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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302131/climate-smart-agriculture-farm-household-typologies-and-food-security-an-ex-ante-assessment-from-eastern-india
#1
Santiago Lopez-Ridaura, Romain Frelat, Mark T van Wijk, Diego Valbuena, Timothy J Krupnik, M L Jat
One of the great challenges in agricultural development and sustainable intensification is the assurance of social equity in food security oriented interventions. Development practitioners, researchers, and policy makers alike could benefit from prior insight into what interventions or environmental shocks might differentially affect farmers' food security status, in order to move towards more informed and equitable development. We examined the food security status and livelihood activities of 269 smallholder farm households (HHs) in Bihar, India...
January 2018: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204470/survey-data-on-cost-and-benefits-of-climate-smart-agricultural-technologies-in-western-kenya
#2
S K Ng'ang'a, C M Mwungu, C Mwongera, I Kinyua, A Notenbaert, E Girvetz
This paper describes data that were collected in three counties of western Kenya, namely Siaya, Bungoma, and Kakamega. The main aim of collecting the data was to assess the climate smartness, profitability and returns of soil protection and rehabilitation measures. The data were collected from 88 households. The households were selected using simple random sampling technique from a primary sampling frame of 180 farm households provided by the ministry of agriculture through the counties agricultural officers...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170393/an-in-vivo-biosensing-biomimetic-electrochemical-transistor-with-applications-in-plant-science-and-precision-farming
#3
Nicola Coppedè, Michela Janni, Manuele Bettelli, Calogero Leandro Maida, Francesco Gentile, Marco Villani, Roberta Ruotolo, Salvatore Iannotta, Nelson Marmiroli, Marta Marmiroli, Andrea Zappettini
The in vivo monitoring of key plant physiology parameters will be a key enabler of precision farming. Here, a biomimetic textile-based biosensor, which can be inserted directly into plant tissue is presented: the device is able to monitor, in vivo and in real time, variations in the solute content of the plant sap. The biosensor has no detectable effect on the plant's morphology even after six weeks of continuous operation. The continuous monitoring of the sap electrolyte concentration in a growing tomato plant revealed a circadian pattern of variation...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912238/biological-fabrication-of-cellulose-fibers-with-tailored-properties
#4
Filipe Natalio, Regina Fuchs, Sidney R Cohen, Gregory Leitus, Gerhard Fritz-Popovski, Oskar Paris, Michael Kappl, Hans-Jürgen Butt
Cotton is a promising basis for wearable smart textiles. Current approaches that rely on fiber coatings suffer from function loss during wear. We present an approach that allows biological incorporation of exogenous molecules into cotton fibers to tailor the material's functionality. In vitro model cultures of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) are incubated with 6-carboxyfluorescein-glucose and dysprosium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-glucose, where the glucose moiety acts as a carrier capable of traveling from the vascular connection to the outermost cell layer of the ovule epidermis, becoming incorporated into the cellulose fibers...
September 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806883/genome-and-epigenome-editing-to-treat-disorders-of-the-hematopoietic-system
#5
Claudio Mussolino, Jamal Alzubi, Valentina Pennucci, Giandomenico Turchiano, Toni Cathomen
The possibility of editing complex genomes in a targeted fashion has revolutionized basic research as well as biomedical and biotechnological applications in the last 5 years. The targeted introduction of genetic changes has allowed researchers to create smart model systems for basic research, bio-engineers to modify crops and farm animals, and translational scientists to develop novel treatment approaches for inherited and acquired disorders for which curative treatment options are not yet available. With the rapid development of genome editing tools, in particular zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the CRISPR-Cas system, a wide range of therapeutic options have been-and will be-developed at an unprecedented speed, which will change the clinical routine of various disciplines in a revolutionary way...
