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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528244/heart-rate-variability-of-chronic-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-korean-veterans
#1
Joo Eon Park, Ji Yeon Lee, Suk-Hoon Kang, Jin Hee Choi, Tae Yong Kim, Hyung Seok So, In-Young Yoon
Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have lower heart rate variability (HRV) than the general population, but findings in this area have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of HRV in patients with PTSD and to evaluate associations between PTSD symptoms and HRV indices. Sixty-eight patients with PTSD and 73 controls without PTSD were evaluated. HRV was measured in all subjects after they completed self-reported questionnaires. Patients with PTSD had significantly more depressed moods, anxiety, and poorer sleep quality than individuals in the non-PTSD group...
May 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526553/hypothalamic-regulation-of-the-sleep-wake-cycle
#2
REVIEW
Daisuke Ono, Akihiro Yamanaka
Sleep is one of the most important physiological functions in mammals. It is regulated by not only homeostatic regulation but also circadian clock. Several neuropeptide-producing neurons located in the hypothalamus are implicated in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness. Among them, orexin/hypocretin-producing neurons (orexin neurons) are a crucial component for maintenance of wakefulness, because lack of orexin function results in narcolepsy, which is a sleep disorder. Recent findings have identified substances that excite or inhibit neural activity of orexin neurons...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526480/human-seasonal-and-circadian-studies-in-antarctica-halley-75-0-s
#3
Josephine Arendt, Benita Middleton
Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75(0)S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526411/jnj10181457-a-histamine-h3-receptor-inverse-agonist-regulates-in-vivo-microglial-functions-and-improves-depression-like-behaviours-in-mice
#4
Tomomitsu Iida, Takeo Yoshikawa, Anikó Kárpáti, Takuro Matsuzawa, Haruna Kitano, Asuka Mogi, Ryuichi Harada, Fumito Naganuma, Tadaho Nakamura, Kazuhiko Yanai
Brain histamine acts as a neurotransmitter and regulates various physiological functions, such as learning and memory, sleep-wake cycles, and appetite regulation. We have recently shown that histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is expressed in primary mouse microglia and has a strong influence on critical functions in microglia, including chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion in vitro. However, the importance of H3R in microglial activity in vivo remains unknown. Here, we examined the effects of JNJ10181457 (JNJ), a selective and potent H3R inverse agonist, on microglial functions ex vivo and in vivo...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526259/the-impact-of-daytime-light-exposures-on-sleep-and-mood-in-office-workers
#5
Mariana G Figueiro, Bryan Steverson, Judith Heerwagen, Kevin Kampschroer, Claudia M Hunter, Kassandra Gonzales, Barbara Plitnick, Mark S Rea
BACKGROUND: By affecting the internal timing mechanisms of the brain, light regulates human physiology and behavior, perhaps most notably the sleep-wake cycle. Humans spend over 90% of their waking hours indoors, yet light in the built environment is not designed to affect circadian rhythms. OBJECTIVE: Using a device calibrated to measure light that is effective for the circadian system (circadian-effective light), collect personal light exposures in office workers and relate them to their sleep and mood...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522758/regulation-of-erythropoiesis-after-normoxic-return-from-chronic-sustained-and-intermittent-hypoxia
#6
Jihyun Song, Krishna Sundar, Radhika Gangaraju, Josef T Prchal
Hypoxia increases erythropoiesis mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF) which regulate erythropoietin (EPO) transcription. Neocytolysis is a physiological mechanism that corrects polycythemia from chronic sustained hypoxemia (CSH) by transient, preferential destruction of young RBCs after normoxia is restored. We showed that neocytolysis is caused by excessive mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in reticulocytes mediated by down-regulation of HIF-controlled BNIP3L regulated mitophagy and a decrease in RBC antioxidant catalase (CAT) in hypoxia-produced erythrocytes...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522150/implementation-of-a-wearable-ultrasound-device-for-the-overnight-monitoring-of-tongue-base-deformation-during-obstructive-sleep-apnea-events
#7
Chi-Kai Weng, Jeng-Wen Chen, Po-Yang Lee, Chih-Chung Huang
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a breathing disorder characterized by the repeated collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. Previous studies have reported that tongue base deformation may be a major contributing factor. However, overnight monitoring of tongue motion in patients with OSA has previously been impracticable. We developed a wearable ultrasound device for prolonged recording during natural sleep of the changes in tongue base thickness (TBT) in patients with OSA. The maximum TBT was fed into a polysomnography system so that physiologic signals and TBT data were simultaneously monitored...
