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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774207/overview-of-social-cognitive-dysfunctions-in-rare-developmental-syndromes-with-psychiatric-phenotype
#1
REVIEW
Aurore Morel, Elodie Peyroux, Arnaud Leleu, Emilie Favre, Nicolas Franck, Caroline Demily
Rare neurodevelopmental syndromes often present social cognitive deficits that may underlie difficulties in social interactions and increase the risk of psychosis or autism spectrum disorders. However, little is known regarding the specificities of social cognitive impairment across syndromes while it remains a major challenge for the care. Our review provides an overview of social cognitive dysfunctions in rare diseases associated with psychiatric symptoms (with a prevalence estimated between 1 in 1,200 and 1 in 25,000 live births: 22q11...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773529/development-of-a-just-in-time-adaptive-mhealth-intervention-for-insomnia-usability-study
#2
I Wayan Pulantara, Bambang Parmanto, Anne Germain
BACKGROUND: Healthy sleep is a fundamental component of physical and brain health. Insomnia, however, is a prevalent sleep disorder that compromises functioning, productivity, and health. Therefore, developing efficient treatment delivery methods for insomnia can have significant societal and personal health impacts. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) is the recommended first-line treatment of insomnia but access is currently limited for patients, since treatment must occur in specialty sleep clinics, which suffer from an insufficient number of trained clinicians...
May 17, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772072/the-forensic-confirmation-bias-a-comparison-between-experts-and-novices
#3
Claire A J van den Eeden, Christianne J de Poot, Peter J van Koppen
A large body of research has described the influence of context information on forensic decision-making. In this study, we examined the effect of context information on the search for and selection of traces by students (N = 36) and crime scene investigators (N = 58). Participants investigated an ambiguous mock crime scene and received prior information indicating suicide, a violent death or no information. Participants described their impression of the scene and wrote down which traces they wanted to secure...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771624/virtual-reality-training-to-enhance-behavior-and-cognitive-function-among-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-brief-report
#4
Shirley Shema-Shiratzky, Marina Brozgol, Pablo Cornejo-Thumm, Karen Geva-Dayan, Michael Rotstein, Yael Leitner, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Anat Mirelman
PURPOSE: To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a combined motor-cognitive training using virtual reality to enhance behavior, cognitive function and dual-tasking in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Fourteen non-medicated school-aged children with ADHD, received 18 training sessions during 6 weeks. Training included walking on a treadmill while negotiating virtual obstacles. Behavioral symptoms, cognition and gait were tested before and after the training and at 6-weeks follow-up...
May 17, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766791/immunometabolic-changes-in-hepatocytes-arising-from-obesity-and-the-practice-of-physical-exercise
#5
Paula Alves Monteiro, Wagner Prado, Thiago Ricardo Dos Santos Tenório, Luciane Magri Tomaz, David H St-Pierre, Fabio Santos Lira
Over the recent years, a particular interest was shown towards understanding the roles of excessive hepatic fat accumulation and the development of obesity-related diseases. While hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation seems to be a response to the systemic increase of insulin release, fatty acid metabolites contribute to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is widely accepted that NAFLD is a polygenic and multifactorial disease under the influence of critical behavioral factors such as overeating and sedentary lifestyles...
May 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766470/perinatal-depression-prevention-through-home-visitation-a-cluster-randomized-trial-of-mothers-and-babies-1-on-1
#6
S Darius Tandon, Erin A Ward, Jaime L Hamil, Cindy Jimenez, Mya Carter
Postpartum depression is highly prevalent in low-income women and has significant health effects on mother and child. This pilot study tested the effectiveness of the newly adapted Mothers and Babies (MB) 1-on-1 intervention. A cluster randomized trial was conducted with 8 programs using trained home visitors to deliver MB 1-on-1 and 6 delivering usual home visiting. One hundred twenty pregnant women not experiencing major depression were enrolled. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 3- and 6-months postpartum...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760466/two-photon-imaging-of-neuronal-activity-in-motor-cortex-of-marmosets-during-upper-limb-movement-tasks
#7
Teppei Ebina, Yoshito Masamizu, Yasuhiro R Tanaka, Akiya Watakabe, Reiko Hirakawa, Yuka Hirayama, Riichiro Hira, Shin-Ichiro Terada, Daisuke Koketsu, Kazuo Hikosaka, Hiroaki Mizukami, Atsushi Nambu, Erika Sasaki, Tetsuo Yamamori, Masanori Matsuzaki
Two-photon imaging in behaving animals has revealed neuronal activities related to behavioral and cognitive function at single-cell resolution. However, marmosets have posed a challenge due to limited success in training on motor tasks. Here we report the development of protocols to train head-fixed common marmosets to perform upper-limb movement tasks and simultaneously perform two-photon imaging. After 2-5 months of training sessions, head-fixed marmosets can control a manipulandum to move a cursor to a target on a screen...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757933/improving-physical-fitness-and-cognitive-functions-in-middle-school-students-study-protocol-for-the-chinese-childhood-health-activity-and-motor-performance-study-chinese-champs
