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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643800/striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-varies-across-smoking-status
#1
Corinde E Wiers, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Şükrü B Demiral, Sung Won Kim, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
To assess how tobacco smoking status affects baseline dopamine D2/D3 (D2R) receptor availability and methylphenidate-induced dopamine (DA) release, we retrospectively analyzed D2R availability measures of 8 current smokers, 10 ex-smokers, and 18 non-smokers who were scanned with Positron Emission Tomography and [(11)C]raclopride, after administration of an injection of placebo or 0.5 mg/kg iv methylphenidate. There was a significant effect of smoking status on baseline striatal D2R availability; with current smokers showing lower striatal D2R availability compared to non-smokers (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) and to ex-smokers (caudate and putamen)...
June 23, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636886/sirt1-enzymatically-potentiates-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-signaling-via-vitamin-d-receptor-deacetylation
#2
Marya S Sabir, Chengcheng Hu, Zainab Khan, Michael A Galligan, Christopher M Dussik, Sanchita Mallick, Angelika Dampf Stone, Shane F Batie, Elizabeth T Jacobs, G Kerr Whitfield, Mark R Haussler, Michael C Heck, Peter W Jurutka
The hormonal metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and promotes heterodimerization of VDR with a retinoid-X-receptor (RXR) to genomically regulate diverse cellular processes. Herein, it is revealed for the first time that VDR is post-translationally acetylated, and that VDR immunoprecipitated from human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells displays a dramatic decrease in acetylated receptor in the presence of 1,25D-ligand, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) deacetylase, or the resveratrol activator of SIRT1...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634113/vitamin-d3-supplementation-attenuates-the-early-stage-of-mouse-hepatocarcinogenesis-promoted-by-hexachlorobenzene-fungicide
#3
Guilherme R Romualdo, Renata L Goto, Ana A H Fernandes, Bruno Cogliati, Luis F Barbisan
Hexachlorobezene (HCB), a fungicide widely distributed in the environment, promotes the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions (PNL) and tumors in rodents. In contrast, vitamin D3 (VD3) supplementation presents a potential role for the prevention/treatment of chronic liver diseases. Thus, we investigated whether VD3 supplementation attenuates the early stage of HCB-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis. Female Balb/C mice were injected a single dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 50 mg/kg) at postnatal day 15...
June 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631520/striatal-changes-underlie-mpep-mediated-suppression-of-the-acquisition-and-expression-of-pramipexole-induced-place-preference-in-an-alpha-synuclein-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Simon Loiodice, Portia McGhan, Vitalina Gryshkova, Renaud Fleurance, David Dardou, Aziz Hafidi, Andre Nogueira da Costa, Franck Durif
Impulsive-compulsive disorders in Parkinson's disease patients have been described as behavioural or substance addictions including pathological gambling or compulsive medication use of dopamine replacement therapy. A substantial gap remains in the understanding of these disorders. We previously demonstrated that the rewarding effect of the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole was enhanced after repeated exposure to L-dopa and alpha-synuclein mediated dopaminergic nigral loss with specific transcriptional signatures suggesting a key involvement of the glutamatergic pathway...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630896/the-gh-receptor-exon-3-deletion-is-a-marker-of-male-specific-exceptional-longevity-associated-with-increased-gh-sensitivity-and-taller-stature
#5
Danny Ben-Avraham, Diddahally R Govindaraju, Temuri Budagov, Delphine Fradin, Peter Durda, Bing Liu, Sandy Ott, Danielle Gutman, Lital Sharvit, Robert Kaplan, Pierre Bougnères, Alex Reiner, Alan R Shuldiner, Pinchas Cohen, Nir Barzilai, Gil Atzmon
Although both growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling were shown to regulate life span in lower organisms, the role of GH signaling in human longevity remains unclear. Because a GH receptor exon 3 deletion (d3-GHR) appears to modulate GH sensitivity in humans, we hypothesized that this polymorphism could play a role in human longevity. We report a linear increased prevalence of d3-GHR homozygosity with age in four independent cohorts of long-lived individuals: 841 participants [567 of the Longevity Genes Project (LGP) (8% increase; P = 0...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630021/thyroid-hormone-signaling-and-deiodinase-actions-in-muscle-stem-progenitor-cells
#6
REVIEW
Raffaele Ambrosio, Maria Angela De Stefano, Daniela Di Girolamo, Domenico Salvatore
Thyroid hormone (TH) regulates such crucial biological functions as normal growth, development and metabolism of nearly all vertebrate tissues. In skeletal muscle, TH plays a critical role in regulating the function of satellite cells, the bona fide skeletal muscle stem cells. Deiodinases (D2 and D3) have been found to modulate the expression of various TH target genes in satellite cells. Regulation of the expression and activity of the deiodinases constitutes a cell-autonomous, pre-receptor mechanism that controls crucial steps during the various phases of myogenesis...
