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Yo-Jin Shiau, Hsueh-Ching Wang, Tsai-Huei Chen, Shih-Hau Jien, Guanglong Tian, Chih-Yu Chiu
Badland soils-which have high silt and clay contents, bulk density, and soil electric conductivity- cover a large area of Southern Taiwan. This study evaluated the amelioration of these poor soils by thorny bamboo, one of the few plant species that grows in badland soils. Soil physiochemical and biological parameters were measured from three thorny bamboo plantations and nearby bare lands. Results show that bamboo increased microbial C and N, soil acid-hydrolysable C, recalcitrant C, and soluble organic C of badland soils...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Le Mi, Dandan Qin, Jie Cheng, Dan Wang, Sha Li, Xuetuan Wei
Two engineered Escherichia coli strains, DQ101 (MG1655 fadD (-))/pDQTES and DQ101 (MG1655 fadD (-))/pDQTESZ were constructed to investigate the free fatty acid production using ionic liquid-based acid- or enzyme-catalyzed bamboo hydrolysate as carbon source in this study. The plasmid, pDQTES, carrying an acyl-ACP thioesterase 'TesA of E. coli in pTrc99A was constructed firstly, and then (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase was ligated after the TesA to give the plasmid pDQTESZ. These two strains exhibited efficient fatty acid production when glucose was used as the sole carbon source, with a final concentration of 2...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Yibo Hu, Qi Wu, Shuai Ma, Tianxiao Ma, Lei Shan, Xiao Wang, Yonggang Nie, Zemin Ning, Li Yan, Yunfang Xiu, Fuwen Wei
Phenotypic convergence between distantly related taxa often mirrors adaptation to similar selective pressures and may be driven by genetic convergence. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens) belong to different families in the order Carnivora, but both have evolved a specialized bamboo diet and adaptive pseudothumb, representing a classic model of convergent evolution. However, the genetic bases of these morphological and physiological convergences remain unknown. Through de novo sequencing the red panda genome and improving the giant panda genome assembly with added data, we identified genomic signatures of convergent evolution...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fangjie Mao, Guomo Zhou, Pingheng Li, Huaqiang Du, Xiaojun Xu, Yongjun Shi, Lufeng Mo, Yufeng Zhou, Guoqing Tu
The selective cutting method currently used in Moso bamboo forests has resulted in a reduction of stand productivity and carbon sequestration capacity. Given the time and labor expense involved in addressing this problem manually, simulation using an ecosystem model is the most suitable approach. The BIOME-BGC model was improved to suit managed Moso bamboo forests, which was adapted to include age structure, specific ecological processes and management measures of Moso bamboo forest. A field selective cutting experiment was done in nine plots with three cutting intensities (high-intensity, moderate-intensity and low-intensity) during 2010-2013, and biomass of these plots was measured for model validation...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Patrik Ahvenainen, Patrick G Dixon, Aki Kallonen, Heikki Suhonen, Lorna J Gibson, Kirsi Svedström
BACKGROUND: Biological materials have a complex, hierarchical structure, with vital structural features present at all size scales, from the nanoscale to the macroscale. A method that can connect information at multiple length scales has great potential to reveal novel information. This article presents one such method with an application to the bamboo culm wall. Moso (Phyllostachys edulis) bamboo is a commercially important bamboo species. At the cellular level, bamboo culm wall consists of vascular bundles embedded in a parenchyma cell tissue matrix...
2017: Plant Methods
Qing-Ni Song, Hui Lu, Jun Liu, Jun Yang, Guang-Yao Yang, Qing-Pei Yang
Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) expansion into adjacent forests is a widespread phenomenon in subtropical regions, and it has greatly changed the dominance hierarchy from trees to bamboos. This process may be accompanied by changes in productivity, nutrients accumulation and biogeochemical cycles. We compared the net primary production (NPP) and major pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) in bamboo-dominant forest (BDF) and neighboring secondary evergreen broadleaved forest (EBF) in South China using the space-for-time substitution method...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Junwei Jin, Minyan Wang, Yucheng Cao, Shengchun Wu, Peng Liang, Yanan Li, Jianyun Zhang, Jin Zhang, Ming Hung Wong, Shengdao Shan, Peter Christie
A novel type of biochar was produced by mixing bamboo sawdust with sewage sludge (1:1, w/w) via a co-pyrolysis process at 400-600°C. Changes in physico-chemical properties and the intrinsic speciation of metals were investigated before and after pyrolysis. Co-pyrolysis resulted in a lower biochar yield but a higher C content in the end product compared with use of sludge alone as the raw material. FT-IR analysis indicates that phosphine derivatives containing PH bonds were formed in the co-pyrolyzed biochars...
