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Anne-Claire Fabre, Jonathan M G Perry, Adam Hartstone-Rose, AuróLien Lowie, Andy Boens, MaÏtena Dumont
Despite great interest and decades of research, the musculoskeletal relationships of the masticatory system in primates are still not fully understood. However, without a clear understanding of the interplay between muscles and bones it remains difficult to understand the functional significance of morphological traits of the skeleton. Here, we aim to study the impacts of the masticatory muscles on the shape of the cranium and the mandible as well as their co-variation in strepsirrhine primates. To do so, we use 3D geometric morphometric approaches to assess the shape of each bone of the skull of 20 species for which muscle data are available in the literature...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Erling Li, Fa Yang, Zhemin Wu, Yong Wang, Mingbo Ruan, Ping Song, Wei Xing, Weilin Xu
Herein, a type of Fe, N-codoped carbon electrocatalyst (FeNx /C, Fe-N-BCNT#BP) containing bamboo carbon nanotubes and displaying bifunctional high catalytic efficiency for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR) is reported. It shows high electrocatalytic activity and stability for both the ORR process with onset potential of 1.03 VRHE in alkaline and the CO2RR to CO with high faradic efficiency up to 90% and selectivity of about 100% at low overpotential of 0.49 V...
January 11, 2018: Small
Mingchun Zhang, Zhizhong Zhang, Zhong Li, Mingsheng Hong, Xiaoping Zhou, Shiqiang Zhou, Jindong Zhang, Vanessa Hull, Jinyan Huang, Hemin Zhang
Diet plays a pivotal role in dictating behavioral patterns of herbivorous animals, particularly specialist species. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known as a bamboo specialist. In the present study, the response of giant pandas to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo shoots was explored using field surveys and GPS collar tracking. Results show the dynamics in panda-bamboo space-time relationships that have not been previously articulated. For instance, we found a higher bamboo stump height of foraged bamboo with increasing elevation, places where pandas foraged later in spring when bamboo shoots become more fibrous and woody...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhi Zhuang Wu, Ye Qing Ying, Yuan Bin Zhang, Yu Fang Bi, An Ke Wang, Xu Hua Du
The aim of this study was to explore whether nutrition supply can improve the drought tolerance of Moso bamboo under dry conditions. One-year-old seedlings were exposed to two soil water content levels [wellwatered, 70 ± 5% soil-relative-water-content (SRWC) and drought stress, 30 ± 5% SRWC] and four combinations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) supply (low-N, low-P, LNLP; low-N, high-P, LNHP; high-N, high-P, HNHP; and high-N, low-P, HNLP) for four months. Plant growth, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, water use efficiency and cell membrane stability were determined...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ying Tang, Julie A Winkler, Andrés Viña, Jianguo Liu, Yuanbin Zhang, Xiaofeng Zhang, Xiaohong Li, Fang Wang, Jindong Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhao
Multiple factors introduce uncertainty into projections of species distributions under climate change. The uncertainty introduced by the choice of baseline climate information used to calibrate a species distribution model and to downscale global climate model (GCM) simulations to a finer spatial resolution is a particular concern for mountainous regions, as the spatial resolution of climate observing networks is often insufficient to detect the steep climatic gradients in these areas. Using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling framework together with occurrence data on 21 understory bamboo species distributed across the mountainous geographic range of the Giant Panda, we examined the differences in projected species distributions obtained from two contrasting sources of baseline climate information, one derived from spatial interpolation of coarse-scale station observations and the other derived from fine-spatial resolution satellite measurements...
2018: PloS One
Yongfeng Lou, Huayu Sun, Sining Wang, Hao Xu, Lichao Li, Hansheng Zhao, Zhimin Gao
Higher plants have an array of photoprotection mechanisms alleviating the harmful effects of light. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is one of the photoprotective mechanisms, which dissipates the excess of light energy absorbed in the light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) into thermal energy. The PsbS (photosystem II subunit S), a member of the LHC family thought to be present exclusively in higher plants, is supposed to activate NPQ through interactions with antenna proteins. However, the roles of PsbS in bamboo remain unclear...
