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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923975/efficacy-of-nonselective-optogenetic-control-of-the-medial-septum-over-hippocampal-oscillations-the-influence-of-speed-and-implications-for-cognitive-enhancement
#1
Benjamin J Blumberg, Sean P Flynn, Sylvain J Barriere, Philippe R Mouchati, Rod C Scott, Gregory L Holmes, Jeremy M Barry
Optogenetics holds great promise for both the dissection of neural circuits and the evaluation of theories centered on the temporal organizing properties of oscillations that underpin cognition. To date, no studies have examined the efficacy of optogenetic stimulation for altering hippocampal oscillations in freely moving wild-type rats, or how these alterations would affect performance on behavioral tasks. Here, we used an AAV virus to express ChR2 in the medial septum (MS) of wild-type rats, and optically stimulated septal neurons at 6 Hz and 30 Hz...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923780/attentional-bias-modification-with-serious-game-elements-evaluating-the-shots-game
#2
Wouter J Boendermaker, Soraya Sanchez Maceiras, Marilisa Boffo, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Young adults often experiment with heavy use of alcohol, which poses severe health risks and increases the chance of developing addiction problems. In clinical patients, cognitive retraining of automatic appetitive processes, such as selective attention toward alcohol (known as "cognitive bias modification of attention," or CBM-A), has been shown to be a promising add-on to treatment, helping to prevent relapse. OBJECTIVE: To prevent escalation of regular use into problematic use in youth, motivation appears to play a pivotal role...
December 6, 2016: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922473/reliability-and-validity-of-the-work-and-social-adjustment-scale-in-treatment-seeking-problem-gamblers
#3
Barry Tolchard
BACKGROUND: Problem gambling is a growing concern as governments become more reliant on gambling revenue particularly from increases in gambling casinos. It is widely reported that problem gamblers experience both high levels of comorbid mental health issues and subsequent disability that comes with such. To date, there have been few measures tested with problem gamblers that are a good measure of this disability. The Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) is a five-item measure of disability, which is used widely in a number of clinical settings including gambling...
October 2016: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919376/usability-evaluation-of-the-smart-application-for-youth-with-mtbi
#4
Judith W Dexheimer, Brad G Kurowski, Shilo H Anders, Nicole McClanahan, Shari L Wade, Lynn Babcock
OBJECTIVE: There is a dearth of evidence-based treatments available to address the significant morbidity associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). To address this gap, we designed a novel user-friendly, web-based application. We describe the preliminary evaluation of feasibility and usability of the application to promote recovery following mTBI in youth, the Self-Monitoring Activity-Restriction and Relaxation Treatment (SMART). SMART incorporates real-time recommendations for individualized symptom management and activity restriction along with training in cognitive-behavioral coping strategies...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918466/evaluating-a-website-to-teach-children-safety-with-dogs-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
David C Schwebel, Peng Li, Leslie A McClure, Joan Severson
Dog bites represent a significant threat to child health. Theory-driven interventions scalable for broad dissemination are sparse. A website was developed to teach children dog safety via increased knowledge, improved cognitive skills in relevant domains, and increased perception of vulnerability to bites. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 69 children aged 4-5 randomly assigned to use the dog safety website or a control transportation safety website for ~3 weeks. Assessment of dog safety knowledge and behavior plus skill in three relevant cognitive constructs (impulse control, noticing details, and perspective-taking) was conducted both at baseline and following website use...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918287/measuring-discrimination-and-reversal-learning-in-mouse-models-within-4-days-and-without-prior-food-deprivation
#6
Esther Remmelink, August B Smit, Matthijs Verhage, Maarten Loos
