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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738369/inflammatory-and-innate-immune-markers-of-neuroprogression-in-depressed-and-teenage-suicide-brain
#1
Ghanshyam N Pandey
Several studies suggest that major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are neuroprogressive illnesses. Besides clinical features, neurobiological mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the neuroprogression of mood disorders. Biological factors that have been shown to contribute significantly toward the neuroprogressive course of these disorders are inflammatory markers, such as cytokines. Cytokines have been extensively investigated, primarily in the serum of MDD and BPD patients, and these studies show cytokine abnormalities in both adolescent and adult patients with mood disorders...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738166/ablation-of-toll-like-receptor-4-mitigates-cardiac-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-hyperhomocysteinemia
#2
Nevena Jeremic, Gregory J Weber, Suresh C Tyagi
Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events; however, the mechanism for development of this disease is still unknown. Toll-like receptor 4 is a molecule involved in the immune response pathway and is quickly becoming a receptor of interest in the field of hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that ablation of TLR4 mitigates cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in a model of hyperhomocysteinemia. Five strains of mice (C57BL/6J, CBS+/-, C3H, CBS+/-/C3H and C3H/HeOuJ) 10-12 weeks old were utilized...
July 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736999/regulatory-t-cell-subsets-in-peripheral-blood-of-celiac-disease-patients-and-tlr2-expression-correlation-with-oxidative-stress
#3
Sanjay Kumar, Sadhna Lal, Archana Bhatnagar
The study was carried out to study expression of Toll like receptors 2 (TLR2), natural/inducible Treg and Interferon-γ alongside oxidative stress and understand their significance in pediatric samples. Influence of oxidative stress on Celiac Disease was analysed by evaluating lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, Glutathione peroxidase, etc. A comparison was performed among CD patients, CD patients on gluten free diet (GFD), and healthy controls. Peripheral nTregs exhibited a similar pattern of reduced numbers in CD and GFD cases when compared to healthy controls...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736945/tim-1-b-cells-suppress-t-cell-interferon-gamma-production-and-promote-foxp3-expression-but-have-impaired-regulatory-function-in-coronary-artery-disease
#4
Xiao-Long Gu, Huan He, Lin Lin, Guo-Xin Luo, Yan-Fei Wen, Ding-Cheng Xiang, Jian Qiu
Atherosclerosis and its associated coronary artery disease (CAD) represent another chronic low-grade inflammatory disorder. Regulatory B cells (Bregs) possess essential functions in maintaining peripheral tolerance and inhibiting pathogenic inflammation through IL-10. Here, we investigated one subset of Bregs, Tim-1(+) B cell, and its role in atherosclerosis and CAD patients. In healthy individuals, IL-10-producing B cells were predominantly found in the Tim-1(+) B cells. Upon stimulation of the B cell receptor (BCR) and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) by anti-BCR antibodies and CpG, respectively, the Tim-1(+) B cells could further upregulate IL-10 expression...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736863/no-associations-established-between-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-human-toll-like-receptor-2-and-toll-interacting-protein-and-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infections
#5
Tom Eirik Smeland, Fredrik Müller, Anita Blomfeldt, Knut Stavem, Hege Vangstein Aamot
Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (SABSI) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP) are important in recognition and regulation of human innate immunity response to S. aureus. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TLR2 and TOLLIP encoding genes have been associated with disease, including BSI. The aim of this study was to examine potential associations between a selection of SNPs in the genes encoding TLR2 and TOLLIP, and predisposition, severity, and outcome of SABSI...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736216/pathogen-induced-tlr4-trif-innate-immune-signaling-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-promotes-proliferation-but-reduces-competitive-fitness
#6
Hitoshi Takizawa, Kristin Fritsch, Larisa V Kovtonyuk, Yasuyuki Saito, Chakradhar Yakkala, Kurt Jacobs, Akshay K Ahuja, Massimo Lopes, Annika Hausmann, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt, Álvaro Gomariz, César Nombela-Arrieta, Markus G Manz
Bacterial infection leads to consumption of short-lived innate immune effector cells, which then need to be replenished from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). HSPCs express pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and ligation of these receptors induces HSPC mobilization, cytokine production, and myeloid differentiation. The underlying mechanisms involved in pathogen signal transduction in HSCs and the resulting biological consequences remain poorly defined. Here, we show that in vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application induces proliferation of dormant HSCs directly via TLR4 and that sustained LPS exposure impairs HSC self-renewal and competitive repopulation activity...
July 19, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736159/a-novel-ccr-2-tlr-2-triggered-signaling-in-murine-peritoneal-macrophages-intensifies-bacterial-staphylococcus-aureus-killing-by-reactive-oxygen-species-through-tnf-r1
#7
Ajeya Nandi, Biswadev Bishayi
Macrophages are remarkably versatile in their ability to recognize and respond to a wide range of stimuli by expressing a variety of surface and intracellular receptors and triggering multiple signal transduction pathways. The onset of microbial infection is primarily determined by the initial contacts made by the microbes with the host macrophages. Although there prevail a relationship between the chemokine receptor and Toll like receptors during disease, particularly TLR-2 and CCR-2 signaling interdependence on each other has not been yet investigated during acute staphylococcal infection...