June 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627448/opiate-exposure-state-controls-dopamine-d3-receptor-and-cdk5-calcineurin-signaling-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-during-reward-and-withdrawal-aversion-memory-formation
#7
Laura G Rosen, Walter J Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) is highly expressed in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), a neural region critical for processing opiate-related reward and withdrawal aversion-related memories. Functionally, D3R transmission is linked to downstream Cdk5 and calcineurin signaling, both of which regulate D3R activity states and play critical roles in memory-related synaptic plasticity. Previous evidence links D3R transmission to opiate-related memory processing, however little is known regarding how chronic opiate exposure may alter D3R-dependent memory mechanisms...
June 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623711/contribution-of-dopaminergic-and-noradrenergic-systems-in-the-antinociceptive-effect-of-%C3%AE-phenylalanyl-acetophenone
#8
Fernanda S S Sousa, Roberta G Anversa, Paloma T Birmann, Maurice N de Souza, Renata Balaguez, Diego Alves, Cristiane Luchese, Ethel A Wilhelm, Lucielli Savegnago
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the antinociceptive action of α-(phenylalanyl) acetophenone (PSAP) in mice. METHODS: Evaluated whether the serotonergic, adrenergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in PSAP antinociceptive activity. PSAP was administered intragastrically (ig) 30min prior to formalin or glutamate test and compared with a standard drug, meloxicam (10mg/kg, ig). RESULTS: The treatment with PSAP (10-50mg/kg) caused inhibition in the neurogenic phase and reduced the paw oedema caused by intraplantar (ipl) injection of formalin...
March 27, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621212/methamphetamine-causes-neurotoxicity-by-promoting-polarization-of-macrophages-and-inflammatory-response
#9
X Li, F Wu, L Xue, B Wang, J Li, Y Chen, T Chen
Macrophages, especially their activation state, are closely related to the progression of neurotoxicity. Classically activated macrophages (M1) are proinflammatory effectors, while alternatively activated macrophages (M2) exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. As a powerful addictive psychostimulant drug, coupled with its neurotoxicity, methamphetamine (Meth) abuse may lead to long-lasting abnormalities in the neuronal system. The present study investigated the effect of Meth at subtoxic concentration on macrophage activation state and its underlying toxicity to neuronal cells...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620126/impact-of-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-and-vitamin-d3-nuclear-receptor-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-on-the-outcome-of-malignant-melanoma-patients
#10
Francesca Morgese, Davide Soldato, Silvia Pagliaretta, Riccardo Giampieri, Donatella Brancorsini, Mariangela Torniai, Silvia Rinaldi, Agnese Savini, Azzurra Onofri, Marina Scarpelli, Rossana Berardi
BACKGROUND: Several studies associating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) frequencies with tumors outcome have been conducted, nevertheless malignant melanoma literature data are inconclusive.Therefore we evaluate the impact of different genotypes for phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and vitamin D3 nuclear receptor (VDR) SNPs on melanoma patients' outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA of 88 patients was extracted from blood and tumor samples. SNPs were determined by PCR using TaqMan assays...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610873/williams-syndrome-transcription-factor-wstf-acts-as-an-activator-of-estrogen-receptor-signaling-in-breast-cancer-cells-and-the-effect-can-be-abrogated-by-1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3
#11
Johan Lundqvist, Tove Kirkegaard, Anne-Vibeke Laenkholm, Anne Katrine Duun-Henriksen, Martin Bak, David Feldman, Anne E Lykkesfeldt
A majority of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers are growth stimulated by estrogens. The ability to inhibit the ER signaling pathway is therefore of critical importance in the current treatment of ER+ breast cancers. It has been reported that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 down-regulates the expression of the CYP19A1 gene, encoding the aromatase enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of estradiol. Furthermore, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 has also been reported to down-regulate the expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα), the main mediator of ER signaling...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608008/effects-of-social-reorganization-on-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-and-cocaine-self-administration-in-male-cynomolgus-monkeys
#12
P W Czoty, R W Gould, H D Gage, M A Nader
RATIONALE: Studies have demonstrated that brain dopamine D2/D3 receptors (D2/D3R) and the reinforcing effects of cocaine can be influenced by a monkey's position in the social dominance hierarchy. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we manipulated the social ranks of monkeys by reorganizing social groups and assessed effects on D2/D3R availability and cocaine self-administration. METHODS: Male cynomolgus monkeys (N = 12) had been trained to self-administer cocaine under a concurrent cocaine-food reinforcement schedule...
June 12, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606476/vitamin-d-supplement-ameliorates-hippocampal-metabolism-in-diabetic-rats
#13
Feng Guo, Hao Yue, Lei Wang, Chenzhao Ding, Lina Wu, Yang Wu, Fabao Gao, Guijun Qin
Vitamin D deficiency induced by diabetes mellitus is tightly associated with neurodegenerative diseases, but the mechanism is still unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) is involved in hippocampal lesion and promote diabetic neuropathy, so we focus on the effects of 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 on ER stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were administrated with different doses of vitamin D and divided into 3 groups: high, low, and blank, compared to wild-type rats which were received the same treatment...
