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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332112/evaluation-of-effectiveness-of-peer-education-on-smoking-behavior-among-high-school-students
#1
Nurcan Bilgiç, Türkan Günay
To evaluate the effectiveness of peer education on changing the smoking behavior of high schoolage children's.  Methods: In this interventional study; transtheoretical model, which is one of the cognitive-behavioral models was used for application of the peer education. Study was conducted in Izmir during 2011-2012 education period and included 338 students from 2 high schools The independent variable of the study is peer training.  Descriptive variables for a student are age, gender, tendecy of friends to smoke inside and outside the school,  the age they have first experienced the habit,  reasons for nicotine consumption,  levels of addiction,  chatting about smoking and related harms...
January 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324745/proof-of-concept-study-of-an-at-home-engaging-digital-intervention-for-pediatric-adhd
#2
Naomi O Davis, Jeffrey Bower, Scott H Kollins
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological and behavioral therapies have limited impact on the distinct neurocognitive impairments associated with ADHD, and existing cognitive training programs have shown limited efficacy. This proof-of-concept study assessed treatment acceptability and explored outcomes for a novel digital treatment targeting cognitive processes implicated in ADHD. METHOD: Participants included 40 children with ADHD and 40 children without ADHD. Following psychiatric screening, ADHD ratings, and baseline neuropsychological measures, participants completed 28-days of at-home treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324073/rapid-improvement-on-a-temporal-attention-task-within-a-single-session-of-high-frequency-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#3
Sarah C Tyler, Federica Contò, Lorella Battelli
This study explored the modulatory effects of high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) on visual sensitivity during a temporal attention task. We measured sensitivity to different onset asynchronies during a temporal order judgment task as a function of active stimulation relative to sham. While completing the task, participants were stimulated bilaterally for 20 min over either the TPJ or the human middle temporal area. We hypothesized that tRNS over the TPJ, which is critical to the temporal attention network, would selectively increase cortical excitability and induce cognitive training-like effects on performance, perhaps more so in the left visual field [Matthews, N...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313420/knowledge-of-dementia-among-the-australian-health-workforce-a-national-online-survey
#4
Michael J Annear
Dementia is a leading cause of death and disability in Australia. This research evaluated dementia knowledge and educational needs among the Australian health workforce. An online version of the validated Dementia Knowledge Assessment Scale (DKAS) was administered with a random sample of 234 health professionals across eight Australian states. Respondents provided additional self-report data concerning dementia experiences, educational needs, and demographic information. Dementia knowledge deficiencies were identified concerning risk factors, prevalent typologies of the condition, and cognitive symptoms...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310735/what-do-clinical-supervisors-require-to-teach-residents-in-family-medicine-how-to-care-for-seniors
#5
Anik M C Giguere, Paule Lebel, Michèle Morin, Françoise Proust, Charo Rodríguez, Valerie Carnovale, Louise Champagne, France Légaré, Pierre-Hugues Carmichael, Bernard Martineau, Philippe Karazivan, Pierre J Durand
We assessed clinicians' continuing professional development (CPD) needs at family practice teaching clinics in the province of Quebec. Our mixed methodology design comprised an environmental scan of training programs at four family medicine departments, an expert panel to determine priority clinical situations for senior care, a supervisors survey to assess their perceived CPD needs, and interviews to help understand the rationale behind their needs. From the environmental scan, the expert panel selected 13 priority situations...
January 9, 2018: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300756/behavioral-and-subcortical-signatures-of-musical-expertise-in-mandarin-chinese-speakers
#6
Caitlin Dawson, Mari Tervaniemi, Daniel Aalto
Both musical training and native language have been shown to have experience-based plastic effects on auditory processing. However, the combined effects within individuals are unclear. Recent research suggests that musical training and tone language speaking are not clearly additive in their effects on processing of auditory features and that there may be a disconnect between perceptual and neural signatures of auditory feature processing. The literature has only recently begun to investigate the effects of musical expertise on basic auditory processing for different linguistic groups...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294732/individual-versus-group-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-partner-violent-men-a-preliminary-randomized-trial
#7
Christopher M Murphy, Christopher I Eckhardt, Judith M Clifford, Adam D Lamotte, Laura A Meis
A randomized clinical trial tested the hypothesis that a flexible, case formulation-based, individual treatment approach integrating motivational interviewing strategies with cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) is more efficacious than a standardized group cognitive-behavioral approach (GCBT) for perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Forty-two men presenting for services at a community domestic violence agency were randomized to receive 20 sessions of ICBT or a 20-week group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291529/anatomical-and-functional-changes-in-the-brain-after-simultaneous-interpreting-training-a-longitudinal-study
#8
Eowyn Van de Putte, Wouter De Baene, Lorna García-Pentón, Evy Woumans, Aster Dijkgraaf, Wouter Duyck
In the recent literature on bilingualism, a lively debate has arisen about the long-term effects of bilingualism on cognition and the brain. These studies yield inconsistent results, in part because they rely on comparisons between bilingual and monolingual control groups that may also differ on other variables. In the present neuroimaging study, we adopted a longitudinal design, assessing the long-term anatomical and cognitive effects of an extreme form of bilingualism, namely simultaneous interpreting. We compared a group of students starting interpreting training with a closely matched group of translators, before and after nine months of training...