May 15, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516429/cardinal-epigenetic-role-of-non-coding-regulatory-rnas-in-circadian-rhythm
#8
REVIEW
Utpal Bhadra, Pradipta Patra, Manika Pal-Bhadra
Circadian rhythm which governs basic physiological activities like sleeping, feeding and energy consumption is regulated by light-controlled central clock genes in the pacemaker neuron. The timekeeping machinery with unique transcriptional and post-transcriptional feedback loops is controlled by different small regulatory RNAs in the brain. Roles of the multiple neuronal genes, especially post-transcriptional regulation, splicing, polyadenylation, mature mRNA editing, and stability of translation products, are controlled by epigenetic activities orchestrated via small RNAs...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512397/leukocyte-expression-of-type-1-and-type-2-purinergic-receptors-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-during-total-sleep-deprivation-and-or-sleep-extension-in-healthy-subjects
#9
Mounir Chennaoui, Pierrick J Arnal, Catherine Drogou, Damien Leger, Fabien Sauvet, Danielle Gomez-Merino
The purinergic type P1 (adenosine A1 and A2A) receptors and the type P2 (X7) receptor have been suggested to mediate physiological effects of adenosine and adenosine triphosphate on sleep. We aimed to determine gene expression of A1R (receptor), A2AR, and P2RX7 in leukocytes of healthy subjects during total sleep deprivation followed by sleep recovery. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were also determined as they have been characterized as sleep regulatory substances, via P2RX7 activation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509114/implicating-the-potential-role-of-orexin-in-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Monika Rani, Raghuvansh Kumar, Pawan Krishan
Orexins (orexin A and orexin B), neuropeptides of hypothalamic origin also known as hypocretins, have been well documented for regulating the different physiological functions including feeding, sleep wakefulness, stress, and reward. However, from the past few years, orexins have evolved as an emerging biomarker for various endocrine disorders including diabetes mellitus and obesity which ultimately leads to various cardiovascular risk factors. Orexins exist in two isoforms orexin A and orexin B and exert their effect by acting on the G protein-coupled receptors orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX2R)...
May 16, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505502/sleep-in-the-northern-fur-seal
#11
REVIEW
Oleg I Lyamin, Lev M Mukhametov, Jerome M Siegel
The pattern of sleep in the fur seal, a semiaquatic pinniped, has several striking behavioral and physiological adaptations that allow this species to inhabit both the land and water environment. These features include unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS, also being unihemispheric waking), the ability to maintain movement for stabilization of the sleep posture and to briefly open one eye while having a sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in one hemisphere. In vivo microdialysis studies suggest that acetylcholine release is required for cortical activation during USWS, and that monoamines are not required for USWS...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504422/effects-of-mobile-phones-on-children-s-and-adolescents-health-a-commentary
#12
Lennart Hardell
The use of digital technology has grown rapidly during the last couple of decades. During use, mobile phones and cordless phones emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation. No previous generation has been exposed during childhood and adolescence to this kind of radiation. The brain is the main target organ for RF emissions from the handheld wireless phone. An evaluation of the scientific evidence on the brain tumor risk was made in May 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at World Health Organization...
May 15, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502923/g-protein-coupled-receptor-signaling-through-gpr176-gz-and-rgs16-tunes-time-in-the-center-of-the-circadian-clock-review
#13
Kaoru Goto, Masao Doi, Tianyu Wang, Sumihiro Kunisue, Iori Murai, Hitoshi Okamura
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute an immensely important class of drug targets with diverse clinical applications. There are still more than 120 orphan GPCRs whose cognate ligands and physiological functions are not known. A set of circadian pacemaker neurons that governs daily rhythms in behavior and physiology resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain. Malfunction of the circadian clock has been linked to a multitude of diseases, such as sleeping disorders, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, which makes the clock an attractive target for drug development...