#8
Zhixiong Zhou, Shanshan Dong, Jun Yin, Quan Fu, Hong Ren, Zenong Yin
Background : Sedentary lifestyles and their associated harmful consequences are public health concerns that impact more than half of the world's youth population in both developed and developing countries. Methods : The Chinese Childhood Health; Activity and Motor Performance Study (Chinese CHAMPS) was a cluster randomized controlled trial to modify school physical activity policies and the physical education (PE) curriculum; using teacher training and parent engagement to increase opportunities and support students' physical activity and healthy eating...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753446/assessment-and-management-of-preoperative-anxiety
#9
Isabel Tulloch, John S Rubin
BACKGROUND: Preoperative anxiety has the potential to alter the dynamics of an elective procedure and has been shown to detrimentally affect patients both cognitively and physiologically. If mismanaged, it can lead to essential procedures being postponed or canceled, delay postoperative recovery, and increase patients' requirements for medical intervention postoperatively. These outcomes have harmful implications both clinically and economically. Our primary objective was to evaluate the levels of anxiety patients experience immediately before elective otorhinolaryngologic procedures...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752659/individual-differences-in-musical-training-and-executive-functions-a-latent-variable-approach
#10
Brooke M Okada, L Robert Slevc
Learning and performing music draw on a host of cognitive abilities, and previous research has postulated that musicians might have advantages in related cognitive processes. One such aspect of cognition that may be related to musical training is executive functions (EFs), a set of top-down processes that regulate behavior and cognition according to task demands. Previous studies investigating the link between musical training and EFs have yielded mixed results and are difficult to compare. In part, this is because most studies have looked at only one specific cognitive process, and even studies looking at the same process have used different experimental tasks...
May 11, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744772/a-systematic-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-psychological-treatments-for-ibs-in-gastroenterology-settings-promising-but-in-need-of-further-study
#11
REVIEW
Elyse R Thakur, Jordan Shapiro, Johanna Chan, Mark A Lumley, Jeffrey A Cully, Andrea Bradford, Hashem B El-Serag
BACKGROUND: Psychological treatments are efficacious for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in clinical trials; however, their effectiveness when conducted in gastroenterology practice settings is unclear. AIM: To perform a systematic review of the types and effects of psychological treatments for IBS conducted in gastroenterology clinics. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane central register. Studies conducted in gastroenterology clinic settings with IBS patients who were clinically referred from gastroenterology were included...
May 10, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739735/effectiveness-of-a-blended-multidisciplinary-intervention-for-patients-with-moderate-medically-unexplained-physical-symptoms-parasol-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Paula Elisabeth van Westrienen, Martijn F Pisters, Suze Aj Toonders, Marloes Gerrits, Cindy Veenhof, Niek J de Wit
BACKGROUND: Medically unexplained physical symptoms are an important health problem in primary care, with a spectrum from mild to chronic. The burden of chronic medically unexplained physical symptoms is substantial for patients, health care professionals, and society. Therefore, early identification of patients with moderate medically unexplained physical symptoms is needed in order to prevent chronicity. The preventive screening of medically unexplained physical symptoms (PRESUME) screening method was developed using data from the electronic medical record of the patients' general practitioner and demonstrated its prognostic accuracy to identify patients with moderate medically unexplained physical symptoms...
May 8, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734674/a-cross-disciplinary-successful-aging-intervention-and-evaluation-comparison-of-person-to-person-and-digital-assisted-approaches
#13
Hui-Chuan Hsu, Tsuann Kuo, Ju-Ping Lin, Wei-Chung Hsu, Chia-Wen Yu, Yen-Cheng Chen, Wan-Zhen Xie, Wei-Chiang Hsu, Ya-Lan Hsu, Mu-Ting Yu
Background : Successful aging has been the paradigm of old-age life. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a cross-disciplinary intervention program using two approaches for community-based older adults in Taichung, Taiwan. Methods : The content of the intervention included successful aging concepts and preparation, physical activity, chronic disease and health management, dietary and nutrition information, cognitive training, emotional awareness and coping skills, family relationship and resilience, legal concepts regarding financial protection, and Internet use...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733406/the-development-of-drink-less-an-alcohol-reduction-smartphone-app-for-excessive-drinkers
#14
Claire Garnett, David Crane, Robert West, Jamie Brown, Susan Michie
Excessive alcohol consumption poses a serious problem for public health. Digital behavior change interventions have the potential to help users reduce their drinking. In accordance with Open Science principles, this paper describes the development of a smartphone app to help individuals who drink excessively to reduce their alcohol consumption. Following the UK Medical Research Council's guidance and the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, development consisted of two phases: (i) selection of intervention components and (ii) design and development work to implement the chosen components into modules to be evaluated further for inclusion in the app...
