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Van Binh Nguyen, Hyun-Seung Park, Sang-Choon Lee, Junki Lee, Jee Young Park, Tae-Jin Yang
Ginseng represents a set of high-value medicinal plants of different species: Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), P. quinquefolius (American ginseng), P. notoginseng (Chinese ginseng), P. japonicus (Bamboo ginseng), and P. vietnamensis (Vietnamese ginseng). Each species is pharmacologically and economically important, with differences in efficacy and price. Accordingly, an authentication system is needed to combat economically motivated adulteration of Panax products. We conducted comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome sequences of these five species, identifying 34-124 indels and 141-560 SNPs...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kuan-Yu Lin, Na-Sheng Lin
Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are sub-viral agents that may interact with their cognate helper virus (HV) and host plant synergistically and/or antagonistically. SatRNAs totally depend on the HV for replication, so satRNAs and HV usually evolve similar secondary or tertiary RNA structures that are recognized by a replication complex, although satRNAs and HV do not share an appreciable sequence homology. The satRNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus (satBaMV), the only satRNAs of the genus Potexvirus, have become one of the models of how satRNAs can modulate HV replication and virus-induced symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michelle Yee, David Klinzing, Jun-Rong Wei, Martin Gengenbacher, Eric J Rubin, Thomas Dick
Mycobacterium abscessus, an intrinsically multidrug-resistant pathogen, causes chronic incurable lung disease. New drugs for this emerging pathogen represent an urgent unmet medical need. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of M. abscessus Bamboo, a clinical isolate used as a screening strain for drug discovery.
May 18, 2017: Genome Announcements
Seung Gon Wi, Dae-Seok Lee, Quynh Anh Nguyen, Hyeun-Jong Bae
BACKGROUND: In order to improve the availability of biomass, the concept of growing high yield biomass with short rotations and intensive culture has been introduced. Bamboo has become a feedstock of potential interest for future energy production due to its high productivity and short rotation time. The growth age of biomass is an important factor affecting the efficiency of bioconversion and pretreatment for bioenergy production. In this regard, more information is required on the morphology and chemical composition of bamboo for short-rotation biomass production...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Zhanchao Cheng, Wei Ge, Long Li, Dan Hou, Yanjun Ma, Jun Liu, Qingsong Bai, Xueping Li, Shaohua Mu, Jian Gao
Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS)-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKC(C), MIKC(∗), Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tsung-Hsien Chen, Chung-Chi Hu, Jia-Teh Liao, Yi-Ling Lee, Ying-Wen Huang, Na-Sheng Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Yau-Heiu Hsu
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is among the major threats to public health in Asia. For disease control and prevention, the efficient production of safe and effective vaccines against JEV is in urgent need. In this study, we produced a plant-made JEV vaccine candidate using a chimeric virus particle (CVP) strategy based on bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) for epitope presentation. The chimeric virus, designated BJ2A, was constructed by fusing JEV envelope protein domain III (EDIII) at the N-terminus of BaMV coat protein, with an insertion of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A peptide to facilitate the production of both unfused and epitope-presenting for efficient assembly of the CVP vaccine candidate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
S Youssefian, J E Jakes, N Rahbar
A combination of experimental, theoretical and numerical studies is used to investigate the variation of elastic moduli of lignocellulosic (bamboo) fiber cell walls with moisture content (MC). Our Nanoindentation results show that the longitudinal elastic modulus initially increased to a maximum value at about 3% MC and then decreased linearly with increasing MC. In contrast, the transverse moduli decrease linearly with MC. We showed that amorphous materials in cell walls have key roles in the variation of elastic modulus with increasing MC...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kalyan De, Davendra Kumar, Anoop Kumar Singh, Kamal Kumar, Artabandhu Sahoo, Syed Mohammed Khursheed Naqvi
In the hot semi-arid tropical region, extreme summer is a major constraint in sheep production. The growth performance of growing lambs is impaired during the summer. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of protection against hot climate on growth performance, physiological response, and endocrine profile of growing lambs under semi-arid tropical environment. All the data in the experiment were presented as mean ± SE. Thirty Malpura lambs with the age of 122.7 ± 6.05 days and body weight of 19...
May 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Long Li, Zhanchao Cheng, Yanjun Ma, Qingsong Bai, Xiangyu Li, Zhihua Cao, Zhongneng Wu, Jian Gao
Moso bamboo is a large, woody bamboo with the highest ecological, economic, and cultural value of all the bamboo types and accounts for up to 70% of the total area of bamboo grown. However, the spatio-temporal variation role of moso bamboo shoot during growth period is still unclear. We found that the bamboo shoot growth can be divided into three distinct periods, including winter growth, early growth, and late growth based on gene expression and anatomy. In the early growth period, lateral buds germinated from the top of the bamboo joint in the shoot tip...
May 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Taotao Wang, Huiyuan Wang, Dawei Cai, Yubang Gao, Hangxiao Zhang, Yongsheng Wang, Chentao Lin, Liuyin Ma, Lianfeng Gu
Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) represents one of the fastest-spreading plants in the world, due in part to their well-developed rhizomes system. However, the post-transcriptional mechanism has not been comprehensively studied for the development of rhizome system in bamboo. We therefore used a combination of single-molecule long-read sequencing technology and polyadenylation site sequencing (PAS-seq) to re-annotate the bamboo genome, and genome-wide identify alternative splicing (AS) and alternative polyadenylation (APA) in the rhizomes system...
