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C Chubb, C-C Chiao, K Ulmer, K Buresch, M A Birk, R T Hanlon
This study investigated how cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage patterns are influenced by the proportions of different gray-scales present in visually cluttered environments. All experimental substrates comprised spatially random arrays of texture elements (texels) of five gray-scales: Black, Dark gray, Gray, Light gray, and White. The substrates in Experiment 1 were densely packed arrays of square texels that varied over 4 sizes in different conditions. Experiment 2 used substrates in which texels were disks separated on a homogeneous background that was Black, Gray or White in different conditions...
June 15, 2018: Vision Research
Derick Akompab Akoku, Mbah Abena Tihnje, Thomas Achombwom Vukugah, Elvis Enowbeyang Tarkang, Robinson Enow Mbu
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, risky sexual behaviour, alcohol use and transactional sex among female bar workers in Yaounde, Cameroon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a representative sample of 410 female bar workers, recruited through a modified version of venue-based cluster sampling technique from May to June 2017. Transactional sex was defined as having received money/gifts in exchange for sex with any sexual partner in the past 12 months...
2018: PloS One
Sean Berman, Toni L Uhlendorf, Mark Berman, Elliot B Lander
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 1.9 million Americans, including blast TBI that is the signature injury of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Our project investigated whether stromal vascular fraction (SVF) can assist in post-TBI recovery. We utilized strong acoustic waves (5.0 bar) to induce TBI in the cortex of adult Rowett Nude (RNU) rats. One hour post-TBI, harvested human SVF (500,000 cells suspended in 0.5 mL lactated Ringers) was incubated with Q-Tracker cell label and administered into tail veins of RNU rats...
June 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
D Brenda Salantes, Yu Zheng, Felicity Mampe, Tuhina Srivastava, Subul Beg, Jun Lai, Jonathan Z Li, Randall L Tressler, Richard A Koup, James Hoxie, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Scott Sherrill-Mix, Kevin McCormick, E Turner Overton, Frederic D Bushman, Gerald H Learn, Robert F Siliciano, Janet M Siliciano, Pablo Tebas, Katharine J Bar
BACKGROUND: The effect of a brief analytical treatment interruption (ATI) on the HIV-1 latent reservoir of individuals who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) during chronic infection is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the impact of transient viremia on the latent reservoir in participants who underwent an ATI and at least 6 months of subsequent viral suppression in a clinical trial testing the effect of passive infusion of the broadly neutralizing Ab VRC01 during ATI...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Elizabeth C Fung, Mariana G R Santos, Zila M Sanchez, Pamela J Surkan
Violence among young adults is an increasing public health concern, especially in the context of nightlife, such as around nightclubs and bars. Nightlife is associated with alcohol, drugs, and increased violence, but little is known about personal and environmental factors related to physical aggression and sexual violence in nightclubs. This study aimed to determine personal and environmental risk factors for physical and sexual aggression in nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected among nightclub patrons through use of a portal survey at the entrances and exits of 31 nightclubs...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Kristin Salottolo, Brian Cole, David Bar-Or
Background: There are limited efficacious treatment options for severe osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK). The Low Molecular Weight Fraction of 5% human serum Albumin (LMWF-5A) is in development to treat severe OAK. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of LMWF-5A for the signs and symptoms of OAK. Methods: This 12-week randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted at thirteen sites across the United States. Patients with symptomatic, severe OAK (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 4 disease) who were fully ambulatory and had no other conditions interfering with the study knee were randomized to a single 4 ml intra-articular injection of LMWF-5A or saline, randomized 6:1...
