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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471606/-clinical-approach-to-abdominal-pain-as-functional-origin
#1
REVIEW
Han Seung Ryu, Suck Chei Choi
Abdominal pain is a common symptom that patients refer to a hospital. Organic causes should be differentiated in patients with abdominal pain and treatment should be administered in accordance with the causes. A meticulous history taking and physical examination are highly useful in making a diagnosis, and blood tests, imaging modalities, and endoscopy are useful for confirming diagnosis. However, in many cases, patients have functional disorders with no obvious abnormal findings obtained even if many diagnostic tests are performed...
February 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470514/profile-of-suicide-attempts-and-risk-factors-among-psychiatric-patients-a-case-control-study
#2
Meha Bhatt, Stefan Perera, Laura Zielinski, Rebecca B Eisen, Sharon Yeung, Wala El-Sheikh, Jane DeJesus, Sumathy Rangarajan, Heather Sholer, Elizabeth Iordan, Pam Mackie, Shofiqul Islam, Mahshid Dehghan, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Suicidal behaviour remains challenging for clinicians to predict, with few established risk factors and warning signs among psychiatric patients. AIM: We aimed to describe characteristics and identify risk factors for suicide attempts among patients with psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusted for clinically important confounders, was employed to determine risk factors for suicide attempts within a psychiatric patient population...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470183/the-central-effects-of-androgenic-anabolic-steroid-use
#3
Marek Mędraś, Anna Brona, Paweł Jóźków
: Millions of men use androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) to stimulate muscle growth and improve physical appearance. Although 1 out of 3 people who uses androgenic-anabolic steroids develops a steroid use disorder, the effects of the drugs on the central nervous system and the psyche are still not well understood. Although most addictive substances improve mood immediately after administration, AAS exert less pronounced euphoric effects. Instead, they are primarily taken for the delayed gratification of increased muscle mass...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466824/qtc-time-correlates-with-amitriptyline-and-venlafaxine-serum-levels-in-elderly-psychiatric-inpatients
#4
Gudrun Hefner, Martina Hahn, Matthias Hohner, Sybille C Roll, Ansgar Klimke, Christoph Hiemke
INTRODUCTION: Many antidepressants cause QT prolongation but the classification of cardiac risk of these drugs varies markedly in different published lists. This retrospective study analyzed the correlation of QTc time with amitriptyline and venlafaxine serum level in elderly psychiatric inpatients. METHODS: Elderly inpatients aged≥65 years for whom venlafaxine or amitriptyline serum level had been measured were selected retrospectively from a therapeutic drug monitoring database and screened for an electrocardiogram measurement at the time of blood withdrawal...
February 21, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464851/alteration-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-in-huntington-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Maurice Garret, Zhuowei Du, Marine Chazalon, Yoon H Cho, Jérôme Baufreton
Hereditary Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by cell dysfunction and death in the brain, leading to progressive cognitive, psychiatric, and motor impairments. Despite molecular and cellular descriptions of the effects of the HD mutation, no effective pharmacological treatment is yet available. In addition to well-established alterations of glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems, it is becoming clear that the GABAergic systems are also impaired in HD. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, and GABAergic neurotransmission has been postulated to be modified in many neurological and psychiatric diseases...
February 21, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463440/post-ssri-sexual-dysfunction-preclinical-to-clinical-is-it-fact-or-fiction
#6
REVIEW
Enis Rauf Coskuner, Mehmet Gokhan Culha, Burak Ozkan, Elcin Orhan Kaleagasi
INTRODUCTION: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a widely used class of drug for various psychiatric disorders during the lifespan, including pregnancy, lactation, childhood, and adolescence. Deterioration in sexual functioning is a major and serious adverse effect of SSRIs. There is emerging evidence that SSRIs can have long-lasting effects on sexuality. AIM: To summarize the long-lasting effects of SSRIs on sexuality, starting with animal models and continuing with the clinical experience of different investigators...
February 17, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461920/a-randomized-controlled-trial-for-veterans-with-ptsd-and-substance-use-disorder-creating-change-versus-seeking-safety
#7
Lisa M Najavits, Karen Krinsley, Molly E Waring, Matthew W Gallagher, Christopher Skidmore
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) co-occur in military veterans and other populations. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a randomized controlled trial to compare a new past-focused treatment (Creating Change; CC), to a well-established, evidence-based present-focused treatment for PTSD/SUD (Seeking Safety; SS), on symptoms of both disorders. CC guides patients to process the past through exploration of PTSD/SUD life themes and memories whereas SS focuses on coping skills in the present...
