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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635255/characterization-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-a-novel-peptide-ecfsta-from-wheat-germ-globulin
#1
Wenjia Wu, Mengmeng Zhang, Yao Ren, Xinze Cai, Zhina Yin, Xiaoai Zhang, Tian Min, Hui Wu
A novel peptide was extracted from wheat germ globulin and purified using ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and semi-preparative reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The sequence of the peptide was found to be Glu-Cys-Phe-Ser-Thr-Ala (ECFSTA). Its immunomodulatory effects were evaluated, and the results showed that ECFSTA could enhance phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 cells and significantly increase their secretion of nitric oxide (NO), interleukins-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635072/plgf-enhances-tlr-dependent-inflammatory-responses-in-human-mononuclear-phagocytes
#2
Laura F Newell, Shernan G Holtan, Jane E Yates, Leonardo Pereira, Jeffrey W Tyner, Irina Burd, Grover C Bagby
PROBLEM: Levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) peak during third trimester of pregnancy, a time when women are at increased risk of virus-induced morbidity. We hypothesized PlGF might contribute to an exaggerated inflammatory response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. METHOD OF STUDY: Primary human adult and cord blood CD14(+) cells were cultured in the presence of TLR ligands and/or PlGF. RESULTS: PlGF significantly enhanced the magnitude and duration of TNF messenger RNA and protein production by TLR-7/8-activated monocytes, and increased subsequent production of TNF-independent inflammatory cytokines...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634394/the-roles-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pathogen-associated-biliary-fibrosis-caused-by-clonorchis-sinensis
#3
Chao Yan, Bo Li, Fang Fan, Ying Du, Rui Ma, Xiao-Dan Cheng, Xiang-Yang Li, Bo Zhang, Qian Yu, Yu-Gang Wang, Ren-Xian Tang, Kui-Yang Zheng
Pathogen-associated biliary fibrosis (PABF) is a type of liver fibrosis characterized by injuries of cholangiocytes and extra cellular matrix (ECM) deposition around bile ducts caused by various bacteria, fungi, virus and parasites. Recent studies show that TLR4 plays an important role in several other types of liver fibrosis, but the mechanism of TLR4 in PABF is yet really unclear. In the present study, a PABF mouse model was established by a trematode infection-Clonorchis sinensis which dwells in the bile ducts and causes severe biliary fibrosis of mice...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632732/fructo-oligosaccharides-and-intestinal-barrier-function-in-a-methionine-choline-deficient-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#4
Kotaro Matsumoto, Mayuko Ichimura, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yuki Moritoki, Hiromichi Tsunashima, Katsuhisa Omagari, Masumi Hara, Ichiro Yasuda, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Kentaro Kikuchi
Impairments in intestinal barrier function, epithelial mucins, and tight junction proteins have been reported to be associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides restore balance in the gastrointestinal microbiome. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal barrier function and steatohepatitis in methionine-choline-deficient mice. Three groups of 12-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were studied for 3 weeks; specifically, mice were fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet, a methionine-choline-deficient diet plus 5% fructo-oligosaccharides in water, or a normal control diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632301/regulation-of-kindling-epileptogenesis-by-hippocampal-toll-like-receptors-2
#5
Jesús-Servando Medel-Matus, Ashley Reynolds, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
This study examined whether Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) contribute to rapid kindling epileptogenesis. A TLR2 agonist, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), LTA antibody (LTA-A), or normal saline (control) was administered daily over 3 consecutive days, unilaterally into ventral hippocampus of adult male Wistar rats. Thirty minutes after the last injection, the animals were subjected to a rapid kindling procedure. The ictogenesis was gauged by comparing afterdischarge threshold (ADT) and afterdischarge duration (ADD) before the treatments, after the treatments prior to kindling, and 24 h after kindling...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632131/reciprocal-analyses-in-zebrafish-and-medaka-reveal-that-harnessing-the-immune-response-promotes-cardiac-regeneration
#6
Didier Yr Stainier, Shih-Lei Ben Lai, Rubén Marín-Juez, Pedro Luís Moura, Carsten Kuenne, Jason Kuan Han Lai, Ayele Taddese Tsedeke, Stefan Guenther, Mario Looso
Zebrafish display a distinct ability to regenerate their heart following injury. However, this ability is not shared by another teleost, the medaka. In order to identify cellular and molecular bases for this difference, we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses following cardiac cryoinjury. This comparison points to major differences in immune cell dynamics between these models. Upon closer examination, we observed delayed and reduced macrophage recruitment in medaka, along with delayed neutrophil clearance...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631245/hypoxia-and-inflammation-in-the-release-of-vegf-and-interleukins-from-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#7
Olli Arjamaa, Vesa Aaltonen, Niina Piippo, Tamás Csont, Goran Petrovski, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
PURPOSE: Retinal diseases are closely associated with both decreased oxygenation and increased inflammation. It is not known if hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the retina itself evokes inflammation, or whether inflammation is a prerequisite for the development of neovascularization. METHODS: Human ARPE-19 cell line and primary human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were used. ARPE-19 cells were kept either under normoxic (24 h or 48 h) or hypoxic conditions (1% O2, 24 h)...
