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Psychiatric drug

Yuzuki Kanda, Miho Okada, Rina Ikarashi, Eri Morioka, Takashi Kondo, Masayuki Ikeda
Clozapine (Clz) and olanzapine (Olz) are second generation (atypical) antipsychotics, used widely for treating schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These drugs share multiple sites of actions, however their mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed the effects of these drugs on primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes and C6 glioma cells using fura-2-based Ca(2+) imaging. C6 cells, but not cortical astrocytes, express the serotonin 2A receptor subtype, which couples to phospholipase C. Clz (1μM) significantly blocked serotonin-induced Ca(2+) transients in C6 cells, consistent with known antagonistic actions of Clz...
October 18, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Lotta Walz, Anna K Jönsson, Brita Zilg, Carl Johan Östgren, Henrik Druid
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. METHODS: A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem...
2016: PloS One
Y Kimura, J Maeda, M Yamada, K Takahata, K Yokokawa, Y Ikoma, C Seki, H Ito, M Higuchi, T Suhara
RATIONALE: The beneficial effects of psychostimulant drugs in the treatment of psychiatric disorders occur because they increase the extracellular dopamine concentration by inhibiting re-uptake of extracellular dopamine at dopamine transporters. However, the psychological effects at low dopamine transporter occupancy have not been well demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the psychological effects, dopamine transporter occupancy, and dopamine release induced by a single oral administration of a clinical dose of mazindol...
October 20, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Sofian Berrouiguet, Maria Luisa Barrigón, Sara A Brandt, Santiago Ovejero-García, Raquel Álvarez-García, Juan Jose Carballo, Philippe Lenca, Philippe Courtet, Enrique Baca-García
PURPOSE: The emergence of electronic prescribing devices with clinical decision support systems (CDSS) is able to significantly improve management pharmacological treatments. We developed a web application available on smartphones in order to help clinicians monitor prescription and further propose CDSS. METHOD: A web application ( was developed to assess patients and collect data regarding gender, age, diagnosis and treatment. We analyzed antipsychotic prescriptions in 4345 patients attended in five Psychiatric Community Mental Health Centers from June 2014 to October 2014...
2016: PloS One
Jacopo Celli, Gudrun Rappold, Beate Niesler
Serotonin type 3 (5-HT3 ) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels formed by five subunits (5-HT3 A-E), which are encoded by the HTR3A, HTR3B, HTR3C, HTR3D and HTR3E genes. Functional receptors are pentameric complexes of diverse composition. Different receptor subtypes confer a predisposition to nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, pregnancy, and following surgery. In addition, different subtypes contribute to neurogastroenterologic disorders such irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and eating disorders as well as comorbid psychiatric conditions...
October 20, 2016: Human Mutation
Yuan Feng, Sha Sha, Chen Hu, Gang Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Helen F K Chiu, Chee H Ng, Tian-Mei Si, Da-Fang Chen, Yi-Ru Fang, Zheng Lu, Hai-Chen Yang, Jian Hu, Zhi-Yu Chen, Yi Huang, Jing Sun, Xiao-Ping Wang, Hui-Chun Li, Jin-Bei Zhang, Yu-Tao Xiang
INTRODUCTION: Little has been reported about the demographic and clinical features of major depressive disorder (MDD) with comorbid dysthymia in Chinese patients. This study examined the frequency of comorbid dysthymia in Chinese MDD patients together with the demographic and clinical correlates and prescribing patterns of psychotropic drugs. METHODS: Consecutively collected sample of 1178 patients with MDD were examined in 13 major psychiatric hospitals in China...
October 19, 2016: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
Giovanni Vitale, Giulia Simonetti, Martina Pirillo, Gianfranco Taruschio, Pietro Andreone
Bile Salt Export Pump (BSEP) Deficiency disease, including Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2), is a rare disease, usually leading within the first ten years to portal hypertension, liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma. Often liver transplantation is needed. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB) seems to be a potential therapeutic compound for PFIC2. Psychiatric side effects in the adolescent population are little known and little studied since the drug used to treat children and infants...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Chin B Eap
The use of pharmacogenetic tests was already being proposed in psychiatry in the early 2000s because genetic factors were known to influence drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. However, sufficient levels of evidence to justify routine use have been achieved for only a few tests (eg, major histocompatibility complex, class I, B, allele 1502 [HLA-B*1502] for carbamazepine in epilepsy and bipolar disorders); many findings are too preliminary or, when replicated, of low clinical relevance because of a small effect size...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Mark J Millan, Jean-Michel Rivet, Alain Gobert
The highly-interconnected and neurochemically-rich frontal cortex plays a crucial role in the regulation of mood and cognition, domains disrupted in depression and other central nervous system disorders, and it is an important site of action for their therapeutic control. For improving our understanding of the function and dysfunction of the frontal cortex, and for identifying improved treatments, quantification of extracellular pools of neuromodulators by microdialysis in freely-moving rodents has proven indispensable...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Katarzyna Kamińska, Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Alexandra Jurczak, Anna Górska, Zofia Rogóż, Krystyna Gołembiowska
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by positive and negative symptoms often accompanied by depression and cognitive deficits. Positive symptoms, like delusions and hallucinations are caused by an excess of dopamine (DA) signaling and are treated with the second generation antipsychotic drugs. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are represented by social withdrawal, apathy and blunted emotional response. It was demonstrated that co-administration of risperidone and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors alleviated depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in animal models of schizophrenia...
