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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654734/can-a-rapid-measure-of-self-exposure-to-drugs-of-abuse-provide-dimensional-information-on-depression-comorbidity
#1
Eduardo Roque Butelman, Silvia Bacciardi, Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani, Maya Darst-Campbell, Joel Correa da Rosa, Mary Jeanne Kreek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Addictions to heroin or to cocaine are associated with substantial psychiatric comorbidity, including depression. Poly-drug self-exposure (eg, to heroin, cocaine, cannabis, or alcohol) is also common, and may further affect depression comorbidity. METHODS: This case-control study examined the relationship of exposure to the above drugs and depression comorbidity. Participants were recruited from methadone maintenance clinics, and from the community...
June 27, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653857/anti-inflammatory-treatment-for-major-depressive-disorder-implications-for-patients-with-an-elevated-immune-profile-and-non-responders-to-standard-antidepressant-therapy
#2
Paula Kopschina Feltes, Janine Doorduin, Hans C Klein, Luis Eduardo Juárez-Orozco, Rudi Ajo Dierckx, Cristina M Moriguchi-Jeckel, Erik Fj de Vries
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and disabling psychiatric disease with rates of non-responsiveness to antidepressants ranging from 30-50%. Historically, the monoamine depletion hypothesis has dominated the view on the pathophysiology of depression. However, the lack of responsiveness to antidepressants and treatment resistance suggests that additional mechanisms might play a role. Evidence has shown that a subgroup of depressive patients may have an underlying immune deregulation that could explain the lack of therapeutic benefit from antidepressants...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653044/neuroclinical-framework-for-the-role-of-stress-in-addiction
#3
Laura E Kwako, George F Koob
Addiction has been conceptualized as a three-stage cycle-binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation-that worsens over time and involves allostatic changes in hedonic function via changes in the brain reward and stress systems. Using the withdrawal/negative affect stage and negative reinforcement as an important source of motivation for compulsive drug seeking, we outline the neurobiology of the stress component of the withdrawal/negative affect stage and relate it to a derivative of the Research Domain Criteria research construct for the study of psychiatric disease, known as the Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment...
February 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651170/an-analysis-of-quality-of-life-qol-in-patients-with-epilepsy-and-comorbid-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-pnes-after-vagus-nerve-stimulation-vns
#4
Andrew C Vivas, Christian J Reitano, Hena Waseem, Selim R Benbadis, Fernando L Vale
PURPOSE: Patients with epilepsy (PWE) may suffer from comorbid psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). The efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in the treatment of epilepsy and depression is established, however the impact on PNES is unknown. Since many patients with PNES have comorbid depression, we explored the impact on quality of life (QOL) that VNS has on PWE and PNES. METHODS: The video electroencephalogram (vEEG) of all patients who underwent VNS at our institution was reviewed...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651153/the-role-of-marijuana-use-disorder-in-predicting-emergency-department-and-inpatient-encounters-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Cynthia I Campbell, Amber L Bahorik, Andrea H Kline-Simon, Derek D Satre
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use disorder (MUD) is the most common illegal drug use disorder and its prevalence is increasing. It is associated with psychiatric and medical problems, but little is known about its impact on emergency department (ED) and inpatient utilization rates. DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort design, we used electronic health record (EHR) data to identify patients with MUD (n=2752) and demographically matched patients without MUD (n=2752) in 2010...
June 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649903/herbal-medicine-for-psychiatric-disorders-psychopharmacology-and-neuroscience-based-nomenclature
#6
Siu W Tang, Wayne Tang, Brian E Leonard
OBJECTIVES: Herbs are frequently and concurrently used with prescribed drugs by patients worldwide. While clinical trials have found some herbs to be as useful as standard psychiatric drugs, most clinicians are unaware of their pharmacological mechanisms. METHODS: We searched English language and other language literature with English abstracts listed in PubMed website, supplemented by additional through Google Scholar's free academic paper abstract website for publications on herbs, focusing on their clinical usages in mental disorders, their neurobiology and pharmacology...
June 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649672/oxytocin-and-stress-related-disorders-neurobiological-mechanisms-and-treatment-opportunities
#7
Lauren M Sippel, Casey E Allington, Robert H Pietrzak, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Linda C Mayes, Miranda Olff
Novel pharmacotherapies that improve outcomes for individuals with stress-related psychiatric disorders are needed. The neurohormone oxytocin (OT) is a promising candidate given its influence on the social-emotional brain. In this review, we present an overview of evidence supporting OT's utility for treating major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. We first discuss endogenous OT, which research suggests is not yet a reliable biomarker of stress-related disorders. Second, we review effects of intranasal (IN) OT on processes relevant to stress-related disorders in healthy populations (anhedonia, reward processing, psychosocial stress reactivity, fear/anxiety, and social behavior) and their neurobiological mechanisms (e...
