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Oral liquid compounding

Zhihui Liu, Jianxiu Zhai, Na Han, Jun Yin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Astilboides tabularis has a long history of usage as the functional food with the effect of adjunctive therapy of diabetic in northeast of China. The present study was undertaken to assess anti-diabetic activity of the aqueous extract of leaves of A. tabularis and provided experimental evidence for the clinical usage of A. tabularis in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aqueous extracts of leaves of A. tabularis (EAT) were orally administered at 300 and 600mg/kg dose to epinephrine-induced and alloxan-induced diabetes mice...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Patcharanee Tawasri, Chadarat Ampasavate, Somsak Tharatha, Natthakarn Chiranthanut, Supanimit Teekachunhatean
The objective of this randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-phase crossover study was to determine the effect of ascorbic acid on pharmacokinetics of ganoderic acid A, an important biologically active triterpenoid compound with anticancer activities, following oral administration of water extract of fruiting bodies of Ling Zhi in 12 healthy male subjects. Each subject was randomized to receive either one of the two regimens: (1) a single dose of 3,000 mg of the Ling Zhi preparation or (2) a single dose of 3,000 mg of the Ling Zhi preparation in combination with 2,500 mg of ascorbic acid...
2016: BioMed Research International
Wararut Buncharoen, Kanokporn Saenphet, Supap Saenphet, Chatchote Titaram
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional medicine has used Uvaria rufa Blume as an ethnomedicinal plant for treating fever, skin allergies, intestinal ulcers and prostate disorders including BPH. However, no scientific evidence supports the traditional use. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of U. rufa on BPH using in vitro and in vivo models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro studies screened the efficacy of a 5α-reductase (5αR) inhibition and antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extracts from the stem of U...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yanshan Lv, Shaoyou Lu, Yanyan Dai, Caiyan Rui, Yongjun Wang, Yuanxiu Zhou, Yanru Li, Qihua Pang, Ruifang Fan
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used chemical in the production of many polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resin linings for food and beverage containers and thermal papers. Oral intakes from the contaminated diets were considered as the predominant source of BPA exposure for humans. However, due to the high levels of BPA on thermal receipts and their wide applications in our daily life, the amount of BPA be transferred to the skin after holding thermal paper should not be underestimated, particularly for cashiers...
October 8, 2016: Environment International
Mihaela Friciu, Sarra Zaraa, V Gaëlle Roullin, Grégoire Leclair
The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of diazoxide in extemporaneously compounded oral suspensions. Oral suspensions of diazoxide 10 mg/mL were prepared from either bulk drug or capsules dispersed in either Oral Mix or Oral Mix Sugar Free. These suspensions were stored at 5°C and 25°C/60%RH in bottles and oral syringes for a total of 90 days. At predetermined time intervals, suspensions were inspected for homogeneity, color or odor change; the pH was measured and the concentration of diazoxide was evaluated by ultraviolet detection using a stability-indicating high pressure liquid chromatography method...
2016: PloS One
Edgar E Caamal-Fuentes, Manlio Graniel-Sabido, Gonzalo J Mena-Rejón, Rosa E Moo-Puc
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) is a plant used in traditional Mayamedicinal practices to treat diarrhea. A methanol extract of S. racemosa bark has been shown to have in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis. No studies of its efficacy and toxicity in in vivo models have been done.The present study objective was to analyze the activity of this methanol extract of S. racemosa bark against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites in experimentally infected mice, and evaluate its toxicological effects in rats...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ka-Lok Ho, Ka-Ki Yuen, Man-Shan Yau, Margaret B Murphy, Yi Wan, Bonnie M-W Fong, Sidney Tam, John P Giesy, Kelvin S-Y Leung, Michael H-W Lam
3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) is an important brominated flame retardant in epoxy, vinyl esters and polycarbonate resins. Previous studies have already shown the occurrence of its Phase II metabolites, TBBPA-glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, in human urine, after oral administration of TBBPA. The main objective of this work is to examine correlations among level of TBBPA in human blood and those of its Phase II metabolites in human urine. Four water-soluble TBBPA conjugates were synthesized, purified and characterized...
