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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811704/gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-peptides-amines-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
REVIEW
Magdy El-Salhy, Tefera Solomon, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic recurrent condition whose etiology is unknown, and it includes ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and microscopic colitis. These three diseases differ in clinical manifestations, courses, and prognoses. IBD reduces the patients' quality of life and is an economic burden to both the patients and society. Interactions between the gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine peptides/amines (NEPA) and the immune system are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBD...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811068/a-positron-emission-tomography-study-of-the-serotonergic-system-in-relation-to-anxiety-in-depression
#2
Zafer Iscan, Gopalkumar Rakesh, Samantha Rossano, Jie Yang, Mengru Zhang, Jeffrey Miller, Gregory M Sullivan, Priya Sharma, Matthew McClure, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, Ramin V Parsey, Christine DeLorenzo
Symptoms of anxiety are highly comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD) and are known to alter the course of the disease. To help elucidate the biological underpinnings of these prevalent disorders, we previously examined the relationship between components of anxiety (somatic, psychic and motoric) and serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A) binding in MDD and found that higher psychic and lower somatic anxiety was associated with greater 5-HT1A binding. In this work, we sought to examine the correlation between these anxiety symptom dimensions and 5-HTT binding...
August 12, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806488/serotonergic-5-ht2b-receptors-in-mitral-valvulopathy-bone-marrow-mobilization-of-endothelial-progenitors
#3
Estelle Ayme-Dietrich, Roland Lawson, Francine Côté, Claudia de Tapia, Sylvia Da Silva, Claudine Ebel, Béatrice Hechler, Christian Gachet, Jérome Guyonnet, Hélène Rouillard, Jordane Stoltz, Emily Quentin, Sophie Banas, François Daubeuf, Nelly Frossard, Bernard Gasser, Jean-Philippe Mazzucotelli, Olivier Hermine, Luc Maroteaux, Laurent Monassier
BACKGROUND: Valvular heart disease is highly prevalent in industrialized countries. Chronic use of anorexigens, amphetamine or ergot derivatives targeting the serotonin system has been associated with valvular heart disease. PURPOSE AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Here, we investigated the contribution of serotonin receptors in a mouse model of valve degeneration induced by nordexfenfluramine, the main metabolite of the anorexigens dexfenfluramine and benfluorex. KEY RESULTS: Chronically activated 5-HT2B receptors by nordexfenfluramine in mice mimicked early steps of mitral valve remodelling attested by increased valve thickness, and cell density in a thick extracellular matrix...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805771/-synergistic-application-of-zinc-and-vitamin-c-to-support-memory-attention-and-the-reduction-of-the-risk-of-the-neurological-diseases
#4
O A Gromova, I Yu Torshin, A V Pronin, M A Kilchevsky
Zinc and vitamin C supplementation of the body is important for CNS functioning. Zinc ions are involved in the neurotransmission (signal transmission from acetylcholine, catecholamine, serotonin, prostaglandin receptors) and in ubiquitin-related protein degradation. Zinc deficits are associated with Alzheimer's disease and depression. Zinc supplementation (10-30 mg daily) improves neurologic recovery rate in patients with stroke and brain injury, has a positive impact on memory and reduces hyperactivity in children...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805659/the-atypical-antipsychotic-olanzapine-causes-weight-gain-by-targeting-serotonin-receptor-2c
#5
Caleb C Lord, Steven C Wyler, Rong Wan, Carlos M Castorena, Newaz Ahmed, Dias Mathew, Syann Lee, Chen Liu, Joel K Elmquist
Atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine often induce excessive weight gain and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms underlying these drug-induced metabolic perturbations remain poorly understood. Here, we used an experimental model that reproduces olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and obesity in female C57BL/6 mice. We found that olanzapine treatment acutely increased food intake, impaired glucose tolerance, and altered physical activity and energy expenditure in mice. Furthermore, olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and weight gain were blunted in mice lacking the serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802861/contrasting-effects-of-vortioxetine-and-paroxetine-on-pineal-gland-biochemistry-in-a-tryptophan-depletion-model-of-depression-in-female-rats
#6
M Franklin, N Hlavacova, Y Li, I Bermudez, A Csanova, C Sanchez, D Jezova
We studied the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant, vortioxetine and the SSRI, paroxetine on pineal melatonin and monoamine synthesis in a sub-chronic tryptophan (TRP) depletion model of depression based on a low TRP diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to groups a) control, b) low TRP diet, c) low TRP diet+paroxetine and d) low TRP diet+vortioxetine. Vortioxetine was administered via the diet (0.76mg/kg of food weight) and paroxetine via drinking water (10mg/kg/day) for 14days. Both drugs resulted in SERT occupancies >90%...
August 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801265/fluoxetine-coupled-with-zinc-in-a-chronic-mild-stress-model-of-depression-providing-a-reservoir-for-optimum-zinc-signaling-and-neuronal-remodeling
#7
Nesreen Nabil Omar, Reham Fathy Tash
BACKGROUND: Recently, depression has been envisioned as more than an alteration in neurotransmitters centered around receptor signaling pathways. Consequently, the precise mechanisms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant drugs such as fluoxetine are being revisited. Zinc is a trace element that has been long implicated in the psychopathology and therapy of depression. Zinc has been found to be sequestered and dispensed during stress and inflammation through a family of proteins called metallothioneins (MTs)...
