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Shmuel Willensky, Hagit Bar-Rogovsky, Eduardo A Bignon, Nicole D Tischler, Yorgo Modis, Moshe Dessau
Hantaviruses are important emerging human pathogens and are the causative agents of serious diseases in humans with high mortality rates. Like other members in the Bunyaviridae family their M segment encodes two glycoproteins, GN and GC, which are responsible for the early events of infection. Hantaviruses deliver their tripartite genome into the cytoplasm by fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes in response to the reduced pH of the endosome. Unlike phleboviruses (e.g. Rift valley fever virus), that have an icosahedral glycoprotein envelope, hantaviruses display a pleomorphic virion morphology as GN and GC assemble into spikes with apparent four-fold symmetry organized in a grid-like pattern on the viral membrane...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Mohammad Abass Ahanger, R M Agarwal
Pot experiments were conducted to find out the effectivity of K on Triticum aestivum L cultivars. Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used as an osmoticum to induce osmotic stress under sand culture setting up the water potential of external solution at -3 and -5 bars. In pots, plants were raised under restricted and normal irrigation and K was applied in varying doses (0, 20, 40, 60 kg ha(-1)) and estimation of different physiological and biochemical parameters was done at two developmental stages, i...
October 25, 2016: Protoplasma
Antonio González-López, Pedro Antonio Campos-Morcillo, José Domingo Lago-Martín
PURPOSE: Line-pair resolution phantoms are used to determine the spatial resolution of medical imaging systems. In some cases, these phantoms are used to determine the maximum number of line-pairs per mm that the system can resolve. In other cases, a numerical determination of the modulation transfer function (MTF) is carried out by means of the analysis of the variance of ROIs on the image. In this note, a new procedure is implemented to calculate the presampled MTF of an imaging system...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Henry S Ashbaugh, Natalia da Silva Moura, Hayden Houser, Yang Wang, Amy Goodson, J Wesley Barnett
Theoretical descriptions of molecular-scale solvation frequently invoke contributions proportional to the solvent exposed area, under the tacit expectation that those contributions are tied to a surface tension for macroscopic surfaces. Here we examine the application of revised scaled-particle theory (RSPT) to extrapolate molecular simulation results for the wetting of molecular-to-meso-scale repulsive solutes in liquid water and decane to determine the interfacial free energies of hard, flat surfaces. We show that the RSPT yields interfacial free energies at ambient pressures that are consistently greater than that obtained from the liquid-vapor surface tensions of water and decane by ∼4%...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Shanzhi Tang, Shengrui Yu, Qingfu Han, Ming Li, Zhao Wang
Circular test is an important tactic to assess motion accuracy in many fields especially machine tool and coordinate measuring machine. There are setup errors due to using directly centring of the measuring instrument for both of contact double ball bar and existed non-contact methods. To solve this problem, an algorithm for circular test using function construction based on matrix operation is proposed, which is not only used for the solution of radial deviation (F) but also should be applied to obtain two other evaluation parameters especially circular hysteresis (H)...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
J R Espinosa, J M Young, H Jiang, D Gupta, C Vega, E Sanz, P G Debenedetti, A Z Panagiotopoulos
Direct coexistence molecular dynamics simulations of NaCl solutions and Lennard-Jones binary mixtures were performed to explore the origin of reported discrepancies between solubilities obtained by direct interfacial simulations and values obtained from the chemical potentials of the crystal and solution phases. We find that the key cause of these discrepancies is the use of crystal slabs of insufficient width to eliminate finite-size effects. We observe that for NaCl crystal slabs thicker than 4 nm (in the direction perpendicular to the interface), the same solubility values are obtained from the direct coexistence and chemical potential routes, namely, 3...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
H Pathak, J C Palmer, D Schlesinger, K T Wikfeldt, J A Sellberg, L G M Pettersson, A Nilsson