October 4, 2016: Environment International
Yi Tao, Yuchao Ren, Weidong Li, Baochang Cai, Liuqing Di, Liyun Shi, Lihong Hu
The purpose of this study is to establish and validate an UPLC-MS/MS approach to determine 4-caffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, loganic acid, loganin, sweroside, dipsacoside B and asperosaponin VI from extracts of crude and wine-processed Dipsacus asper in biological samples and apply the approach to a comparative pharmacokinetic study. A Waters BEH C18 UPLC column was employed with acetonitrile/0.2% formic acid-water as mobile phases. The mass analysis was carried out in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with negative scan mode...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Tong-Hong Wang, Shih-Min Hsia, Chi-Hao Wu, Shun-Yao Ko, Michael Yuanchien Chen, Yin-Hua Shih, Tzong-Ming Shieh, Li-Chuan Chuang, Ching-Yi Wu
The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activities of the phenolic essential oil (EO) compounds hinokitiol, carvacrol, thymol, and menthol against oral pathogens. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus mutans, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Escherichia. coli were used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), bacterial growth curves, temperature and pH stabilities, and synergistic effects of the liquid and vapor EO compounds were tested...
2016: PloS One
Youn-Hwan Hwang, Hye Jin Yang, Dong-Gun Kim, Jin Yeul Ma
Ciprofloxacin is used as a treatment for urinary and respiratory tract infections in clinical practice. Baicalein, a major flavonoid present in Scutellaria baicalensis, is a well-known and potent antibacterial compound used in complementary and alternative medicine practices. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of multiple-dose treatment with baicalein on the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in rats. Following the oral administration of baicalein (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) for five consecutive days, the rats received an oral administration of ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg)...
September 26, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Pascal Kintz, Camille Richeval, Carole Jamey, Alice Ameline, Delphine Allorge, Jean-Michel Gaulier, Jean-Sébastien Raul
Designer benzodiazepines provide an attractive alternative to prescribed benzodiazepines for abuse purposes as they are readily available via the Internet without control. Metizolam was ordered via the Internet and a 2 mg blue tablet was orally administered to a 54-year-old man. Urine samples were collected over 6 days in polypropylene tubes. After liquid/liquid extraction at pH 9.5, metizolam was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) using a standard method devoted to benzodiazepines, and ions transitions, at m/z 328...
September 26, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Mouna Chakroun, Bassem Khemakhem, Hazem Ben Mabrouk, Hanen El Abed, Mohamed Makni, Mohamed Bouaziz, Noureddine Drira, Naziha Marrakchi, Hafedh Mejdoub
Among various chronic disorders, cancer and diabetes mellitus are the most common disorders. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of hydroalcoholic extract of Phoenix dactylifera L. leaves (HEPdL) in animal models of type II diabetes in vitro/in vivo and in a human melanoma-derived cell line (IGR-39). A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was also performed to determine the amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in this plant. The physicochemical results by LC-MS/MS analysis of HEPdL showed the presence of 10 phenolic compounds...
September 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Shuhua Deng, Wencan Huang, Xiaojia Ni, Ming Zhang, Haoyang Lu, Zhanzhang Wang, Jinqing Hu, Xiuqing Zhu, Chang Qiu, Dewei Shang, Yuefeng Zhang, Linghui Xiong, Yuguan Wen
1. A new oral liquid formulation combining guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone is effective in improving the symptoms of common cold. The pharmacokinetic properties of the individual components were evaluated in a randomized, open-label, 4-period study in 12 healthy Chinese volunteers following single and multiple doses. The data were compared with data for the individual ingredients in Antuss(®). 2. In the single-dose period, exposure levels (AUC and Cmax) for guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone increased directly as the dose of the oral liquid formulation increased from 5 to 15 mL...
