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Toll receptor

X M Chen, F Q Li, S Yan, X C Wu, C L Tang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-inflammation effects by activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and its mechanisms in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. METHODS: 6-week-old male C57BL/6J (B6) mice were randomly divided into four groups: the first group was normal mice, injected with saline; the second group was normal mice, injected with nicotine; the third group was NASH model mice, injected with saline; the fourth group was NASH model mice, injected with nicotine...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Min Sun, Yinnan Mu, Yang Ding, Jingqun Ao, Xinhua Chen
Toll-like receptor 21 (TLR21) is a non-mammalian TLR that functions similar to mammalian TLR9 in recognizing CpG DNA. In the present study, we identified a TLR21 homologue, LycTLR21, from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The complete coding sequence of LycTLR21 is 2946 nucleotides long, encoding a protein of 981 amino acids. The deduced LycTLR21 protein has typical TLR domain architecture, including a signal peptide, 13 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) in the extracellular region, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain...
October 14, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Raphaela Mayerhofer, Esther E Fröhlich, Florian Reichmann, Aitak Farzi, Nora Kogelnik, Eleonore Fröhlich, Wolfgang Sattler, Peter Holzer
Microbial metabolites are known to affect immune system, brain, and behavior via activation of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Unlike the effect of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the role of other TLR agonists in immune-brain communication is insufficiently understood. We therefore hypothesized that the TLR2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (LTA) causes immune activation in the periphery and brain, stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has an adverse effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and emotional behavior...
October 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Claudia Balducci, Angelisa Frasca, Margherita Zotti, Pietro La Vitola, Emanuela Mhillaj, Emanuele Grigoli, Martina Iacobellis, Federica Grandi, Massimo Messa, Laura Colombo, Monica Molteni, Luigia Trabace, Carlo Rossetti, Mario Salmona, Gianluigi Forloni
[Background] Amyloid-β oligomers (AβO) are species mainly involved in the synaptic and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Although their action has been described mainly at neuronal level, it is now clear that glial cells govern synaptic activity in their resting state, contributing to new learning and memory establishment. In contrast, when activated, they may lead to synaptic and cognitive dysfunction. Using a reliable acute AβO-mediated mouse model of AD, we explored whether the memory alteration AβOs induce relies on the activation of glial cells, and if Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), pivotal in the initiation of an immune response, is involved...
October 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Christian Adam, Jonas Wohlfarth, Maike Haußmann, Helga Sennefelder, Annette Rodin, Mareike Maler, Stefan F Martin, Matthias Goebeler, Marc Schmidt
Chromium allergy is a common occupational skin disease mediated by chromium (VI)-specific T cells that induce delayed-type hypersensitivity in sensitized individuals. Additionally, chromium (VI) can act as irritant. Both responses critically require innate immune activation, but if and how chromium (VI) elicits this signal is currently unclear.Using human monocytes, primary human keratinocytes and murine dendritic cells we show that chromium (VI) compounds fail to trigger direct proinflammatory activation but potently induce processing and secretion of IL-1β...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Keun Ah Ryu, Katarzyna Slowinska, Troy Moore, Aaron Esser-Kahn
We report immune response modulation with linked Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Conjugating two agonists of synergistic TLRs induce an increase in immune activity compared to equal molarity of soluble agonists. Additionally, varying the distance between the agonists by changing the linker length alters the level of macrophage NF-κB activity as well as primary bone marrow derived dendritic cell IL-6 production. This modulation is effected by the size of the agonists and the pairing of the stimulated TLRs...
