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Y Ye, Q Zhang, Y L Ren, J M Li
Among the medical bamboo slips unearthed from Han tomb in Laoguanshan of Chengdu, the Zhu bing (All Diseases) is a monograph to discuss the characteristics of signs and symptoms. Based on the differences of writing styles, diseases involved, expounding methods and writing rules, the book is divided, by the research team, into 2 parts: All Diseases(1) and All Diseases(2). All Diseases(1) includes over 130 slips, 2 000 characters with totally more than 100 disease names, containing multiple clinical disciplines...
May 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Jason B Ramsay, Cheryl D Wilga
Suction feeding in teleost fish is a power dependant behavior, requiring rapid and forceful expansion of the orobranchial cavity by the hypobranchial and trunk muscles. To increase power production for expansion, many species employ in-series tendons and catch mechanisms to store and release elastic strain energy. Suction feeding sharks such as Chiloscyllium plagiosum lack large in-series tendons on the hypobranchials, yet two of the hypobranchials, the coracohyoideus and coracoarcualis (CH, CA; hyoid depressors), are arranged in-series, and run deep and parallel to a third muscle, the coracomandibularis (CM, jaw depressor)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Meng Chuan Ong, Shi Ling Gan
A study had been carried out to determine Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations in the muscle and fins of four elasmobranchs species namely spot-tail sharks, milk sharks, whitespotted bamboo sharks and whitespotted guitarfish from Pulau Kambing LKIM Fishery Complex, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. Zinc level was found to have the highest concentration whereas Cd had the lowest concentration in both organs. By comparing both organs, metals concentrations in fins of all elasmobranchs species were higher than muscle...
August 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Shengsen Wang, Yanxia Zhou, Bin Gao, Xiaozhi Wang, Xianqiang Yin, Ke Feng, Jun Wang
In this work, nZVI was immobilized by bamboo derived biochars (nZVI/BB), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (nZVI/PBB) and nitric acid (HNO3) (nZVI/HBB) modified BB. H2O2 and HNO3 deceased surface area and pore volume of pristine biochars. Total iron (Fe) contents were 16.50, 24.40, and 13.08% for nZVI/BB, nZVI/PBB and nZVI/HBB, respectively. The X-ray diffraction revealed that nZVI in biochar matrix was dominantly metallic Fe coated with Fe oxides. The transmission electron microscopy indicated nZVI particle sizes were 41...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
Junfeng Feng, Chungyun Hse, Zhongzhi Yang, Kui Wang, Jianchun Jiang, Junming Xu
Directional microwave-assisted liquefaction and stepwise extraction are introduced for producing platform chemicals: aromatics and monosaccharides. When sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst, a 45% monosaccharides yield and a 29% aromatics yield were obtained from bamboo with 0.3g catalyst per 18g methanol and 2g bamboo at 160°C with 10min. Approximately 78-86wt% of the six biomass materials were converted into liquid products. After the stepwise extraction and precipitation process, the yields of monosaccharide derivatives and three phenolic compound fractions were 39-45% and 28-32%, respectively...
August 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Danlian Huang, Xi Wang, Chen Zhang, Guangming Zeng, Zhiwei Peng, Jin Zhou, Min Cheng, Rongzhong Wang, Zhengxun Hu, Xiang Qin
Significant concerns have been raised over antibiotics pollution in aquatic environments in recent years. In this study, sorption of sulfamethazine (SMT) by novel graphene oxide-coated biochar nanocomposites (GO-BC) based on graphene oxide (GO) with bamboo sawdust biochar (BC) was investigated. In comparison with the original BC, the sorption capacity of GO-BC for SMT increased by 1.14 times. Sorption of SMT onto GO-BC was proved to be dominantly by chemisorption, and Freundlich isotherm described the sorption adequately...