May 4, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732921/understanding-the-unique-needs-of-hospitalized-adolescents-and-young-adults-referred-for-psychology-consults
#15
Kristin A Kullgren, Sarah K Sullivan, Terrill Bravender
Hospitalized children and adolescents/young adults (AYA) frequently have mental health concerns that may be addressed by consulting psychology. We examined demographic, medical, referral, intervention, and disposition differences between children (≤11 years) and AYA referred for a psychology consult at a pediatric hospital (N = 1091). Referred AYA were more likely to be female, have shorter lengths of stay, and repeat psychology consults. Children were more likely to be referred for anxiety or feeding; AYA were more often referred for depression, pain, somatic complaints, or maladjustment...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730496/resting-state-connectivity-predicts-visuo-motor-skill-learning
#16
Aurélie L Manuel, Adrian G Guggisberg, Raphaël Thézé, Francesco Turri, Armin Schnider
Spontaneous brain activity at rest is highly organized even when the brain is not explicitly engaged in a task. Functional connectivity (FC) in the alpha frequency band (α, 8-12 Hz) during rest is associated with improved performance on various cognitive and motor tasks. In this study we explored how FC is associated with visuo-motor skill learning and offline consolidation. We tested two hypotheses by which resting-state FC might achieve its impact on behavior: preparing the brain for an upcoming task or consolidating training gains...
May 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730045/improving-cognitive-training-for-schizophrenia-using-neuroplasticity-enhancers-lessons-from-decades-of-basic-and-clinical-research
#17
G D Guercio, M E Thomas, J M Cisneros-Franco, P Voss, R Panizzutti, E de Villers-Sidani
Mounting evidence indicates that schizophrenia is a disorder that stems from maladaptive plasticity within neural circuits and produces broad cognitive deficits leading to loss of autonomy. A large number of studies have identified abnormalities spanning many neurotransmitter systems in schizophrenia, and as a result, a variety of drugs have been developed to attempt to treat these abnormalities and enhance cognition. Unfortunately, positive results have been limited so far. This may be in part because the scope of abnormalities in the schizophrenic brain requires a treatment capable of engaging many different neurotransmitter systems...
May 2, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727038/planning-music-based-amelioration-and-training-in-infancy-and-childhood-based-on-neural-evidence
#18
REVIEW
Minna Huotilainen, Mari Tervaniemi
Music-based amelioration and training of the developing auditory system has a long tradition, and recent neuroscientific evidence supports using music in this manner. Here, we present the available evidence showing that various music-related activities result in positive changes in brain structure and function, becoming helpful for auditory cognitive processes in everyday life situations for individuals with typical neural development and especially for individuals with hearing, learning, attention, or other deficits that may compromise auditory processing...
May 4, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725317/psychopathy-to-altruism-neurobiology-of-the-selfish-selfless-spectrum
#19
REVIEW
James W H Sonne, Don M Gash
The age-old philosophical, biological, and social debate over the basic nature of humans as being "universally selfish" or "universally good" continues today highlighting sharply divergent views of natural social order. Here we analyze advances in biology, genetics and neuroscience increasing our understanding of the evolution, features and neurocircuitry of the human brain underlying behavior in the selfish-selfless spectrum. First, we examine evolutionary pressures for selection of altruistic traits in species with protracted periods of dependence on parents and communities for subsistence and acquisition of learned behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724228/randomized-control-trial-of-computer-based-training-targeting-alertness-in-older-adults-the-alert-trial-protocol
#20
Thomas VanVleet, Michelle Voss, Sawsan Dabit, Alex Mitko, Joseph DeGutis
BACKGROUND: Healthy aging is associated with a decline in multiple functional domains including perception, attention, short and long-term memory, reasoning, decision-making, as well as cognitive and motor control functions; all of which are significantly modulated by an individual's level of alertness. The control of alertness also significantly declines with age and contributes to increased lapses of attention in everyday life, ranging from minor memory slips to a lack of vigilance and increased risk of falls or motor-vehicle accidents...
May 3, 2018: BMC Psychology
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