October 17, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Jian Wan, Yi Shan, Yibo Fan, Conghui Fan, Song Chen, Jie Sun, Lili Zhu, Long Qin, Mengjin Yu, Zhaofen Lin
Toll-like receptor (TLR) family are receptors for extracellular or intracellular signaling, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. TLR induces the differentiation of human myeloid monocytic‑leukemia cells (THP-1) to macrophages. However, the relationship between extracellular or intracellular signaling and the TLR protein level remain to be determined. Using RT-PCR and western blot analysis, the aim of the present study was to determine whether TLR4, a major TLR family member, could be moderately upregulated by high concentration of LPS and whether it promoted the maturation of THP1 cells...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Young Ha Ahn, Sunyoung Park, Jeong June Choi, Bo-Kyung Park, Kyung Hee Rhee, Eunjoo Kang, Soyeon Ahn, Chul-Ho Lee, Jong Soo Lee, Kyung-Soo Inn, Mi-La Cho, Sung-Hwan Park, Kyunghee Park, Hae Jung Park, Jae Hyun Lee, Jung Won Park, Nam Hoon Kwon, Hyunbo Shim, Byung Woo Han, Pilhan Kim, Joo-Youn Lee, Youngho Jeon, Jin Won Huh, Mirim Jin, Sunghoon Kim
The N-terminal truncated form of a protein synthesis enzyme, tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (mini-WRS), is secreted as an angiostatic ligand. However, the secretion and function of the full-length WRS (FL-WRS) remain unknown. Here, we report that the FL-WRS, but not mini-WRS, is rapidly secreted upon pathogen infection to prime innate immunity. Blood levels of FL-WRS were increased in sepsis patients, but not in those with sterile inflammation. FL-WRS was secreted from monocytes and directly bound to macrophages via a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) complex to induce phagocytosis and chemokine production...
October 17, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Alexander K Andrianov, Alexander Marin, Thomas R Fuerst
Two macromolecular immunoadjuvants - poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene], PCPP and poly[di(carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene], PCEP have been investigated for their molecular interactions with model and bio-pharmaceutically important proteins in solutions, as well as for their TLR stimulatory effects and pH-dependent membrane disruptive activity in cellular assays. Solution interactions between polyphosphazenes and proteins, including antigens and soluble immune receptor proteins, have been studied using Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) at near physiological conditions - phosphate buffered saline, pH 7...
October 17, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Wei-Shan Hung, Pin Ling, Ju-Chien Cheng, Shy-Shin Chang, Ching-Ping Tseng
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a pivotal role in the host response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we elucidated whether the endocytic adaptor protein Disabled-2 (Dab2), which is abundantly expressed in macrophages, plays a role in LPS-stimulated TLR4 signaling and trafficking. Molecular analysis and transcriptome profiling of RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells expressing short-hairpin RNA of Dab2 revealed that Dab2 regulated the TLR4/TRIF pathway upon LPS stimulation...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yuki Hosokawa, Kouji Hirao, Hiromichi Yumoto, Ayako Washio, Tadashi Nakanishi, Daisuke Takegawa, Chiaki Kitamura, Takashi Matsuo
Caries-related pathogens are first recognized by odontoblasts and induce inflammatory events that develop to pulpitis. Generally, initial sensing of microbial pathogens is mediated by pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD); however, little is known about NODs in odontoblasts. In this study, the levels of NODs expressed in rat odontoblastic cell line, KN-3, were assessed by flow cytometry and the levels of chemokines in NOD-specific ligand-stimulated KN-3 cells were analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA...
2016: BioMed Research International
Zheng Jun Li, Dae-Kyoung Choi, Kyung-Cheol Sohn, Seul Ki Lim, Myung Im, Young Lee, Young-Joon Seo, Chang Deok Kim, Jeung-Hoon Lee
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is mainly secreted from Th17 cells that are activated by various stimuli including CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) ligand. Recently, it has been demonstrated that keratinocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential role of keratinocytes, we examined whether TLR9 ligand CpG induces IL-17A expression in keratinocytes. METHODS: We used HaCaT keratinocytes as a model system, and determined CpG-induced IL-17A using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Chunyan Shao, Heng Wang, Xiaodu Wang, Sheng Jiang, Jing Sun, Houhui Song, Jianji Li
Endometritis is a common puerperal disease in livestock. Thus, a practical clinical test for the establishment of diagnosis is needed. We developed a goat model for subclinical endometritis diagnosis by examining cytological, ultrastructural features and molecular expression in cervical discharge collected by cervical cytobrush method. A suspension of E. coli was infused into the uterine horn of goats, and cervical discharge, peripheral blood and endomertrial biopsy samples were collected before inoculation and at 3, 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 168 hr post-inoculation (pi)...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Akira Takashima, Daiju Fukuda, Kimie Tanaka, Yasutomi Higashikuni, Yoichiro Hirata, Sachiko Nishimoto, Shusuke Yagi, Hirotsugu Yamada, Takeshi Soeki, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Yutaka Taketani, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are major components of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) which inhibit atherogenesis, although few studies have examined the effects of the combination of EPA and DHA on atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DHA has additional anti-atherosclerotic effects when combined with EPA. METHODS: Male 8-week-old apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice were fed a western-type diet supplemented with different amounts of EPA and DHA; EPA (2...
