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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332200/immunoregulation-of-inflammatory-and-inhibitory-cytokines-by-vitamin-d3-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-ibd
#1
REVIEW
Hussaini Mohammed Alhassan, Abbas Mirshafiey, Homayoun Vahedi, Gholamreza Hemmasi, Ateke Moussavi Nasl Khameneh, Karim Parastouei, Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of idiopathic, chronic and relapsing inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, caused by an aberrant and exaggerated immunological response in the gut. Supplementation of Vitamin D3 in IBD patients exerts both direct and indirect regulatory roles on the naïve T-cells, thereby maintaining a balance between inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines. The direct actions of Vitamin D3 on naïve T-cells result in the proliferation of more regulatory T-cells and inhibitory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-5...
March 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330721/changes-in-the-human-transcriptome-upon-vitamin-d-supplementation
#2
Yvonne Pasing, Christopher Graham Fenton, Rolf Jorde, Ruth Hracky Paulssen
Vitamin D is hydroxylated in the liver and kidneys to its active form, which can bind to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The VDR is present in a wide variety of different cells types and tissues and acts as a transcription factor. Although activation of the VDR is estimated to regulate expression of up to 5% of the human genome, our study is the first analysing gene expression after supplementation in more than 10 subjects. Subjects of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) received either vitamin D3 (n47) in a weekly dose of 20,000 IU or placebo (n 47) for a period of three to five years...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330720/attenuation-of-uvr-induced-vitamin-d3-synthesis-in-a-mouse-model-deleted-for-keratinocyte-lathosterol-5-desaturase
#3
Anastasia M Makarova, Saloni Pasta, Gordon Watson, Cedric Shackleton, Ervin H Epstein
The lower risk of some internal cancers at lower latitudes has been linked to greater sun exposure and consequent higher levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-produced vitamin D3 (D3). To separate the experimental effects of sunlight and of all forms of D3, a mouse in which UVR does not produce D3 would be useful. To this end we have generated mice carrying a modified allele of sterol C5-desaturase (Sc5d), the gene encoding the enzyme that converts lathosterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), such that Sc5d expression can be inactivated using the Cre/lox site-specific recombination system...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328180/effect-of-estrogen-on-chick-primordial-follicle-development-and-activation
#4
Dan Zhao, Caifeng Lv, Guang Liu, Yuling Mi, Caiqiao Zhang
Steroid hormones and their receptors play pivotal roles in avian reproduction and development. 17β-estradiol (E2 ) is an essential mediator in ovarian development. In this study, Day 3 (D3) chicks were injected with E2 (0.025, 0.25 or 2.5 mg/kg body weight) for 4 days to assess the effects of estrogen on avian follicle development. Morphological analysis showed that treatment of E2 at 2.5 mg/kg increased the number of growing follicles by 28. 5% and activated follicles by 8.9%, compared with the group. Treatment of E2 also led to increased diameter and area of three kinds of follicles and oocytes, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326743/dopamine-receptors-modulate-t-lymphocytes-via-inhibition-of-camp-creb-signaling-pathway
#5
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: We have previously reported that dopamine D2-like receptors including D2, D3 and D4 receptors are more important in mediating modulation of T cells than dopamine D1-like receptors (D1 and D5 receptors). Here we aimed to clarify the role of D2-like receptors in regulation of differentiation and function of T lymphocyte subsets, including helper T (Th)1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells. METHODS: Lymphocytes, separated from the mesenteric lymph nodes of mice, were stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) and treated with the D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole or the antagonist haloperidol...
December 22, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323029/the-dopamine-d3-receptor-antagonists-pg01037-ngb2904-sb277011a-and-u99194-reverse-abcg2-transporter-mediated-drug-resistance-in-cancer-cell-lines
#6
Noor Hussein, Haneen Amawi, Chandrabose Karthikeyan, F Scott Hall, Roopali Mittal, Piyush Trivedi, Charles R Ashby, Amit K Tiwari
THE ATP: binding cassette (ABC) family G2 (ABCG2) transporters are known to produce multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer, thereby limiting the clinical response to chemotherapy. Molecular modeling data indicated that certain dopamine (DA) D3 receptor antagonists had a significant binding affinity for ABCG2 transporter. Therefore, in this in vitro study, we determined the effect of the D3 receptor antagonists PG01037, NGB2904, SB277011A, and U99194 on MDR resulting from the overexpression of ABCG2 transporters...
