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Huan Qu, Yanjie Huang, Yinghao Shi, Ying Liu, Shenglong Wu, Wenbin Bao
This study investigated the use for bamboo vinegar powder as an antibiotic alternative in the diet of growing-finishing pigs by examining their digestive bacterial communities. Forty-five Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire growing-finishing pigs were randomly allocated to five diet groups: 0%,0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5% bamboo vinegar levels and antibiotics. After 37 days, the digesta in duodenum of four pigs from each treatment were analyzed for their bacterial community compositions using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Addition of 1...
May 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Wee Cheat Tan, Umah Rani Kuppusamy, Chia Wei Phan, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Ganoderma neo-japonicum is an annual polypore that grows on decaying bamboo in the forests of Malaysia. The indigenous Temuan tribe uses this species as a medicinal mushroom to cure fever and epilepsy and to improve body strength. The potential use of G. neo-japonicum in genoprotection and DNA repair was established using a single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. The effects of the ethanol and hot aqueous extracts from wild and cultivated basidiocarps, solid substrate-fermented (SSF) wheat grains, and mycelia via submerged culture on H2O2-damaged murine RAW264...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Huihui Wang, Xin Wang, Yanshan Cui, Zhongcai Xue, Yuxin Ba
Slow pyrolysis of bamboo was conducted at 400-600 °C and pyrolysis products were characterized with FTIR, BET, XRD, SEM, EDS and GC to establish a pyrolysis product yield prediction model and biochar formation mechanism. Pyrolysis biochar yield was predicted based on content of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in biomass with their carbonization index of 0.20, 0.35 and 0.45. The formation mechanism of porous structure in pyrolysis biochar was established based on its physicochemical property evolution and emission characteristics of pyrolysis gas...
May 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Carsten Schmuck, Xiao-Yu Hu, Martin Ehlers, Elio Zellermann, Stefanie Mosel, Hao Jiang, Jan-Erik Ostwaldt, Shirley Knauer, Leyong Wang, Tingting Wang
Small peptides capable of assembling into well-defined nanostructures have attracted extensive attention due to their interesting applications as biomaterials. Herein, we report the first example of a pillararene functionalized with a guanidiniocarbonyl pyrrole (GCP)-conjugated short peptide segment. The obtained amphiphilic peptide 1 spontaneously self-assembles into a supramolecular β-sheet in aqueous solution based on host-guest interaction between pillararene and GCP unit as well as hydrogen-bonding between the peptide strands...
May 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Zhaoyang Xu, Xiangdong Jiang, Sicong Tan, Weibing Wu, Jiangtao Shi, Huan Zhou, Peng Chen
In recent years, carbon aerogels have attracted much attention in basic research and as potential applications in many fields. Herein, the authors report a novel approach using bamboo powder as raw material to fabricate cellulose nanofibers (CNFs)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) carbon aerogels by a simple dipping and carbonisation process. The developed material exhibits many exciting properties including low density (0.056 g cm-3 ), high porosity (95%), efficient capability for separation of oily droplets from water, and high adsorption capacity for a variety of oils and organic solvents by up to 110 times its own weight...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Ming Ding, Kailiang Wang
A practical method for the determination of cyanide in bamboo shoots has been developed using microdiffusion preparation integrated with ion chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection (IC-PAD). Cyanide was released from bamboo shoots after Conway cell microdiffusion, and then analysed by IC-PAD. In comparison with the previously reported methods, derivatization and ion-pairing agent addition were not required in this proposed microdiffusion combined with IC-PAD method. The microdiffusion parameters were optimized including hydrolysis systems, temperature, time, and so on...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Mei Wang, Xiao-Ming Tan, Fang Liu, Lei Cai
The genus Arthrinium includes important plant pathogens, endophytes and saprobes with a wide host range and geographic distribution. In this paper, 74 Arthrinium strains isolated from various substrates such as bamboo leaves, tea plants, soil and air from karst caves in China were examined using a multi-locus phylogeny based on a combined dataset of ITS rDNA, TEF1 and TUB2, in conjunction with morphological characters, host association and ecological distribution. Eight new species were described based on their distinct phylogenetic relationships and morphological characters...