October 5, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Linsen Mu, Yongzhi Wang, Yonggang Wang, Hongbo Zhang, Dewei Shang, Fuqiang Tan, Yan Li, Xuzhu Chen
INTRODUCTION: Toll-like receptor 9(TLR9) is a key immunotherapy target for glioblastoma (GBM). This study explored the correlation of TLR9 expression with tumor location and survival outcomes in patients with supratentorial GBM. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 46 patients with supratentorial GBMs and divided them into those with high (TRL9(High)) and low TLR9 (TRL9(Low)) levels. The two groups were compared by patients' ages, sex, preoperative Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), resection extent, tumor location, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)...
October 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Arshad Khan, Robert L Hunter, Chinnaswamy Jagannath
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic cells that occur in almost all human tissues and can be cultured and expanded to large numbers in vitro. They secrete growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines and express Toll-like receptors on their surface, although multiple cell biological mechanisms remain unclear. MSCs are multi-potent and can differentiate into many cell types including adipocytes, neuronal cells and osteoclasts. Despite gaps in cell biology, because of their immunomodulatory and regenerative capacity, several hundred clinical trials have used MSCs for therapy of cancer, autoimmune diseases and control of inflammation during organ transplantation...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Ding-Jun Hao, Cuicui Liu, Lingling Zhang, Bo Chen, Qian Zhang, Rui Zhang, Jing An, Jingjing Zhao, Mingmei Wu, Yi Wang, Alfred Simental, Baorong He, Hao Yang
The gradual deterioration following central nervous system (CNS) injuries or neurodegenerative disorders is usually accompanied by infiltration of degenerated and apoptotic neural tissue debris. A rapid and efficient clearance of these deteriorated cell products is of pivotal importance in creating a permissive environment for regeneration of those damaged neurons. Our recent report revealed that the phagocytic activity of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) can make a substantial contribution to neuronal growth in such a hostile environment...
October 14, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Yi Zhou, Wenjuan Yu, Huan Zhong, Jianlin Li, Hongxia Li, Feng He, Jie Zhou, Yongkai Tang, Juhua Yu, Fan Yu
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish and economically important species in China and other East Asian countries. Recent studies suggest that insulin can alter the expression of immune genes and, thus, can be regarded as an immunomodulatory hormone. To understand the mechanism of the immune response to insulin, we performed a comparative RNA-seq transcriptome analysis using livers from common carp injected with insulin (5 μg/g bodyweight) or saline as a control. After filtering the low-quality reads and removing the adaptors, the clean raw reads were assembled into 60,421 unigenes with mean length of 746...
October 11, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhikuan Zhang, Umeharu Ohto, Takuma Shibata, Elena Krayukhina, Masato Taoka, Yoshio Yamauchi, Hiromi Tanji, Toshiaki Isobe, Susumu Uchiyama, Kensuke Miyake, Toshiyuki Shimizu
Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) sensor in innate immunity and also responds to guanosine and chemical ligands, such as imidazoquinoline compounds. However, TLR7 activation mechanism by these ligands remain largely unknown. Here, we generated crystal structures of three TLR7 complexes, and found that all formed an activated m-shaped dimer with two ligand-binding sites. The first site conserved in TLR7 and TLR8 was used for small ligand-binding essential for its activation. The second site spatially distinct from that of TLR8 was used for a ssRNA-binding that enhanced the affinity of the first-site ligands...
October 5, 2016: Immunity
Diego F Gualtero, Sergio M Viafara-Garcia, Sandra J Morantes, Diana M Buitrago, Octavio A Gonzalez, Gloria I Lafaurie
BACKGROUND: Rosuvastatin exhibits anti-inflammatory effects and reduces periodontal diseases and atherosclerosis; however, its role in regulating periodontopathogen-induced endothelial pro-inflammatory responses remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether rosuvastatin can reduce the pro-inflammatory response induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). METHODS: HCAECs were stimulated with purified A...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
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