May 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yingying Zong, Bin Shao, Wenchen Xu, Bin Guo, Debin Shan
This paper reports the presence of tear strips on the surface of a Ti-22Al-25Nb alloy sheet stretched at 960 °C. The test piece reveals a "bamboo"-shaped pattern on its surface, which severely affects the quality of the alloy. Microstructure analysis indicates that the formation mechanism of the tear strip is related to both the rich α2 phase layer and the interfacial B2 phase dynamic recrystallization layer between the α2 phase layer and the substrate metal.
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chi-Ping Cheng
Viruses move intracellularly to their replication compartments, and the newly synthesized viral complexes are transported to neighboring cells through hijacking of the host endomembrane systems. During these processes, numerous interactions occur among viral proteins, host proteins, and the cytoskeleton system. This review mainly focuses on the plant endomembrane network, which may be utilized by Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) to move to its replication compartment, and summarizes the host factors that may be directly involved in delivering BaMV cargoes during intracellular movement...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chinatsu Tanabe, Kaori Furuta, Megumi Maeda, Yoshinobu Kimura
An effective method to prepare plant complex type (PCT) N-glycans in large amounts has been required to evaluate their immunological activity. In this study, we found that glycoproteins in bamboo shoots predominantly carry PCT N-glycans including the Lewis a epitope-containing ones, suggesting that bamboo shoot is an excellent source for the plant antigenic glycans to synthesize immunoactive neoglycopolymers.
May 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
T L Zhang, Q Y Liu
The word "long (stranguria)" is seen both in historical and medical works in the Han Dynasty, but with much different meanings. In medical books, including Nei jing(Inner Canon), Wu shi er bing fang(Prescriptions for Fifty-two Diseases), and Wu wei yi jian(Medical Bamboo slips of Wuwei), Long refers to incontinence of urination. However, in historical books, Long is usually expressed as "pi long" , referring to different conditions, including lame, fatigue, and disability, all congenital or acquired renal deficient illness...
March 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Motohiro Sato, Akio Inoue, Hiroyuki Shima
The optimal distribution of the reinforcing fibers for stiffening hollow cylindrical composites is explored using the linear elasticity theory. The spatial distribution of the vascular bundles in wild bamboo, a nature-designed functionally graded material, is the basis for the design. Our results suggest that wild bamboos maximize their flexural rigidity by optimally regulating the radial gradation of their vascular bundle distribution. This fact provides us with a plant-mimetic design principle that enables the realization of high-stiffness and lightweight cylindrical composites...
2017: PloS One
Ying-Ke Zhou, Xiao-Ye Shen, Cheng-Lin Hou
An important and useful bamboo species, fishscale bamboo (Phyllostachys heteroclada Oliver), is broadly distributed in Southeast China and has multiple purposes, including uses in cuisine, weaving, Chinese medicine and ecological protection. However, no previous studies have focused on the endophytes of this plant. In our article, a total of 127 fungal strains were first isolated from the healthy branches and leaves of common P. heteroclada. These endophytic fungi could be directly categorized into 50 morphotypes according to their culture characteristics, and their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were analyzed for molecular identification...
June 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Haemin Chon, Jin Hoon Park
We describe a patient with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with cervical spinal fracture treated with cervical pedicle screw placement (CPS) through a single posterior approach. A 43-year-old male patient with AS visited our emergency centre due to paralysis following a trauma. Coronal reconstructed cervical spine computed tomography (CT) scan showed a C5 oblique fracture, and the bilateral pedicles were separated superiorly and inferiorly. The sagittal reconstructed CT image revealed bamboo spine and C5 vertebrae body fracture...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Ying-Wen Huang, Chung-Chi Hu, Ching-Hsiu Tsai, Na-Sheng Lin, Yau-Heiu Hsu
Plant viruses may exhibit age-dependent tissue preference in their hosts, but the underlying mechanism(s) are not well understood. In this study, we provide several lines of evidence to reveal the determining role of a protein of the Nicotiana benthamiana chloroplast Hsp70 (NbcpHsp70) family, NbcpHsp70-2, involved in the preference of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) to infect older tissues. NbcpHsp70 family proteins were identified in complexes pulled down with BaMV replicase as the bait. Among the isoforms of NbcpHsp70, only the specific silencing of NbcpHsp70-2 resulted in the significant decrease of BaMV RNA in N...
May 1, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
I-Hsuan Chen, Ying-Wen Huang, Ching-Hsiu Tsai
Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), which belongs to the genus Potexvirus in the family Alphaflexiviridae, has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome that is approximately 6400 nucleotides (nts) in length. Positive-sense RNA viruses can use genomic RNA as a template for translation and replication after entering a suitable host cell. Furthermore, such viral RNA is recognized by capsid protein for packaging and by viral movement protein(s) or the movement protein complex for cell-to-cell and systemic movement. Hence, viral RNA must contain signals for different functions to complete the viral infection cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bihe Kong, Lei Chen, Yasuhiro Kasahara, Akihiro Sumida, Kiyomi Ono, Jan Wild, Arata Nagatake, Ryusuke Hatano, Toshihiko Hara
In order to understand the relationships between understory bamboo and soil properties, we compared microbial community structures in the soil of a Betula ermanii boreal forest with Sasa kurilensis present and removed using high-throughput DNA sequencing. The presence of understory S. kurilensis strongly affected soil properties, including total carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate, and the C:N ratio as well as relative soil moisture. Marked differences were also noted in fungal and bacterial communities between plots...
April 28, 2017: Microbes and Environments
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