December 30, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Syandan Sinha Ray, Md Nasim Ali, Shibasis Mukherjee, Gautam Chatterjee, Maitreyi Banerjee
Bambusa balcooa is an economically important, multipurpose bamboo species, decidedly used in construction industry. Availability of natural bamboo is depleting very rapidly due to accelerated deforestation and its unrestrained use. The large number and timely supply of saplings are the need of the hour for the restoration of bamboo stands. Micropropagation, being the potent alternative for season independent rapid regeneration, is restricted in bamboo because of endophytic contamination. An in vitro attempt has been taken to overcome the endophytic contamination by using broad spectrum antibiotics as surface sterilant as well as a media component...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Shengbo Ge, Zhenling Liu, Rende Li, Yuzo Furuta, Wanxi Peng
Sulfur powder and sulfur dioxide (SO2) often floated in air, produced acid rain and algal blooms, and could cause diseases. Bamboo charcoal could have adsorption and filtration properties. In order to figure out the optimal adsorption condition and the intrinsic change of the bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. Fe2(SO4)3's, Na2SO4's, Na2S2O8's, S's, and Na2SO3's optimal adsorption condition was the concentration of 19 g/1000 g and stir time of 20 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, 7 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 11 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, respectively...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Wanxi Peng, Shengbo Ge, Zhenling Liu, Yuzo Furuta
Exposures to particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) may influence the risk of birth defects and make you allergic, which causes serious harm to human health. Bamboo charcoal can adsorb harmful substances,that was of benefitto people's health. In order to figure out the optimal adsorbtion condition and the intrinsic change of bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. The optimal blast time was 80 min of Na2SO3, 100 min of Na2S2O8, 20 min of Na2SO4, 120 min of Fe2(SO4)3 and 60 min or 100 min of S...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
I-Hsuan Chen, Hui-Ting Chen, Ying-Ping Huang, Hweng-Jan Huang, Lin-Ling Shenkwen, Yau-Heiu Hsu, Ching-Hsiu Tsai
An upregulated gene derived from Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV)-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plant was cloned and characterized in this study; BaMV is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. This gene product, designated as NbTRXh2, was matched with sequences of thioredoxin h proteins, a group of small proteins with a conserved active-site motif WCXPC conferring disulfide reductase activity. To examine how NbTRXh2 is involved in the infection cycle of BaMV, we used the virus-induced gene silencing technique to knock down NbTRXh2 expression in N...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Wenwu Lin, Lu Wang, Wenkai Yan, Lingli Chen, Huihuang Chen, Wenting Yang, Maohui Guo, Zujian Wu, Liang Yang, Lianhui Xie
Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) is a well-characterized virus and a model of virus-host interaction in plants. Here, we identified naturally occurring BaMV isolates from Fujian Province, China and furthermore describe a naturally occurring BaMV coinfection in bamboo (Bambusa xiashanensis) plants. Two different types of BaMV were identified, represented by isolates BaMV-XSNZHA7 (X7) and BaMV-XSNZHA10 (X10). The phylogenetic relationships between X7- and X10-like isolates and published BaMV isolates were determined based on genomic RNA and amino acid sequences...
January 3, 2017: Archives of Virology
Yi-Ping Chen, Ying-Juan Zheng, Qiang Liu, Yi Song, Zhi-Sheng An, Qing-Yi Ma, Aaron M Ellison
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered animals in the world, and it is recognized worldwide as a symbol for conservation. A previous study showed that wild and captive pandas, especially those of the Qinling subspecies, were exposed to toxicants in their diet of bamboo; the ultimate origin of these toxicants is unknown. Here we show that atmospheric deposition is the most likely origin of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the diets of captive and wild Qinling pandas...