August 14, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738202/predicting-carbon-benefits-from-climate-smart-agriculture-high-resolution-carbon-mapping-and-uncertainty-assessment-in-el-salvador
#6
Sean Patrick Kearney, Nicholas C Coops, Kai M A Chan, Steven J Fonte, Pablo Siles, Sean M Smukler
Agroforestry management in smallholder agriculture can provide climate change mitigation and adaptation benefits and has been promoted as 'climate-smart agriculture' (CSA), yet has generally been left out of international and voluntary carbon (C) mitigation agreements. A key reason for this omission is the cost and uncertainty of monitoring C at the farm scale in heterogeneous smallholder landscapes. A largely overlooked alternative is to monitor C at more aggregated scales and develop C contracts with groups of land owners, community organizations or C aggregators working across entire landscapes (e...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716411/genetic-mitigation-strategies-to-tackle-agricultural-ghg-emissions-the-case-for-biological-nitrification-inhibition-technology
#7
REVIEW
G V Subbarao, J Arango, K Masahiro, A M Hooper, T Yoshihashi, Y Ando, K Nakahara, S Deshpande, I Ortiz-Monasterio, M Ishitani, M Peters, N Chirinda, L Wollenberg, J C Lata, B Gerard, S Tobita, I M Rao, H J Braun, V Kommerell, J Tohme, M Iwanaga
Accelerated soil-nitrifier activity and rapid nitrification are the cause of declining nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and enhanced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from farming. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the ability of certain plant roots to suppress soil-nitrifier activity, through production and release of nitrification inhibitors. The power of phytochemicals with BNI-function needs to be harnessed to control soil-nitrifier activity and improve nitrogen-cycling in agricultural systems. Transformative biological technologies designed for genetic mitigation are needed, so that BNI-enabled crop-livestock and cropping systems can rein in soil-nitrifier activity, to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and globally make farming nitrogen efficient and less harmful to environment...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611194/opinion-smart-farming-is-key-to-developing-sustainable-agriculture
#8
Achim Walter, Robert Finger, Robert Huber, Nina Buchmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536585/exploring-niches-for-short-season-grain-legumes-in-semi-arid-eastern-kenya-coping-with-the-impacts-of-climate-variability
#9
Anne Sennhenn, Donald M G Njarui, Brigitte L Maass, Anthony M Whitbread
Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471390/software-defined-networking-for-improved-wireless-sensor-network-management-a-survey
#10
REVIEW
Musa Ndiaye, Gerhard P Hancke, Adnan M Abu-Mahfouz
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly popular with the advent of the Internet of things (IoT). Various real-world applications of WSNs such as in smart grids, smart farming and smart health would require a potential deployment of thousands or maybe hundreds of thousands of sensor nodes/actuators. To ensure proper working order and network efficiency of such a network of sensor nodes, an effective WSN management system has to be integrated. However, the inherent challenges of WSNs such as sensor/actuator heterogeneity, application dependency and resource constraints have led to challenges in implementing effective traditional WSN management...
May 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070964/redox-flow-batteries-from-metals-to-organic-redox-active-materials
#11
REVIEW
Jan Winsberg, Tino Hagemann, Tobias Janoschka, Martin D Hager, Ulrich S Schubert
Research on redox-flow batteries (RFBs) is currently experiencing a significant upturn, stimulated by the growing need to store increasing quantities of sustainably generated electrical energy. RFBs are promising candidates for the creation of smart grids, particularly when combined with photovoltaics and wind farms. To achieve the goal of "green", safe, and cost-efficient energy storage, research has shifted from metal-based materials to organic active materials in recent years. This Review presents an overview of various flow-battery systems...
January 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030599/climate-smart-livestock-systems-an-assessment-of-carbon-stocks-and-ghg-emissions-in-nicaragua
#12
Lucía Gaitán, Peter Läderach, Sophie Graefe, Idupulapati Rao, Rein van der Hoek
Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834862/internet-of-things-platform-for-smart-farming-experiences-and-lessons-learnt
#13
Prem Prakash Jayaraman, Ali Yavari, Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, Ahsan Morshed, Arkady Zaslavsky
Improving farm productivity is essential for increasing farm profitability and meeting the rapidly growing demand for food that is fuelled by rapid population growth across the world. Farm productivity can be increased by understanding and forecasting crop performance in a variety of environmental conditions. Crop recommendation is currently based on data collected in field-based agricultural studies that capture crop performance under a variety of conditions (e.g., soil quality and environmental conditions)...