July 31, 2017: Chemosphere
Shanwen Ye, Changyang Cai, Huibo Ren, Wenjia Wang, Mengqi Xiang, Xiaoshan Tang, Caiping Zhu, Tengfei Yin, Li Zhang, Qiang Zhu
Genetic engineering technology has been successfully used in many plant species, but is limited in woody plants, especially in bamboos. Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) is one of the most important bamboo species in Asia, and its genetic improvement was largely restricted by the lack of an efficient regeneration and transformation method. Here we reported a plantlet regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol by using Ma bamboo young shoots as explants. Under our optimized conditions, embryogenic calluses were successfully induced from the excised young shoots on callus induction medium and rapidly grew on callus multiplication medium...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
David Taylor
Many biological materials fail by cracking. Examples are bone fractures, contact damage in eggs, splits in bamboo culm and defects in cartilage. The mechanical property that best describes failure by cracking is fracture toughness, which quantifies the ease with which cracks propagate and defines a material's tolerance for pre-existing cracks and other stress concentrating features. The measurement of fracture toughness presents some challenges, especially for biological materials. To obtain valid results requires care and, in many cases, considerable ingenuity to design an appropriate specimen and test protocol...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Aline Tátila-Ferreira, Daniele de Aguiar Maia, Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu, William Costa Rodrigues, Jeronimo Alencar
Haemagogus leucocelaenus, which is considered a major vector of wild yellow fever, exhibits acrodendrophilic habits and mainly deposits its eggs in treeholes and bamboo internodes. The selection of nursery sites is essential in the life history and reproductive success of mosquitoes. The present work investigated the preferred oviposition height and period of Hg. leucocelaenus in an Atlantic forest area in Rio de Janeiro. Sampling was performed using oviposition traps that were placed on plant material at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 m above the ground, from August 2015 to July 2016...
August 7, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Ho-Wen Chen, Yen Hsun Chuang, Cheng-Feng Hsu, Winn-Jung Huang
This study was undertaken to investigate the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of bromate (BrO3(-)) on bamboo charcoals that are activated with nitrogen and water vapor. Bamboo-based activated carbon (AC) was dipped in acid and oxidized in a mixture of potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid. Oxidation treatment considerably improved the physicochemical properties of AC, including purity, pore structure and surface nature, significantly enhancing BrO3(-) adsorption capacity. AC with many oxygenated groups and a high mesopore volume exhibited a particularly favorable tendency for BrO3(-) adsorption...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Junyi Zhang, Bo Zhang, Xiufang Chen, Bingbing Mi, Penglian Wei, Benhua Fei, Xindong Mu
Bamboo materials with improved antibacterial performance based on ZnO and graphene oxide (GO) were fabricated by vacuum impregnation and hydrothermal strategies. The Zn2+ ions and GO nanosheets were firstly infiltrated into the bamboo structure, followed by dehydration and crystallization upon hydrothermal treatment, leading to the formation of ZnO/GO nanocomposites anchored in the bulk bamboo. The bamboo composites were characterized by several techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), which confirmed the existence of GO and ZnO in the composites...
February 27, 2017: Materials
Shu-Xian Li, Ming-Fei Li, Jing Bian, Shao-Ni Sun, Feng Peng, Zhi-Min Xue
A biphasic pretreatment was adopted to disturb the recalcitrant structure of bamboo for further enzymatic hydrolysis and to obtain easily valorized lignin by-product. The biphasic system consisted of biomass-derived chemicals-2-methyltetrahydrofuran and oxalic acid as well as water, and the reactions were conducted at 120-180°C for 20min. The treatment resulted in notable removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. After the pretreatment, the cellulose conversion rate during enzymatic hydrolysis was enhanced by 6...
July 16, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Wenjie Zhang, Xiaoning Liu, Dunqiu Wang, Yue Jin
Membrane fouling is a problem in full-scale membrane bioreactors. In this study, bamboo charcoal (BC) was evaluated for its efficacy in alleviating membrane fouling in flat-sheet membrane bioreactors treating municipal wastewater. The results showed that BC addition markedly improved treatment performance based on COD, NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus levels. Adding BC slowed the increase in the trans-membrane pressure rate and resulted in lower levels of soluble microbial products and extracellular polymeric substances detected in the flat-sheet membrane bioreactor...
July 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Yong Yang, Guijie Ji, Yanan Duan, Shaochun Zhang, Benhua Fei, Xiufang Chen
Highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) immobilized by a heteroatom-doped hierarchical porous carbon support (N,O-Carbon) with large specific surface areas are synthesized by a wet chemical reduction method, wherein the N,O-Carbon derived from naturally available and reusable bamboo shoots is fabricated by a tandem hydrothermal-carbonization process without assistance of any templates or chemical activation reagents or exogenous N and O source in a simple and eco-friendly manner. The prepared Pd@N,O-Carbon catalyst shows extremely high activity and excellent chemoselectivity for semihydrogeantion of a broad range of alkynes to versatile and valuable alkenes under ambient conditions...
