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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910771/induction-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-in-mice-by-oral-administration-of-phellinus-baumii-agaricomycetes-extract
#1
Batbayar Sainkhuu, Beom Su Park, Ha Won Kim
Phellinus baumii is a yellow mushroom long used in alternative medicine in Korea and other central Asian countries. To identify genes affected by a single or 7-day oral administration of a water extract of Ph. Baumii, mouse liver tissue was analyzed using microarrays. The results showed that 8 and 23 genes were upregulated and 3 and 11 genes downregulated more than 3-fold by single and multiple oral administrations of 100 mg/kg PBE, respectively. Among the upregulated genes, the expression of 3 flavin-containing monooxygenase (Fmo) family genes, Fmo2-4, was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910752/submicron-emulsions-and-their-applications-in-oral-delivery
#2
Veenu Mundada, Mitali Patel, Krutika Sawant
A "submicron emulsion" is an isotropic mixture of drug, lipids, and surfactants, usually with hydrophilic cosolvents and with droplet diameters ranging from 10 to 500 nm. Submicron emulsions are of increasing interest in medicine due to their kinetic stability, high solubilizing capacity, and tiny globule size. Because of these properties, they have been applied in various fields, such as personal care, cosmetics, health care, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Submicron emulsions are by far the most advanced nanoparticulate systems for the systemic delivery of biologically active agents for controlled drug delivery and targeting...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907869/is-a-deuterated-internal-standard-appropriate-for-the-reliable-determination-of-olmesartan-in-human-plasma
#3
Edyta Piórkowska, Jacek Musijowski, Katarzyna Buś-Kwaśnik, Piotr J Rudzki
A right choice of the internal standard is one of the most challenging tasks during bioanalytical method development. Surprisingly, among the HPLC-MS methods for the determination of a cardiovascular drug olmesartan in plasma only structural analogues or similar compounds were used as internal standards. We have tried to answer the question whether the stable isotope labelled (deuterated) internal standard, as recommended by regulatory agencies, can be used for the reliable determination of olmesartan in human plasma...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901389/population-pharmacokinetics-of-a-single-dose-of-meloxicam-after-oral-and-intramuscular-administration-to-captive-lesser-flamingos-phoeniconaias-minor
#4
Martín A Zordan, Mark G Papich, Ashley A Pich, Katy M Unger, Carlos R Sánchez
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of meloxicam after IM and oral administration to healthy lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) by use of a population approach. ANIMALS 16 healthy captive lesser flamingos between 1 and 4 years of age. PROCEDURES A single dose of meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to each bird, and blood samples were collected from birds at 3 (n = 13 birds), 2 (2), or 1 (1) selected point between 0 and 13 hours after administration, with samples collected from birds at each point...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895517/influence-of-curcumin-on-the-pharmacodynamics-and-pharmacokinetics-of-gliclazide-in-animal-models
#5
Leela Krishna Vatsavai, Eswar Kumar Kilari
PURPOSE: Patients suffering from obesity-related diseases use multiple prescription drugs to control their condition, and it is therefore essential to determine the safety and efficacy of any combination. Gliclazide is one of the most commonly used drug of choice for treatment of type 2 diabetes, and curcumin is a widely used herbal supplement to counter obesity condition. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of curcumin on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in rats and rabbits to further evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this combination...
2016: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885696/pharmacokinetics-of-oral-terbinafine-in-adult-horses
#6
T J Younkin, E G Davis, B Kukanich
The primary study objective was to compare the pharmacokinetics of p.o. terbinafine alone to p.o. terbinafine administered with p.o. cimetidine in healthy adult horses. The second objective was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine when administered per rectum in two different suspensions at 30 mg/kg to adult horses. Six healthy adult horses were included in this crossover study. Plasma terbinafine concentrations were quantified with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867277/characterization-and-bioavailability-study-of-baicalin-mesoporous-carbon-nanopowder-solid-dispersion
#7
Li Cui, E Sune, Jie Song, Jing Wang, Xiao-Bin Jia, Zhen-Hai Zhang
BACKGROUND: Baicalin is the main bioactive constitute of the dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and possesses various biological activities. However, the poor water solubility and low oral bioavailability limit its efficacy. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to enhance the dissolution and oral bioavailability of baicalin (BA) through a novel mesoporous carbon nanopowder (MCN) drug carrier. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Solid dispersions (SDs) of BA with MCN were prepared using a solvent evaporation method...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867275/improved-oral-bioavailability-of-total-flavonoids-of-dracocephalum-moldavica-via-composite-phospholipid-liposomes-preparation-in-vitro-drug-release-and-pharmacokinetics-in-rats
