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Sleep physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924661/sleep-disordered-breathing-in-pregnancy-the-maternal-and-fetal-implications
#1
Shanthi Carnelio, Adam Morton, H David McIntyre
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) which includes obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS), has emerged as a risk factor for adverse maternal-foetal outcomes in pregnancy. Physiological changes of pregnancy predispose a woman 'at risk' towards developing SDB. The increasing incidence of OSA in pregnancy closely correlates with the population trends of obesity. Common screening tools validated in non-pregnant subjects including Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) are poor predictors of SDB in pregnancy...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923646/role-of-the-allergist-immunologist-and-upper-airway-allergy-in-sleep-disordered-breathing
#2
Dennis Shusterman, Fuad M Baroody, Timothy Craig, Samuel Friedlander, Talal Nsouli, Bernard Silverman
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing in general and obstructive sleep apnea in particular are commonly encountered conditions in allergy practice. Physiologically, nasal (or nasopharyngeal) obstruction from rhinitis, nasal polyposis, or adenotonsillar hypertrophy are credible contributors to snoring and nocturnal respiratory obstructive events. Nevertheless, existing practice parameters largely relegate the role of the allergist to adjunctive treatment in cases of continuous positive airway pressure intolerance...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923431/using-oscillating-sounds-to-manipulate-sleep-spindles
#3
James W Antony, Ken A Paller
STUDY OBJECTIVES: EEG oscillations known as sleep spindles have been linked with various aspects of cognition, but the specific functions they signal remain controversial. Two types of EEG sleep spindle have been distinguished: slow spindles at 11-13.5 Hz and fast spindles at 13.5-16 Hz. Slow spindles exhibit a frontal scalp topography, whereas fast spindles exhibit a posterior scalp topography and have been preferentially linked with memory consolidation during sleep. To advance understanding beyond that provided from correlative studies of spindles, we aimed to develop a new method to systematically manipulate spindles...
November 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923429/effects-of-tiagabine-on-slow-wave-sleep-and-arousal-threshold-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#4
Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, Scott A Sands, Bradley A Edwards, Ali Azarbarzin, Melania Marques, Camila de Melo, Danny J Eckert, David P White, Andrew Wellman
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity is markedly reduced during slow wave sleep (SWS) even in patients with a severe disease. The reason for this improvement is uncertain but likely relates to non-anatomical factors (i.e. reduced arousability, chemosensitivity, and increased dilator muscle activity). The anticonvulsant tiagabine produces a dose-dependent increase in SWS in subjects without OSA. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that tiagabine would reduce OSA severity by raising the overall arousal threshold during sleep...
November 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920726/hrvanalysis-a-free-software-for-analyzing-cardiac-autonomic-activity
#5
Vincent Pichot, Frédéric Roche, Sébastien Celle, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Florian Chouchou
Since the pioneering studies of the 1960s, heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly used non-invasive tool for examining cardiac autonomic functions and dysfunctions in various populations and conditions. Many calculation methods have been developed to address these issues, each with their strengths and weaknesses. Although, its interpretation may remain difficult, this technique provides, from a non-invasive approach, reliable physiological information that was previously inaccessible, in many fields including death and health prediction, training and overtraining, cardiac and respiratory rehabilitation, sleep-disordered breathing, large cohort follow-ups, children's autonomic status, anesthesia, or neurophysiological studies...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919403/trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-agonists-as-narcolepsy-therapeutics
#6
Sarah W Black, Michael D Schwartz, Tsui-Ming Chen, Marius C Hoener, Thomas S Kilduff
BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy, a disorder of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, a loss of muscle tone triggered by emotional stimulation. Current narcolepsy pharmacotherapeutics include controlled substances with abuse potential or drugs with undesirable side effects. As partial agonists at trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) promote wakefulness in mice and rats, we evaluated whether TAAR1 agonism had beneficial effects in two mouse models of narcolepsy...
October 18, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918760/risk-factors-protective-factors-and-current-recommendations-to-reduce-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-a-review
#7
Rebecca F Carlin, Rachel Y Moon
Importance: Sudden infant death syndrome remains the leading cause of death in infants aged 1 month to 1 year in the United States. Observations: While its exact cause is unknown, sudden infant death syndrome is believed to be multifactorial, ie, occurs in infants with underlying biological vulnerability who experience an exogenous stressor, such as prone/side sleeping or soft bedding, during a critical developmental period. Much genetic and physiologic evidence points to impaired arousal responses to hypercarbia and hypoxia, which ultimately leads to asphyxia...