Many neurological and psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in cognitive flexibility. Modeling cognitive flexibility in mice enables the investigation of mechanisms underlying these deficits. The majority of currently available behavioral tests targeting this cognitive domain are reversal learning tasks that require scheduled food restriction, extended training periods and labor-intensive, and stress-inducing animal handling. Here, we describe a novel 4-day (4-d) continuously running task measuring discrimination- and reversal learning in an automated home cage (CognitionWall DL/RL task) that largely eliminates these limitations...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918079/high-intensity-treadmill-running-impairs-cognitive-behavior-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-of-rats-via-activation-of-inflammatory-response
#7
Li-Na Sun, Xiao-Long Li, Fei Wang, Jun Zhang, Dan-Dan Wang, Li Yuan, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Although appropriate exercise is beneficial for enhancing brain functions, high-intensity exercise (HIE)-induced cognitive dysfunction is causing more and more concerns nowadays. In the present study, we observed the effects of high-intensity treadmill running on the spatial learning of the adult Sprague Dawley male rats in Y-maze (n = 16 per group), and investigated its possible electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms by examining in vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), central inflammatory responses, and JNK/p38/ERK signal pathway...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917121/neurochemical-and-neuroanatomical-plasticity-following-memory-training-and-yoga-interventions-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Hongyu Yang, Amber M Leaver, Prabha Siddarth, Pattharee Paholpak, Linda Ercoli, Natalie M St Cyr, Harris A Eyre, Katherine L Narr, Dharma S Khalsa, Helen Lavretsky
Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917117/training-on-working-memory-and-inhibitory-control-in-young-adults
#9
Maria J Maraver, M Teresa Bajo, Carlos J Gomez-Ariza
Different types of interventions have focused on trying to improve Executive Functions (EFs) due to their essential role in human cognition and behavior regulation. Although EFs are thought to be diverse, most training studies have targeted cognitive processes related to working memory (WM), and fewer have focused on training other control mechanisms, such as inhibitory control (IC). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the differential impact of training WM and IC as compared with control conditions performing non-executive control activities...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916664/experience-dependent-modulation-of-right-anterior-insula-and-sensorimotor-regions-as-a-function-of-noise-masked-auditory-feedback-in-singers-and-nonsingers
#10
Boris Kleber, Anders Friberg, Anthony Zeitouni, Robert Zatorre
Previous studies on vocal motor production in singing suggest that the right anterior insula (AI) plays a role in experience-dependent modulation of feedback integration. Specifically, when somatosensory input was reduced via anesthesia of the vocal fold mucosa, right AI activity was down regulated in trained singers. In the current fMRI study, we examined how masking of auditory feedback affects pitch-matching accuracy and corresponding brain activity in the same participants. We found that pitch-matching accuracy was unaffected by masking in trained singers yet declined in nonsingers...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915361/neuroscience-literacy-brain-tells-as-signals-of-brain-dysfunction-affecting-daily-life
#11
Charlotte B Royeen, James R Brašić, Leah Dvorak, Casey Provoziak-O'Brien, Chetna Sethi, S Omar Ahmad
The structures and circuits of the central and the peripheral nervous systems provide the basis for thinking, speaking, experiencing sensations, and performing perceptual and motor activities in daily life. Healthy people experience normal functioning without giving brain functions a second thought, while dysfunction of the neural circuits may lead to marked impairments in cognition, communication, sensory awareness, and performing perceptual and motor tasks. Neuroscience literacy provides the knowledge to associate the deficits observed in patients with the underlying deficits in the structures and circuits of the nervous system...
2016: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914473/effectiveness-of-enhanced-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-cbt-e-for-eating-disorders-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Martie de Jong, Kees Korrelboom, Iris van der Meer, Mathijs Deen, Hans W Hoek, Philip Spinhoven
BACKGROUND: While eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most common eating disorder (ED) diagnosis in routine clinical practice, no specific treatment methods for this diagnosis have yet been developed and studied. Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) has been described and put to the test as a transdiagnostic treatment protocol for all EDs, including EDNOS. Initial research in the UK suggests that CBT-E is more effective for EDs, especially bulimia nervosa (BN) and EDNOS, than the earlier version of CBT...
