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Weihua Gong, Zhanxiang Ran, Fayin Ye, Guohua Zhao
This study examined the feasibility of α-amylase activation and immobilization, using lignin from bamboo shoot shells (BSS). Our results demonstrated that BSS lignin is an excellent α-amylase activator and it elevated α-amylase activity more than two-fold at a concentration of 5mg/ml. For immobilization of α-amylase via adsorption, BSS lignin was incubated in an α-amylase solution (5mg/ml) for 20min, and the maximum specific activity, amount of loaded protein and activity recovery were 92.4U/mg, 19.0mg/g and 111%, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Y L Ren, F R Liang, J M Li, Z H Chen, Y T Wang, M X Yang, Z Z He
The 52 medical bamboo slips entitled Si er ma (Twelve Channels) and Bie mai (Allo-channels) , unearthed from Han tomb in Laoguanshan, are the exclusive medical books concerning channels. Shi er mai is the first work bearing the term " heart dominating channel" , and the running pathways and manifestations of 12 channels. This book could be the major original sources of the 12-channel theories described in the Chapter of Jing mai (Channels) of Ling shu (Miraculous Pivot) . While Bie mai suggests the coexistence of the multi-channel systems at the time when the book was compiled and, together with the 12 "channel" , and 3 "branched collaterals" , these 2 books represent the original condition before the establishment of the mode of channel circulation in Ling shu, and is significant to explore the nature and origin of channel...
January 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Yuxiang Fei, Rong Hou, James R Spotila, Frank V Paladino, Dunwu Qi, Zhihe Zhang
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. There are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. Yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. Here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previously measured on animals from a zoo...
2017: PloS One
Chang Huang, Jiankang Liang, Li Han, Juntian Liu, Mengyun Yu, Baixiao Zhao
Moxibustion is an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). It achieved higher level of recognition and had more general application in ancient times than in contemporary life. As the vital historical sources, the records of unearthed literatures offered precious insights to Chinese social life pattern and medical practice in Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC-220 AD). There was no surprise that the bamboo and silk documents excavated from Mawangdui () tomb, Hantanpo () tomb, and other relics had a large amount of texts relevant to moxibustion...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Zi-Wu Guo, Jun-Jing Hu, Shuang-Lin Chen, Ying-Chun Li, Qing-Ping Yang, Han-Jiang Cai
Water and nitrogen are two of the most important factors for plant growth and development. However, little is known about effects of N on water translocation between connected bamboo ramets. We performed experiment connected Indocalamus decorus ramets in adjacent pots with different soil water contents and three N levels. We determined antioxidase activities, concentration of osmotic adjustment products, O2·(-), MDA and photosynthetic pigments, and electrolyte leakage rate in paired unit. When N supply to supporting ramets increased, their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·(-) and MDA significantly increased, while antioxidase activities and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments in connected dependent ramets increased markedly as their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·(-) and MDA decreased greatly...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Long Chen, Tuo Ji, Liwen Mu, Yijun Shi, Huaiyuan Wang, Jiahua Zhu
Hierarchically porous carbon adsorbents were successfully fabricated from different biomass resources (softwood, hardwood, bamboo and cotton) by a facile two-step process, i.e. carbonization in nitrogen and thermal oxidation in air. Without involving any toxic/corrosive chemicals, large surface area of up to 890 m(2)/g was achieved, which is comparable to commercial activated carbon. The porous carbons with various surface area and pore size were used as adsorbents to investigate the pore size dependent adsorption phenomenon...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Youxu Li, Ronald R Swaisgood, Wei Wei, Yonggang Nie, Yibo Hu, Xuyu Yang, Xiaodong Gu, Zejun Zhang
In response to seasonal variation in quality and quantity of available plant biomass, herbivorous foragers may alternate among different plant resources to meet nutritional requirements. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are reliant almost exclusively on bamboo which appears omnipresent in most occupied habitat, but subtle temporal variation in bamboo quality may still govern foraging strategies, with population-level effects. In this paper, we investigated the possibility that temporal variation in the quality of this resource is involved in population regulation and examined pandas' adaptive foraging strategies in response to temporal variation in bamboo quality...
March 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sayyad Mannan, J Paul Knox, Sumit Basu
Bamboo is a ubiquitous monocotyledonous flowering plant and is a member of the true grass family Poaceae. In many parts of the world, it is widely used as a structural material especially in scaffolding and buildings. In spite of its wide use, there is no accepted methodology for standardizing a species of bamboo for a particular structural purpose. The task of developing structure-property correlations is complicated by the fact that bamboo is a hierarchical material whose structure at the nanoscopic level is not very well explored...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Kazuo Kawasaki, Keiji Horikawa, Hideo Sakai
Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mazen Alazem, Meng-Hsun He, Peter Moffett, Na-Sheng Lin
Plant resistance to pathogens is tuned by defense-related hormones. Of which, ABA is well documented to moderate resistance against fungi and bacteria. However, ABA's contribution to resistance against viruses is pleiotropic. ABA affects callose deposition at plasmodesmata (therefore hindering the viral cell-to-cell movement), but here we show that when callose synthase is downregulated, ABA still induces resistance against Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) infection. By examining the potential connections between the ABA and RNA silencing pathway in Arabidopsis, we showed that ABA regulates the expression of almost the whole Argonaute (AGO) gene family, of which some are required for plant resistance against BaMV...
