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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636610/chronotypes-in-the-us-influence-of-age-and-sex
#1
Dorothee Fischer, David A Lombardi, Helen Marucci-Wellman, Till Roenneberg
An individual's chronotype reflects how the circadian system embeds itself into the 24-h day with rhythms in physiology, cognition and behavior occurring accordingly earlier or later. In view of an increasing number of people working at unusual times and linked health and safety risks, the wide range in human chronotypes may provide opportunities to allow people to work (and sleep) at times that are in synch with their circadian physiology. We aimed at estimating the distribution of chronotypes in the US population by age and sex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633970/unified-neural-field-theory-of-brain-dynamics-underlying-oscillations-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-generalized-epilepsies
#2
E J Müller, S J van Albada, J W Kim, P A Robinson
The mechanisms underlying pathologically synchronized neural oscillations in Parkinson's disease (PD) and generalized epilepsies are explored in parallel via a physiologically-based neural field model of the corticothalamic-basal ganglia (CTBG) system. The basal ganglia (BG) are approximated as a single effective population and their roles in the modulation of oscillatory dynamics of the corticothalamic (CT) system and vice versa are analyzed. In addition to normal EEG rhythms, enhanced activity around 4 Hz and 20 Hz exists in the model, consistent with the characteristic frequencies observed in PD...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633091/cyclic-alternating-pattern-and-interictal-epileptiform-discharges-during-morning-sleep-after-sleep-deprivation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Filippo Sean Giorgi, Michelangelo Maestri, Melania Guida, Luca Carnicelli, Lorenzo Caciagli, Raffaele Ferri, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Enrica Bonanni
PURPOSE: Sleep deprivation (SD) increases the occurrence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) compared to basal EEG in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In adults, EEG after SD is usually performed in the morning after SD. We aimed to evaluate whether morning sleep after SD bears additional IED-inducing effects compared with nocturnal physiological sleep, and whether changes in sleep stability (described by the cyclic alternating pattern-CAP) play a significant role. METHODS: Adult patients with TLE underwent in-lab night polysomnography (n-PSG) and, within 7days from n-PSG, they underwent also a morning EEG after night SD (SD-EEG)...
June 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632163/melatonin-as-a-novel-interventional-candidate-for-fragile-x-syndrome-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#4
REVIEW
Jinyoung Won, Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Sookyoung Park, Tae Ho Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Yonggeun Hong
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). FXS with ASD results from the loss of fragile X mental retardation (fmr) gene products, including fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which triggers a variety of physiological and behavioral abnormalities. This disorder is also correlated with clock components underlying behavioral circadian rhythms and, thus, a mutation of the fmr gene can result in disturbed sleep patterns and altered circadian rhythms. As a result, FXS with ASD individuals may experience dysregulation of melatonin synthesis and alterations in melatonin-dependent signaling pathways that can impair vigilance, learning, and memory abilities, and may be linked to autistic behaviors such as abnormal anxiety responses...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627083/a-review-of-important-eeg-features-for-the-assessment-of-brain-maturation-in-premature-infants
#5
REVIEW
Elena Pavlidis, Rhodri O Lloyd, Sean Mathieson, Geraldine B Boylan
This review describes the maturational features of the baseline electroencephalogram (EEG) in the neurologically healthy preterm infant. Features such as continuity, sleep state, synchrony and transient waveforms are described, even from extremely preterm infants and includes abundant illustrated examples. The physiological significance of these EEG features and their relationship to neurodevelopment is highlighted where known. This review also demonstrates the importance of multichannel conventional EEG monitoring for preterm infants as many of the features described are not apparent if limited channel EEG monitors are used...