July 20, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735521/myd88-erk-nfkb%C3%A2-pathways-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-release-in-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-stimulated-by-porphyromonas%C3%A2-gingivalis
#8
Francesca Diomede, Maria Zingariello, Marcos F X B Cavalcanti, Ilaria Merciaro, Jacopo Pizzicannella, Natalia De Isla, Sergio Caputi, Patrizia Ballerini, Oriana Trubiani
The present study was aimed at investigating whether human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) were capable of sensing and reacting to lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (LPS-G) which is widely recognized as a major pathogen in the development and progression of periodontitis. At this purpose hPDLCs were stimulated with 5 μg/mL LPS-G various times and the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was evaluated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in innate immune signaling in response to microbial infections, and in particular TLR4, type-I transmembrane proteins, has been shown recognizing LPS-G...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734965/enhanced-immunostimulatory-activity-of-in-silico-discovered-agonists-of-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2
#9
M S Murgueitio, S Ebner, P Hörtnagl, C Rakers, R Bruckner, P Henneke, G Wolber, S Santos-Sierra
BACKGROUND: Emergent therapies in anticancer vaccination use Toll-like receptors (TLRs) agonists as dendritic cell (DC) vaccine adjuvants. DCs from the patient are isolated, stimulated with TLR agonists and tumor antigens ex vivo and then infused back into the patient. Although some TLR ligands have been tested in clinical trials, novel TLR agonists with improved immunomodulatory properties are essential to optimize treatment success. We report on the discovery of small-molecule TLR2 agonists, with favorable properties as synthetic adjuvants...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734896/porcine-cd14-gene-silencing-partially-inhibited-the-bacterial-immune-response-mediated-by-tlr4-signaling-pathway
#10
Chaohui Dai, Haifei Wang, Guoqiang Zhu, Shenglong Wu, Wenbin Bao
Cluster of differentiation antigen 14 (CD14) is the membrane receptor protein in Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway, which plays an important regulation role in not only innate immune response but also adaptive immune response. In this study, the pig kidney epithelial cell (PK15) line with CD14 gene silencing mediated by lentivirus was established and cells of CD14-RNAi and NC group were exposed to three kinds of Escherichia coli (E. coli F18ab, E. coli F18ac and E. coli K88ac) and LPS. Then qPCR and western blot were used to detect expression levels of TLR4 signaling pathway-related genes...
July 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734835/migration-ability-and-toll-like-receptor-expression-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improves-significantly-after-three-dimensional-culture
#11
Panpan Zhou, Zilin Liu, Xue Li, Bing Zhang, Xiaoyuan Wang, Jing Lan, Qing Shi, Dong Li, Xiuli Ju
While the conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture protocol is well accepted for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), this method fails to recapitulate the in vivo native three-dimensional (3D) cellular microenvironment, and may result in phenotypic changes, and homing and migration capacity impairments. MSC preparation in 3D culture systems has been considered an attractive preparatory and delivery method recently. We seeded human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUCMSCs) in a 3D culture system with porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), and investigated the phenotypic changes, the expression changes of some important receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) when hUCMSCs were transferred from 2D to 3D systems, as well as the alterations in in vivo homing and migration potential...
July 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734203/exenatide-mitigated-diet-induced-vascular-aging-and-atherosclerotic-plaque-growth-in-apoe-deficient-mice-under-chronic-stress
#12
Guang Yang, Yanna Lei, Aiko Inoue, Limei Piao, Lina Hu, Haiying Jiang, Takeshi Sasaki, Hongxian Wu, Wenhu Xu, Chenglin Yu, Guangxian Zhao, Shinyu Ogasawara, Kenji Okumura, Masafumi Kuzuya, Xian-Wu Cheng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Because the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonist prevents cardiovascular injury, we investigated the beneficial effects and mechanism of the GLP-1 analogue exenatide on stress-related vascular senescence and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. METHODS: ApoE(-/-) mice fed the HF diet were assigned to non-stressed and immobilized-stress groups for 12 weeks...
July 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733470/dendritic-cell-targeted-lentiviral-vector-immunization-uses-pseudotransduction-and-dna-mediated-sting-and-cgas-activation
#13
Jocelyn T Kim, Yarong Liu, Rajan P Kulkarni, Kevin K Lee, Bingbing Dai, Geoffrey Lovely, Yong Ouyang, Pin Wang, Lili Yang, David Baltimore
Dendritic cell (DC) activation and antigen presentation are critical for efficient priming of T cell responses. Here, we study how lentiviral vectors (LVs) deliver antigen and activate DCs to generate T cell immunization in vivo. We report that antigenic proteins delivered in vector particles via pseudotransduction were sufficient to stimulate an antigen-specific immune response. The delivery of the viral genome encoding the antigen increased the magnitude of this response in vivo but was irrelevant in vitro...
