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Xianliang Luo, Qi Wang, Baodong Zheng, Liangmei Lin, Bingyan Chen, Yafeng Zheng, Jianbo Xiao
In the bamboo shoot processing industries, bamboo shoot shells are discarded without any utilization. As a cheap potential dietary fibers resource, bamboo shoot (Leleba oldhami Nakal) shell was decomposed to dietary fibers by multiple enzymes. The extraction yields of insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber were 56.21% and 8.67%, respectively. The resulting fibers showed significant swelling capacity, water holding capacity and exhibit in vitro binding capacities to fat, cholesterol, bile acids and nitrites...
February 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Chongjun Chen, Weijing Zhu, Xiaoxiao Huang, Tian C Zhang, Weixiang Wu, Faqian Sun
  Effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and nitrogen loading rate (NLR) on performance of anammox UASBs amended with spherical plastic and bamboo charcoal carriers were investigated. During the experimental period, the performance of reactors was continuously evaluated by monitoring ammonium-N, nitrite-N, and nitrate-N at HRT of 48, 36, 24, and 12 hours. With HRTs between 24 and 48 hours, the ammonium-N and nitrite-N removal efficiency was higher than 99%, while the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was almost higher than 90%...
January 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Haichao Li, Manli Duan, Jie Gu, Yajun Zhang, Xun Qian, Jun Ma, Ranran Zhang, Xiaojuan Wang
Composting is widely used for animal waste disposal, and bamboo charcoal (BC) can be used for nitrogen conservation during composting. However, the effects of BC on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during chicken manure composting are still unclear. This study investigated the effects on ARGs of adding different proportions of BC (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% w/w) to chicken manure compost. After 26 days, the relative abundances (RAs) of most ARGs (tetC, tetG, tetW, tetX, sul2, drfA1, drfA7, ermB, ermF, ermQ, and ermX) and intI1 declined by 21...
February 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Junqi Jia, Weiwei Zhang, Zengjie Yang, Xianling Yang, Na Wang, Xiaoqi Yu
The utilization of renewable biomass resources to produce high-value chemicals by enzymatic processes is beneficial for alternative energy production, due to the accelerating depletion of fossil fuels. As immobilization techniques can improve enzyme stability and reusability, a novel magnetic cross-linked cellulase aggregate has been developed and applied for biomass bioconversion. The crosslinked aggregates could purify and immobilize enzymes in a single operation, and could then be combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which provides easy separation of the materials...
February 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rico Gamuyao, Keisuke Nagai, Madoka Ayano, Yoshinao Mori, Anzu Minami, Mikiko Kojima, Takamasa Suzuki, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Motoyuki Ashikari, Stefan Reuscher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Zhaoyang Yuan, Yangbing Wen, Nuwan Sella Kapu, Rodger Beatson, D Mark Martinez
BACKGROUND: Bamboo is a highly abundant source of biomass which is underutilized despite having a chemical composition and fiber structure similar as wood. The main challenge for the industrial processing of bamboo is the high level of silica, which forms water-insoluble precipitates negetively affecting the process systems. A cost-competitive and eco-friendly scheme for the production of high-purity dissolving grade pulp from bamboo not only requires a process for silica removal, but also needs to fully utilize all of the materials dissolved in the process which includes lignin, and cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars as well as the silica...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Xiaolu Tang, Mingpeng Xia, César Pérez-Cruzado, Fengying Guan, Shaohui Fan
Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) is an important timber substitute in China. Site specific stand management requires an accurate estimate of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock for maintaining stand productivity and understanding global carbon cycling. This study compared ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighting (IDW) approaches to study the spatial distribution of SOC stock within 0-60 cm using 111 soil samples in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China. Similar spatial patterns but different spatial distribution ranges of SOC stock from OK and IDW highlighted the necessity to apply different approaches to obtain accurate and consistent results of SOC stock distribution...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xu Zhang, Yanqing Wu
A novel iron-carbon micro-electrolysis system, bamboo-derived biochar coupled with zero-valent iron (ZVI), was investigated for chlorobenzene (CB)-contaminated groundwater removal. Influences of initial pH value, mass ratio of the ZVI/Biochar, initial CB concentration and ionic strength of the ZVI/Biochar micro-electrolysis were studied. The results indicated that the increase of initial pH led to the decrease of the CB removal efficiency. While the optimum mass ratio of ZVI to biochar was 2:1, the improved initial concentration and reaction time were 33...