June 18, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625682/are-circadian-rhythms-new-pathways-to-understand-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
M-M Geoffray, A Nicolas, M Speranza, N Georgieff
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder. ASD is probably the result of intricate interactions between genes and environment altering progressively the development of brain structures and functions. Circadian rhythms are a complex intrinsic timing system composed of almost as many clocks as there are body cells. They regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes such as the sleep- wake rhythm. ASD is often associated with sleep disorders and low levels of melatonin...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625231/you-ll-feel-better-in-the-morning-slow-wave-activity-and-overnight-mood-regulation-in-interepisode-bipolar-disorder
#7
A M Soehner, K A Kaplan, J M Saletin, L S Talbot, I S Hairston, J Gruber, P Eidelman, M P Walker, A G Harvey
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are prominent correlates of acute mood episodes and inadequate recovery in bipolar disorder (BD), yet the mechanistic relationship between sleep physiology and mood remains poorly understood. Using a series of pre-sleep mood inductions and overnight sleep recording, this study examined the relationship between overnight mood regulation and a marker of sleep intensity (non-rapid eye movement sleep slow wave activity; NREM SWA) during the interepisode phase of BD...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620452/metabolic-reprogramming-during-the-trypanosoma-brucei-life-cycle
#8
REVIEW
Terry K Smith, Frédéric Bringaud, Derek P Nolan, Luisa M Figueiredo
Cellular metabolic activity is a highly complex, dynamic, regulated process that is influenced by numerous factors, including extracellular environmental signals, nutrient availability and the physiological and developmental status of the cell. The causative agent of sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei, is an exclusively extracellular protozoan parasite that encounters very different extracellular environments during its life cycle within the mammalian host and tsetse fly insect vector. In order to meet these challenges, there are significant alterations in the major energetic and metabolic pathways of these highly adaptable parasites...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620314/orexin-system-the-key-for-a-healthy-life
#9
REVIEW
Sergio Chieffi, Marco Carotenuto, Vincenzo Monda, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Francesco Precenzano, Domenico Tafuri, Monica Salerno, Nicola Filippi, Francesco Nuccio, Maria Ruberto, Vincenzo De Luca, Luigi Cipolloni, Giuseppe Cibelli, Maria P Mollica, Diego Iacono, Ersilia Nigro, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina, Antonietta Messina
The orexin-A/hypocretin-1 and orexin-B/hypocretin-2 are neuropeptides synthesized by a cluster of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and perifornical area. Orexin neurons receive a variety of signals related to environmental, physiological and emotional stimuli, and project broadly to the entire CNS. Orexin neurons are "multi-tasking" neurons regulating a set of vital body functions, including sleep/wake states, feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, reward systems, cognition and mood. Furthermore, a dysfunction of orexinergic system may underlie different pathological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619182/evolution-of-circadian-rhythms-from-bacteria-to-human
#10
REVIEW
Utpal Bhadra, Nirav Thakkar, Paromita Das, Manika Pal Bhadra
The human body persists in its rhythm as per its initial time zone, and transition always occur according to solar movements around the earth over 24 h. While traveling across different latitudes and longitudes, at the pace exceeding the earth's movement, the changes in the external cues exceed the level of toleration of the body's biological clock. This poses an alteration in our physiological activities of sleep-wake pattern, mental alertness, organ movement, and eating habits, causing them to temporarily lose the track of time...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617544/the-relationship-between-quality-of-life-and-clinical-phenotype-in-patients-with-treatment-resistant-and-non-treatment-resistant-depression
#11
J Qiao, L-J Qian, H-F Zhao, G-H Gong, D-Q Geng
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation is to determine the differences in quality of life (QOL) and clinical phenotype between patients with treatment resistant (TRD) and non-treatment resistant depression (NTRD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The severity, QOL, and cognitive function of 107 TRD and 173 NTRD patients were evaluated and calculated by the Hamilton Depression Scale-17 (HAMD-17), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERP), respectively...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611660/neurodegeneration-and-the-circadian-clock
#12
REVIEW
Suzanne Hood, Shimon Amir
Despite varied etiologies and symptoms, several neurodegenerative diseases-specifically, Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HDs)-share the common feature of abnormal circadian rhythms, such as those in behavior (e.g., disrupted sleep/wake cycles), physiological processes (e.g., diminished hormone release) and biochemical activities (e.g., antioxidant production). Circadian disturbances are among the earliest symptoms of these diseases, and the molecular mechanisms of the circadian system are suspected to play a pivotal, and possibly causal, role in their natural histories...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609480/an-automated-and-reliable-method-for-breath-detection-during-variable-mask-pressures-in-awake-and-sleeping-humans