July 21, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730622/susceptibility-to-hiv-1-infection-is-influenced-by-toll-like-receptor-2-196-to-174-polymorphism-in-north-indian-population
#14
Sanjukta Vidyant, Animesh Chatterjee, Vikas Agarwal, Tapan N Dhole
INTRODUCTION: Toll like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors, recognize molecular patterns of pathogens and play an important role in innate immunity. Recent studies have identified that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in TLR gene impairs the response to TLR ligands in some individuals and is associated with susceptibility to various infectious diseases. AIM: The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of four SNPs in the TLR2 gene, -196 to -174 Ins/Del, 2258 G/A (Arg753Gln), 2029 C/T (Arg677Trp) and 1892 C/A (Pro631His) with susceptibility and progression to HIV-1 in North Indian individuals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730487/a-methodology-for-comprehensive-analysis-of-toll-like-receptor-signaling-in-macrophages
#15
Marijke Koppenol-Raab, Aleksandra Nita-Lazar
A combination of high-throughput, multiplexed, quantitative methods with computational modeling and statistical approaches is required to obtain system-level understanding of biological function. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has emerged as a preferred tool for the analysis of changes in protein abundance and their post-translational modification (PTM) levels at a global scale, comparable with genomic experiments and generating data suitable for use in mathematical modeling of signaling pathways. Here we describe a set of parallel bottom-up proteomic approaches to detect and quantify the global protein changes in total intracellular proteins, their phosphorylation, and the proteins released by active and passive secretion or shedding mechanisms (referred to as the secretome as reviewed in Makridakis and Vlahou, J Proteome 73:2291-2305, 2010) in response to the stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) with specific ligands in cultured macrophages...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730145/prokaryotic-rna-associated-to-bacterial-viability-induces-polymorphonuclear-neutrophil-activation
#16
Nahuel Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Luis A Castillo, Verónica I Landoni, Daiana Martire-Greco, M Ayelén Milillo, Paula Barrionuevo, Gabriela C Fernández
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cellular line of antibacterial host defense. They sense pathogens through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PMN sense bacterial viability and explore which viability factor could be involved in this phenomenon. For this purpose, different functions were evaluated in isolated human PMN using live Escherichia coli (Ec) and heat-killed Ec (HK-Ec)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729076/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-gene-are-associated-with-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-north-eastern-han-chinese-population
#17
Xiaoyuan Li, Li Xue, Jinfang Sun, Yanping Sun, Anmu Xie
Growing evidences suggested that inflammatory process played a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Given that TLR2 has been implicated in the perpetuation of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS), we investigated the association between two genetic variants (rs3804099 and rs3804100) of TLR2 and sporadic PD in Han Chinese population. 395 Han Chinese sporadic PD patients and 413 healthy age and gender-matched controls were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729074/proteomic-analysis-of-the-effects-of-nur77-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-microglial-activation
#18
Yan Chen, Yuexinzi Jin, Hui Zhan, Jian Chen, Yanting Chen, Hailan Meng, Jiali Jin, Linjie Yu, Xiang Cao, Yun Xu
Microglia are critical components of the immune response in the central nervous system. Our study aims to explore potential role of Nur77 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Primary wild-type and Nur77(-/-) microglia were stimulated with LPS and protein extracts were detected via mass spectrometry. Q-PCR and western blotting were performed to validate candidate proteins. A total of 2004 proteins were identified, with 749 and 677 significantly differentially expressed proteins in wild-type and Nur77(-/-) microglia in resting and activated states, respectively...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727987/associations-of-autoimmunity-immunodeficiency-lymphomagenesis-and-gut-microbiota-in-mice-with-knockins-for-a-pathogenic-autoantibody
#19
Shweta Jain, Jerrold M Ward, Dong-Mi Shin, Hongsheng Wang, Zohreh Naghashfar, Alexander L Kovalchuk, Herbert C Morse
A number of mouse strains transgenic for B-cell receptors specific for nucleic acids or other autoantigens have been generated to understand how autoreactive B cells are regulated in normal and autoimmune mice. Previous studies of nonautoimmune C57BL/6 mice heterozygous for both the IgH and IgL knockins of the polyreactive autoantibody, 564, produced high levels of autoantibodies in a largely Toll-like receptor 7-dependent manner. Herein, we describe studies of mice homozygous for the knockins that also expressed high levels of autoantibodies but, unlike the heterozygotes, exhibited a high incidence of mature B-cell lymphomas and enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infections...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727829/functional-differentiation-and-spatial-temporal-co-expression-networks-of-the-nbs-encoding-gene-family-in-jilin-ginseng-panax-ginseng-c-a-meyer
#20
Rui Yin, Mingzhu Zhao, Kangyu Wang, Yanping Lin, Yanfang Wang, Chunyu Sun, Yi Wang, Meiping Zhang
Ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, is one of the most important medicinal plants for human health and medicine. It has been documented that over 80% of genes conferring resistance to bacteria, viruses, fungi and nematodes are contributed by the nucleotide binding site (NBS)-encoding gene family. Therefore, identification and characterization of NBS genes expressed in ginseng are paramount to its genetic improvement and breeding. However, little is known about the NBS-encoding genes in ginseng. Here we report genome-wide identification and systems analysis of the NBS genes actively expressed in ginseng (PgNBS genes)...
2017: PloS One
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