August 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796998/microrna-dependent-control-of-serotonin-induced-pulmonary-arterial-contraction
#8
Diana Dahan, Tran Thi Hien, Philip Tannenberg, Mari Ekman, Catarina Rippe, Thomas Boettger, Thomas Braun, Karin Tran-Lundmark, Phan-Kiet Tran, Karl Swärd, Sebastian Albinsson
BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-HT) is considered to play a role in pulmonary arterial hypertension by regulating vascular remodeling and smooth muscle contractility. Here, arteries from mice with inducible and smooth muscle-specific deletion of Dicer were used to address mechanisms by which microRNAs control 5-HT-induced contraction. METHODS: Mice were used 5 weeks after Dicer deletion, and pulmonary artery contractility was analyzed by wire myography. RESULTS: No change was seen in right ventricular systolic pressure following dicer deletion, but systemic blood pressure was reduced...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795477/exogenous-serotonin-regulates-colorectal-motility-via-the-5-ht2-and-5-ht3-receptors-in-the-spinal-cord-of-rats
#9
H Nakamori, K Naitou, Y Sano, H Shimaoka, T Shiina, Y Shimizu
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that intrathecal injection of noradrenaline or dopamine causes enhancement of colorectal motility. As these monoamines are neurotransmitters of descending pain inhibitory pathways in the spinal cord, we hypothesized that serotonin, which is one of the neurotransmitters involved in descending pain inhibition, also influences the lumbosacral defecation center. Therefore, we examined whether serotonin acting on the spinal defecation center enhances colorectal motility...
August 10, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794173/glucose-potentiates-%C3%AE-cell-function-by-inducing-tph1-expression-in-rat-islets
#10
Yuqing Zhang, Ruyuan Deng, Xue Yang, Wan Xu, Yun Liu, Fengying Li, Juan Zhang, Hongju Tang, Xueying Ji, Yufang Bi, Xiao Wang, Libin Zhou, Guang Ning
Impaired pancreatic β-cell function is the primary defect in type 2 diabetes. Glucose is an important regulator of β-cell growth and function; however, the mechanisms that are involved in the chronic adaptation of β-cells to hyperglycemia remain largely unknown. In the present study, global gene expression patterns revealed that tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) was the most profound of genes that are up-regulated in rat islets exposed to high glucose. Calcium and cAMP signals synergistically mediated glucose-stimulated Tph1 transcription in β-cells by activating cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and promoting its binding with a Tph1 promoter...
August 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793232/interaction-effect-between-5-httlpr-and-htr1a-rs6295-polymorphisms-on-the-frontoparietal-network
#11
Haixia Long, Bing Liu, Chao Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Jin Li, Chunshui Yu, Tianzi Jiang
Previous studies have shown a close relationship between the serotonin system and working memory, but the neural mechanism for the role of the serotonin system on the working memory is unclear. The frontoparietal network is involved in working memory and is associated with the serotonin system. Therefore, this study investigated the interaction effect of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the polymorphism in the serotonin 1A receptor gene (rs6295) on the frontoparietal network obtained from the independent component analysis in a large, young Chinese sample population...
August 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792478/marine-inspired-2-5-halo-1h-indol-3-yl-n-n-dimethylethanamines-as-modulators-of-serotonin-receptors-an-example-illustrating-the-power-of-bromine-as-part-of-the-uniquely-marine-chemical-space
#12
Mohamed A Ibrahim, Abir T El-Alfy, Kelly Ezel, Mohamed O Radwan, Abbas G Shilabin, Anna J Kochanowska-Karamyan, Howaida I Abd-Alla, Masami Otsuka, Mark T Hamann
In previous studies, we have isolated several marine indole alkaloids and evaluated them in the forced swim test (FST) and locomotor activity test, revealing their potential as antidepressant and sedative drug leads. Amongst the reported metabolites to display such activities was 5-bromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Owing to the importance of the judicious introduction of halogens into drug candidates, we synthesized two series built on a 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine scaffold with different halogen substitutions...
August 9, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790887/mir-16-and-fluoxetine-both-reverse-autophagic-and-apoptotic-change-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-model-rats
#13
Yang Yang, Zhiying Hu, Xiaoxue Du, Henry Davies, Xue Huo, Marong Fang
In the clinic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), like Fluoxetine, remain the primary treatment for major depression. It has been suggested that miR-16 regulates serotonin transporters (SERT) via raphe nuclei and hippocampal responses to antidepressants. However, the underlying mechanism and regulatory pathways are still obtuse. Here, a chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) depression model in rats was established, and then raphe nuclei miR-16 and intragastric Fluoxetine injections were administered for a duration of 3 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790021/deficient-striatal-adaptation-in-aminergic-and-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-is-associated-with-tardive-dyskinesia-in-non-human-primates-exposed-to-antipsychotic-drugs
#14
Catherine Lévesque, Giovanni Hernandez, Souha Mahmoudi, Frédéric Calon, Fabrizio Gasparini, Baltazar Gomez-Mancilla, Pierre J Blanchet, Daniel Lévesque
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a potentially disabling condition encompassing all delayed, persistent, and often irreversible abnormal involuntary movements arising in a fraction of subjects during long-term exposure to centrally acting dopamine receptor-blocking agents such as antipsychotic drugs and metoclopramide. However, the pathogenesis of TD has proved complex and remains elusive. To investigate the mechanism underlying the development of TD, we have chronically exposed 17 Cebus apella monkeys to typical (11) or atypical (6) antipsychotic drugs...