June 19, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630706/effects-of-feeding-untreated-pasteurized-and-acidified-waste-milk-and-bunk-tank-milk-on-the-performance-serum-metabolic-profiles-immunity-and-intestinal-development-in-holstein-calves
#8
Yang Zou, Yajing Wang, Youfei Deng, Zhijun Cao, Shengli Li, Jiufeng Wang
BACKGROUND: The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of different sources of milk on the growth performance, serum metabolism, immunity, and intestinal development of calves. Eighty-four Holstein male neonatal calves were assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: those that received bunk tank milk (BTM), untreated waste milk (UWM), pasteurized waste milk (PWM), and acidified waste milk (AWM) for 21 d. RESULTS: Calves in the BTM and AWM groups consumed more starter (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630328/toll-like-receptor-pathway-evolution-in-deuterostomes
#9
Michael G Tassia, Nathan V Whelan, Kenneth M Halanych
Animals have evolved an array of pattern-recognition receptor families essential for recognizing conserved molecular motifs characteristic of pathogenic microbes. One such family is the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). On pathogen binding, TLRs initiate specialized cytokine signaling catered to the class of invading pathogen. This signaling is pivotal for activating adaptive immunity in vertebrates, suggesting a close evolutionary relationship between innate and adaptive immune systems. Despite significant advances toward understanding TLR-facilitated immunity in vertebrates, knowledge of TLR pathway evolution in other deuterostomes is limited...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630139/functional-interfaces-between-ticam-2-tram-and-ticam-1-trif-in-tlr4-signaling
#10
REVIEW
Kenji Funami, Misako Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Fuyuhiko Inagaki, Tsukasa Seya
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS), produces pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons, and associates with a trigger of endotoxin shock. TLR4 is interacted with a TIR domain-containing adaptor molecule-2 (TICAM-2)/TRAM [TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β)-related adaptor molecule] via its Toll-interleukin-1 receptor homology (TIR) domain. TICAM-2 acts as a scaffold protein and activates TIR domain-containing adaptor molecule-1 (TICAM-1)/TRIF. According to the structural analysis by NMR, TICAM-2 interacts with TICAM-1 by the acidic amino acids motif, E87/D88/D89...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630066/porphyromonas-gulae-activates-unprimed-and-ifn%C3%AE-primed-macrophages-via-the-pattern-recognition-receptors-tlr-2-tlr-4-and-nod2
#11
James A Holden, Neil M O'Brien-Simpson, Jason C Lenzo, Rebecca K H Orth, Ashley Mansell, Eric C Reynolds
Porphyromonas gulae is an anaerobic, Gram-negative coccobacillus that has been associated with periodontal disease in companion animals. The aims of this study were to analyse the ligation of pattern recognition receptors by P. gulae and the subsequent activation of macrophages. Exposure of HEK cells transfected with Toll-like receptors or NOD-like receptors to P. gulae resulted in the ligation of TLR2, TLR4 and NOD2. The effect of this engagement of receptors was investigated by measuring the synthesis of nitric oxide, CD86 expression and inflammatory cytokine production using wild type, TLR2-/- and TLR4-/- macrophages...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629511/microbiota-regulates-visceral-pain-in-the-mouse
#12
Pauline Luczynski, Monica Tramullas, Maria Viola, Fergus Shanahan, Gerard Clarke, Siobhain O'Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The perception of visceral pain is a complex process involving the spinal cord and higher order brain structures. Increasing evidence implicates the gut microbiota as a key regulator of brain and behavior, yet it remains to be determined if gut bacteria play a role in visceral sensitivity. We used germ-free mice (GF) to assess visceral sensitivity, spinal cord gene expression and pain-related brain structures. GF mice displayed visceral hypersensitivity accompanied by increases in Toll-like receptor and cytokine gene expression in the spinal cord, which were normalized by postnatal colonization with microbiota from conventionally colonized (CC)...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628927/curcumin-promotes-apoptosis-of-activated-hepatic-stellate-cells-by-inhibiting-protein-expression-of-the-myd88-pathway
#13
Ya-Jun He, Kenny Kuchta, Yan-Mei Deng, Silke Cameron, Yu Lin, Xu-You Liu, Guo-Ron Ye, Xia Lv, Yuta Kobayashi, Jian-Chang Shu
Activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play an important role in the progress of liver fibrosis. HSC activation occurs in response to inflammatory cytokines, cellular interactions with immune cells, and morphogenetic signals. The literature hints to a role of the adaptor protein MyD88 in fibrosis. Although curcumin has been shown to exert inhibitory effects on the proliferation of HSC in vitro, its influence on the MyD88 pathway in HSC has remained unclear. Here, we investigated whether curcumin accelerates apoptosis of HSC through the MyD88 pathway...
