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Xiaoqiang Gong, Linlin Cai, Suyan Li, Scott X Chang, Xiangyang Sun, Zhengfeng An
Vermicomposting is a promising method for reusing urban green waste. However, high lignin content in the green waste could hinder the development of earthworm and microorganisms and the vermicomposting process, resulting in a low-quality vermicompost product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bamboo biochar addition (at 0%, 3%, and 6% on a dry w/w basis) on the activity of Eisenia fetida and the obtained vermicompost. Biochar addition increased (P < 0.05) earthworm biomass, juvenile and cocoon numbers of Eisenia fetida, as well as the activities of dehydrogenase, cellulase, urease and alkaline phosphatase...
March 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hyo-Jin Lee, Kyung-Sook Whang
Three actinomycetes strains, designated JBL-5, JBL-14 and JBL-20T , were isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) litter in Damyang, Republic of Korea. Morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the three strains belong to the genus Streptomyces. Microscopic observation revealed that the three strains produced Spirales spore chains with smooth surfaces. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that these strains showed the highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces gelaticus NRRL B-2928T (97...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
A F Andeta, D Vandeweyer, F Woldesenbet, F Eshetu, A Hailemicael, F Woldeyes, S Crauwels, B Lievens, J Ceusters, K Vancampenhout, L Van Campenhout
Enset (Ensete ventricosum) provides staple food for 15 million people in Ethiopia after fermentation into kocho. The fermentation process has hardly been investigated and is prone to optimization. The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and microbial dynamics of fermentation practices in the Gamo highlands. These practices show local variation, but two steps were omnipresent: scraping of the pseudostem and fermenting it in a pit or a bamboo basket. Enset plants were fragmented and fermented for two months in order to investigate the physicochemical (temperature, moisture content, pH and titratable acidity) and microbial dynamics (total viable aerobic counts, counts of Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds and Clostridium spores counts, and Illumina Miseq sequencing)...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Hui Mao, Zhiyuan Lv, Hongda Sun, Ronghua Li, Bingnian Zhai, Zhaohui Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Quan Wang, Lina Zhou
Effect of bamboo biochar (BC) combined with two bacterial powders (B) on gaseous emission and variety of bacterial community during pig manure (PM) composting was investigated. The results showed that treatments of BC, BC + B1 and BC + B2 can reduce peak gaseous emission by 54%, 80% and 69% for CH4 , respectively, while 37%, 45% and 45% for N2 O, respectively, and 13%, 19% and 26% for NH3 , respectively. The evolution of the bacterial community quantified with 16S rDNA analysis showed that in the thermophile stage, total relative abundance percentage of bacterial phyla of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria reached 97%, 97%, 93% and 96% for CK, BC, BC + B1 and BC + B2, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Hong Peng, Lin Yuan, Jinsheng Zhang, Xiaodan Wu, Yang Liu, Yuhuan Liu, Roger Ruan
An insight into the adsorption behavior between hemicellulose biomass and metal ions is important to utilize hemicelluloses as adsorbent. In this study, bamboo hemicelluloses were used as adsorbent for AgNO3 in aqueous medium. The adsorption amount of AgNO3 onto hemicelluloses was determined through an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The morphology and the elemental composition of the recovered hemicelluloses were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Shuping Zhang, Yinhai Su, Dan Xu, Shuguang Zhu, Houlei Zhang, Xinzhi Liu
Two kinds of biofuels were produced and compared from hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and coupling washing with torrefaction (CWT) processes of bamboo sawdust in this study. The mass and energy yields, mass energy density, fuel properties, structural characterizations, combustion behavior and ash behavior during combustion process were investigated. Significant increases in the carbon contents resulted in the improvement of mass energy density and fuel properties of biofuels obtained. Both HTC and CWT improved the safety of the biofuels during the process of handling, storing and transportation...