#13
Chinh D Nguyen, Jason Amatoury, Jayne C Carberry, Danny J Eckert
Accurate breath detection is crucial in sleep and respiratory physiology research and in several clinical settings. However, this process is technically challenging due to measurement and physiological artifacts and other factors such as variable leaks in the breathing circuit. Recently developed techniques to quantify the multiple causes of obstructive sleep apnea, require intermittent changes in airway pressure applied to a breathing mask. This presents an additional unique challenge for breath detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608460/anatomical-and-electrophysiological-development-of-the-hypothalamic-orexin-neurons-from-embryos-to-neonates
#14
Yukino Ogawa, Takeshi Kanda, Kaspar Vogt, Masashi Yanagisawa
The amount, quality and diurnal pattern of sleep change greatly during development. Developmental changes of sleep/wake architecture are in a close relationship to brain development. The fragmentation of wake episodes is one of the salient features in the neonatal period, which is also observed in mature animals and human individuals lacking neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin signaling. This raises the possibility that developmental changes of lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons are relevant to the development of sleep/wake architecture...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603504/the-safety-of-ingested-caffeine-a-comprehensive-review
#15
REVIEW
Jennifer L Temple, Christophe Bernard, Steven E Lipshultz, Jason D Czachor, Joslyn A Westphal, Miriam A Mestre
Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602380/sleep-duration-and-telomere-length-in-children
#16
Sarah James, Sara McLanahan, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Colter Mitchell, Lisa Schneper, Brandon Wagner, Daniel A Notterman
OBJECTIVE: To test the association between sleep duration and telomere length in a pediatric population. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed cross-sectional data for 1567 children from the age 9 study wave of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a population-based birth cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 in large American cities (population >200 000). We measured telomere length using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and children's typical nightly sleep duration was reported by their primary caregivers...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600268/slow-wave-sleep-estimation-for-healthy-subjects-and-osa-patients-using-r-r-intervals
#17
Hee Nam Yoon, Su Hwan Hwang, Jae Won Choi, Yu Jin Lee, Do Un Jeong, Kwang Suk Park
We developed an automatic slow-wave sleep (SWS) detection algorithm that can be applied to groups of healthy subjects and patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This algorithm detected SWS based on autonomic activations derived from the heart rate variations of a single sensor. An autonomic stability, which is an SWS characteristic, was evaluated and quantified using R-R intervals from an electrocardiogram (ECG). The thresholds and the heuristic rule to determine SWS were designed based on the physiological backgrounds for sleep process and distribution across the night...
June 7, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599531/physiological-effects-of-railway-vibration-and-noise-on-sleep
#18
Michael G Smith, Ilona Croy, Mikael Ögren, Oscar Hammar, Eva Lindberg, Kerstin Persson Waye
This paper evaluates the relative contribution of vibration and noise from railway on physiological sleep outcomes. Vibration from railway freight often accompanies airborne noise, yet is almost totally absent in the existing literature. In an experimental investigation, 23 participants, each sleeping for six nights in the laboratory, were exposed to 36 simulated railway freight pass-bys per night with vibration alone (aWd,max = 0.0204 ms(-2)), noise alone (LAF,max = 49.8 dB), or both vibration and noise simultaneously...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597541/restless-roosts-light-pollution-affects-behavior-sleep-and-physiology-in-a-free-living-songbird
#19
Jenny Q Ouyang, Maaike de Jong, Roy H A van Grunsven, Kevin D Matson, Mark F Haussmann, Peter Meerlo, Marcel E Visser, Kamiel Spoelstra
The natural nighttime environment is increasingly polluted by artificial light. Several studies have linked artificial light at night to negative impacts on human health. In free-living animals, light pollution is associated with changes in circadian, reproductive, and social behavior, but whether these animals also suffer from physiologic costs remains unknown. To fill this gap, we made use of a unique network of field sites which are either completely unlit (control), or are artificially illuminated with white, green, or red light...
June 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596466/-clocks-behavior-and-cognition
#20
Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Takeshi Kuroda, Motoyasu Honma, Ryuta Kinno, Kenjiro Ono, Mitsuru Kawamura
The nerve center responsible for controlling our circadian rhythm is located in a cluster of cells known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. Various physiological functions such as sleep, arousal, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion are regulated in a 24-hour rhythm by this circuit. Somatic cells of other organs have a peripheral clock gene and by synchronizing the rhythm of the central and peripheral clocks, it is possible to live a healthy life. Due to aging and degenerative disease, circadian rhythm gradually collapses...
June 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
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