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smart farming

Jan Winsberg, Tino Hagemann, Tobias Janoschka, Martin D Hager, Ulrich S Schubert
Research on redox-flow batteries (RFBs) is currently experiencing a significant upturn, stimulated by the growing need to store increasing quantities of sustainably generated electrical energy. RFBs are promising candidates for the creation of smart grids, particularly when combined with photovoltaics and wind farms. To achieve the goal of "green", safe, and cost-efficient energy storage, research has shifted from metal-based materials to organic active materials in recent years. This Review presents an overview of various flow-battery systems...
January 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Lucía Gaitán, Peter Läderach, Sophie Graefe, Idupulapati Rao, Rein van der Hoek
Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0...
2016: PloS One
Prem Prakash Jayaraman, Ali Yavari, Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, Ahsan Morshed, Arkady Zaslavsky
Improving farm productivity is essential for increasing farm profitability and meeting the rapidly growing demand for food that is fuelled by rapid population growth across the world. Farm productivity can be increased by understanding and forecasting crop performance in a variety of environmental conditions. Crop recommendation is currently based on data collected in field-based agricultural studies that capture crop performance under a variety of conditions (e.g., soil quality and environmental conditions)...
November 9, 2016: Sensors
Jodi L Connell, Eric T Ritschdorff, Jason B Shear
Advances in microscopic three-dimensional (µ3D) printing provide a means to microfabricate an almost limitless range of arbitrary geometries, offering new opportunities to rapidly prototype complex architectures for microfluidic and cellular applications. Such 3D lithographic capabilities present the tantalizing prospect for engineering micromechanical components - for example, pumps and valves - for cellular environments comprised of smart materials whose size, shape, permeability, stiffness, and other attributes might be modified in real time to precisely manipulate ultra-low-volume samples...
October 26, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Jaime A Manalo, Katherine P Balmeo, Jayson C Berto, Fredierick M Saludez, Jennifer D Villaflor, Argie M Pagdanganan
Climate change (CC) is an urgent and highly relevant topic that must be integrated into the school curriculum. Literature on CC integration, however, is scarce, let alone literature on integrating climate-smart rice agriculture (CSRA). Bringing CSRA lessons into the classroom means the chance is higher that climate-smart technologies on rice will reach even the most far-flung areas of the Philippines, which stand to be among the most vulnerable as regards the negative impacts of CC. This paper shares experiences drawn from three high schools in the Philippines on integrating CSRA into their curriculum...
2016: SpringerPlus
Clifton Makate, Rongchang Wang, Marshall Makate, Nelson Mango
This paper demonstrates how crop diversification impacts on two outcomes of climate smart agriculture; increased productivity (legume and cereal crop productivity) and enhanced resilience (household income, food security, and nutrition) in rural Zimbabwe. Using data from over 500 smallholder farmers, we jointly estimate crop diversification and each of the outcome variables within a conditional (recursive) mixed process framework that corrects for selectivity bias arising due to the voluntary nature of crop diversification...
2016: SpringerPlus
Shanis Barnard, Simone Calderara, Simone Pistocchi, Rita Cucchiara, Michele Podaliri-Vulpiani, Stefano Messori, Nicola Ferri
Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers...
2016: PloS One
Gerardo Caja, Andreia Castro-Costa, Christopher H Knight
Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact...
May 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
H W Lange, M A Tancos, M O Carlson, C D Smart
To assess the diversity of Xanthomonas campestris spp. infecting crucifers in New York, 154 isolates were collected over 10 years across the state. The goal was to determine if isolates of the pathogen were overwintering in New York and serving as primary inoculum in subsequent years, or if novel isolates were entering the state each year. Pure cultures of isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), a greenhouse pathogenicity assay, repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction (Rep-PCR) using the BOX-A1R primer, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
February 2016: Phytopathology
Laura R Pettit, Christopher W Smart, Malcolm B Hart, Marco Milazzo, Jason M Hall-Spencer
Ocean acidification causes biodiversity loss, alters ecosystems, and may impact food security, as shells of small organisms dissolve easily in corrosive waters. There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale, through seagrass protection or seaweed cultivation, as net ecosystem organic production raises the saturation state of calcium carbonate making seawater less corrosive. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation, caused by shallow-water CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea, to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera...
May 2015: Ecology and Evolution
David R Smart, Cory Van den Broek, Ron Nishi, P David Cooper, David Eastman
INTRODUCTION: Tasmania's aquaculture industry produces over 40,000 tonnes of fish annually, valued at over AUD500M. Aquaculture divers perform repetitive, short-duration bounce dives in fish pens to depths up to 21 metres' sea water (msw). Past high levels of decompression illness (DCI) may have resulted from these 'yo-yo' dives. This study aimed to assess working divers, using Doppler ultrasonic bubble detection, to determine if yo-yo diving was a risk factor for DCI, determine dive profiles with acceptable risk and investigate productivity improvement...