February 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648845/substance-abuse-and-gender-differences-in-first-episode-psychosis-impact-on-hospital-readmissions
#8
Josep M Crosas, Jesus Cobo, Maribel Ahuir, Carla Hernández, Rebeca García, Esther Pousa, Joan-Carles Oliva, José-Antonio Monreal, Diego J Palao
INTRODUCTION: There have been controversial results in the study of gender differences in first episode psychosis (FEP). Substance abuse is the main existing comorbidity in FEP, and has been associated with worse prognosis and greater symptom severity. OBJECTIVES: To explore gender differences in FEP in relation to drug abuse, and their relationship with hospital readmissions. METHODOLOGY: Descriptive and prospective study (18 months). RESULTS: We included 141 patients (31...
June 22, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647082/targeting-neuronal-function-for-cns-drug-discovery
#9
REVIEW
Chris M Hempel, Christopher A Werley, Graham T Dempsey, David J Gerber
There is a pressing need for new and more effective treatments for central nervous system (CNS) disorders. A large body of evidence now suggests that alterations in synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability represent underlying factors for many neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, it has been challenging to target these complex functional domains for therapeutic discovery using traditional neuronal assay methods. Here we review advances in neuronal screening technologies and cellular model systems that enable phenotypic screening of neuronal function as a basis for novel CNS drug discovery approaches...
March 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647007/childhood-psychiatric-disorders-as-risk-factor-for-subsequent-substance-abuse-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Annabeth P Groenman, Tieme W P Janssen, Jaap Oosterlaan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective risk of developing substance-related disorders after childhood mental health disorders (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD], anxiety disorder, and depression) using meta-analysis. METHOD: PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo were searched for relevant longitudinal studies that described childhood (<18 years old) ADHD, ODD or CD, anxiety, or depression in relation to later alcohol-, nicotine-, or drug-related disorders or substance use disorders (SUDs) published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language from 1986 to May 2016...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646910/the-role-of-5-ht-receptors-in-depression
#11
REVIEW
Christine N Yohn, Mark M Gergues, Benjamin Adam Samuels
Depression is a polygenic and highly complex psychiatric disorder that remains a major burden on society. Antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are some of the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. In this review, we will discuss the evidence that links serotonin and serotonin receptors to the etiology of depression and the mechanisms underlying response to antidepressant treatment. We will then revisit the role of serotonin in three distinct hypotheses that have been proposed over the last several decades to explain the pathophysiology of depression: the monoamine, neurotrophic, and neurogenic hypotheses...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645961/cognitive-screening-and-behavioural-observation-of-functional-ability-in-patients-with-multiple-episode-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study
#12
Eva Norlin Bagge, Eva Esbjörnsson, Katharina S Sunnerhagen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usability of a neuropsychological screening instrument and two observation scales of everyday behaviour to describe cognitive and functional capacity of patients with multiepisode schizophrenia and considerable care needs, who frequently refuse to participate in cognitive testing or performance-based functional measurement. SETTING: One psychiatric unit specialised in severe mental illness at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645694/-comparative-analysis-effectiveness-of-nicotine-addiction-treatment-in-people-with-psychiatric-comorbidity
#13
R Godoy, F J Callejas, J Cruz, A I Tornero, P J Tárraga, J A Rodríguez-Montes
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether or not nicotine addiction treatment was less effective in psychiatric than in the healthy population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive and comparative cohort study was conducted in Albacete University Hospital during years 2008-2012 on all patients that attended the Tobacco Cessation Unit. The statistical tests used were Chi-squared, likelihood ratio, and the Student t test. Statistical significance P≤.05. RESULTS: The study included a total of 1,484 patients, of which 48...