December 3, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911937/an-investigation-of-the-outcomes-of-pgy-students-cognition-of-and-persistent-behavior-in-learning-through-the-intervention-of-the-flipped-classroom-in-taiwan
#13
Sheng-Der Hsu, Cheng-Jueng Chen, Wei-Kuo Chang, Yih-Jin Hu
The Postgraduate Year (PGY) Program allows doctors-in-training to learn about the diagnosis, treatment and nursing of various common, general diseases. These items form the core curriculum and are mostly learned through caring for patients and clinical teaching. Doctors-in-training are evaluated for their knowledge through written tests or assignments, based on which the effectiveness of their training is also assessed; however, this generally produces a negative learning attitude among them. So we introduced the flipped classroom into PGY training program to change PGY students' learning behavior...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903728/context-dependent-accumulation-of-sensory-evidence-in-the-parietal-cortex-underlies-flexible-task-switching
#14
Hironori Kumano, Yuki Suda, Takanori Uka
: Switching behavior based on multiple rules is a fundamental ability of flexible behavior. Although interactions among the frontal, parietal, and sensory cortices are necessary for such flexibility, little is known about the neural computations concerning context-dependent information readouts. Here, we provide evidence that neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) accumulate relevant information preferentially depending on context. We trained monkeys to switch between direction and depth discrimination tasks and analyzed the buildup activity in the LIP depending on task context...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903132/a-trans-theoretical-training-designed-to-promote-understanding-and-management-of-countertransference-for-trainee-therapists
#15
Claire Cartwright, Carrie Barber, Sue Cowie, Neil Thompson
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that awareness of countertransference (CT) in combination with a conceptualization of CT facilitates its management. This study examines the impact of a trans-theoretical training designed to make the construct of CT accessible to trainee therapists in programs oriented towards cognitive-behavioral therapy. The training aimed to enhance trainees' awareness, understanding, and management of CT. METHOD: Academics at five New Zealand universities introduced the training into their curriculum...
November 30, 2016: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902836/effect-of-a-web-based-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-insomnia-intervention-with-1-year-follow-up-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Lee M Ritterband, Frances P Thorndike, Karen S Ingersoll, Holly R Lord, Linda Gonder-Frederick, Christina Frederick, Mark S Quigg, Wendy F Cohn, Charles M Morin
Importance: Although cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has been established as the first-line recommendation for the millions of adults with chronic insomnia, there is a paucity of trained clinicians to deliver this much needed treatment. Internet-delivered CBT-I has shown promise as a method to overcome this obstacle; however, the long-term effectiveness has not been proven in a representative sample with chronic insomnia. Objective: To evaluate a web-based, automated CBT-I intervention to improve insomnia in the short term (9 weeks) and long term (1 year)...
November 30, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901245/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-report-on-two-cases-and-proposal-for-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#17
Renata de Melo Felipe da Silva, André Russowsky Brunoni, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Roseli Gedanke Shavitt
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation techniques for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have expanded through greater understanding of the brain circuits involved in this disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique, has been studied as an alternative for treatment-resistant OCD. We describe the design of a clinical trial using tDCS for OCD and report on the outcomes from two patients with primary OCD who were resistant to cognitive-behavioral therapy and to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and who received tDCS in an open manner during the training phase for the study procedures...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899737/cognitive-training-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-theoretical-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Courtney C Walton, Sharon L Naismith, Amit Lampit, Loren Mowszowski, Simon J G Lewis
Cognitive impairment is now widely accepted as a fundamental aspect of Parkinson's disease (PD). Given the prevalence of cognitive impairment and the associated impact on well-being, evidence-based interventions are needed. However, while research is continually accumulating in order to better understand the pathology and trajectory of cognitive changes, treatment options lag behind. Nonpharmacological approaches are of particular interest in this group, given the typical polypharmacy already present in PD patients...
November 28, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898511/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-cancer-related-cognitive-dysfunction
#19
Shelly Kucherer, Robert J Ferguson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide the reader with an overview of the cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) and how cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can play an important role in treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings show that Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT), a CBT developed to help cancer survivors develop adaptive skills to improve daily cognitive performance and emotional coping, may be an efficacious treatment of CRCD and can be delivered through videoconference technology to improve survivor access to care...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893264/-is-supervision-necessary-examining-the-effects-of-internet-based-cbt-training-with-and-without-supervision-correction-to-rakovshik-et-al-2016
#20
(no author information available yet)
: Reports an error in "Is supervision necessary? Examining the effects of internet-based CBT training with and without supervision" by Sarah G. Rakovshik, Freda McManus, Maria Vazquez-Montes, Kate Muse and Dennis Ougrin (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2016[Mar], Vol 84[3], 191-199). In the article, the department and affiliation were misspelled for author Kate Muse. The department and affiliation should have read Psychology Department, University of Worcester. All versions of this article has been corrected...
December 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
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