March 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
Shuqing Guo, Xiangyuan Dong, Caixia Zhu, Yangyang Han, Fuqin Ma, Tingting Wu
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was employed to produce hydrochar from bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens) shoot shell (BS) at severity (combined temperature and time) of 4.83-7.69. The pyrolysis and thermodynamics properties of the hydrochars were fully investigated. The results showed that the hydrochar properties (solid yield, C content, H/C and O/C atomic ratios, pyrolysis yield, pyrolysis index, formation of enthalpy, exergy, LHV, and HHV) of BS were highly dependent on severity and could be expressed by dose-response functions...
February 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
P I Semenyuk, O V Karpova, A L Ksenofontov, N O Kalinina, E N Dobrov, V V Makarov
It has been shown by X-ray analysis that cores of coat proteins (CPs) from three potexviruses, flexible helical RNA-containing plant viruses, have similar α-helical structure. However, this similarity cannot explain structural lability of potexvirus virions, which is believed to determine their biological activity. Here, we used circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in the far UV region to compare optical properties of CPs from three potexviruses with the same morphology and similar structure. CPs from Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV), potato aucuba mosaic virus (PAMV), and potato virus X (PVX) have been studied in a free state and in virions...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
J M Vallejos, M E Leonard, C E Sobrero, P M La Roca, A V Druker, J A Malarria
A device was designed to apply the directional recrystallization method to Fe-based alloys in order to obtain bamboo-like microstructures. This microstructure is suitable for improving creep properties and resistance to fatigue in some alloys and for enhancing pseudoelastic properties in shape memory alloys. The design and construction of a flat coil are described in detail. In addition, we developed an electromechanical system to control the movement of a wire within the flat coil. The construction details and system performance are presented...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Xianliang Luo, Qi Wang, Baodong Zheng, Liangmei Lin, Bingyan Chen, Yafeng Zheng, Jianbo Xiao
In the bamboo shoot processing industries, bamboo shoot shells are discarded without any utilization. As a cheap potential dietary fibers resource, bamboo shoot (Leleba oldhami Nakal) shell was decomposed to dietary fibers by multiple enzymes. The extraction yields of insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber were 56.21% and 8.67%, respectively. The resulting fibers showed significant swelling capacity, water holding capacity and exhibit in vitro binding capacities to fat, cholesterol, bile acids and nitrites...
February 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Chongjun Chen, Weijing Zhu, Xiaoxiao Huang, Tian C Zhang, Weixiang Wu, Faqian Sun
  Effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and nitrogen loading rate (NLR) on performance of anammox UASBs amended with spherical plastic and bamboo charcoal carriers were investigated. During the experimental period, the performance of reactors was continuously evaluated by monitoring ammonium-N, nitrite-N, and nitrate-N at HRT of 48, 36, 24, and 12 hours. With HRTs between 24 and 48 hours, the ammonium-N and nitrite-N removal efficiency was higher than 99%, while the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was almost higher than 90%...
January 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Haichao Li, Manli Duan, Jie Gu, Yajun Zhang, Xun Qian, Jun Ma, Ranran Zhang, Xiaojuan Wang
Composting is widely used for animal waste disposal, and bamboo charcoal (BC) can be used for nitrogen conservation during composting. However, the effects of BC on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during chicken manure composting are still unclear. This study investigated the effects on ARGs of adding different proportions of BC (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% w/w) to chicken manure compost. After 26 days, the relative abundances (RAs) of most ARGs (tetC, tetG, tetW, tetX, sul2, drfA1, drfA7, ermB, ermF, ermQ, and ermX) and intI1 declined by 21...
February 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Junqi Jia, Weiwei Zhang, Zengjie Yang, Xianling Yang, Na Wang, Xiaoqi Yu
The utilization of renewable biomass resources to produce high-value chemicals by enzymatic processes is beneficial for alternative energy production, due to the accelerating depletion of fossil fuels. As immobilization techniques can improve enzyme stability and reusability, a novel magnetic cross-linked cellulase aggregate has been developed and applied for biomass bioconversion. The crosslinked aggregates could purify and immobilize enzymes in a single operation, and could then be combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which provides easy separation of the materials...
February 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rico Gamuyao, Keisuke Nagai, Madoka Ayano, Yoshinao Mori, Anzu Minami, Mikiko Kojima, Takamasa Suzuki, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Motoyuki Ashikari, Stefan Reuscher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Zhaoyang Yuan, Yangbing Wen, Nuwan Sella Kapu, Rodger Beatson, D Mark Martinez
BACKGROUND: Bamboo is a highly abundant source of biomass which is underutilized despite having a chemical composition and fiber structure similar as wood. The main challenge for the industrial processing of bamboo is the high level of silica, which forms water-insoluble precipitates negetively affecting the process systems. A cost-competitive and eco-friendly scheme for the production of high-purity dissolving grade pulp from bamboo not only requires a process for silica removal, but also needs to fully utilize all of the materials dissolved in the process which includes lignin, and cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars as well as the silica...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Xiaolu Tang, Mingpeng Xia, César Pérez-Cruzado, Fengying Guan, Shaohui Fan
Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) is an important timber substitute in China. Site specific stand management requires an accurate estimate of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock for maintaining stand productivity and understanding global carbon cycling. This study compared ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighting (IDW) approaches to study the spatial distribution of SOC stock within 0-60 cm using 111 soil samples in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China. Similar spatial patterns but different spatial distribution ranges of SOC stock from OK and IDW highlighted the necessity to apply different approaches to obtain accurate and consistent results of SOC stock distribution...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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