2018: MycoKeys
Kun Zhang, Baoliang Chen, Jiefei Mao, Lizhong Zhu, Baoshan Xing
Molecular interactions between biochars and ionizable organic pollutants (IOPs) are of great concern in natural environments, however the role of water clusters on the biochar surface remain unclear. The pH-dependent adsorption of aniline, phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-methylphenol and 4-nitrophenol onto bamboo wood derived biochar (BW700) as a model was conducted to identify conventional and novel interaction mechanisms between aromatized surface and IOPs. The dissociation constant (pKa,surface ) of surface functional groups of BW700 was characterized by acid-base titration and Zeta potential measurements...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ryan T Schroeder, James L Croft, Giang D Ngo, John E A Bertram
Compliant bamboo poles have long been used for load carriage in Asian cultures. Although this custom differs from Western conventions of rigid body attachments (e.g. backpack), potential benefits include reduced peak shoulder forces as well as metabolic transport cost savings. Evidence that carrying a flexible pole benefits locomotion remains mixed, perhaps in part because the properties of pole design (e.g. bamboo material, structural geometry, etc.) have largely been neglected. These properties influence vibrational forces and consequently, the energy required by the user to manage the oscillations...
2018: PloS One
Lei Feng, Xiaojun He, Jie Chen, Shuang Ni, Biao Jiang, Jian-Ming Hua
RATIONALE: Wooden transorbital penetrating injury is an uncommon and serious trauma that may cause multiply complications. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here we describe a 62-year-old Chinese woman with a transorbital penetrating injury caused by a long bamboo branch. DIAGNOSIS: Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of a wooden foreign body. INTERVENTIONS: Cerebrovascular digital subtraction angiography and temporary balloon occlusion were performed with general anesthesia...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
G P Tiley, R T Kimball, E L Braun, J G Burleigh
BACKGROUND: Recent large-scale whole genome sequencing efforts in birds have elucidated broad patterns of avian phylogeny and genome evolution. However, despite the great interest in economically important phasianids like Gallus gallus (Red Junglefowl, the progenitor of the chicken), we know little about the genomes of closely related species. Gallus gallus is highly sexually dichromatic and polygynous, but its sister genus, Bambusicola, is smaller, sexually monomorphic, and monogamous with biparental care...
May 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
Nick Sweygers, Matthijs H Somers, Lise Appels
In this study, the dilute acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic bamboo (Phyllostachys aureosulcata) particles to levulinic acid in a hydrothermal synthesis reactor is reported. The aim of the study was to optimize the reaction conditions for maximum levulinic acid production in terms of reaction time (t), reaction temperature (T) and HCl concentration (cHCl ) via Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A maximum levulinic acid yield of 9.46 w% was predicted at the following reaction conditions: t of 3 h, T of 160 °C and cHCl of 0...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Genki Kobayashi, Ryutaro Goto, Tsuyoshi Takano, Shigeaki Kojima
Inter-familial relationships of the phylum Annelida have been widely studied using molecular phylogenetic/genomic approaches; however, intra-familial relationships remain scarcely investigated in most annelid families. The Maldanidae (bamboo worms) comprise more than 280 species of 40 genera and six subfamilies that occur in various environments from intertidal to hadal zones. Within this family, the taxon Maldanoplaca, which consists of four subfamilies (Maldaninae, Notoproctinae, Nicomachinae, and Euclymeninae), was proposed based on the presence of cephalic and anal plates...