June 20, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645191/how-effective-is-algorithm-guided-treatment-for-depressed-inpatients-results-from-the-randomized-controlled-multicenter-german-algorithm-project-3-trial
#14
Mazda Adli, Katja Wiethoff, Thomas C Baghai, Robert Fisher, Florian Seemüller, Gregor Laakmann, Peter Brieger, Joachim Cordes, Jaroslav Malevani, Gerd Laux, Iris Hauth, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Klaus-Thomas Kronmüller, Michael N Smolka, Peter Schlattmann, Maximilian Berger, Roland Ricken, Thomas J Stamm, Andreas Heinz, Michael Bauer
Background: Treatment algorithms are are considered as key to improve outcomes by enhancing the quality of care. This is the first randomized controlled study to evalutate the clinical effect of algorithm-guided treatment in inpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Inpatients, aged 18-70 years with MDD from 10 German psychiatric departments were randomized to 5 different treatment arms (from 2000 to 2005), three of which were standardized stepwise drug treatment algorithms (ALGO)...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644739/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-new-fixed-dose-combinations
#15
Vicente Soriano
The advent of oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized the hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutic landscape providing cure rates over 90%. However, a subset of patients remains at higher risk for treatment failure, including those infected with: i) genotype 3 and cirrhosis; ii) resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) occurring either as natural polymorphisms or selected after prior DAA failure; and iii) poor drug adherence associated with social disabilities (homeless, psychiatric illnesses, injection drug use, alcoholism, etc...
June 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641965/animal-models-of-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction-present-problems-and-future-needs-for-translational-approaches
#16
REVIEW
Christian P Müller
Drug addiction is a psychiatric disorder based on a dysfunction of the brain. It frequently develops from a controlled drug consumption and drug instrumentalization (DI). Thereby, DI is the use of a drug to improve specific non-drug related behaviors, beyond the drug's direct positive or negative reinforcing effects. Currently available pharmacotherapies for drug addiction show low effect size and rather limited long-term efficacy, which suggests that current theories on addiction are still insufficient in how they capture the phenomenon and how they allow predictions for highly efficient treatments...
June 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641497/a-neuropsychiatric-analysis-of-the-cotard-delusion
#17
Aradhana Sahoo, Keith A Josephs
Cotard's syndrome, a condition in which the patient denies his or her own existence or the existence of body parts, is a rare illness that has been reported in association with several neuropsychiatric diagnoses. The majority of published literature on the topic is in the form of case reports, many of which are several years old. The authors evaluated associated diagnoses, neuroimaging, and treatments recorded in patients diagnosed with Cotard's syndrome at their institution. A search of the Mayo Clinic database for patients with mention of signs and symptoms associated with Cotard's in their records between 1996 and 2016 was conducted...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641333/validation-of-brain-angiotensin-system-blockade-as-a-novel-drug-target-in-pharmacological-treatment-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#18
Dominik Wincewicz, Jan J Braszko
Retreat in psychiatric drug development results in innovative medication decline that might be at least partially overcome by adjunct therapy. New evidence from clinical studies has shown a possible role for brain Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) in both affective and psychotic disorders. Simultaneously, rapidly accumulating data from basic studies indicate effectiveness of central RAS blockade in much broader range of neuropsychiatric disease. Recent findings implicate brain RAS, especially Angiotensin II (Ang II), in neural pathophysiology of mental disorders through neuroendocrine modulation and effects on neurotransmitter release, mostly noradrenaline, acetylcholine and dopamine...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640591/managing-psychotropic-medications-in-complex-real-world-patients-using-comprehensive-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#19
Jeffrey J Sutherland, Ryan D Morrison, J Scott Daniels, Stephen B Milne, Timothy P Ryan
There are multiple treatment options for depression, anxiety, psychosis, and other psychiatric disorders, and psychiatry patients are often comorbid with complex, polypharmacy treatment regimens. Unlike cardiovascular disease and diabetes, there are no readily available biomarkers to gauge treatment success with psychotropic medications, often resulting in subjective determination of medication therapy effectiveness. The physiochemical properties of psychiatric medications in general lend themselves to quantitative measurement in blood, offering an avenue to optimize treatment for each patient...
June 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639479/an-evaluation-of-health-of-the-nation-outcome-scales-data-to-inform-psychiatric-morbidity-following-the-canterbury-earthquakes
#20
Ben Beaglehole, Chris M Frampton, Joseph M Boden, Roger T Mulder, Caroline J Bell
OBJECTIVE: Following the onset of the Canterbury, New Zealand earthquakes, there were widespread concerns that mental health services were under severe strain as a result of adverse consequences on mental health. We therefore examined Health of the Nation Outcome Scales data to see whether this could inform our understanding of the impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on patients attending local specialist mental health services. METHOD: Health of the Nation Outcome Scales admission data were analysed for Canterbury mental health services prior to and following the Canterbury earthquakes...
June 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
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