December 5, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916643/homeostatic-effects-of-exercise-and-sleep-on-metabolic-processes-in-mice-with-an-overexpressed-skeletal-muscle-clock
#8
Allison J Brager, Lydia Heemstra, Raman Bhambra, J Christopher Ehlen, Karyn A Esser, Ketema N Paul, Colleen M Novak
Brain and muscle-ARNT-like factor (Bmal1/BMAL1) is an essential transcriptional/translational factor of circadian clocks. Loss of function of Bmal1/BMAL1 is highly disruptive to physiological and behavioral processes. In light of these previous findings, we examined if transgenic overexpression of Bmal1/BMAL1 in skeletal muscle could alter metabolic processes. First, we characterized in vivo and ex vivo metabolic phenotypes of muscle overexpressed mice (male and female) compared to wild-type littermates (WT)...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914294/selective-agonism-of-mglu8-receptors-by-s-3-4-dicarboxyphenylglycine-does-not-affect-sleep-stages-in-the-rat
#9
María Cavas, Gianluigi Scesa, Mercedes Martín-López, José Francisco Navarro
BACKGROUND: Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu) play a role in a number of physiological processes and behaviors, as well as in certain pathological conditions and diseases. New drugs targetting mGlu receptors are being developed with treatment purposes. Recent data indicates that glutamate is involved in sleep, and pharmacological manipulation of distinct subtypes of mGlu receptors affect sleep. Here the consequences of selective pharmacological agonism of mGlu8 receptor upon sleep and wakefulness are explored for the first time...
September 22, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912882/tenuifolin-a-saponin-derived-from-radix-polygalae-exhibits-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-mice
#10
Qing Cao, Yong Jiang, Su-Ying Cui, Peng-Fei Tu, Yue-Mei Chen, Xiao-Li Ma, Xiang-Yu Cui, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ye, Xiao Hu, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins. PURPOSE: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911798/stretchable-multichannel-antennas-in-soft-wireless-optoelectronic-implants-for-optogenetics
#11
Sung Il Park, Gunchul Shin, Jordan G McCall, Ream Al-Hasani, Aaron Norris, Li Xia, Daniel S Brenner, Kyung Nim Noh, Sang Yun Bang, Dionnet L Bhatti, Kyung-In Jang, Seung-Kyun Kang, Aaron D Mickle, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price, Robert W Gereau, Michael R Bruchas, John A Rogers
Optogenetic methods to modulate cells and signaling pathways via targeted expression and activation of light-sensitive proteins have greatly accelerated the process of mapping complex neural circuits and defining their roles in physiological and pathological contexts. Recently demonstrated technologies based on injectable, microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes (μ-ILEDs) with wireless control and power delivery strategies offer important functionality in such experiments, by eliminating the external tethers associated with traditional fiber optic approaches...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909991/the-role-of-orexins-hypocretins-in-alcohol-use-and-abuse
#12
Leigh C Walker, Andrew J Lawrence
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and drug taking despite negative consequences. Alcohol abuse and addiction have major social and economic consequences and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available therapeutics are inadequate, outlining the need for alternative treatments. Detailed knowledge of the neurocircuitry and brain chemistry responsible for aberrant behavior patterns should enable the development of novel pharmacotherapies to treat addiction...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909225/recovery-of-the-immune-system-after-exercise
#13
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Neil P Walsh, Richard J Simpson
The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an 'open window' of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts, and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions (e...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904148/the-interaction-between-erectile-dysfunction-complaints-and-depression-in-men-a-cross-sectional-study-about-sleep-hormones-and-quality-of-life
#14
J H Soterio-Pires, C Hirotsu, L J Kim, L Bittencourt, S Tufik, M L Andersen
Depression (DEP) is one of the main disabling diseases and is considered a contributor factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). Both of these conditions may be associated with hormonal changes and sleep disturbances. We aimed to evaluate the interaction between ED complaints and depression symptoms on sleep parameters, hormone levels and quality of life in men. This was a cross-sectional study of 468 men aged 20-80 years. The participants were classified according to the presence of ED and/or DEP in groups of healthy individuals, ED, DEP and DEP with ED (DEP-ED)...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Impotence Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893847/a2a-adenosine-receptor-antagonism-reverts-the-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-induced-by-sleep-restriction
#15