2018: Patient Safety in Surgery
Yoav Voichek, Karin Mittelman, Yulia Gordon, Raz Bar-Ziv, David Lifshitz Smit, Rom Shenhav, Naama Barkai
DNA replication introduces a dosage imbalance between early and late replicating genes. In budding yeast, buffering gene expression against this imbalance depends on marking replicated DNA by H3K56 acetylation (H3K56ac). Whether additional processes are required for suppressing transcription from H3K56ac-labeled DNA remains unknown. Here, using a database-guided candidate screen, we find that COMPASS, the H3K4 methyltransferase, and its upstream effector, PAF1C, act downstream of H3K56ac to buffer expression...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Cell
Roxanne D Zwijnenburg, Vivan J M Baggen, Laurie W Geenen, Kelly R Voigt, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Annemien E van den Bosch
BACKGROUND: The development or persistence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) after atrial septal defect (ASD) closure at adult age is associated with a poor prognosis. The objective of this review was to investigate the prevalence of PAH before and after ASD closure and to identify factors that are associated with PAH. METHODS: EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for publications until March 2017. All studies reporting the prevalence of PAH or data on pulmonary artery pressures both before and after surgical or percutaneous ASD closure in an adult population (≥16 years of age) were included...
July 2018: American Heart Journal
Kealan C Hobelmann, Michael C Topf, Voichita Bar-Ad, Adam J Luginbuhl, William M Keane, Joseph M Curry, David M Cognetti
OBJECTIVE: To assess the pathological outcomes of surgically-managed human papillomavirus (HPV) positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) using the 8th Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual (AJCC-8ed). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 156 patients with previously untreated OPSCC who underwent primary TORS between March 2010 and February 2015 to evaluate the impact of the new AJCC-8ed pathologic staging system...
July 2018: Oral Oncology
V Givens, K Brent, M Dunham, S P Kanotra
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of concurrent cricopharyngeal achalasia with laryngomalacia as a cause of failure to thrive, and to review the literature and management options of cricopharyngeal achalasia in the paediatric population. METHODS: A chart review was performed on a four-month-old male, referred for failure to thrive, and diagnosed with cricopharyngeal achalasia and laryngomalacia. A PubMed and Embase search for 'cricopharyngeal achalasia' and 'laryngomalacia' was conducted...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Xin Yong, Wenfeng Hu, Xue Zhou, Jing Wang, Ezra Burstein, Da Jia
The sorting nexin (SNX) family proteins play an essential role in vesicular transport, cell signaling, and membrane remodeling. The SNX members SNX1/2 and SNX5/6 form dimers, and mediate endosome-to-trans Golgi network (TGN) transport through coordinating cargo selection and membrane remodeling. It is well-known how a SNX-BAR protein forms a homodimer; however, it is less clear how a heterodimer is formed. Here a detailed expression and purification protocol of the SNX1/SNX6 complex, from both worm and human, is described...
June 14, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Tamás Hajdu, Gábor Hajdu
In 2012, smoking restrictions were extended to hospitality venues in Hungary. Women working in bars and restaurants were primarily affected by the intervention. In this research, we analyze the effect of this smoking ban on the outcomes of their pregnancies. Using individual live birth, fetal loss, and infant mortality registry data, we examine the probability of live birth, indicators of health at birth, and the probability of death in the first year of life. We apply a difference-in-differences framework and show that the smoking ban has improved health at birth...
June 13, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Qiang Zhuang, Wenjuan Li, Christina Benda, Zhijian Huang, Tanveer Ahmed, Ping Liu, Xiangpeng Guo, David P Ibañez, Zhiwei Luo, Meng Zhang, Mazid Md Abdul, Zhongzhou Yang, Jiayin Yang, Yinghua Huang, Hui Zhang, Dehao Huang, Jianguo Zhou, Xiaofen Zhong, Xihua Zhu, Xiuling Fu, Wenxia Fan, Yulin Liu, Yan Xu, Carl Ward, Muhammad Jadoon Khan, Shahzina Kanwal, Bushra Mirza, Micky D Tortorella, Hung-Fat Tse, Jiayu Chen, Baoming Qin, Xichen Bao, Shaorong Gao, Andrew P Hutchins, Miguel A Esteban
In the version of this Article originally published, in Fig. 2c, the '+' sign and 'OSKM' were superimposed in the label '+OSKM'. In Fig. 4e, in the labels, all instances of 'Ant' should have been 'Anti-'. And, in Fig. 7a, the label '0.0' was misplaced; it should have been on the colour scale bar. These figures have now been corrected in the online versions.