#8
Cheng Zeng, Wen Jiang, Meie Tan, Jianguo Xing, Chenghui He
BACKGROUND: Dracocephalum moldavica L is a traditional Uygur medicine for centuries, total flavonoids extracted from Dracocephalum moldavica are the major active ingredients of herbs, which possesses significant medicinal values to treat coronart disease and hypertension, due to the glycosyl group on the ring, total flavonoids of Dracocephalum moldavica has low hydrophilic and poorly absorbed after oral administration, so one way is the formulation of poorly water soluble and permeabledrugs with lipids containing formulations such as Composite phospholipid liposomes to improve the absorption profile of drug...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855070/pharmacokinetics-of-the-first-line-antituberculosis-drugs-in-ghanaian-children-with-tuberculosis-with-and-without-hiv-coinfection
#9
Sampson Antwi, Hongmei Yang, Anthony Enimil, Anima M Sarfo, Fizza S Gillani, Daniel Ansong, Albert Dompreh, Antoinette Orstin, Theresa Opoku, Dennis Bosumtwe, Lubbe Wiesner, Jennifer Norman, Charles A Peloquin, Awewura Kwara
Although human immunodefiency virus (HIV) coinfection is the most important risk factor for poor antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment response, its effect on the pharmacokinetics of the first-line drugs in children is understudied. This study examined the pharmacokinetics of the four first-line anti-TB drugs in children with tuberculosis (TB) with and without HIV coinfection. Ghanaian children with TB on isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for at least 4 weeks had blood samples collected at pre-dose, 1, 2, 4, and 8-hours post-dose...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849377/in-patients-with-subclinical-hypothyroidism-while-in-therapy-with-tablet-l-t4-the-liquid-l-t4-formulation-is-more-effective-in-restoring-euthyroidism
#10
Poupak Fallahi, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Alessandro Antonelli
OBJECTIVE: Levothyroxine (L-T4) is the standard therapy of hypothyroidism. Our purpose is to compare the effectiveness of L-T4 liquid formulation, with respect to L-T4 tablet, in hypothyroid patients without malabsorption or drug interference. METHODS: Twentyone subjects with high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values under therapy with L-T4 tablets were switched to liquid L-T4 at the same dosage, 30 minutes before breakfast. RESULTS: TSH values significantly declined after 2 months from the switch to liquid L-T4, reaching in most cases the normal range...
November 16, 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846777/development-and-characterisation-of-in-vitro-human-oral-mucosal-equivalents-derived-from-immortalised-oral-keratinocytes
#11
Luke Jennings, Helen Elizabeth Colley, Jane Ong, Foti Panagakos, James Masters, Harsh Trivedi, Craig Murdoch, Simon Whawell
Tissue engineered oral mucosal equivalents (OME) are being increasingly used to measure toxicity, drug delivery, and to model oral diseases. Current OME are mainly comprised of normal oral keratinocytes (NOK) cultured on top of a normal oral fibroblasts (NOF)-containing matrix. However, the commercial supply of NOK is limited, restricting widespread use of these mucosal models. In addition, NOK suffer from poor longevity and donor-to-donor variability. Therefore, we constructed, characterised and tested the functionality of oral mucosal equivalents based on commercial TERT2-immortalised oral keratinocytes (FNB6) in order to produce a more readily available alternative to NOK-based OME...
November 15, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846216/the-quality-of-selected-essential-medicines-sold-in-accredited-drug-dispensing-outlets-and-pharmacies-in-tanzania
#12
Eliangiringa Kaale, Vicky Manyanga, Mhina Chambuso, Jafary Liana, Edmund Rutta, Martha Embrey, Thomas Layloff, Keith Johnson
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of a select group of medicines sold in accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs) and pharmacies in different regions of Tanzania as part of an in-depth cross-sectional assessment of community access to medicines and community use of medicines. METHODS: We collected 242 samples of amoxicillin trihydrate, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu), co-trimoxazole, ergometrine maleate, paracetamol, and quinine from selected ADDOs and pharmacies in Mbeya, Morogoro, Singida, and Tanga regions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845609/bovine-teeth-as-a-novel-matrix-for-the-control-of-the-food-chain-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-detection-of-treatments-with-prednisolone-dexamethasone-estradiol-nandrolone-and-seven-%C3%AE-2-agonists
#13
Luca Maria Chiesa, Maria Nobile, Sara Panseri, Bartolomeo Biolatti, Francesca Tiziana Cannizzo, Radmila Pavlovic, Francesco Arioli
Veterinary drugs usually have rapid clearance rates in the liver and kidney, hampering their detection in conventional matrices such as the liver or urine. Pharmacological principles such as esterification may be applied to facilitate the administration of veterinary drugs and increase drug half-life. Prednisolone, whose therapeutic administration is regulated for food producing animals in the EU, is available in its acetate form as well as nandrolone, a banned anabolic steroid, which may be obtained as nandrolone phenylpropionate and estradiol as a benzoyl ester...