May 13, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502410/performance-awareness-predicting-cognitive-performance-during-simulated-shiftwork-using-chronobiological-measures
#14
Drew M Morris, June J Pilcher, Joseph B Mulvihill, Melissa A Vander Wood
Physiological tracers of circadian rhythms and a performance awareness index were examined as predictors of cognitive performance during two sleep deprivation conditions common to occupational shiftwork. Study 1: Thirty-three sleep-deprived participants completed a simulated nightshift. Study 2: Thirty-two partially sleep-deprived participants completed a simulated dayshift. A standardized logic test was used to measure cognitive performance. Body temperature and heart rate were measured as chronobiological indices of endogenous circadian rhythms...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499990/a-state-space-and-density-estimation-framework-for-sleep-staging-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#15
Dae Y Kang, Pamela N DeYoung, Atul Malhotra, Robert L Owens, Todd P Coleman
OBJECTIVE: Although the importance of sleep is increasingly recognized, the lack of robust and efficient algorithms hinders scalable sleep assessment in healthy persons and those with sleep disorders. Polysomnography (PSG) and visual/manual scoring remain the gold standard in sleep evaluation, but more efficient/automated systems are needed. Most previous works have demonstrated algorithms in high agreement with the gold standard in healthy/normal (HN) individuals - not those with sleep disorders...
May 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496429/molecular-mechanisms-regulating-temperature-compensation-of-the-circadian-clock
#16
REVIEW
Rajesh Narasimamurthy, David M Virshup
An approximately 24-h biological timekeeping mechanism called the circadian clock is present in virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. The clock system regulates our sleep-wake cycle, feeding-fasting, hormonal secretion, body temperature, and many other physiological functions. Signals from the master circadian oscillator entrain peripheral clocks using a variety of neural and hormonal signals. Even centrally controlled internal temperature fluctuations can entrain the peripheral circadian clocks...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495359/gender-differences-in-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-insomnia-and-restless-legs-syndrome-in-adults-what-do-we-know-a-clinical-update
#17
REVIEW
Jenny Theorell-Haglöw, Christopher B Miller, Delwyn J Bartlett, Brendon J Yee, Hannah D Openshaw, Ronald R Grunstein
Research in sleep medicine over the last decades has involved a broad variety of sleep disorders in both men and women. Gender differences have been identified in sleep physiology as well as in the three most common sleep disorders: obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), insomnia and restless legs syndrome (RLS). However, research on gender differences in sleep medicine appears limited. This clinical review aims to give an updated overview of gender differences, in relation to prevalence, clinical presentation, treatment and quality of life in OSA, insomnia and RLS...
March 27, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495352/reliability-of-commercially-available-sleep-and-activity-trackers-with-manual-switch-to-sleep-mode-activation-in-free-living-healthy-individuals
#18
Alexia Gruwez, Walter Libert, Lieveke Ameye, Marie Bruyneel
INTRODUCTION: Wearable health devices have become trendy among consumers, but it is not known whether they accurately measure sleep and physical activity parameters. To address this question, we have studied the measured data of two consumer-level activity monitors (Up Move Jawbone(®) (U) and Withings Pulse 02(®) (W)) and compared it with reference methods for sleep and activity recordings, namely the Bodymedia SenseWear Pro Armband(®) actigraph (SWA) and home-polysomnography (H-PSG)...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485844/neuropeptides-and-neurotransmitters-that-modulate-thalamo-cortical-pathways-relevant-to-migraine-headache
#19
REVIEW
Rodrigo Noseda, David Borsook, Rami Burstein
Dynamic thalamic regulation of sensory signals allows the cortex to adjust better to rapidly changing behavioral, physiological, and environmental demands. To fulfill this role, thalamic neurons must themselves be subjected to constantly changing modulatory inputs that originate in multiple neurochemical pathways involved in autonomic, affective, and cognitive functions. This review defines a chemical framework for thinking about the complexity of factors that modulate the response properties of relay trigeminovascular thalamic neurons...
May 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485729/altered-expression-of-histamine-signaling-genes-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
C Wright, J H Shin, A Rajpurohit, A Deep-Soboslay, L Collado-Torres, N J Brandon, T M Hyde, J E Kleinman, A E Jaffe, A J Cross, D R Weinberger
The histaminergic system (HS) has a critical role in cognition, sleep and other behaviors. Although not well studied in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the HS is implicated in many neurological disorders, some of which share comorbidity with ASD, including Tourette syndrome (TS). Preliminary studies suggest that antagonism of histamine receptors 1-3 reduces symptoms and specific behaviors in ASD patients and relevant animal models. In addition, the HS mediates neuroinflammation, which may be heightened in ASD...
May 9, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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