in walnut ( Juglans regia L.) trees, directly affecting yield, yield stability, fruit quality and commodity value. The objective of this study was to identify miRNAs related to female flower induction via high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. A total of 123 miRNAs were identified including 51 known miRNAs and 72 novel miRNAs. Differential expression was observed in 19 of the known miRNAs and 34 of the novel miRNAs. Twelve miRNAs were confirmed by RT-qPCR...
May 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772786/tau-fibril-formation-in-cultured-cells-compatible-with-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy
#13
Gen Matsumoto, Kazuki Matsumoto, Taeko Kimura, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi, Naruhiko Sahara, Nozomu Mori
Neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are primarily neuropathological features of a number of neurodegenerative diseases collectively termed tauopathy. To understand the mechanisms underlying the cause of tauopathy, precise cellular and animal models are required. Recent data suggest that the transient introduction of exogenous tau can accelerate the development of tauopathy in the brains of non-transgenic and transgenic mice expressing wild-type human tau. However, the transmission mechanism leading to tauopathy is not fully understood...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771572/inhibition-of-ubiquitin-activating-enzyme-protects-against-organ-injury-after-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion
#14
Shingo Matsuo, Andrew Chaung, Deanna Liou, Ping Wang, Weng-Lang Yang
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) occurs in various clinical settings, such as transplantation, acute mesenteric arterial occlusion, trauma and shock. I/R injury causes severe systemic inflammation, leading to multiple organ dysfunction associated with high mortality. The ubiquitin proteasome pathway has been indicated in the regulation of inflammation, particularly through NF-κB signaling pathway. PYR-41 is a small molecular compound that selectively inhibits ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. A mouse model of intestinal I/R injury by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 45 minutes was performed to evaluate the effect of PYR-41 treatment on organ injury and inflammation...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771335/loss-of-fragile-x-protein-fmrp-impairs-homeostatic-synaptic-downscaling-through-tumor-suppressor-p53-and-ubiquitin-e3-ligase-nedd4-2
#15
Kwan Young Lee, Kathryn A Jewett, Hee Jung Chung, Nien-Pei Tsai
Synaptic scaling allows neurons to homeostatically readjust synaptic strength upon chronic neural activity perturbations. Although altered synaptic scaling has been implicated to underlie imbalanced brain excitability in neurological disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy, the molecular dysregulation and restoration of synaptic scaling in those diseases have not been demonstrated. Here, we showed that the homeostatic synaptic downscaling is absent in the hippocampal neurons of Fmr1 KO mice, the mouse model of the most common inherited autism, Fragile X Syndrome (FXS)...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770645/atoh1-regulation-in-the-cochlea-more-than-just-transcription
#16
REVIEW
Yen-Fu Cheng
More than 80% of all cases of deafness are related to the death or degeneration of cochlear hair cells and the associated spiral ganglion neurons, and a lack of regeneration of these cells leads to permanent hearing loss. Therefore, the regeneration of lost hair cells is an important goal for the treatment of deafness. Atoh1 is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is critical in both the development and regeneration of cochlear hair cells. Atoh1 is transcriptionally regulated by several signaling pathways, including Notch and Wnt signalings...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769719/klhl22-activates-amino-acid-dependent-mtorc1-signalling-to-promote-tumorigenesis-and-ageing
#17
Jie Chen, Yuhui Ou, Yanyan Yang, Wen Li, Ye Xu, Yuntao Xie, Ying Liu
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of cell growth that responds to a diverse set of environmental cues, including amino acids1,2 . Deregulation of mTORC1 has been linked with metabolic diseases, cancer and ageing2-4 . In response to amino acids, mTORC1 is recruited by the Rag GTPases to the lysosome, its site of activation5,6 . The GATOR1 complex, consisting of DEPDC5, NPRL3 and NPRL2, displays GAP activity to inactivate Rag GTPases under amino-acid-deficient conditions 7 ...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769653/isg15-in-antiviral-immunity-and-beyond
#18
REVIEW
Yi-Chieh Perng, Deborah J Lenschow
The host response to viral infection includes the induction of type I interferons and the subsequent upregulation of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes. Ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 is an interferon-induced protein that has been implicated as a central player in the host antiviral response. Over the past 15 years, efforts to understand how ISG15 protects the host during infection have revealed that its actions are diverse and pathogen-dependent. In this Review, we describe new insights into how ISG15 directly inhibits viral replication and discuss the recent finding that ISG15 modulates the host damage and repair response, immune response and other host signalling pathways...
May 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769446/ubiquitination-and-deubiquitination-emerge-as-players-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Shuang Li, Jing Zhao, Dong Shang, Daniel J Kass, Yutong Zhao
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal fibrotic lung disease that is associated with aberrant activation of TGF-β, myofibroblast differentiation, and abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) production. Proper regulation of protein stability is important for maintenance of intracellular protein homeostasis and signaling. Ubiquitin E3 ligases mediate protein ubiquitination, and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) reverse the process. The role of ubiquitin E3 ligases and DUBs in the pathogenesis of IPF is relatively unexplored...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769387/assessing-ubiquitylation-of-individual-proteins-using-xenopus-extract-systems
#20
Gary S McDowell, Anna Philpott
Xenopus extract systems have been used to study ubiquitylation of proteins, and to uncover some of the fundamental processes of the ubiquitylation pathway itself. They provide a simple, quick, and robust method for studying ubiquitylation. In this protocol, methods are provided for studying protein ubiquitylation using Xenopus egg or embryo extracts and in vitro radiolabeled proteins. These methods also enable examination of whether proteins undergo noncanonical ubiquitylation, through modification of the protein by covalent linkage to ubiquitin through residues other than lysine, such as cysteine, serine, and threonine...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
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