December 31, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Prasun Biswas, Sukanya Chakraborty, Smritikana Dutta, Amita Pal, Malay Das
Bamboos are an important member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, family Poaceae. The plant group exhibits wide variation with respect to the timing (1-120 years) and nature (sporadic vs. gregarious) of flowering among species. Usually flowering in woody bamboos is synchronous across culms growing over a large area, known as gregarious flowering. In many monocarpic bamboos this is followed by mass death and seed setting. While in sporadic flowering an isolated wild clump may flower, set little or no seed and remain alive...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Susan Canavan, David M Richardson, Vernon Visser, Johannes J Le Roux, Maria S Vorontsova, John R U Wilson
There is a long history of species being moved around the world by humans. These introduced species can provide substantial benefits, but they can also have undesirable consequences. We explore the importance of human activities on the processes of species dissemination and potential invasions using the grass subfamily Bambusoideae ("bamboos"), a group that contains taxa that are widely utilised and that are often perceived as weedy. We (1) compiled an inventory of bamboo species and their current distributions; (2) determined which species have been introduced and become invasive outside their native ranges; and (3) explored correlates of introduction and invasion...
December 23, 2016: AoB Plants
Bin Zhong, Junren Chen, Mohammad Shafi, Jia Guo, Ying Wang, Jiasen Wu, Zhengqian Ye, Lizhi He, Dan Liu
The antioxidation system and accumulation ability of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens), which is a valuable remediation material with large biomass and rapid growth rate were studied in hydroponics and pot experiments. In hydroponics experiment, TBARS concentrations and SOD activities decreased with increase of Pb treatments. The activities of POD boost up with elevated Pb treatments, and reached peak level with application of 400μM Pb. Proline concentrations reduced with application of 20μM Pb and then enhanced consistently with application of 100 and 400μM Pb...
December 21, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jian-Guo Zhang, Qi-Meng Li, Kiran Thakur, Shah Faisal, Zhao-Jun Wei
The synthesis of cellulase in filamentous fungi can be triggered by several inducers. In this study, a bamboo-shoot shell pretreated with Pleurotus ostreatus could promote the formation of cellulases in Aspergillus niger. Further identification, including UPLC-TOF-MS, ultrafiltration, and FT-IR, denoted that the soluble inducer was not a traditional disaccharide but a type of modified lignin polymer. This revelation may result in incipient strategies to ameliorate cellulase productivity.
December 9, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Woo-Sung Jung, Minho Ko, Hyun Kee Cho, Byung-Jae Kang, Jung Hoon Choi, Jin-Young Chung
An eighteen-month-old female Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) that was 50 cm in length and 4.5 kg in weight was presented with anorexia and vomiting. The hematological and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings, and no Salmonella, Shigella or Vibrio spp. were isolated from the fecal culture. However, radiographic imaging revealed a long linear foreign body presenting from the lower esophagus to the stomach. To retrieve this foreign body, flexible endoscopic extraction was performed using flexible rat tooth grasping forceps...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Xiaofang Zhang, Zhixing Lu, Jiangqi Zhao, Qingye Li, Wei Zhang, Canhui Lu
Viability and future of graphene depends, to a great extent, on a methodology that can mass-produce high-quality graphene in an affordable way. In this work, wet co-milling of low-temperature expandable graphite (LTEG) with bamboo cellulose fibers through a grinder was proved to be a scalable and environmentally friendly approach for the exfoliation/dispersion of graphene-like carbon in an aqueous suspension in which the mechanically isolated cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) acted as a "green" dispersant. The exfoliation/dispersion degree of LTEG was studied as a function of passing times through the grinder...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Rodrigo Sousa, Ângela Luz, Francisco Abecasis, Marisa Vieira
Unwitnessed penetrating head injuries (PHIs) are often challenging. The inability to locate a foreign body should not exclude this diagnosis nor should it delay treatment. Attempts must be made to clarify the mechanism of injury, as this may allow for a better understanding of the patient's condition.
December 2016: Clinical Case Reports
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