June 15, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Neha Vapiwala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
Arren Bar-Even
Increasing agricultural productivity is one of the major challenges our society faces. While multiple strategies to enhance plant carbon fixation have been suggested, and partially implemented, most of them are restricted to relatively simple modifications of endogenous metabolism, i.e., "low hanging fruit". Here, I portray the next generation of metabolic solutions to increase carbon fixation rate and yield. These strategies involve major rewiring of central metabolism, including dividing Rubisco's catalysis between several enzymes, replacing Rubisco with a different carboxylation reaction, substituting the Calvin Cycle with alternative carbon fixation pathways, and engineering photorespiration bypass routes that do not release carbon...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Filip Moučka, Jiří Kolafa, Martin Lísal, William R Smith
We present a molecular-level simulation study of CaCl2 in water and crystalline hydrates formed by CaCl2 at ambient (298.15 K, 1 bar) conditions and at a high-temperature high-pressure state (365 K, 275 bars) typical of hydraulic fracturing conditions in natural-gas extraction, at which experimental properties are poorly characterized. We focus on simulations of chemical potentials in both solution and crystalline phases and on the salt solubility, the first time to our knowledge that such properties have been investigated by molecular simulation for divalent aqueous electrolytes...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Himanshu Goel, Sanliang Ling, Breanna Nicole Ellis, Anna Taconi, Ben Slater, Neeraj Rai
Predicting vapor liquid equilibria (VLE) of molecules governed by weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions using the first principles approach is a significant challenge. Due to the poor scaling of the post Hartree-Fock wave function theory with system size/basis functions, the Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) is preferred for systems with a large number of molecules. However, traditional DFT cannot adequately account for medium to long range correlations which are necessary for modeling vdW interactions...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Martin Svoboda, Martin Lísal
To address a high salinity of flow-back water during hydraulic fracturing, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and study the thermodynamics, structure, and diffusion of concentrated aqueous salt solution in clay nanopores. The concentrated solution results from the dissolution of a cubic NaCl nanocrystal, immersed in an aqueous NaCl solution of varying salt concentration and confined in clay pores of a width comparable to the crystal size. The size of the nanocrystal equals to about 18 Å which is above a critical nucleus size...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Guiomar D Soria, Jorge R Espinosa, Jorge Ramirez, Chantal Valeriani, Carlos Vega, Eduardo Sanz
We use computer simulations to investigate the effect of salt on homogeneous ice nucleation. The melting point of the employed solution model was obtained both by direct coexistence simulations and by thermodynamic integration from previous calculations of the water chemical potential. Using a seeding approach, in which we simulate ice seeds embedded in a supercooled aqueous solution, we compute the nucleation rate as a function of temperature for a 1.85 NaCl mol per water kilogram solution at 1 bar. To improve the accuracy and reliability of our calculations, we combine seeding with the direct computation of the ice-solution interfacial free energy at coexistence using the Mold Integration method...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Nils E R Zimmermann, Bart Vorselaars, Jorge R Espinosa, David Quigley, William R Smith, Eduardo Sanz, Carlos Vega, Baron Peters
This work reexamines seeded simulation results for NaCl nucleation from a supersaturated aqueous solution at 298.15 K and 1 bar pressure. We present a linear regression approach for analyzing seeded simulation data that provides both nucleation rates and uncertainty estimates. Our results show that rates obtained from seeded simulations rely critically on a precise driving force for the model system. The driving force vs. solute concentration curve need not exactly reproduce that of the real system, but it should accurately describe the thermodynamic properties of the model system...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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