The thermodynamic response functions of water exhibit an anomalous increase upon cooling that becomes strongly amplified in the deeply supercooled regime due to structural fluctuations between disordered and tetrahedral local structures. Here, we compare structural data from recent x-ray laser scattering measurements of water at 1 bar and temperatures down to 227 K with structural properties computed for several different water models using molecular dynamics simulations. Based on this comparison, we critically evaluate four different thermodynamic scenarios that have been invoked to explain the unusual behavior of water...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Sutapa Roy, S Dietrich, Felix Höfling
The dynamic and static critical behavior of a family of binary Lennard-Jones liquid mixtures, close to their continuous demixing points (belonging to the so-called model H' dynamic universality class), are studied computationally by combining semi-grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, accelerated by graphic processing units (GPU). The symmetric binary liquid mixtures considered cover a variety of densities, a wide range of compressibilities, and various interactions between the unlike particles...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Chandrashekhar V Kulkarni, Anan Yaghmur, Miloš Steinhart, Manfred Kriechbaum, Michael Rappolt
We present the first report on the effect of hydrostatic pressure on colloidally stabilized lipid nanoparticles enveloping inverse non-lamellar self-assemblies in their interiors. These internal self-assemblies were systematically tuned into bicontinuous cubic (Pn3m and Im3m), micellar cubic (Fd3m), hexagonal (H2), and inverse micellar (L2) phases by regulating the lipid-oil ratio while the hydrostatic pressure was varied from atmospheric pressure to 1200 bar, and back to the atmospheric pressure. The pressure effect on these lipid nanoparticles was compared with their equilibrium bulk, non-dispersed counterparts, i...
October 26, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Hee Joong Kim, Dong-Gyun Kim, Kyuchul Lee, Youngbin Baek, Youngjae Yoo, Yong Seok Kim, Byoung Gak Kim, Jong-Chan Lee
As insufficient access to clean water is expected to become worse in the near future, water purification is becoming increasingly important. Membrane filtration is the most promising technologies to produce clean water from contaminated water. Although there have been many studies to prepare highly water-permeable carbon-based membranes by utilizing frictionless water flow inside the carbonaceous pores, the carbon-based membranes still suffer from several issues, such as high cost and complicated fabrication as well as relatively low salt rejection...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yi Zhang, Soichiro Kitazawa, Ivan Peran, Natalie Stenzoski, Scott A McCallum, Daniel P Raleigh, Catherine Ann Royer
Understanding protein folding mechanisms and their sequence dependence requires the determination of residue-specific kinetic rate constants for the folding and unfolding reactions. Conventional two dimensional NMR, such as HSQC experiments, can provide residue-specific information for proteins. However, folding is generally too fast for such experiments. ZZ-exchange NMR spectroscopy allows determination of folding and unfolding rates on much faster timescales, yet even this regime is not fast enough for many protein folding reactions...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
A R Harborne, J D Selwyn, J M Lawson, M Gallo
Video cameras recorded the diurnal visitation rates of transient (large home range) piscivorous fishes to coral patch reefs in The Bahamas and identified 11 species. Visits by bar jack Caranx ruber, mutton snapper Lutjanus analis, yellowtail snapper Ocyurus chrysurus, barracuda Sphyraena barracuda and cero Scomberomorus regalis were sufficiently frequent to correlate with a range of biophysical factors. Patch-reef visitation rates and fish abundances varied with distance from shore and all species except S...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Xiao-Chao Xia, Wei Yang, Zheng-Ying Liu, Rui-Yan Zhang, Dan-Dan Xie, Ming-Bo Yang
The formation of a hybrid shish-kebab (HSK) structure with different degrees of lamellar orientations was first observed in the solution crystallization of polyethylene (PE) in the presence of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). In this study, PE crystal lamellae were periodically decorated on the surface of CNFs and were aligned approximately perpendicular to the long axes of the CNFs, forming aligned hybrid shish-kebab nanostructures. More importantly, the fascinating structure was directly formed in all regions of the injection molded bars of HDPE/CNF composites, via a gas-assisted injection molding (GAIM), instead of the shell-core structure...