November 9, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782402/3d-printing-of-photoresponsive-biomaterials-for-control-of-bacterial-microenvironments
#14
Jodi L Connell, Eric T Ritschdorff, Jason B Shear
Advances in microscopic three-dimensional (µ3D) printing provide a means to microfabricate an almost limitless range of arbitrary geometries, offering new opportunities to rapidly prototype complex architectures for microfluidic and cellular applications. Such 3D lithographic capabilities present the tantalizing prospect for engineering micromechanical components - for example, pumps and valves - for cellular environments comprised of smart materials whose size, shape, permeability, stiffness, and other attributes might be modified in real time to precisely manipulate ultra-low-volume samples...
October 26, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652165/integrating-climate-smart-rice-agriculture-into-secondary-level-curriculum-lessons-from-three-high-schools-in-the-philippines
#15
Jaime A Manalo, Katherine P Balmeo, Jayson C Berto, Fredierick M Saludez, Jennifer D Villaflor, Argie M Pagdanganan
Climate change (CC) is an urgent and highly relevant topic that must be integrated into the school curriculum. Literature on CC integration, however, is scarce, let alone literature on integrating climate-smart rice agriculture (CSRA). Bringing CSRA lessons into the classroom means the chance is higher that climate-smart technologies on rice will reach even the most far-flung areas of the Philippines, which stand to be among the most vulnerable as regards the negative impacts of CC. This paper shares experiences drawn from three high schools in the Philippines on integrating CSRA into their curriculum...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478752/crop-diversification-and-livelihoods-of-smallholder-farmers-in-zimbabwe-adaptive-management-for-environmental-change
#16
Clifton Makate, Rongchang Wang, Marshall Makate, Nelson Mango
This paper demonstrates how crop diversification impacts on two outcomes of climate smart agriculture; increased productivity (legume and cereal crop productivity) and enhanced resilience (household income, food security, and nutrition) in rural Zimbabwe. Using data from over 500 smallholder farmers, we jointly estimate crop diversification and each of the outcome variables within a conditional (recursive) mixed process framework that corrects for selectivity bias arising due to the voluntary nature of crop diversification...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27415814/quick-accurate-smart-3d-computer-vision-technology-helps-assessing-confined-animals-behaviour
#17
Shanis Barnard, Simone Calderara, Simone Pistocchi, Rita Cucchiara, Michele Podaliri-Vulpiani, Stefano Messori, Nicola Ferri
Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27210489/engineering-to-support-wellbeing-of-dairy-animals
#18
REVIEW
Gerardo Caja, Andreia Castro-Costa, Christopher H Knight
Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact...
May 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26551450/diversity-of-xanthomonas-campestris-isolates-from-symptomatic-crucifers-in-new-york-state
#19
H W Lange, M A Tancos, M O Carlson, C D Smart
To assess the diversity of Xanthomonas campestris spp. infecting crucifers in New York, 154 isolates were collected over 10 years across the state. The goal was to determine if isolates of the pathogen were overwintering in New York and serving as primary inoculum in subsequent years, or if novel isolates were entering the state each year. Pure cultures of isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), a greenhouse pathogenicity assay, repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction (Rep-PCR) using the BOX-A1R primer, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
February 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26140195/seaweed-fails-to-prevent-ocean-acidification-impact-on-foraminifera-along-a-shallow-water-co2-gradient
#20
Laura R Pettit, Christopher W Smart, Malcolm B Hart, Marco Milazzo, Jason M Hall-Spencer
Ocean acidification causes biodiversity loss, alters ecosystems, and may impact food security, as shells of small organisms dissolve easily in corrosive waters. There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale, through seagrass protection or seaweed cultivation, as net ecosystem organic production raises the saturation state of calcium carbonate making seawater less corrosive. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation, caused by shallow-water CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea, to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera...
May 2015: Ecology and Evolution
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