June 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602960/the-impact-of-vdr-expression-and-regulation-in-vivo
#14
Seong Min Lee, Mark B Meyer, Nancy A Benkusky, Charles A O'Brien, J Wesley Pike
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates the pleiotropic biological actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). These actions include orchestration of mineral homeostasis which is coordinated by the kidney, intestine, bone and parathyroid gland wherein the VDR transcriptionally regulates expression of the genes involved in this complex process. Mutations in human VDR (hVDR) cause hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets, a genetic syndrome characterized by hypocalcemia, hyperparathyroidism and rickets resulting from dysregulation of mineral homeostasis...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601283/the-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-foki-polymorphism-and-multiple-sclerosis-in-a-northern-portuguese-population
#15
Andreia Bettencourt, Daniela Boleixa, Ana Luísa Guimarães, Bárbara Leal, Cláudia Carvalho, Sandra Brás, Raquel Samões, Ernestina Santos, Paulo Pinho Costa, Berta Silva, Ana Martins da Silva
BACKGROUND: The cause of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood, but it is widely believed to be an autoimmune disease occurring in genetically susceptible individuals after exposure to as-yet undefined environmental factors. One of these environmental factors is vitamin D, a well-known immune modulator. The biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, has been shown to exert its immune modulatory properties through its nuclear receptor (VDR) namely by inhibiting the proliferation of Th cells...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594934/effects-of-ppar%C3%AE-inhibition-in-head-and-neck-paraganglioma-cells
#16
Rosalba Florio, Laura De Lellis, Viviana di Giacomo, Maria Carmela Di Marcantonio, Loredana Cristiano, Mariangela Basile, Fabio Verginelli, Delfina Verzilli, Alessandra Ammazzalorso, Sampath Chandra Prasad, Amelia Cataldi, Mario Sanna, Annamaria Cimini, Renato Mariani-Costantini, Gabriella Mincione, Alessandro Cama
Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) are rare tumors that may cause important morbidity, because of their tendency to infiltrate the skull base. At present, surgery is the only therapeutic option, but radical removal may be difficult or impossible. Thus, effective targets and molecules for HNPGL treatment need to be identified. However, the lack of cellular models for this rare tumor hampers this task. PPARα receptor activation was reported in several tumors and this receptor appears to be a promising therapeutic target in different malignancies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592257/clinical-safety-and-efficacy-of-vitamin-d3-analog-ointment-for-treatment-of-obstructive-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#17
Reiko Arita, Motoko Kawashima, Masataka Ito, Kazuo Tsubota
BACKGROUND: Hyperkeratinization is a major cause of obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (oMGD) and results in degenerative gland dilation and atrophy without inflammation. Ointment containing 1,25-dihydroxy-22-oxavitamin D3 (maxacalcitol), a noncalcemic analog of the active form of vitamin D3, is applied for the treatment of hyperkeratotic cutaneous conditions such as psoriasis and ichtyosis because it suppresses the proliferation and promotes the differentiation of keratinocytes through interaction with the vitamin D receptor...
June 7, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591703/vitamin-d-receptor-activation-reduces-vcap-xenograft-tumor-growth-and-counteracts-erg-activity-despite-induction-of-tmprss2-erg
#18
Justin M Roberts, Rebeca San Martin, D Badrajee Piyarathna, James G MacKrell, Guilherme V Rocha, Jeffery A Dodge, Cristian Coarfa, Venkatesh Krishnan, David R Rowley, Nancy L Weigel
Whether vitamin D is chemopreventive and/or has potential therapeutically in prostate cancer is unresolved. One confounding factor is that many prostate cancers express a TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene whose expression is increased both by androgens and by vitamin D receptor (VDR) activation. Two challenges that limit VDR agonist use clinically are hypercalcemia and the cooperation of VDR with ERG to hyper-induce the 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 metabolizing enzyme, CYP24A1, thus reducing VDR activity. Using the VCaP TMPRSS2:ERG positive cell line as a model, we found that a nonsecosteroidal CYP24A1 resistant VDR agonist, VDRM2, substantially reduces growth of xenograft tumors without inducing hypercalcemia...
May 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587935/human-antimicrobial-peptides-in-ocular-surface-defense
#19
REVIEW
Imran Mohammed, Dalia G Said, Harminder S Dua
Sight depends on the passage of light through the transparent cornea and being focused on the fovea. Its exposed position renders it vulnerable to microbial infection. The cornea has developed a wide array of defense mechanisms against infection, of which endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key. AMPs are essentially small molecular weight cationic peptides with a wide range of activity against virus, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Some proteins such as RNases and S100As are also included in this group...
June 3, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587403/effects-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-on-the-local-bone-renin-angiotensin-system-in-a-murine-model-of-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis
#20
Lin Shen, Chen Ma, Bo Shuai, Yanping Yang
Active vitamin D is closely related to the circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in experimental animal models and humans; however, corresponding local bone data remain limited. The present study examined whether 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 supplementation altered local bone RAS elements in a murine model of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). A total of 36 8-week-old mice were randomized into three equal-sized groups: The sham, GIOP and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 treatment groups. After 12 weeks, the cancellous bone microstructure of the third lumbar vertebra and left femur from the mice from each group were examined using micro-computed tomography...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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