May 4, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Wan Lu Zhai, Chuan Bao Yang, Xiao Ping Zhang, Gui Bin Gao, Zhe Ke Zhong
We analyzed the dynamics of stand growth and soil nutrient availability during the degradation processes of Phyllostachys praecox plantation, taking the advantage of bamboo forest stands with different mulching ages (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 a). The results showed the aboveground and belowground biomass of bamboo forest reached the maximum value when they were covered by three years, which was significantly increased by 14.6% and 146.6% compared with the control. The soil nutrient content was affected by the mulching age and soil layer...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Caoxing Huang, Junmei Ma, Chen Liang, Xi Li, Qiang Yong
SO2 -ethanol-water (SEW) is a promising pretreatment for improving enzymatic digestibility of biomass through simultaneously removing hemicellulose and lignin. In this work, SEW pretreatment was performed at different cooking times (10 min-60 min) and different SO2 concentrations (0.5%-2%) to produce pretreated bamboo residues for enzymatic hydrolysis. Meanwhile, physicochemical features of the residual cellulose and lignin were analyzed to better understand how SEW improves enzymatic digestibility. Under optimized SEW pretreatment condition (1% SO2 concentration, 150 °C, 60 min), 81...
April 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Xiaowei Zhang, Bin Zhong, Mohammad Shafi, Jia Guo, Chen Liu, Hua Guo, Danli Peng, Ying Wang, Dan Liu
The effect of EDTA and citric acid on accumulation, toxicity of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb), and growth of Moso bamboo was investigated in current experiment. The availability of heavy metals in soil and its uptake by plants has indicated toxicity. The results revealed that EDTA and citric acid has reduced biomass of Moso bamboo but non-significant difference in biomass was observed compared with control. Application of EDTA (10 mmol kg-1 ) has significantly improved copper (Cu) by 56.5 and 84.9% in roots and above ground parts of plants...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lidan Fan, Mengyue Wang, Zhen Zhang, Gang Qin, Xiaoyi Hu, Qiang Chen
Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside and on the surface of the membranes, indicating a three-dimension network formed in the polymer framework...
April 26, 2018: Materials
Jordi Puigdellivol, Carme Comellas Berenger, Miguel Ángel Pérez Fernández, Juan M Cowalinsky Millán, Christian Carreras Vidal, Inés Gil Gil, Julio Martínez Pagán, Borja Ruiz Nieto, Francisco Jiménez Gómez, Francesc X Comas Figuerola, María E Aguilar Hernández
This observational, open, multicenter clinical trial with a single treatment group aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a dietary supplement whose main ingredients are hydrolyzed gelatin, chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine sulfate, and devil's claw and bamboo extracts for pain reduction and improvement of functional capacities in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and/or hip (REDART study). In all, 130 patients with OA recruited from Spanish hospitals received the dietary supplement for 6 months...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Visittapong Yordsri, Chanchana Thanachayanont, Shunsuke Asahina, Yuuki Yamaguchi, Masahiro Kawasaki, Tetsuo Oikawa, Tadashi Nobuchi, Makoto Shiojiri
Green culms of bamboo and charcoal of Bambusa multiplex were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. A dynamic observation of the initial stage of carbonization was also performed in-situ by heating a radial longitudinal section of the bamboo culm at a rate of 20°C/min up to 500°C. EDS mapping of the green bamboo culms detected Si signals in the harder cells such as the epidermis (Ep), cortex (Cor) and vascular bundle sheath (Bs) and between these cells as silicon oxide particles...
April 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Shixin Huang, Mohamadamin Makarem, Sarah Nelson Kiemle, Hossein Hamedi, Moujhuri Sau, Daniel J Cosgrove, Seong H Kim
Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy can selectively detect and analyze noncentrosymmetric components interspersed in amorphous matrices; this principle has been used for studies of nano-scale structure and meso-scale assembly of cellulose in plant cell walls. However, the spectral information averaged over a large area or volume cannot provide regio-specific or tissue-specific information of different cells in plants. This study demonstrates spatially-resolved SFG analysis and imaging by combining a broadband SFG spectroscopy system with an optical microscope...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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