December 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290330/affective-science-and-avoidant-end-of-life-communication-can-the-science-of-emotion-help-physicians-talk-with-their-patients-about-the-end-of-life
#9
Jesse A Soodalter, Greg J Siegle, Michele Klein-Fedyshin, Robert Arnold, Yael Schenker
Despite believing end-of-life (EOL) discussions with patients are important, doctors often do not have them. Multiple factors contribute to this shortfall, which interventions including reimbursement changes and communication skills training have not significantly improved to date. One commonly cited but under-researched reason for physician avoidance of EOL discussion is emotional difficulty. High occupational demand for frequent difficult discussions may overload physicians' normal emotional functioning, leading to avoidance or failure...
December 11, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288507/effectiveness-of-executive-function-training-on-mental-set-shifting-working-memory-and-inhibition-in-healthy-older-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Huei-Ling Chiu, Pi-Tuan Chan, Ching-Chiu Kao, Hsin Chu, Pi-Chen Chang, Shu-Tai Sheen Hsiao, Doresses Liu, Wen-Chi Chang, Kuei-Ru Chou
AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness of executive function training on mental set shifting, working memory and inhibition for healthy older adults. BACKGROUND: Executive functions control and guide individuals' behaviors through a top-down cognitive model and have been regarded as the exhibition and integration of various high-level cognitive functions. However, prior studies have rarely focused on the subcomponent indicators of executive function, such as mental set shifting, working memory and inhibition in healthy older adults...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286989/effects-of-a-cognitive-behavioral-based-stress-management-program-on-stress-management-competency-self-efficacy-and-self-esteem-experienced-by-nursing-students
#11
Ulrik Terp, Fredrik Hjärthag, Birgitta Bisholt
Nursing students' exposure to stress negatively affects both academic and clinical performance and potentially their future as professional nurses. This pilot study measured the effects of a 10-week cognitive behavioral therapy-based stress management program, using a quasi-experimental design. Independent t tests showed positive effects of the training program compared with a control group. Students' perceived stress management competency, self-efficacy, and self-esteem were higher 1 year after the intervention...
December 29, 2017: Nurse Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284815/rehabilitation-in-schizophrenia-a-brain-behavior-and-psychosocial-perspective
#12
Jamuna Rajeswaran, Aarati Taksal, Sanjeev Jain
Cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia have been documented consistently. They are known to contribute to functional impairment in patients. Cognitive remediation has been found to be beneficial in symptoms reduction and functional recovery. CH was a 26/F, completed her graduation, currently pursuing a management course through correspondence, unmarried, currently living with her parents, from Bengaluru, right-handed, Middle socio economic status (MSES). A diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia was referred for cognitive assessment and rehabilitation...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283660/disability-culturally-competent-sexual-healthcare
#13
Linda R Mona, Rebecca P Cameron, Colleen Clemency Cordes
Though cultural competence and inclusion of diverse identities are increasingly emphasized in psychological training and practice, sexual health and well-being among people with disabilities (PWD) continue to be underrecognized areas in which disability cultural competence is needed. The experience of disability is best conceptualized as an interaction between physical, sensory, or cognitive differences and environmental and sociocultural contexts that facilitate or impede adaptive functioning; these complex interactions, coupled with an individual's age, gender, ethnicity, religious background, and sexual orientation, often inform one's sexual health and well-being...
December 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282327/practice-guideline-update-summary-mild-cognitive-impairment-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology
#14
Ronald C Petersen, Oscar Lopez, Melissa J Armstrong, Thomas S D Getchius, Mary Ganguli, David Gloss, Gary S Gronseth, Daniel Marson, Tamara Pringsheim, Gregory S Day, Mark Sager, James Stevens, Alexander Rae-Grant
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2001 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: The guideline panel systematically reviewed MCI prevalence, prognosis, and treatment articles according to AAN evidence classification criteria, and based recommendations on evidence and modified Delphi consensus. RESULTS: MCI prevalence was 6.7% for ages 60-64, 8.4% for 65-69, 10.1% for 70-74, 14.8% for 75-79, and 25.2% for 80-84...