March 16, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315703/molecular-endocrinology-of-vitamin-d-on-the-epigenome-level
#7
REVIEW
Carsten Carlberg
The molecular endocrinology of vitamin D is based on the facts that i) its metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is the high affinity ligand of the nuclear receptor vitamin D receptor (VDR) and ii) the transcription factor VDR is the unique target of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the nucleus. Short-term alterations of the epigenome are primarily changes in the post-translational modification status of nucleosome-forming histone proteins, the consequences of which are i) a local increase or decrease in chromatin accessibility and ii) the activation or repression of gene transcription...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301911/the-prevalence-and-clinical-relevance-of-asa-nonresponse-after-cardiac-surgery
#8
Saskia Wand, Elisabeth Hannah Adam, Anna Julienne Wetz, Patrick Meybohm, Nils Kunze-Szikszay, Kai Zacharowski, Aron Frederick Popov, Anton Moritz, Lisa Moldenhauer, Julia Kaiser, Martin Bauer, Christian Friedrich Weber
We aimed to identify the prevalence of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) nonresponse in patients after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and the possible consequences for the rate of major cardiovascular events. This prospective, observational, bicentric cohort study was conducted in two German University hospitals. A total of 400 patients (200 in each study center) undergoing elective CABG surgery were enrolled after written informed consent. Platelet function was analyzed on day 3 (d3) and day 5 (d5) postoperatively following stimulation with arachidonic acid (ASPItest) and with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAPtest) using multiple electrode aggregometry (Multiplate)...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301319/hereditary-vitamin-d-resistant-rickets-in-lebanese-patients-the-p-r391s-and-p-h397p-variants-have-different-phenotypes
#9
Rabih Andary, Abdul-Karim El-Hage-Sleiman, Theresa Farhat, Sami Sanjad, Georges Nemer
BACKGROUND: Hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets (HVDRR) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. Variable phenotypes have been associated with these mutations, and some of these were linked to the effects they have on the interacting partners of VDR, mainly the retinoic X receptor (RXR). METHODS: We examined four patients with HVDRR from three unrelated Lebanese families. All parents were consanguineous with normal phenotype...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297025/association-of-stimulant-use-with-dopaminergic-alterations-in-users-of-cocaine-amphetamine-or-methamphetamine-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Abhishekh H Ashok, Yuya Mizuno, Nora D Volkow, Oliver D Howes
Importance: Stimulant use disorder is common, affecting between 0.3% and 1.1% of the population, and costs more than $85 billion per year globally. There are no licensed treatments to date. Several lines of evidence implicate the dopamine system in the pathogenesis of substance use disorder. Therefore, understanding the nature of dopamine dysfunction seen in stimulant users has the potential to aid the development of new therapeutics. Objective: To comprehensively review the in vivo imaging evidence for dopaminergic alterations in stimulant (cocaine, amphetamine, or methamphetamine) abuse or dependence...
March 15, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290500/pramipexole-restores-depressed-transmission-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-following-mptp-lesion
#11
Javier Castro-Hernández, Paul A Adlard, David I Finkelstein
The hippocampus has a significant association with memory, cognition and emotions. The dopaminergic projections from both the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra are thought to be involved in hippocampal activity. To date, however, few studies have investigated dopaminergic innervation in the hippocampus or the functional consequences of reduced dopamine in disease models. Further complicating this, the hippocampus exhibits anatomical and functional differentiation along its dorso-ventral axis. In this work we investigated the role of dopamine on hippocampal long term potentiation using D-amphetamine, which stimulates dopamine release, and also examined how a dopaminergic lesion affects the synaptic transmission across the anatomic subdivisions of the hippocampus...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285151/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-upregulates-il-1%C3%AE-expression-in-hcmec-d3-human-cerebral-microvascular-endothelial-cells-after-tcdd-exposure
#12
Aude Jacob, Céline Tomkiewicz-Raulet, Charlotte Jamet, Reina Bendayan, France Massicot, Xavier Coumoul, Xavier Declèves
The AhR is a cytosolic ligand-dependent transcription factor activated by both endogenous and exogenous chemicals. It can regulate expression of many target genes including some inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. To date AhR implication in the regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines at human cerebral endothelium has not been addressed. In the present study, we investigated whether AhR could regulate the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines and one chemokine i.e. IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the hCMEC/D3 human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line...
March 8, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276034/are-synchronous-and-metachronous-bilateral-breast-cancers-different-an-immunohistochemical-analysis-focused-on-cell-cycle-regulation
#13
Elżbieta Senkus, Jolanta Szade, Beata Pieczyńska, Michał Kunc, Agnieszka Pliszka, Jacek Jassem
INTRODUCTION: The biology and pathomechanisms of bilateral breast cancers is not fully understood. We compared the morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of primary tumors in patients with synchronous (sBBC) and metachronous bilateral breast cancers (mBBC), with special focus on cell cycle regulation and its correlation with markers determining intrinsic phenotype. METHODS: Immunohistochemical expression of p16Ink4A, p21(WAF1/CIP1), p27Kip1, p53, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and cyclin E was assessed in tissue microarrays containing primary breast tumor cores from 113 mBBC and 61 sBBC...