October 26, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Eran Weiner, Letizia Schreiber, Ehud Grinstein, Ohad Feldstein, Noa Rymer-Haskel, Jacob Bar, Michal Kovo
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare obstetric outcome and placental-histopathology in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with severe features with and without HELLP syndrome. METHODS: Labor, maternal characteristics, neonatal outcome and placental histopathology of pregnancies complicated with severe preeclampsia during 2008-2015 were reviewed. Results were compared between those without signs of HELLP syndrome (severe preeclampsia group) and those with concomitant HELLP syndrome (HELLP group)...
November 2016: Placenta
Lisa N McAuliffe, Kieran N Kilcawley, Jeremiah J Sheehan, Paul L H McSweeney
Liposome-encapsulated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was incorporated into a model miniature Gouda-type cheese (20 g) in order to assess its effect on rennet gelation, starter viability, pH, and moisture content. EDTA was encapsulated within 2 different food-grade proliposome preparations, Pro-Lipo Duo and Pro-Lipo C (50% and 40% unsaturated soybean phospholipids and 50% and 60% aqueous medium, respectively), using the following high-shear technologies: Ultra-Turrax (5000 rpm), 2-stage homogenization (345 bar), or microfluidization (690 bar)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Olga A Yakovina, Alexander S Lisitsyn
Metal clusters with sizes below 1 nm excite great scientific interest, but the main information on their properties still comes from quantum mechanics modeling and costly physical methods of limited availability. We have studied ultradispersed Pt/γ-Al2O3 samples with TPD and complementary adsorption/desorption techniques and observed a strong influence of H2-treatment conditions (PH2 ≤ 1 bar; 200 K ≤ T ≤ 470 K) on the H2-TPD profile of Pt/γ-Al2O3. The results corroborate recent theoretical and spectroscopic studies predicting alterations in the structure of Pt nanoclusters under H2 but reveal that the restructuring needs to overcome continuous activation barriers and leads both to an increase in surface coverage and strengthening of Pt-H bonds...
October 25, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zdenka Cicova, Mario Dejung, Tomas Skalicky, Nicole Eisenhuth, Steffen Hanselmann, Brooke Morriswood, Luisa M Figueiredo, Falk Butter, Christian J Janzen
Trypanosomes are masters of adaptation to different host environments during their complex life cycle. Large-scale proteomic approaches provide information on changes at the cellular level, and in a systematic way. However, detailed work on single components is necessary to understand the adaptation mechanisms on a molecular level. Here, we have performed a detailed characterization of a bloodstream form (BSF) stage-specific putative flagellar host adaptation factor Tb927.11.2400, identified previously in a SILAC-based comparative proteome study...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ilana Shtein, Rivka Elbaum, Benny Bar-On
To enhance the distribution of their seeds, plants often utilize hygroscopic deformations that actuate dispersal mechanisms. Such movements are based on desiccation-induced shrinkage of tissues in predefined directions. The basic hygroscopic deformations are typically actuated by a bi-layer configuration, in which shrinking of an active tissue layer is resisted by a stiff layer, generating a set of basic movements including bending, coiling, and twisting. In this study, we investigate a new type of functionally graded hygroscopic movement in the fruit (capsule) of sesame (Sesamum indicum L...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zakie Esmaili, Fatemeh Cheshmberah, Ali R Solaimany Nazar, Mehrdad Farhadian
The aquaculture system is a potential significant source of antibacterial agents. The removal of florfenicol (Flo) antibiotic from synthetic aqueous wastewater is performed by applying a commercial thin film composite polyamide nanofilter (NF). For concentrated wastewater treatment, the advanced oxidation process (AOP) is applied. The effects of pH, pressure and Flo concentration on removal efficiency of NF and the effects of pH, Flo concentration and dosage of hydrogen peroxide and contact time on the AOP are assessed...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Technology
Luis F Valdez, Juan Manuel Gutiérrez
In this work, we will analyze the response of a Metal Oxide Gas Sensor (MOGS) array to a flow controlled stimulus generated in a pressure controlled canister produced by a homemade olfactometer to build an E-nose. The built E-nose is capable of chocolate identification between the 26 analyzed chocolate bar samples and four features recognition (chocolate type, extra ingredient, sweetener and expiration date status). The data analysis tools used were Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)...
October 20, 2016: Sensors
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