February 20, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461302/does-initial-use-of-benzodiazepines-delay-an-adequate-pharmacological-treatment-a-multicentre-analysis-in-patients-with-psychotic-and-affective-disorders
#8
Benedetta Grancini, Vera De Carlo, Mariacarlotta Palazzo, Matteo Vismara, Chiara Arici, Laura Cremaschi, Beatrice Benatti, A Carlo Altamura, Bernardo Dell'Osso
It is established that delayed effective pharmacotherapy plays a significant role in the overall burden of psychiatric disorders, which are often treated with symptomatic drugs, that is benzodiazepines (BZDs), in relation to their rapid onset of action and safety, despite long-term side effects. We aimed to assess the influence of initial treatment with BZDs on the duration of untreated illness (DUI) and whether specific sociodemographic and clinical factors could influence the choice of BZDs as first treatment in 545 patients affected by schizophrenia, mood and anxiety spectrum disorders...
February 15, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460428/genomewide-association-study-of-alcohol-dependence-and-related-traits-in-a-thai-population
#9
Joel Gelernter, Hang Zhou, Yaira Z Nuñez, Apiwat Mutirangura, Robert T Malison, Rasmon Kalayasiri
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use (both quantity and dependence) is moderately heritable, and genomewide association studies (GWAS) have identified risk genes in European, African, and Asian populations. The most reproducibly identified risk genes affect alcohol metabolism. Well-known functional variants at the gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase B (ADH1B) and other alcohol dehydrogenases affect risk in European and African-ancestry populations. Similarly, variants mapped to these same genes and a well-known null variant that maps to the gene that encodes aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) also affect risk in various Asian populations...
February 20, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460164/assessing-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-among-children-and-adolescents-with-psychiatric-disorders-treated-with-atypical-antipsychotics-a-population-based-nested-case-control-study
#10
Hankil Lee, Dong-Ho Song, Jin-Won Kwon, Euna Han, Min-Jung Chang, Hye-Young Kang
To examine the associations between atypical antipsychotic (AAP) exposure and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korean pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders, we conducted a nested case-control study using the claims data of the National Health Insurance system of Korea between 2010 and 2014. A cohort of patients with psychiatric disorders was identified, and enrollment was taken as the date of the first psychiatric diagnosis. Cases involved patients with a diagnosis of T2DM or prescriptions for glucose lowering drugs after enrollment, and the identification of T2DM was defined as the index date...
February 19, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459835/asymmetric-drug-induced-parkinsonism-and-psychopathology-a-prospective-naturalistic-study-in-long-stay-psychiatric-patients
#11
Lydia E Pieters, P Roberto Bakker, Peter N van Harten
Background: Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is the most common movement disorder induced by antipsychotics. Although DIP is mostly symmetric, asymmetric DIP is reported in a substantial part of the patients. We investigated the frequency of motor asymmetry in DIP and its relationship to the severity of psychopathology in long-stay psychiatric patients. Methods: We obtained data from a cohort study of 207 long-stay psychiatric patients on the frequency and risk factors of tardive dyskinesia, akathisia, tardive dystonia, and DIP...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457676/subthalamic-nucleus-pathology-contributes-to-repetitive-behavior-expression-and-is-reversed-by-environmental-enrichment
#12
Mark H Lewis, Zsuzsa Buchwald, Kathryn Boswell, Gabriella Edington, Michael A King, Amber M Muehlmann
Repetitive motor behaviors are common in neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurological disorders. Despite their prevalence in certain clinical populations, our understanding of the neurobiological cause of repetitive behavior is lacking. Likewise, not knowing the pathophysiology has precluded efforts to find effective drug treatments. Our comparisons between mouse strains that differ in their expression of repetitive behavior revealed an important role of the subthalamic nucleus. In mice with high rates of repetitive behavior, we found significant differences in dendritic spine density, gene expression, and neuronal activation in the subthalamic nucleus...
February 19, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457668/the-relationships-between-depression-neuroticism-and-attitudes-nda-model-in-heroin-abusers-in-taiwan
#13
Kun-Hua Lee, Cheng-Fang Yen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heroin use is a severe problem worldwide. To develop more effective treatments for heroin abusers, a comprehensive psychosocial model of heroin use should be established and examined. We created and assessed a neuroticism, depression, attitudes, and heroin addiction (NDA) model. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 234 patients undergoing methadone replacement treatment were recruited from psychiatric clinics. We used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to assess all for neuroticism, depression, and a positive outcome expectancy (POE) (attitudes)...