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Addisu Mekonnen, Peter J Fashing, Afework Bekele, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K Rueness, Nga Nguyen, Nils Chr Stenseth
Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
Qingsong Bai, Dan Hou, Long Li, Zhanchao Cheng, Wei Ge, Jun Liu, Xueping Li, Shaohua Mu, Jian Gao
Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is well-known for its rapid shoot growth. Auxin exerts pleiotropic effects on plant growth. The small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are early auxin-responsive genes involved in plant growth. In total, 38 SAUR genes were identified in P. edulis (PheSAUR). A comprehensive overview of the PheSAUR gene family is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and subcellular location predictions. A transcriptome analysis indicated that 37 (except PheSAUR18) of the PheSAUR genes were expressed during shoot growth process and the PheSAUR genes were differentially expressed...
November 15, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Huayu Sun, Lichao Li, Yongfeng Lou, Hansheng Zhao, Yihong Yang, Sining Wang, Zhimin Gao
PeTIP4;1-1, an aquaporin gene involved in bamboo shoot growth, is regulated by abiotic stresses. Overexpression of PeTIP4;1-1 confers drought and salinity tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Aquaporins play a central role in numerous physiological processes throughout plant growth and development. PeTIP4;1-1, an aquaporin gene isolated from moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), comprises an open reading frame (ORF) of 756 bp encoding a peptide of 251 amino acids. The genomic sequence corresponding to the ORF of PeTIP4;1-1 was 1777 bp and contained three exons separated by two introns...
February 6, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
Heikrujam Nilkanta, Thoungamba Amom, Leimapokpam Tikendra, Hamidur Rahaman, Potshangbam Nongdam
Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz is an economically important bamboo of North-East India experiencing population depletion in its natural habitats. Genetic variation studies were conducted in 7 populations sampled from 5 districts of Manipur using ISSR molecular markers. The investigation was carried out as a primary step towards developing effective conservation strategies for the protection of bamboo germplasm. ISSR marker analysis showed significant level of genetic variation within the populations as revealed by moderately high average values of Nei's genetic diversity (H 0...
2017: Scientifica
Jennifer Watling, José Iriarte, Francis E Mayle, Denise Schaan, Luiz C R Pessenda, Neil J Loader, F Alayne Street-Perrott, Ruth E Dickau, Antonia Damasceno, Alceu Ranzi
Over 450 pre-Columbian (pre-AD 1492) geometric ditched enclosures ("geoglyphs") occupy ∼13,000 km(2) of Acre state, Brazil, representing a key discovery of Amazonian archaeology. These huge earthworks were concealed for centuries under terra firme (upland interfluvial) rainforest, directly challenging the "pristine" status of this ecosystem and its perceived vulnerability to human impacts. We reconstruct the environmental context of geoglyph construction and the nature, extent, and legacy of associated human impacts...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jing Wang, Shanjun Mao, Zeyan Liu, Zhongzhe Wei, Haiyan Wang, Yiqing Chen, Yong Wang
The research of a robust catalytic system based on single NiOx electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) remains a huge challenge. Particularly, the factors that dominate the catalytic properties of NiOx-based hybrids for HER have not been clearly demonstrated. Herein, a convenient protocol for the fabrication of NiOx@bamboo-like carbon nanotube hybrids (NiOx@BCNTs) is designed. The hybrids exhibit superb catalytic ability and considerable durability in alkaline solution. A benchmark HER current density of 10 mA cm(-2) has been achieved at an overpotential of ∼79 mV...