September 2014: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
S M Rutter
Although the emerging field of precision livestock farming (PLF) is predominantly associated with intensive animal production, there is increasing interest in applying smart technologies in extensive rangeland systems. Precision livestock farming technologies bring the possibility of closely monitoring the behaviour, liveweight and other parameters of individual animals in free-ranging systems. 'Virtual fencing', ideally based on positive reinforcement, i.e. rewarding animals for moving in a specified direction, has the potential to gently guide foraging livestock towards areas of vegetation identified by remote sensing...
April 2014: Revue Scientifique et Technique
M Moraine, M Duru, P Nicholas, P Leterme, O Therond
The development of integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) is a major challenge for the ecological modernisation of agriculture but appears difficult to implement at a large scale. A participatory method for ICLS design has been developed and implemented in 15 case studies across Europe, representing a range of production systems, challenges, constraints and resources for innovation. Local stakeholders, primarily farmers, but also cooperatives, environmental-association representatives and natural-resource managers, were involved in the identification of challenges and existing initiatives of crop-livestock integration; in the design of new options at field, farm and territory levels; and then in qualitative multicriteria assessment of these options...
August 2014: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
John A Pickett, Gudbjorg I Aradottír, Michael A Birkett, Toby J A Bruce, Antony M Hooper, Charles A O Midega, Huw D Jones, Michaela C Matthes, Johnathan A Napier, Jimmy O Pittchar, Lesley E Smart, Christine M Woodcock, Zeyaur R Khan
To reduce the need for seasonal inputs, crop protection will have to be delivered via the seed and other planting material. Plant secondary metabolism can be harnessed for this purpose by new breeding technologies, genetic modification and companion cropping, the latter already on-farm in sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary metabolites offer the prospect of pest management as robust as that provided by current pesticides, for which many lead compounds were, or are currently deployed as, natural products. Evidence of success and promise is given for pest management in industrial and developing agriculture...
April 5, 2014: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Volker Dworak, Joern Selbeck, Karl-Heinz Dammer, Matthias Hoffmann, Ali Akbar Zarezadeh, Christophe Bobda
The application of (smart) cameras for process control, mapping, and advanced imaging in agriculture has become an element of precision farming that facilitates the conservation of fertilizer, pesticides, and machine time. This technique additionally reduces the amount of energy required in terms of fuel. Although research activities have increased in this field, high camera prices reflect low adaptation to applications in all fields of agriculture. Smart, low-cost cameras adapted for agricultural applications can overcome this drawback...
2013: Sensors
Manas Ranjan Gartia, Björn Braunschweig, Te-Wei Chang, Parya Moinzadeh, Barbara S Minsker, Gul Agha, Andrzej Wieckowski, Laura L Keefer, Gang Logan Liu
Quantitative monitoring of water conditions in a field is a critical ability for environmental science studies. We report the design, fabrication and testing of a low cost, miniaturized and sensitive electrochemical based nitrate sensor for quantitative determination of nitrate concentrations in water samples. We have presented detailed analysis for the nitrate detection results using the miniaturized sensor. We have also demonstrated the integration of the sensor to a wireless network and carried out field water testing using the sensor...
December 2012: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM
T J G M Lam, J C L van Veersen, O C Sampimon, R G M Olde Riekerink
In this article an on-farm monitoring approach on udder health is presented. Monitoring of udder health consists of regular collection and analysis of data and of the regular evaluation of management practices. The ultimate goal is to manage critical control points in udder health management, such as hygiene, body condition, teat ends and treatments, in such a way that results (udder health parameters) are always optimal. Mastitis, however, is a multifactorial disease, and in real life it is not possible to fully prevent all mastitis problems...
2011: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Roni A Neff, Cindy L Parker, Frederick L Kirschenmann, Jennifer Tinch, Robert S Lawrence
Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt...
September 2011: American Journal of Public Health
Rainer W Stephany
In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry hormonal growth promoters ("anabolics") are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.As a consequence of the total ban in the EU of all hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in livestock production, in contrast to their legal use [e.g. of five such hormones (17beta-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, trenbolone and zeranol) as small solid ear implants and two hormones as feed additives for feedlot heifers (melengestrol acetate) and for swine (ractopamine) in the USA], the regulatory controls also differ sharply between the EU and the USA...
2010: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
J F Mee
The decline in dairy herd fertility internationally has highlighted the limited impact of traditional veterinary approaches to herd fertility. The role of the veterinarian in fertility management on dairy farms has evolved from addressing individual clinical conditions to analyzing suboptimal herd metrics. However, this paradigm shift has only successfully occurred in some dairy industries and less so in others. Needs analyses indicate that the critical constraints to change are veterinary practice size, client motivation and data quality and availability...
September 1, 2007: Theriogenology
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