January 4, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Ni Ni, Fang Wang, Yang Song, Yongrong Bian, Renyong Shi, Xinglun Yang, Chenggang Gu, Xin Jiang
This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which biochar reduces the bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rice under anaerobic conditions. Corn straw- or bamboo-derived biochar pyrolyzed at 300 °C and 700 °C (CB300 or BB700), respectively, was amended into flooded PAH-contaminated soil. After harvest, 2% CB300, 0.5% BB700 or 2% BB700 amendments reduced the bioaccumulation of PAHs in rice root, especially that of high-molecular-weight PAHs (p < .05). Total PAH concentrations were higher, and their bioavailable concentrations were lower in BB700-amended soils than the control...
January 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Yameng Gao, Huanlong Liu, Yujiao Wang, Fei Li, Yan Xiang
Plant homeodomain (PHD)-finger proteins are a class of important zinc-finger transcription factors responsible for regulating transcription and the chromatin state and responsive to various stresses. The family genes have been reported in many plants, but there is little information about PHD-finger genes in moso bamboo. In this study, 60 PHD-finger genes (PePHD1-60) were identified in moso bamboo and classified into 11 subfamilies (A-K) based on phylogenetic analysis. Gene structure and conserved motif analysis showed that these genes contained different numbers of introns but had similar motif organizations within each subfamily...
December 26, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Dongwei Kang, Shuang Li, Xiaorong Wang, Jian Huang, Junqing Li
We investigated the habitat use characteristics of takin in Wanglang and Xiaohegou Nature Reserves to detect whether takin has the different habitat use patterns in different environments. We found that takin has similarities and differences in habitat use in these two nature reserves. Takin at Wanglang usually used the habitats with greater bamboo coverage and bamboo density, whereas takin at Xiaohegou usually used the habitats with a lower canopy. The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that bamboo density, herb-cover proportion, and tree size contributed significantly to the difference between takin plots at Wanglang and Xiaohegou, with an overall correct prediction rate of 92...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shengkun Yao, Yunbing Zong, Xu Huang, Yang Liu, Ningqiang Gong, Jianhua Zhang, Ziqing Li, Feng Cao, Xiangcheng Wang, Xing-Jie Liang, Huaidong Jiang
Cardiovascular diseases are closely related to structural blood capillaries lesions. Herein, microscopic investigations of mouse blood capillaries were performed at multiple spatial resolution by using synchrotron X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The chemically fixed blood capillaries without any contrast agents were selected. For the first time, a periodic bamboo-shaped structure was observed at nanoscale resolution by STXM, and the three-dimensional tomographic slices at sub-micrometer resolution further confirmed the periodic wave profile of the blood capillaries...
December 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
Guangjing Chen, Kewei Chen, Renfeng Zhang, Xiaolong Chen, Peng Hu, Jianquan Kan
In this study, an efficient accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technology was applied for rapid extraction of polysaccharides from the processing by-products of Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (CPS). The extraction yields, physicochemical characterization, and antioxidant activities of CPS obtained by ASE and hot water extraction (HWE) were further compared. A maximal ASE-CPS yield was obtained by optimized extraction conditions (temperature 126 °C, 2 cycles, and 22 min) using response surface methodology...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Fatema Dhaif, Georgios Paparoidamis, Michail Sideris, John Hanrahan, Efstratia-Maria Georgopoulou, Ismini Tsagkaraki, Nikolaos Staikoglou, Ferha Saeed, Theodoros Michail, Anastasios Tzavelas, Efstathios Kenanidis, Michael Potoupnis, Eleftherios Tsiridis, Apostolos Papalois
BACKGROUND: Essential Skills in the Management of Surgical Cases (ESMSC) is an international undergraduate surgical masterclass which combines ex vivo, dry lab and high fidelity in vivo simulation-based learning (SBL). It consists of 32 stations of skills-based learning, including open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of fractures. Current literature suggests early involvement in skills-based learning at the undergraduate level is vital. AIMS: To compare students' dexterity and skills-based performance with demographic and educational background parameters...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Chaobing Luo, Anxuan Liu, Wencong Long, Hong Liao, Yaojun Yang
In order to reduce the Cyrtotrachelus buqueti population, which is a serious pest in the bamboo industry, a range of approaches is required, which will be dependent on diverse gene expression influenced by environmental factors. In this study, samples from two regions of China, Muchuan in Sichuan Province and Chishui in Guizhou Province, were investigated through RNA-seq. Approximately 44 million high-quality reads were generated and 94.2% of the data was mapped to the transcriptome. A total of 15,641 out of the 29,406 identified genes were predicted...