February 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shu-Xian Li, Ming-Fei Li, Ping Yu, Yong-Ming Fan, Jia-Nan Shou, Run-Cang Sun
A novel pretreatment process was developed to achieve valorization of bamboo components into digestible cellulose, degraded sugars and lignin. In this case, bamboo was pretreated with 60% γ-valerolactone (GVL)/40% water containing 0.05mol/L H2SO4, yielding solid fraction rich in cellulose. The resulting liquor was further treated with the addition of NaCl and ultrasound, resulting in water phase rich in degraded sugars and GVL phase containing lignin, which was easy to recover. Results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis was enhanced by 6...
January 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Huanlong Liu, Min Wu, Dongyue Zhu, Feng Pan, Yujiao Wang, Yue Wang, Yan Xiang
BACKGROUND: Members of the amino acid/auxin permease (AAAP) gene family play indispensable roles in various plant metabolism and biosynthesis processes. Comprehensive analysis of AAAP genes has been conducted in Arabidopsis, rice, maize and poplar, but has not been reported from moso bamboo. Phylogenetics, evolutionary patterns and further expression profiles analysis of the AAAP gene family in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) will increase our understanding of this important gene family...
January 31, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
S S Ling, Y Zhu, D Lan, D S Li, H Z Pang, Y Wang, D Y Li, R P Wei, H M Zhang, C D Wang, Y D Hu
The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Ursidae), has a unique bamboo-based diet; however, this low-energy intake has been sufficient to maintain the metabolic processes of this species since the fourth ice age. As mitochondria are the main sites for energy metabolism in animals, the protein-coding genes involved in mitochondrial respiratory chains, particularly cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in electron transfer, could play an important role in giant panda metabolism...
January 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Ju-Qing Huang, Rui-Ting Qi, Mei-Rong Pang, Cong Liu, Guang-Yu Li, Ying Zhang
Bamboo shavings, the outer or intermediate layer of bamboo stems, are the bulk of by-products produced in bamboo processing. In this study we investigated the isolation, chemical characterization, and immunostimulatory activity in vitro of the hemicelluloses from bamboo shavings. Shavings were first pretreated by steam explosion. The optimal pretreatment was found to be steam explosion at 2.2 MPa for 1 min. Following this pretreatment, the yield of hemicelluloses reached (2.05±0.22)% (based on the dry dewaxed raw materials), which was 5...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Yunjin Yao, Jie Zhang, Guodong Wu, Shaobin Wang, Yi Hu, Cong Su, Tongwen Xu
Novel iron encapsulated in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) supported on porous carbon (Fe@N-C) 3D structured materials for degrading organic pollutants were fabricated from a renewable, low-cost biomass, melamine, and iron salt as the precursors. SEM and TEM micrographs show that iron encapsulated bamboo shaped CNTs are vertically standing on carbon sheets, and thus, a 3D hybrid was formed. The catalytic activities of the prepared samples were thoroughly evaluated by activation of peroxymonosulfate for catalytic oxidation of Orange II solutions...
January 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Gang-Gang Chong, Yu-Cai He, Qiu-Xiang Liu, Xiao-Qin Kou, Qing Qing
Effective utilization of winter bamboo shoot shell (BSS) is of great interest, since BSS provides a renewable and inexpensive bioresource for the production of biofuels. In this study, an effective combination pretreatment by the sequential aqueous ammonia (25 wt%) extraction at 50 °C for 24 h and LiCl/N,N-dimethyl formamide (LiCl/DMF) (6 wt% of LiCl) pretreatment at 50 °C for 8 h was used for pretreating BSS. SEM, FTIR, and XRD results indicated that combination pretreatment could effectively remove lignin and change the crystal structure of cellulose for promoting enzymatic saccharification...
January 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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