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Ayman Attigani, Lifang Sun, Qing Wang, Yadan Liu, Dingping Bai, Shengping Li, Xiaohong Huang
Cellulases are produced by microorganisms that grow on cellulose biomass. Here, a cellulase, Cel10, was identified in a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Chinese bamboo rat gut. Analysis of substrate specificity showed that Cel10 is able to hydrolyze amorphous carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and crystalline forms of cellulose (Avicel and xylan) but is unable to hydrolyze p-nitrophenol β-D-glucopyranoside (p-NPG), proving that Cel10 is an endoglucanase. A phylogenetic tree analysis indicates that Cel10 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase 8 (GH8) subfamily...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Qi Cao, Shuqiang Li, Marek Żabka
Twenty one jumping spider species from South Yunnan are reported, diagnosed, described and illustrated; 19 of them are described as new: Afraflacilla ballarini Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂), Agorius tortilis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), Bavia exilis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂), Carrhotus kevinlii Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), Carrhotus sarahcrewsae Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂), Chinattus wengnanensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), Chinophrys mengyangensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), Cocalus menglaensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), Cosmophasis xiaolonghaensis Cao & Li, sp...
2016: ZooKeys
Christopher R Lamb, Elizabeth H W Pope, Karla C L Lee
Detection of wooden foreign bodies in dogs can be challenging. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was done to describe computed tomographic (CT) signs associated with wooden foreign bodies, and to estimate the accuracy of CT for detection of wooden foreign bodies. Patient records and CT images were reviewed for 72 dogs that had a history of suspected stick injury and CT of the affected body part, or possible wooden foreign object reported on CT, and had surgical exploration during the same period of hospitalization...
December 1, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Shangbin Bai, Yixiang Wang, Richard T Conant, Guomo Zhou, Yong Xu, Nan Wang, Feiyan Fang, Juan Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jiangjiang Duan, Xichao Liang, Kunkun Zhu, Jinhua Guo, Lina Zhang
Smart hydrogel actuators with excellent biocompatibility and biodegradation are extremely desired for biomedical applications. Herein, we have constructed bio-hydrogel actuators inspired by the bilayer structures of plant organs from chitosan and cellulose/carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution in an alkali/urea aqueous system containing epichlorohydrin (ECH) as a crosslinker, and demonstrated tight adhesion between two layers through strong electrostatic attraction and chemical crosslinking. The bilayer hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties could carry out rapid, reversible, and repeated self-rolling deformation actuated by pH-triggered swelling/deswelling, and transformed into rings, tubules, and flower-, helix-, bamboo-, and wave-like shapes by effectively designing the geometric shape and size...
November 30, 2016: Soft Matter
J J Chen, X J Wu, Z Y Zhang, Z X Chen, Y Cen
Objective: To study the correlation between the expression of angiotensin Ⅱ, angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1R), angiotensin Ⅱ type 2 receptor (AT2R) and collagen deposition in human keloid. Methods: The keloid from 19 keloid patients and normal skin from 13 patients performed with free skin transplantation hospitalized in our unit from May 2014 to January 2015 were obtained. The expressions of angiotensin Ⅱ, AT1R, and AT2R were detected by immunohistochemical staining, and the results were semi-quantitatively analyzed by immunohistochemical scoring...
November 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Chuihan Chen, Wei Miao, Cheng Zhou, Hongjuan Wu
Thermogravimetric kinetic of bamboo waste (BW) pyrolysis has been studied using Asymmetric Double Sigmoidal (Asym2sig) function deconvolution. Through deconvolution, BW pyrolytic profiles could be separated into three reactions well, each of which corresponded to pseudo hemicelluloses (P-HC), pseudo cellulose (P-CL), and pseudo lignin (P-LG) decomposition. Based on Friedman method, apparent activation energy of P-HC, P-CL, P-LG was found to be 175.6kJ/mol, 199.7kJ/mol, and 158.4kJ/mol, respectively. Energy compensation effects (lnk0,z vs...