Gabriela Hurtado-Alvarado, Emilio Domínguez-Salazar, Javier Velázquez-Moctezuma, Beatriz Gómez-González
Chronic sleep restriction induces blood-brain barrier disruption and increases pro-inflammatory mediators in rodents. Those inflammatory mediators may modulate the blood-brain barrier and constitute a link between sleep loss and blood-brain barrier physiology. We propose that adenosine action on its A2A receptor may be modulating the blood-brain barrier dynamics in sleep-restricted rats. We administrated a selective A2A adenosine receptor antagonist (SCH58261) in sleep-restricted rats at the 10th day of sleep restriction and evaluated the blood-brain barrier permeability to dextrans coupled to fluorescein (FITC-dextrans) and Evans blue...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890604/gender-dimorphism-in-pediatric-osa-is-it-for-real
#16
REVIEW
Pablo E Brockmann, Dorit Koren, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David Gozal
In epidemiologic studies focused on adults, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has higher prevalence in men than in women. The evidence supporting a gender-related discrepant prevalence of OSA is however much more tenuous in children. Here, we aimed to review the evidence concerning gender- based differences in the prevalence of OSA in children, and if so, to examine the evidence with the intent to identify potential factors that may account for this putative association. Gender-based perception and reporting of clinical manifestations of OSA may be modulated by several social and cultural factors in children...
November 23, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884793/sex-stress-and-sleep-apnoea-decreased-susceptibility-to-upper-airway-muscle-dysfunction-following-intermittent-hypoxia-in-females
#17
REVIEW
Ken D O'Halloran, Philip Lewis, Fiona McDonald
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a devastating respiratory control disorder more common in men than women. The reasons for the sex difference in prevalence are multifactorial, but are partly attributable to protective effects of oestrogen. Indeed, OSAS prevalence increases in post-menopausal women. OSAS is characterized by repeated occlusions of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. Dysfunction of the upper airway muscles controlling airway calibre and collapsibility is implicated in the pathophysiology of OSAS, and sex differences in the neuro-mechanical control of upper airway patency are described...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865949/lost-in-translation-the-potential-psychobiotic-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-jb-1-fails-to-modulate-stress-or-cognitive-performance-in-healthy-male-subjects
#18
John R Kelly, Andrew P Allen, Andriy Temko, William Hutch, Paul J Kennedy, Niloufar Farid, Eileen Murphy, Geraldine Boylan, John Bienenstock, John F Cryan, Gerard Clarke, Timothy G Dinan
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have identified certain probiotics as psychobiotics - live microorganisms with a potential mental health benefit. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) has been shown to reduce stress-related behaviour, corticosterone release and alter central expression of GABA receptors in an anxious mouse strain. However, it is unclear if this single putative psychobiotic strain has psychotropic activity in humans. Consequently, we aimed to examine if these promising preclinical findings could be translated to healthy human volunteers...
November 16, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863610/exploring-the-body-through-reflexology-physical-behaviors-observed-during-application
#19
Neus Esmel-Esmel, Eudald Tomás-Esmel, Yolanda Aparicio Rollan, Irene Pérez Cáceres, Ma Jesús Montes-Muñoz, Maria Jimenez-Herrera
Recent studies on reflexology describe the appearance of different application-associated effects, attributed to a self-regulatory mechanism related to treatment efficacy. On the other hand, sleep is a physiological process of vital importance for health. Its main value lies in restoring the natural balance between neuronal centers. Among its associated behavioral characteristics are spontaneous movements and eye movements. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects that occur during application of reflexology and that are not described in the literature...
November 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859029/reactivation-of-seizure-related-changes-to-interictal-spike-shape-and-synchrony-during-postseizure-sleep-in-patients
#20
Mark R Bower, Michal T Kucewicz, Erik K St Louis, Fredric B Meyer, W Richard Marsh, Matt Stead, Gregory A Worrell
OBJECTIVE: Local field potentials (LFPs) arise from synchronous activation of millions of neurons, producing seemingly consistent waveform shapes and relative synchrony across electrodes. Interictal spikes (IISs) are LFPs associated with epilepsy that are commonly used to guide surgical resection. Recently, changes in neuronal firing patterns observed in the minutes preceding seizure onset were found to be reactivated during postseizure sleep, a process called seizure-related consolidation (SRC), due to similarities with learning-related consolidation...
November 18, 2016: Epilepsia
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