September 11, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Karen E van den Hondel, Anne Linde Saaltink, Peter Paul M Bender
BACKGROUND: Forensic physicians are responsible for first-line medical care of detainees (individuals held in custody) in the police station. The Dutch police law contains a 'duty of care', which gives the police responsibility for the apparent mentally ill and/or confused people they encounter during their work. The police can ask a forensic physician to do a primary psychiatric assessment of any apparent mentally ill detainee. The forensic physician determines if the apparent mentally ill behavior of the detainee is due to a somatic illness, or has a psychiatric cause for which the detainee needs admission to a psychiatric hospital...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
Aaron Pinkhasov, Deepan Singh, Benjamin Kashan, Julie DiGregorio, Theresa M Criscitelli, Scott Gorenstein, Harold Brem
GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide information about the effect of psychiatric comorbidities on wound healing in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Discuss the connection between DM and the development of psychiatric comorbidities...
November 2016: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Carlos De Las Cuevas, Wenceslao Peñate, Casimiro Cabrera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Miguel Garrido-Fernández, Juan A Marcos-Sierra, Ana López-Jiménez, Iñigo Ochoa de Alda
In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of multi-family therapy at reducing the addiction severity and at improving the psychological and family dynamics of opiate addicts receiving methadone treatment at a public treatment center. The study compares multi-family therapy with a reflecting team (MFT-RT) and a standard treatment following a methadone maintenance treatment program. The results show that multi-family therapy with a reflecting team effectively reduces the addiction severity in several of the areas evaluated and noted that this effect is superior to standard treatment...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Stephanie Cham, Hayley J Koslik, Beatrice A Golomb
Psychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have been reported with statin use, but the literature regarding statin-associated mood/behavioral changes remains limited. We sought to elicit information germane to natural history and characteristics of central nervous system/behavioral changes in apparent connection with statin and/or cholesterol-lowering drug use, and delineate mechanisms that may bear on an association. Participants (and/or proxies) self-referred with behavioral and/or mood changes in apparent association with statins completed a survey eliciting cholesterol-lowering drug history, character and impact of behavioral/mood effect, time-course of onset and recovery in relation to drug use/modification, co-occurrence of recognized statin-associated ADRs, and factors relevant to ADR causality determination...
December 2016: Drug Saf Case Rep
Ali Roohbakhsh, Kobra Shirani, Gholamreza Karimi
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly potent and addictive drug with major medical, psychiatric, cognitive, socioeconomic, and legal consequences. It is well absorbed following different routes of administration and distributed throughout the body. METH is known as psychomotor stimulant with potent physiological outcomes on peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in physical and psychological disorders. Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated catabolic pathway which is critical for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis and regulating cell growth...
October 13, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Jacob Taylor, William S Anderson, Jason Brandt, Zoltan Mari, Gregory M Pontone
Although Parkinson disease (PD) is defined clinically by its motor symptoms, it is increasingly recognized that much of the disability and worsened quality of life experienced by patients with PD is attributable to psychiatric symptoms. The authors describe a model of multidisciplinary care that enables these symptoms to be effectively managed. They describe neuropsychiatric complications of PD itself and pharmacologic and neurostimulation treatments for parkinsonian motor symptoms and discuss the management of these complications...
September 3, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
X Jégouzo, M Desbordes, S Delègue, G Le Vacon, M Patrick, S Mouchabac
OBJECTIVES: Behavioral and psychological symptoms have a high prevalence in dementia. They include mood disorders, psychotic disorders and behavioral disorders such as aggression or screaming. Despite a number of side effects and an increased mortality, antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed for treatment of this disorder. In France, this increased risk of mortality led in 2009 to the adoption of guidelines concerning all antipsychotics. The guidelines propose a sensible use of antipsychotics after the establishment of non-pharmacological measures...
October 12, 2016: L'Encéphale
Robert M Post, Lori L Altshuler, Ralph Kupka, Susan L McElroy, Mark A Frye, Michael Rowe, Heinz Grunze, Trisha Suppes, Paul E Keck, Willem A Nolen
BACKGROUND: Patients with bipolar disorder from the US have more early-onset illness and a greater familial loading for psychiatric problems than those from the Netherlands or Germany (abbreviated here as Europe). We hypothesized that these regional differences in illness burden would extend to the patients siblings. METHODS: Outpatients with bipolar disorder gave consent for participation in a treatment outcome network and for filling out detailed questionnaires...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
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