November 5, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Yunwei Tang, Linhai Jing, Hui Li, Qingjie Liu, Qi Yan, Xiuxia Li
This study explores the ability of WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery for bamboo mapping in a mountainous region in Sichuan Province, China. A large area of this place is covered by shadows in the image, and only a few sampled points derived were useful. In order to identify bamboos based on sparse training data, the sample size was expanded according to the reflectance of multispectral bands selected using the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, class separability based on the training data was calculated using a feature space optimization method to select the features for classification...
November 22, 2016: Sensors
Lok Kumar Shrestha, Laxmi Adhikari, Rekha Goswami Shrestha, Mandira Pradhananga Adhikari, Rina Adhikari, Jonathan P Hill, Raja Ram Pradhananga, Katsuhiko Ariga
We have investigated the textural properties, electrochemical supercapacitances and vapor sensing performances of bamboo-derived nanoporous carbon materials (NCM). Bamboo, an abundant natural biomaterial, was chemically activated with phosphoric acid at 400 °C and the effect of impregnation ratio of phosphoric acid on the textural properties and electrochemical performances was systematically investigated. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of various oxygen-containing surface functional groups (i...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Shinpei Matsuda, Hitoshi Yoshimura, Tadanori Hamano, Kazuo Sano
Sensory and motor neuropathy of the trigeminal nerve due to trauma is quite rare. Furthermore, there have been no detailed reports on occlusal abnormalities and trismus associated with post-traumatic trigeminal motor neuropathy. Here, the authors report a case of trigeminal motor neuropathy and trigeminal sensory neuropathy in all 3 divisions caused by an orbital stab wound. During kendo practice, a 61-year-old man was injured in his right medial canthus with the splinter of a broken bamboo sword. Imaging examinations did not show a brain injury or orbital bone fracture...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Donna J H Vosburgh, Jae Hong Park, Levi W D Mines, Imali A Mudunkotuwa, T Renée Anthony, Thomas M Peters
The nanoparticle respiratory deposition (NRD) sampler is a personal sampler that combines a cyclone, impactor, and a nylon mesh diffusion stage to measure a worker's exposure to nanoparticles. The concentration of titanium in the nylon mesh of the diffusion stage complicates the application of the NRD sampler for assessing exposures to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. This study evaluated commercially available nonwoven textiles for use as an alternative media in the diffusion stage of the NRD sampler. Three textiles were selected as containing little titanium from an initial screening of 11 textiles by field portable x-ray fluorescence (FPXRF)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Tsai-Ling Ho, Hsiang-Chi Lee, Yuan-Lin Chou, Yang-Hao Tseng, Wei-Cheng Huang, Chiung-Hua Wung, Na-Sheng Lin, Yau-Heiu Hsu, Ban-Yang Chang
The movement of some plant viruses are accomplished by three proteins encoded by a triple gene block (TGB). The second protein (TGBp2) in the block is a transmembrane protein. This study was aimed to unravel the mechanism underlying the relatively inefficient cell-to-cell movement of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) caused by amino acid substitutions for the three Cys residues, Cys-109, Cys-112 and Cys-119, at the C-terminal tail of TGBp2. Results from confocal microscopy revealed that substitutions of the three Cys residues of TGBp2, especially Cys-109 and Cys-112, would reduce the efficiency of TGBp2- and TGBp3-dependent PD localization of TGBp1...
November 15, 2016: Virology
Qiang Wei, Chen Jiao, Lin Guo, Yulong Ding, Junjie Cao, Jianyuan Feng, Xiaobo Dong, Linyong Mao, Honghe Sun, Fen Yu, Guangyao Yang, Peijian Shi, Guodong Ren, Zhangjun Fei
The primary thickening growth of Moso (Phyllostachys edulis) underground shoots largely determines the culm circumference. However, its developmental mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using an integrated anatomy, mathematics and genomics approach, we systematically studied cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the growth of Moso underground shoots. We discovered that the growth displayed a spiral pattern and pith played an important role in promoting the primary thickening process of Moso underground shoots and driving the evolution of culms with different sizes among different bamboo species...