March 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265019/the-first-negative-allosteric-modulator-for-dopamine-d2-and-d3-receptors-sb269652-may-lead-to-a-new-generation-of-antipsychotic-drugs
#14
Mario Rossi, Irene Fasciani, Francesco Marampon, Roberto Maggio, Marco Scarselli
D2 and D3 dopamine receptors belong to the largest family of cell surface proteins in eukaryotes, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Considering their crucial physiological functions and their relatively accessible cellular locations, GPCRs represent one of the most important classes of therapeutic targets. Until recently, the only strategy to develop drugs regulating GPCR activity was through the identification of compounds that directly acted on the orthosteric sites for endogenous ligands. However, many efforts have recently been made in order to identify small molecules that are able to interact with allosteric sites...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257894/morphine-responsiveness-to-thermal-pain-stimuli-is-aging-associated-and-mediated-by-dopamine-d1-and-d3-receptor-interactions
#15
Sophia Samir, Alexander P Yllanes, Perrine Lallemand, Kori L Brewer, Stefan Clemens
Morphine actions involve the dopamine (DA) D1 and D3 receptor systems (D1R and D3R), and the responses to morphine change with age. We here explored in differently aged wild-type (WT) and D3R knockout mice (D3KO) the interactions of the D1R/D3R systems with morphine in vivo at three different times of the animals' lifespan (2months, 1year, and 2years). We found that: (1) thermal pain withdrawal reflexes follow an aging-associated phenotype, with relatively longer latencies at 2months and shorter latencies at 1year, (2) over the same age range, a dysfunction of the D3R subtype decreases reflex latencies more than aging alone, (3) morphine altered reflex responses in a dose-dependent manner in WT animals and changed at its higher dose the phenotype of the D3KO animals from a morphine-resistant state to a morphine-responsive state, (4) block of D1R function had an aging-dependent effect on thermal withdrawal latencies in control animals that, in old animals, was stronger than that of low-dose morphine...
February 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257826/structural-aspects-of-vitamin-d-endocrinology
#16
Natacha Rochel, Ferdinand Molnár
1α,25-Dihydroxvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is the hormonally active form of vitamin D3. Its synthesis and its metabolites, their transport and elimination as well as action on transcriptional regulation involves the harmonic cooperation of diverse proteins with vitamin D binding capacities such as vitamin D binding protein (DBP), cytochrome P450 enzymes or the nuclear vitamin receptor (VDR). The genomic mechanism of 1,25(OH)2D3 action involves its binding to VDR that functionally acts as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor...
February 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256614/mart-10-represses-cholangiocarcinoma-cell-growth-and-high-vitamin-d-receptor-expression-indicates-better-prognosis-for-cholangiocarcinoma
#17
Kun-Chun Chiang, Ta-Sen Yeh, Cheng-Cheng Huang, Yu-Chan Chang, Horng-Heng Juang, Chi-Tung Cheng, Jong-Hwei S Pang, Jun-Te Hsu, Masashi Takano, Tai C Chen, Atsushi Kittaka, Michael Hsiao, Chun-Nan Yeh
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease due to no effective treatments available. Since the non-mineral functions of vitamin D emerges, 1α,25(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D, has been applied in anti-cancer researches. In this study, we demonstrated that both the 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, and 1α,25(OH)2D3 possessed anti-growth effect on human CCA cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The growth inhibition of both drugs were mediated by induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through upregulation of p27 and downregulation of CDK4, CDK6, and cyclin D3...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240603/the-vitamin-d-receptor-contemporary-genomic-approaches-reveal-new-basic-and-translational-insights
#18
J Wesley Pike, Mark B Meyer, Seong-Min Lee, Melda Onal, Nancy A Benkusky
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is the single known regulatory mediator of hormonal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] in higher vertebrates. It acts in the nucleus of vitamin D target cells to regulate the expression of genes whose products control diverse, cell type-specific biological functions that include mineral homeostasis. In this Review we describe progress that has been made in defining new cellular sites of action of this receptor, the mechanisms through which this mediator controls the expression of genes, the biology that ensues, and the translational impact of this receptor on human health and disease...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231625/experimental-study-on-1-25-oh-2-d3-amelioration-of-oral-lichen-planus-through-regulating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#19
Jie Du, Ran Li, Feiyan Yu, Fang Yang, Jinhua Wang, Qingyong Chen, Xiangyu Wang, Bin Zhao, Fang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective function of vitamin D (VD)/vitamin D receptor (VDR) on the development of oral lichen planus (OLP) and elaborate the underling mechanism of it. METHODS: H&E staining, myeloid Peroxidase (MPO) assays, quantitative PCR (qPCR), western blotting and Elisa were used to test the human biopsies and serum. QPCR, western blotting, Elisa and siRNA transfection were also performed in LPS-induced keratinocytes to observe the functions of vitamin D and VDR...
February 23, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231019/pro-inflammatory-cytokines-impair-vitamin-d-induced-host-defense-in-cultured-airway-epithelial-cells
#20
Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Gimano D Amatngalim, Joris B Veldkamp, Renate M Verhoosel, Dennis K Ninaber, Soledad R Ordonez, Anne M van der Does, Henk P Haagsman, Pieter S Hiemstra
Vitamin D is a regulator of host defense against infections and induces expression of the antimicrobial peptide hCAP18/LL-37. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic inflammatory lung diseases and respiratory infections. However, it is incompletely understood if and how (chronic) airway inflammation affects vitamin D metabolism and action. We hypothesized that long-term exposure of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to pro-inflammatory cytokines alters their vitamin D metabolism, antibacterial activity and expression of hCAP18/LL-37...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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