November 15, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842983/a-novel-hplc-mrm-strategy-to-discover-unknown-and-long-term-metabolites-of-stanozolol-for-expanding-analytical-possibilities-in-doping-control
#14
Zhe Wang, Xinmiao Zhou, Xin Liu, Ying Dong, Jinlan Zhang
Stanozolol is one of the most commonly abused anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) by athletes and usually detected by its parent drug and major metabolites. However, its metabolic pathway is complex, varied and individually different, it is important to characterize its overall metabolic profiles and discover new and long-term metabolites for the aims of expanding detection windows. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the human urine after oral administration of stanozolol...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829515/primary-degradation-of-antidiabetic-drugs
#15
Marta Markiewicz, Christian Jungnickel, Stefan Stolte, Anna Białk-Bielińska, Jolanta Kumirska, Wojciech Mrozik
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease affecting a large portion of the world population and is treated by orally administered drugs. Since these drugs are often taken in high doses and are excreted unchanged or partially metabolised many of them are nowadays detected in surface waters or wastewater treatment plants effluents. Unmetabolised antidiabetics or some of their transformation products retain their pharmacological activity, therefore their presence in the environment is highly undesired. One of the main routes of elimination from wastewaters or surface waters is biodegradation...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805766/determination-of-dasatinib-in-the-tablet-dosage-form-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-capillary-zone-electrophoresis-and-sequential-injection-analysis
#16
Aroa Garcia Gonzalez, Lukáš Taraba, Jakub Hraníček, Petr Kozlík, Pavel Coufal
Dasatinib is a novel oral prescription drug proposed for treating adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Three analytical methods, namely ultra high performance liquid chromatography, capillary zone electrophoresis, and sequential injection analysis, were developed, validated and compared for determination of the drug in the tablet dosage form. The total analysis time of optimized ultra high performance liquid chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis methods was 2.0 and 2.2 min, respectively...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805254/effect-of-a-novel-oral-chemotherapeutic-agent-containing-a-combination-of-trifluridine-tipiracil-and-the-novel-triple-angiokinase-inhibitor-nintedanib-on-human-colorectal-cancer-xenografts
#17
Norihiko Suzuki, Fumio Nakagawa, Kazuaki Matsuoka, Teiji Takechi
Trifluridine/tipiracil (TFTD) is a combination drug that is used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and was formerly known as TAS-102. It is a combination of two active pharmaceutical compounds, trifluridine, an antineoplastic thymidine-based nucleoside analog, and tipiracil, which enhances the bioavailability of trifluridine in vivo. TFTD is used for the treatment of patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer that is resistant to standard therapies. In the present study, the anticancer effects of trifluridine in combination with nintedanib, an oral triple angiokinase inhibitor, on human colorectal cancer cell lines were investigated...
October 27, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803466/comparative-physicochemical-and-pharmacokinetic-properties-of-quetiapine-and-its-active-metabolite-norquetiapine
#18
Dong-Wook Kim, Kwon-Yeon Weon, Eon-Pyo Hong, Eun Kyoung Chung, Kyung-Tae Lee
Quetiapine (QTP) is an atypical antipsychotic drug commonly used to treat several psychiatric disorders and is metabolized into the active metabolite norquetiapine (NQTP). This study was designed to evaluate and compare the physicochemical properties, metabolic stability, brain distribution, and pharmacokinetics of QTP and NQTP. Compared to QTP, NQTP had a higher pKa, solubility, and rat liver microsomal stability, optimal log D and similar log P values. For pharmacokinetic evaluation, QTP and NQTP were administered orally and intravenously to rats at various doses...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798075/gc-ms-quantification-method-for-mephedrone-in-plasma-and-urine-application-to-human-pharmacokinetics
#19
Eulàlia Olesti, Mitona Pujadas, Esther Papaseit, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Óscar J Pozo, Magí Farré, Rafael de la Torre
Increasing consumption has been observed among young people of new psychoactive substances, including synthetic cathinone derivatives. The most well known of these is mephedrone whose use has been related to acute intoxication and fatality. Several methods able to detect mephedrone have been reported, although to date, none have been applied to human pharmacokinetic studies in a controlled setting. We developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique for mephedrone quantification in human plasma and urine...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793918/cytotoxic-components-against-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-isolated-from-andrographis-paniculata
#20
Ryuichiro Suzuki, Yasuaki Matsushima, Noriyuki Okudaira, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yoshiaki Shirataki
BACKGROUND: The 5-year survival rate of patients with oral cancer has remained approximately 50% during the past 30 years, possibly due to the poor tumor selectivity of conventional anticancer drugs. This prompted us to search for new candidates for anticancer drugs that have higher cytotoxicity and tumor selectivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried leaves of Andrographis paniculata were supplied from a market in Shanghai. The methanolic fraction of A. paniculata was further fractionated to identify cytotoxic principles by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature values...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
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