February 19, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457216/n-acetylcysteine-for-major-mental-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#14
W Zheng, Q-E Zhang, D-B Cai, X-H Yang, Y Qiu, G S Ungvari, C H Ng, M Berk, Y-P Ning, Y-T Xiang
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examined the efficacy and safety of adjunctive N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant drug, in treating major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, CNKI, CBM, and WanFang databases were independently searched and screened by two researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs), risk ratios, and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed...
February 18, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456505/deletion-of-trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-attenuates-behavioral-responses-to-caffeine
#15
Michael D Schwartz, Jeremiah B Palmerston, Diana L Lee, Marius C Hoener, Thomas S Kilduff
Trace amines (TAs), endogenous amino acid metabolites that are structurally similar to the biogenic amines, are endogenous ligands for trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a GPCR that modulates dopaminergic, serotonergic, and glutamatergic activity. Selective TAAR1 full and partial agonists exhibit similar pro-cognitive, antidepressant- and antipsychotic-like properties in rodents and non-human primates, suggesting TAAR1 as a novel target for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We previously reported that TAAR1 partial agonists are wake-promoting in rats and mice, and that TAAR1 knockout (KO) and overexpressing mice exhibit altered sleep-wake and EEG spectral composition...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456345/rates-and-correlations-of-psychiatric-drug-administration-in-a-rehabilitation-center
#16
Vaios Peritogiannis, Soultana L Papadopoulou, Athina Tatsioni, Artemis Kapsalaki, Vassiliki Siafaka, Katerina Kotsi, Avraam Ploumis
Background: Physical injury has been associated with the development of several psychopathological manifestations. Less is known about the use of psychiatric medication in those patients. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the use of psychiatric medication by patients been admitted in a rehabilitation center in a tertiary care teaching hospital and to inquire for the correlations of such drug administration. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 127 patients who had been admitted to a rehabilitation center, being in the postacute phase of their condition during a 2-year period...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456150/antidepressants-as-antipruritic-agents-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Randeep Kaur, V R Sinha
Pruritus is a concomitant symptom of various underlying disorders viz. dermatological, systemic and psychiatric disorders that provoke the person to scratch the skin. Many natural as well as, antipruritic therapies are usually practiced in the treatment of pruritus including general preventive measures, topical therapies such as cooling agents, antihistamines, anesthetics, capsaicin, corticosteroids, immunomodulators and; systemic therapies including administration of antihistamines, opioid antagonists/agonists, antiepileptic drugs/neuroleptics (e...
February 15, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453037/profile-of-psychiatric-symptoms-in-methamphetamine-users-in-china-greater-risk-of-psychiatric-symptoms-with-a-longer-duration-of-use
#18
Jun Ma, Xin-Jun Sun, Ru-Jia Wang, Tong-Yu Wang, Meng-Fan Su, Mo-Xuan Liu, Su-Xia Li, Ying Han, Shi-Qiu Meng, Ping Wu, Jie Shi, Yan-Ping Bao, Lin Lu
Chronic methamphetamine (MA) use is associated with psychiatric symptoms. This study explored pattern of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms in MA users and their relationship to duration of MA use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MA users at the Shenzhen Compulsory Drug Detoxification Center from April 2012 to October 2015. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess psychiatric symptoms. Among 1277 MA users, 57.6% participants had any type of psychiatric symptoms including depressive, anxiety and psychotic symptoms...
February 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453005/post-mortem-quetiapine-concentrations-in-hair-segments-of-psychiatric-patients-correlation-between-hair-concentration-dose-and-concentration-in-blood
#19
Kamilla Nyborg Günther, Sys Stybe Johansen, Marie Katrine Klose Nielsen, Petra Wicktor, Jytte Banner, Kristian Linnet
Drug analysis in hair is useful when seeking to establish drug intake over a period of months to years. Segmental hair analysis can also document whether psychiatric patients are receiving a stable intake of antipsychotics. This study describes segmental analysis of the antipsychotic drug quetiapine in post-mortem hair samples from long-term quetiapine users by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The aim was to obtain more knowledge on quetiapine concentrations in hair and to relate the concentration in hair to the administered dose and the post-mortem concentration in femoral blood...
February 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451210/intravenous-morphine-self-administration-alters-accumbal-microrna-profiles-in-the-mouse-brain
#20
Juhwan Kim, Heh-In Im, Changjong Moon
A significant amount of evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in drug addiction. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical part of the brain's reward circuit and is involved in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and drug addiction. However, few studies have examined the expression of miRNAs and their functional roles in the NAc under conditions of morphine addiction. In this study, mice were intravenously infused with morphine (0.01, 0.03, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg/infusion) and showed inverted U-shaped response...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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