August 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783942/codeine-precipitating-serotonin-syndrome-in-a-patient-in-therapy-with-antidepressant-and-triptan
#15
Giulia Milano, Werner Maria Natta, Alfredo Bello, Antonietta Martelli, Francesca Mattioli
The serotonin syndrome is a serioius medical condition due due to an intensive stimulation of setonin receptors. It is a rare, but severe, consequence of interaction between serotomimetic agents. This is a report of a 70-year-old woman steadily in therapy with venlafaxine and rizatriptan for migraine and major depressive syndrome. She was admitted to neurology unit for decreased light reflex with miotic pupils, global hyperreflexia, tremor, anxiety, ataxia and incoordination. The patient was diagnosed as a probable case of serotonin syndrome due to a pharmacological interaction between venlafaxine and rizatriptan trigged by opioid intake...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782490/unmet-needs-in-schizophrenia
#16
Maurizio Pompili, Herbert Y Meltzer
The objectives of this article are to describe current trends in the treatment of schizophrenia and the most interesting new approaches to optimizing outcome and fostering the development of new schizophrenia treatments. RESULTS: Increasing utilization of diverse types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g. clozapine-type serotonin (5-HT)2A and weak dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, amisulpride, a D2/D3/5-HT7 antagonist, and cariprazine, a D3 partial agonist with additional neurotransmitter targets, is occurring as their advantages in efficacy, especially for cognitive impairment and mood symptoms, and side effects is becoming appreciated...
August 3, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781163/polypharmacology-of-conformationally-locked-methanocarba-nucleosides
#17
REVIEW
Kenneth A Jacobson, Dilip K Tosh, Kiran S Toti, Antonella Ciancetta
A single molecular scaffold can be adapted to interact with diverse targets, either separately or simultaneously. Nucleosides and nucleotides in which ribose is substituted with bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane are an example of a versatile drug-like scaffold for increasing selectivity at their classical targets: kinases, polymerases, adenosine and P2 receptors. Also, by applying structure-based functional group manipulations, rigidified adenosine derivatives can be repurposed to satisfy pharmacophoric requirements of various GPCRs, ion channels, enzymes and transporters, initially detected as off-target activities...
August 3, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780039/disruption-of-5-ht2a-pdz-protein-interaction-differently-affects-the-analgesic-efficacy-of-ssri-snri-and-tca-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#18
Anne-Sophie Wattiez, Amandine Dupuis, Anne-Marie Privat, Maryse Chalus, Eric Chapuy, Youssef Aissouni, Alain Eschalier, Christine Courteix
Antidepressants remain one of the first line treatments prescribed to neuropathic pain patients despite their limited efficacy and/or their numerous side effects. More and more, pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain has evolved towards the use of therapeutic combinations. The goal of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the combination of antidepressants - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors-with a peptide (TAT-2ASCV) able to disrupt the interaction between serotonin type 2A (5-HT2A) receptors and associated PDZ proteins...
August 2, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778093/htr3a-and-htr3e-gene-polymorphisms-and-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-risk-evidence-from-a-meta-analysis
#19
Tangming Guan, Ting Li, Weiming Cai, Dong Huang, Peipei Ouyang, Yan Wang, Huayan Chen, Kefeng Wu, Xiaoli Ma
Several studies have reported an association between serotonin receptor type 3 (5-HT3) subunit genes HTR3A (rs1062613) and HTR3E (rs62625044) and diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). However, the results remain inconclusive and controversial, particularly for the data derived from different ethnicities and genders. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate this association. All eligible case-control studies that met the search criteria were retrieved from multiple databases, and five case-control studies were included for detailed evaluation...
July 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777821/anatomy-and-behavioral-function-of-serotonin-receptors-in-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#20
Annina Huser, Melanie Eschment, Nazli Güllü, Katharina A N Collins, Kathrin Böpple, Lyubov Pankevych, Emilia Rolsing, Andreas S Thum
The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuroactive molecule in the central nervous system of the majority of animal phyla. 5-HT binds to specific G protein-coupled and ligand-gated ion receptors to regulate particular aspects of animal behavior. In Drosophila, as in many other insects this includes the regulation of locomotion and feeding. Due to its genetic amenability and neuronal simplicity the Drosophila larva has turned into a useful model for studying the anatomical and molecular basis of chemosensory behaviors...
2017: PloS One
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