December 21, 2017: Gene
Wen Du, Chunlong Sun, Jun Wang, Wenjun Xie, Baoqin Wang, Xuehong Liu, Yumiao Zhang, Yanhui Fan
Mixing cultures induces the biosynthesis of laccase in mixed cells, produces signal molecules, and regulates the production of mixed-cell metabolites. The fungal strain, which promotes laccase production, has been isolated and screened from the host bamboos of endophytic fungi and identified as Phoma sp. BZJ6. When the culture medium is mainly composed of soluble starch, yeast extract, and Phoma sp., the laccase output can reach 4,680 U/L. Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were found to promote the regulation of laccase synthesis...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Eunjung Son, Seung-Hyung Kim, Won-Kyung Yang, Dong-Seon Kim, Jimin Cha
BACKGROUND: Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) leaves and Japanese apricot (Mume fructus) fruit are traditionally recognized to be safe herbs broadly used for food and medicinal purposes in Southeast Asia. Our group previously explored their antiplatelet effects. This study was designed to confirm inhibition effects of PM21 (a 2:1 mixture of bamboo leaf extract and Japanese apricot fruit extract) on platelet aggregation and evaluate its potency to use as an herbal remedy to prevent and/or treat the diseases caused by platelet aggregation and thrombus formation...
December 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Yuke Zhang, Paul D Mathewson, Qiongyue Zhang, Warren P Porter, Jianghong Ran
Threatened and endangered species are more vulnerable to climate change due to small population and specific geographical distribution. Therefore, identifying and incorporating the biological processes underlying a species' adaptation to its environment are important for determining whether they can persist in situ. Correlative models are widely used to predict species' distribution changes, but generally fail to capture the buffering capacity of organisms. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) live in topographically complex mountains and are known to avoid heat stress...
December 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
G Kaleeswaran, D M Firake, R Sanjukta, G T Behere, S V Ngachan
Bamboo-Leaf Prickly Ash, Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) is a versatile and widely distributed plant species in nature. It is an edible plant species, commonly used in daily life for condiments and therapeutic remedies. Besides its bioactive and medicinal properties, different plant parts of the Z. armatum also have insecticidal potential. However, this potential has not been yet determined against many agricultural pests, including leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In this study, we demonstrated for the first time the contact and oral toxicity and sub-lethal effects (including antifeedent and ovicidal action) of various fractions of pericarp, leaf and seeds of Z...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Badamdorj Bayartogtokh, Sergey G Ermilov, Leonila Corpuz-Raros
A new species Neoribates isabelaensis sp. nov. showing an interesting sexual dimorphism is described from bamboo litter on Luzon Island in the Philippines. This species is unique among other species of Neoribates in the structure of the posterior part of notogaster in males, which has a large round concavity bearing a pair of large sacculi S3. The specific function of this structure is not yet known, but the found sexual dimorphism is presumably involved in pheromonal communication allowing rapid sperm transfer...
November 10, 2017: Zootaxa
Sunil Joshi, R L Blackman
A new species of the genus Kaochiaoja Tao 1963, K. sikkimensis sp. n., was collected on Phyllostachys sp. (Poaceae) from Upper Tadong area of Gangtok, East Sikkim, India. Apterous and alate viviparae of this species are described, illustrated and discussed in comparison with the only other nominal species in this genus.
December 12, 2017: Zootaxa
Natalie Oker, Aude Julien-Laferrière, Philippe Herman, Gérard Chevaillier
OBJECTIVES: Bamboo nodes are band-like submucosal deposits of the middle third of the vocal fold. They are often related to connective tissue disorders, but can also precede them. The aim of this study was to report our experience with conservative treatment of those rare lesions. METHODS: This is a retrospective series of 15 patients consulting for hoarseness and presenting bamboo nodes from 2010 to 2016. RESULTS: All patients were women of mean age of 38 years with a moderate or high degree of daily vocal effort...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
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