June 19, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627973/profile-of-gene-expression-of-tlr-signaling-pathways-in-colorectal-cancer-tissues
#14
Martyna Bednarczyk, Małgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń, Katarzyna Walkiewicz, Teresa Kokot, Edyta Fatyga, Urszula Mazurek
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in transduction of molecular signals in immune process such as induction and regulation of immunity, production of cytokines, and recognition of specific molecular patterns on the surface of microorganisms, but also in cancer development-which was partially proven in previous studies. There is a lack of detailed research on differentiating levels of TLR expression in colorectal cancer at different stages of its advancement, so in our study we want to determine whether there is such a difference of TLRs and TLR-connected protein expression...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627683/regulatory-role-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-factor-6-in-breast-cancer-by-activating-the-protein-kinase-b-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#15
Hongyu Shen, Liangpeng Li, Sujin Yang, Dandan Wang, Siying Zhou, Xiu Chen, Jinhai Tang
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an endogenous adaptor of innate and adaptive immune responses, and serves a crucial role in tumor necrosis factor receptor and toll‑like/interleukin‑1 receptor signaling. Although studies have demonstrated that TRAF6 has oncogenic activity, its potential contributions to breast cancer in human remains largely uninvestigated. The present study examined the expression levels and function of TRAF6 in breast carcinoma (n=32) and adjacent healthy (n=25) tissue samples...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627645/therapeutic-strategies-for-alcoholic-liver-disease-focusing-on-inflammation-and-fibrosis-review
#16
Hideto Kawaratani, Kei Moriya, Tadashi Namisaki, Masakazu Uejima, Mitsuteru Kitade, Kousuke Takeda, Yasushi Okura, Kousuke Kaji, Hiroaki Takaya, Norihisa Nishimura, Shinya Sato, Yasuhiko Sawada, Kenichiro Seki, Takuya Kubo, Akira Mitoro, Junichi Yamao, Hitoshi Yoshiji
Excessive alcohol consumption is the most common cause of liver disease in the world. Chronic alcohol abuse leads to liver damage, liver inflammation, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, induce liver injury, which leads to the develo-pment of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Hepatoprotective cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, are also associated with ALD. IL-6 improves ALD via the activation of STAT3 and the subsequent induction of a variety of hepatoprotective genes in hepatocytes...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626833/the-lung-is-a-host-defense-niche-for-immediate-neutrophil-mediated-vascular-protection
#17
Bryan G Yipp, Jung Hwan Kim, Ronald Lima, Lori D Zbytnuik, Björn Petri, Nick Swanlund, May Ho, Vivian G Szeto, Tamar Tak, Leo Koenderman, Peter Pickkers, Anton T J Tool, Taco W Kuijpers, Timo K van den Berg, Mark R Looney, Matthew F Krummel, Paul Kubes
Bloodstream infection is a hallmark of sepsis, a medically emergent condition requiring rapid treatment. However, upregulation of host defense proteins through toll-like receptors and NFκB requires hours after endotoxin detection. Using confocal pulmonary intravital microscopy, we identified that the lung provides a TLR4-Myd88-and abl tyrosine kinase-dependent niche for immediate CD11b-dependent neutrophil responses to endotoxin and Gram-negative bloodstream pathogens. In an in vivo model of bacteremia, neutrophils crawled to and rapidly phagocytosed Escherichia coli sequestered to the lung endothelium...
April 28, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626766/involvement-of-the-toll-like-receptor-nitric-oxide-signaling-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cervical-cancer-caused-by-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-infection
#18
Jie Li, Heping Rao, Chang'e Jin, Jinrong Liu
Human papillomavirus (HPV) can activate Toll-like receptor (TLR)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathways; however, whether the TLR/NO pathway is involved in cervical cancer caused by high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) remains unclear. In this study, 43 HR-HPV-positive patients with cervical cancer (CC group), 39 HR-HPV-positive patients with a healthy cervix (HR-HPV group), and 33 HR-HPV-negative controls were recruited. NO concentration in cervical canal and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in cervical tissues were detected...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625885/dock8-deficiency-insights-into-pathophysiology-clinical-features-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Catherine M Biggs, Sevgi Keles, Talal A Chatila
Dedicator of Cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is a combined immunodeficiency that exemplifies the broad clinical features of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), extending beyond recurrent infections to include atopy, autoimmunity and cancer. It is caused by loss of function mutations in DOCK8, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor highly expressed in lymphocytes that regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Additional roles of DOCK8 have also emerged, including regulating MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling and the activation of the transcription factor STAT3...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625263/-bacterial-endotoxin-induced-endothelial-cell-injury-and-calcium-overload-associated-with-toll-like-receptor-and-calcium-signal
#20
Jianguo Xiao, Qing Song, Tanshi Li, Rongju Sun
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD2), and stromal interaction molecular 1 (STIM1) for regulating human vascular endothelial calcium overload injury and inflammatory reaction induced by bacterial endotoxin (LPS). METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM). (1) The levels of TLR4, MD2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were detected by reverse transcriotion-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) before and 0...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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