August 1, 2017: ChemSusChem
Kyung-Yeon Eo, Hyun-Ho Lee, Seul-Kee Lee, Young-Mok Jung, Yong-Gu Yeo, Ji-Sook Ryu, Sin-Geun Kang, Dongmi Kwak, Oh-Deog Kwon
A 19-year-old captive male waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) exhibited traumatic pericarditis at necropsy. The animal weighed 182 kg at necropsy and revealed no remarkable findings in external observation. Severe pericardial adhesions with fibrosis, hepato-diaphragmatic adhesions, straw-colored ascites and hepatosplenomegaly were observed upon examining the internal organs. Perforations made by a 12-cm-long sharp-ended bamboo twig were detected in the reticulum, diaphragm, pericardium, lung and liver. Trueperella pyogenes was identified in pericardial fluid...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Hai-Bo Tang, Fenglian Chen, Guibo Rao, Anbin Bai, Jiajia Jiang, Yichao Du, Pengfei Ren, Jinfeng Liu, Shaomin Qin, Lei Yang, Jianmin Wu
To identify the causative agents in 3 large-scale outbreaks of encephalitis and death among farmed bamboo rats (Rhizomys pruinosus). The routine bacterial culture and identification were performed. There were no significant pathogenic bacteria isolated from the brain, heart, liver, spleen, lung, or kidney of diseased bamboo rats. Using PCR-based methods, we excluded the following as causative agent: pox virus, herpesvirus, adenovirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, rabies virus, and sendai virus. Furthermore, the homogenate from the diseased bamboo rats was subjected to viral metagenomic analysis which revealed 48506 filtered viral reads annotated to Akabane virus (AKAV) with >75% nucleotide identity, suggesting the presence of AKAVs in bamboo rats...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Long Li, Shaohua Mu, Zhanchao Cheng, Yuanwen Cheng, Ying Zhang, Ying Miao, Chenglin Hou, Xueping Li, Jian Gao
The WRKY family of transcription factors (TFs) is one of the ten largest families of TFs in higher plants and has been implicated in multiple biological processes. Here, we identified 121 WRKY TFs in moso bamboo, including five novel members that were not annotated in the Phyllostachys edulis genomic database. Estimation of the divergence time of paralogous gene pairs revealed an important role of the recent whole-genome duplication in the expansion of the WRKY family. Expression analysis based on quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) data revealed that a large number of PheWRKY genes varied significantly under cold or drought stress treatments, which could be defined as abiotic stress-responsive genes...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jae Min Shim, Kang Wook Lee, Zhuang Yao, Jeong A Kim, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jeong Hwan Kim
Myeolchi jeotgals (MJs) were prepared with purified salt (PS), solar salt aged for 1 year (SS), and bamboo salt melted 3 times (BS) at 10% and 20% (w/w) concentrations, and fermented for 28 weeks at 15°C. BS MJ showed higher pH, lower titratable acidities than other samples because of alkalinity of bamboo salt. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts increased until 4-6 weeks and then decreased gradually, and not detected after 20 weeks from MJs with 10% salt. Yeast counts of PS MJs were higher than those of BS and SS MJs...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Summon Chomchai, Chulathida Chomchai
BACKGROUND: Insect consumption is a common practice in the Asian culture and all over the world. We are reporting an outbreak investigation of histamine poisoning from ingestion of fried insects. METHODS: On 24 July 2014, a group of students at a seminar presented to Angthong Provincial Hospital, Thailand, with pruritic rash after ingesting snacks consisting of fried insects from a vendor. We initiated an outbreak investigation with retrospective cohort design and collected samples of remaining foods for analyses...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Ji Hye Yang, Moon-Hee Choi, Seung Hwa Yang, Sam Seok Cho, Su Jung Park, Hyun-Jae Shin, Sung Hwan Ki
The pro-inflammatory response and recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue contribute to metabolic dysfunction. Here, we reported the anti-inflammatory and antiadipogenic effects of the methanol (MeOH) extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of bamboo leaf and its molecular mechanism in RAW264.7 cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. Functional macrophage migration assays also were performed. Surprisingly, the EtOAc fraction of MeOH extracts from native Korean plant species Sasa coreana Nakai (SCN) has shown potent anti-inflammatory properties; SCN pretreatment inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production (p < 0...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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