September 23, 2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Hajer Ben Saad, Manel Gargouri, Fatma Kallel, Rim Chaabene, Tahia Boudawara, Kamel Jamoussi, Christian Magné, Khaled Mounir Zeghal, Ahmed Hakim, Ibtissem Ben Amara
Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ), an environmental pollutant, is a well-known human carcinogen and a potent nephrotoxic agent. Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many diseases induced by pollutants. As potent natural sources of bioactive compounds, marine algae have been demonstrated to be rich in novel secondary metabolites with a broad range of biological functions. In this study, adults male mice were orally treated for 15 days with KBrO3 (0.5 g/L) associated or not with extract of Alsidium corallinum, a red Mediterranean alga...
September 23, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Hongjun Xiang, Lishi Zhang, Jiannan Song, Bin Fan, Yinglan Nie, Dong Bai, Haimin Lei
Guizhi decoction (GZD), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription consisting of Ramulus Cinnamomi, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Fructus Jujubae and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, is usually used for the treatment of common colds, influenza, and other pyretic conditions in the clinic. However, the absorbed ingredients and metabolic compounds of GZD have not been reported. In this paper, a method incorporating rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) was used to identify ingredients after oral administration of GZD...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kellyi K Benson, Lara B Zajic, Paula K Morgan, Sarah R Brown, Ryan J Hansen, Paul J Lunghofer, Luke A Wittenburg, Daniel L Gustafson, Jessica M Quimby
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to measure drug exposure and clinical effects after administration of transdermal mirtazapine (TMZ) in healthy cats. METHODS: Phase I: seven healthy research cats received (1) 3.75 mg and 7.5 mg TMZ once aurally with 48 h serum sampling (serum samples were obtained via jugular catheter at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h); (2) 7.5 mg TMZ and placebo daily aurally for 6 days then 48 h serum sampling; (3) 1.88 mg mirtazapine orally once with serum sampling at 1, 4 and 8 h...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Ebiowei Samuel F Orubu, Chinyere Okwelogu, Olabisi Opanuga, Tony Nunn, Catherine Tuleu
Policies to improve access to medicines for children in Nigeria do not include compounding as a source of medicines. Compounding is often applied as a last resort in health institutions to provide age-appropriate formulations usually for oral use in young children; but it bears some risk. Some countries have adopted policies aimed at reducing the risk based on available data. There is not much data for Nigeria. This retrospective study examined compounding records from January to December 2011 in a sample of seven hospitals to describe what medicines for oral use were commonly compounded in Nigeria...
September 1, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
Mariza Gomes Reis, Rodrigo Bibiloni, Paul McJarrow, Alastair MacGibbon, Bertram Fong, Shalome Bassett, Nicole Roy, Marlon Martins Dos Reis
The most abundant ganglioside group in both human milk and bovine milk during the first postnatal week is ganglioside GD3. This group of disialogangliosides forms up to 80% of the total ganglioside content of colostrum. Although dietary gangliosides have shown biological activity such as improvement of cognitive development, gastrointestinal health, and immune function, there is still a gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing its uptake and the metabolic processes affecting its bioavailability...
August 31, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Suraphan Panyod, Wei-Kai Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Kuan-Hung Lu, Chun-Ting Liu, Yung-Lin Chu, Yi-Syuan Lai, Wei-Cheng Chen, Yu-En Lin, Shih-Hang Lin, Lee-Yan Sheen
This study investigated the liver-protective effects of allicin, an active compound in fresh garlic, against alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) and liver inflammation. Its effects were investigated in an AFLD model in male C57BL/6 mice, which were fed Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol. Allicin (5 and 20 mg/kg bw/day) was orally administered daily in the AFLD mice for 4 weeks. The results indicate that allicin promotes hepatoprotection by significantly reducing aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels (p < 0...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Carley R Corado, Daniel S McKemie, Heather K Knych
Dextromethorphan is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) non-competitive antagonist commonly used in human medicine as an antitussive. Dextromethorphan is metabolized in humans by cytochrome P450 2D6 into dextrorphan, which is reported to be more potent than the parent compound. The goal of this study is to describe the metabolism of and determine the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan and its major metabolites following oral administration to horses. A total of 23 horses received a single oral dose of 2 mg/kg...
September 1, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
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