December 27, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280247/learning-by-observation-and-learning-by-doing-in-down%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-williams%C3%A2-syndromes
#15
Francesca Foti, Deny Menghini, Paolo Alfieri, Floriana Costanzo, Laura Mandolesi, Laura Petrosini, Stefano Vicari
New skills may be learned by active experience (experiential learning or learning by doing) or by observation of others' experience (learning by observation). In general, learning by observation reduces the time and the attempts needed to learn complex actions and behaviors. The present research aimed to compare learning by observation and learning by doing in two clinical populations with different etiology of intellectual disability (ID), as individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), with the hypothesis that specific profiles of learning may be found in each syndrome...
December 26, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276545/the-beneficial-effects-of-different-types-of-exercise-interventions-on-motor-and-cognitive-functions-in-older-age-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Oron Levin, Yael Netz, Gal Ziv
The decline in cognitive and motor functions with age affects the performance of the aging healthy population in many daily life activities. Physical activity appears to mitigate this decline or even improve motor and cognitive abilities in older adults. The current systematic review will focus mainly on behavioral studies that look into the dual effects of different types of physical training (e.g., balance training, aerobic training, strength training, group sports, etc.) on cognitive and motor tasks in older adults with no known cognitive or motor disabilities or disease...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276380/a-multicenter-controlled-study-for-dementia-prevention-through-physical-cognitive-and-social-activities-gestalt-kompakt
#17
Anna Streber, Karim Abu-Omar, Christian Hentschke, Alfred Rütten
Prevention of dementia is a public health priority. Physical activity (PA) can reduce the risk of dementia, but the majority of people remain sedentary. We conducted a multicenter controlled study with older adults (60+ years). We hypothesized that an evidence-based PA intervention - GEhen, Spielen und Tanzen Als Lebenslange Tätigkeiten - kompakt [walking, playing and dancing as lifelong activities-compact] (GESTALT-kompakt) - would lead to significantly larger improvements in PA levels (step counts/Fitbit Zip™), cognitive functions (DemTect) and social activities (Social Activity Log), compared to an active control group...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274502/subtyping-cognitive-profiles-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-a-random-forest-algorithm
#18
E Feczko, N Balba, O Miranda-Dominguez, M Cordova, S L Karalunas, L Irwin, D V Demeter, A P Hill, B H Langhorst, J Grieser Painter, J Van Santen, E J Fombonne, J L Nigg, D A Fair
DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) comprises a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests, and may both affect and be affected by multiple cognitive mechanisms. This study attempts to identify and characterize cognitive subtypes within the ASD population using a random forest (RF) machine learning classification model. We trained our model on measures from seven tasks that reflect multiple levels of information processing...
December 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258631/attention-bias-modification-augments-cognitive-behavioral-group-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Amit Lazarov, Sofi Marom, Naomi Yahalom, Daniel S Pine, Haggai Hermesh, Yair Bar-Haim
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) is a first-line treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, since many patients remain symptomatic post-treatment, there is a need for augmenting procedures. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined the potential augmentation effect of attention bias modification (ABM) for CBGT. METHODS: Fifty patients with SAD from three therapy groups were randomized to receive an 18-week standard CBGT with either ABM designed to shift attention away from threat (CBGT + ABM), or a placebo protocol not designed to modify threat-related attention (CBGT + placebo)...
December 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248459/discrete-pools-of-oligomeric-amyloid-%C3%AE-track-with-spatial-learning-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-amyloidosis
#20
Angie C A Chiang, Stephanie W Fowler, Rohit Reddy, Olga Pletnikova, Juan C Troncoso, Mathew A Sherman, Sylvain E Lesne, Joanna L Jankowsky
Despite increasing appreciation that oligomeric amyeloid beta (Aβ) may contribute to cognitive decline of Alzheimer disease, defining the most critical forms has been thwarted by the changeable nature of these aggregates and the varying methods used for detection. Here, using a broad approach, we quantified Aβ oligomers during the evolution of cognitive deficits in an aggressive model of Aβ amyloidosis. Amyloid precursor protein/tetracycline transactivator mice underwent behavioral testing at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age to evaluate spatial learning and memory, followed by histological assessment of amyloid burden and biochemical characterization of oligomeric Aβ species...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
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