November 12, 2016: New Phytologist
Sayyad Mannan, Mohammad Zaffar, Asima Pradhan, Sumit Basu
The microfibril angle (MFA) giving the orientation of cellulose chains in hard sclerenchymatous bamboo fibers is one of the most important parameters determining the overall strength of the bamboo culm. In this work, Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry is implemented for determining MFA measured over a transverse section of group of fibers and parenchyma cells in bamboo of Dendrocalamus strictus species. The method, based on the Stokes-Mueller formalism, decouples the birefringence exhibited by crystalline cellulose from the clumped polarization parameters using 16 images taken with different polarization states at subcellular resolution...
November 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Jaehyun Ju, Ga-Young Lee, Yoon-Se Kim, Hee Kyung Chang, Myoung-Sool Do, Kun-Young Park
The aim of our experiment was to evaluate the anticancer effect of bamboo salt (BS) on C57BL/6 mice in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon cancer model. BS, solar salt, and purified salt were evaluated for their protective effects during AOM/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. BS, especially after baking for nine separate intervals (BS9x), suppressed colon carcinogenesis in the mice. BS9x decreased colon length shortening, weight-to-length ratios, and tumor counts...
November 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Chen Qiu, Yan He, Philip Brookes, Jianming Xu
This study investigated the characteristics of nanoscale bamboo charcoal (NBC), and made a comparison with microscale bamboo charcoal (MBC) on how they impact on the sorption abilities of different soils. The two charcoals contained similar elemental contents (e.g., high C, low H and low N) and various functional groups on their surfaces (e.g., aromatic structure, carboxyl, and hydroxyl). However, NBC had a larger total pore volume than that of MBC and was more likely to generate multi-layer sorption of phenanthrene...
November 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Z Huang, X-J Zhong, J He, M-Y Jiang, X-F Yu, X Li
Bamboo belongs to subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family and is one of the most important non-timber forest resources in the world. The AP2/ERF superfamily is a group of plant specific transcription factors and plays important roles in the regulation of plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. By comprehensively analyzing the recently uncovered whole genome sequence and full length cDNA of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), 142 AP2/ERF transcription factors were identified and 53 among them are supported by full length cDNA...
September 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Zhuo Huang, Xiao-Juan Zhong, Jiao He, Si-Han Jin, Han-Du Guo, Xiao-Fang Yu, Yu-Jue Zhou, Xi Li, Ming-Dong Ma, Qi-Bing Chen, Hai Long
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins have been identified in a wide range of organisms and are believed to play a role in the adaptation of plants to stress conditions. In this study, we performed genome-wide identification of LEA proteins and their coding genes in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) of Poaceae. A total of 23 genes encoding LEA proteins (PeLEAs) were found in P. edulis that could be classified to six groups based on Pfam protein family and homologous analysis. Further in silico analyses of the structures, gene amount, and biochemical characteristics were conducted and compared with those of O...
2016: PloS One
Minghao Zhuang, Shu Kee Lam, Yingchun Li, Shuanglin Chen
The increase in tropospheric ozone (O3) affects plant physiology and ecosystem processes, and consequently the cycle of nutrients. While mineral nutrients are critical for plant growth, the effect of elevated tropospheric O3 concentration on the uptake and allocation of mineral nutrients by plants is not well understood. Using open top chambers (OTCs), we investigated the effect of elevated O3 on calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) in mature bamboo species Phyllostachys edulis and Oligostachyum lubricum...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Abhishek Mandal, Neera Singh, T J Purakayastha
Agri-wastes biochars viz. eucalyptus bark (EBBC), corn cob (CCBC), bamboo chips (BCBC), rice husk (RHBC) and rice straw (RSBC) and acid treated RSBC (T-RSBC), were characterized for their physico-chemical properties and sorption behaviour of atrazine and imidacloprid was studied. Kinetics study suggested that except atrazine adsorption on RSBC, which was best explained by the pseudo second order model, sorption of atrazine and imidacloprid on biochars was well explained by the modified Elovich model. Among the five normal biochars, the RSBC showed the maximum atrazine (37...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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