February 28, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Smritikana Dutta, Prasun Biswas, Sukanya Chakraborty, Devrani Mitra, Amita Pal, Malay Das
BACKGROUND: Bamboo is an important member of the family Poaceae and has many inflorescence and flowering features rarely observed in other plant groups. It retains an unusual form of perennialism by having a long vegetative phase that can extend up to 120 years, followed by flowering and death of the plants. In contrast to a large number of studies conducted on the annual, reference plants Arabidopsis thaliana and rice, molecular studies to characterize flowering pathways in perennial bamboo are lacking...
March 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ai Tanaka, Tadatoshi Ogura
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered semi-arboreal folivore with a specialized diet of bamboo leaves. Zoos worldwide maintain red pandas under a variety of housing environments and husbandry procedures that may affect the reproductive success and longevity of captive red pandas. The aims of the present study were to investigate how red pandas are kept in Japan and to obtain useful insights to increase their longevity by comparing the results from a questionnaire sent to Japanese zoos and those from a previous survey conducted in other countries...
March 7, 2018: Zoo Biology
Shouhua Luo, Tao Shen, Yi Sun, Jing Li, Guang Li, Xiangyang Tang
In high resolution (microscopic) CT applications, the scan field of view (FOV) should cover the entire specimen or sample to allow complete data acquisition and image reconstruction. However, truncation may occur in projection data and results in artifacts in reconstructed images. In this study, we propose a low resolution image constrained reconstruction algorithm (LRICR) for interior tomography in microscopic CT at high resolution.&#13; Methods: In general, the multi-resolution acquisition based methods can be employed to solve the data truncation problem if the project data acquired at low resolution are utilized to fill up the truncated projection data acquired at high resolution...
March 6, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Lei-Peng Cao, Jing-Jing Wang, Ting Zhou, Roger Ruan, Yu-Huan Liu
Lignin polymers in bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) were decomposed into polyphenols at high temperatures and oxidized for the introduction of quinone groups from peroxidase extracted from bamboo shoots and catalysis of UV. According to the results of FT-IR spectra analysis, neutral proteases (NPs) can be immobilized on the oxidized lignin by covalent bonding formed by amine group and quinone group. The optimum condition for the immobilization of NPs on the bamboo bar was obtained at pH 7.0, 40 °C, and duration of 4 h; the amount of immobilized enzyme was up to 5 mg g-1 bamboo bar...
March 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Wei Guo, Sudhanshu Mishra, Jiangchao Zhao, Jingsi Tang, Bo Zeng, Fanli Kong, Ruihong Ning, Miao Li, Hengzhi Zhang, Yutian Zeng, Yuanliangzi Tian, Yihang Zhong, Hongdi Luo, Yunhan Liu, Jiandong Yang, Mingyao Yang, Mingwang Zhang, Yan Li, Qingyong Ni, Caiwu Li, Chengdong Wang, Desheng Li, Hemin Zhang, Zhili Zuo, Ying Li
Bamboo-eating giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) is an enigmatic species, which possesses a carnivore-like short and simple gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Despite the remarkable studies on giant panda, its diet adaptability status continues to be a matter of debate. To resolve this puzzle, we investigated the functional potential of the giant panda gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. We also compared our data with similar data from other animal species representing herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores from current and earlier studies...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hui Zhang, Ye-Qing Ying, Jie Wang, Xian-Hai Zhao, Wei Zeng, Cherie Beahan, Jun-Bo He, Xiao-Yang Chen, Antony Bacic, Li-Li Song, Ai-Min Wu
Maturation-related changes in cell wall composition and the molecular mechanisms underlying cell wall changes were investigated from the apical, middle and basal segments in moso bamboo shoot (MBS). With maturation extent from apical to basal regions in MBS, lignin and cellulose content increased, whereas heteroxylan exhibited a decreasing trend. Activities of phenylalanine amonnialyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), which are involved in lignin biosynthesis, increased rapidly from the apex to the base sections...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kalyan De, Davendra Kumar, Anoop Kumar Singh, Artabandhu Sahoo, Syed Mohammed Khursheed Naqvi
Microclimatic factors are of crucial aspect for the welfare of animals. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the effect of altered ambient temperature through shelter modifications on physiological indicators of Malpura lambs reared in the semi-arid region during winter. Twenty-one Malpura lambs of 3-5 week age and average body weight 9.97 ± 0.51 kg were used in the present study. The lambs were divided into three groups (eg. G1, G2, and G3) and were kept in the different microenvironment by manipulation of shelter design...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Dung Van Nguyen, Cuong Van Nguyen, David Bonsall, Tue Tri Ngo, Juan Carrique-Mas, Anh Hong Pham, Juliet E Bryant, Guy Thwaites, Stephen Baker, Mark Woolhouse, Peter Simmonds
Rodents and bats are now widely recognised as important sources of zoonotic virus infections in other mammals, including humans. Numerous surveys have expanded our knowledge of diverse viruses in a range of rodent and bat species, including their origins, evolution, and range of hosts. In this study of pegivirus and human hepatitis-related viruses, liver and serum samples from Vietnamese rodents and bats were examined by PCR and sequencing. Nucleic acids homologous to human hepatitis B, C, E viruses were detected in liver samples of 2 (1...
February 28, 2018: Viruses
Bhawna Tyagi, Salil Tewari, Ashutosh Dubey
Background: Bambusa balcooa ( Poaceae: Bambusoideae ) is a multipurpose bamboo species, which is native of the Indian subcontinent. B. balcooa is regarded as one of the best species for scaffolding and building purposes because of its strong culm. Other uses include paper pulp, handicrafts, and products of the wood chip industry. Due to these various uses in industries, this species has been identified as one of the priority bamboos by the National Bamboo Mission. Objective: This study is designed to analyze the identification of fungus and develop the strategy to eliminate the contamination during in vitro establishment of B...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Hong-Fang Lu, Chun-Ju Cai, Xian-Shu Zeng, Daniel E Campbell, Shao-Hui Fan, Guang-Lu Liu
Based on long-term monitoring conducted in Chang-ning county, a pilot site of the 'Grain for Green Program' (GFGP), an integrated emergy and economic method was applied to evaluate the dynamic ecological-economic performance of 3 kinds of bamboo systems planted on sloping farmland. The results confirmed the positive effects of all 3 kinds of bamboo systems on water conservation and soil erosion control. The benefits gained progressively increased during the first 8 years after conversion, going from 4639 to 16127 EMyuan/ha/yr on average...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Cleaner Production
Hai Nguyen Tran, Huan-Ping Chao
Six lignocellulosic waste-derived biosorbents [cantaloupe peel (CAN), pine cone (PC), litchi fruit peel (LP), annona squamosal (AS), bamboo shoot (BS), and sugarcane bagasse (SB)] were selected as low-cost and renewable materials to prepare chemically modified biosorbent. The modified biosorbent was prepared through a newer carboxyl groups-grafting process onto the biosorbent's surface using acrylic acid. The results showed that the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of biosorbents increased by approximately 66...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: British Dental Journal
Tian Chen, Songzhan Li, Pengbin Gui, Jian Wen, Xuemei Fu, Guojia Fang
Bifunctional bamboo-like CoSe2 arrays are synthesized by thermal annealing of Co(CO3)0.5OH grown on carbon cloth in Se atmosphere. The obtained CoSe2 arrays have excellent electrical conductivity, larger electrochemical active surface areas and can directly serve as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitor and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). When tested as an electrode for supercapacitor, the CoSe2 delivers a higher specific capacitance (544.6 F g-1 at current density of 1 mA cm-2) compared with CoO (308...
February 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Dezhao Liu, Jiawei Li, Changwei Li, Yale Deng, Zeqing Zhang, Zhangying Ye, Songming Zhu
In this study, Poly(butylene succinate)/bamboo powder (PBS/BP) was newly applied and tested for 8 months as the carbon source in two moving bed reactors for nitrate removal in real RAS wastewater (fresh/sea water), with the purposes of simultaneous reducing the cost of PBS packing and effluent DOC. Fast start-ups were obtained in both reactors, in which high denitrification rates were observed (0.68 ± 0.03 and 0.83 ± 0.11 kg [Formula: see text]-N m-3 d-1 for fresh and sea water, respectively) with no nitrite and low ammonia accumulation...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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