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Sleep physiology

Geoffrey Littlejohn, Emma Guymer
Fibromyalgia is a high impact chronic pain disorder with a well-defined and robust clinical phenotype. Key features include widespread pain and tenderness, high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and emotional distress. Abnormal processing of pain and other sensory input occurs in the brain, spinal cord and periphery and is related to the processes of central and peripheral sensitization. As such, fibromyalgia is deemed to be one of the central sensitivity syndromes. There is increasing evidence of neurogenically derived inflammatory mechanisms occurring in the peripheral tissues, spinal cord and brain in fibromyalgia...
March 19, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Julia Pietilä, Elina Helander, Ilkka Korhonen, Tero Myllymäki, Urho M Kujala, Harri Lindholm
BACKGROUND: Sleep is fundamental for good health, and poor sleep has been associated with negative health outcomes. Alcohol consumption is a universal health behavior associated with poor sleep. In controlled laboratory studies, alcohol intake has been shown to alter physiology and disturb sleep homeostasis and architecture. The association between acute alcohol intake and physiological changes has not yet been studied in noncontrolled real-world settings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of alcohol intake on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during sleep in a large noncontrolled sample of Finnish employees...
March 16, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Stephany M Biello, David R Bonsall, Lynsey A Atkinson, Penny C Molyneux, Mary E Harrington, Gurprit S Lall
Robust physiological circadian rhythms form an integral part of well-being. The aging process has been found to negatively impact systems that drive circadian physiology, typically manifesting as symptoms associated with abnormal/disrupted sleeping patterns. Here, we investigated the age-related decline in light-driven circadian entrainment in male C57BL/6J mice. We compared light-driven resetting of circadian behavioral activity in young (1-2 months) and old (14-18 months) mice and explored alterations in the glutamatergic pathway at the level of the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Antonietta Messina, Ilaria Bitetti, Francesco Precenzano, Diego Iacono, Giovanni Messina, Michele Roccella, Lucia Parisi, Margherita Salerno, Anna Valenzano, Agata Maltese, Monica Salerno, Francesco Sessa, Giuseppe Davide Albano, Rosa Marotta, Ines Villano, Gabriella Marsala, Christian Zammit, Francesco Lavano, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli, Serena Marianna Lavano, Beatrice Gallai, Roberto Toraldo, Vincenzo Monda, Marco Carotenuto
Introduction: Sleep and migraine share a common pathophysiological substrate, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The serotonergic and orexinergic systems are both involved in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle, and numerous studies show that both are involved in the migraine etiopathogenesis. These two systems are anatomically and functionally interconnected. Our hypothesis is that in migraine a dysfunction of orexinergic projections on the median raphe (MR) nuclei, interfering with serotonergic regulation, may cause Non-Rapid Eye Movement parasomnias, such as somnambulism...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Mathias Basner, Sarah McGuire
To evaluate the quality of available evidence on the effects of environmental noise exposure on sleep a systematic review was conducted. The databases PSYCINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and the TNO Repository were searched for non-laboratory studies on the effects of environmental noise on sleep with measured or predicted noise levels and published in or after the year 2000. The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. Seventy four studies predominately conducted between 2000 and 2015 were included in the review...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Janelle Yorke, Christi Deaton, Malcolm Campbell, Linda McGowen, Paul Sephton, David G Kiely, Iain Armstrong
Introduction: The aim of this cohort study was to examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptomatology in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and explore factors that influence its evolution over time. Methods: A prospective longitudinal multisite cohort study. Participants were recruited from specialist UK PH centres and completed a questionnaire pack at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months to assess HRQoL (emPHasis-10), dyspnoea, fatigue, sleep, anxiety and depression...
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
E Nicole Wilson, Marc Anderson, Brina Snyder, Phong Duong, Jenny Trieu, Derek A Schreihofer, Rebecca L Cunningham
Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder characterized by intermittent periods of low blood oxygen levels. The risk for sleep apnea increases with age and is more prevalent in men than women. A common comorbidity of sleep apnea includes male sexual dysfunction, but it is not clear if a causal relationship exists between sleep apnea and sexual dysfunction. Possible mechanisms that link these two disorders include oxidative stress and testosterone. Oxidative stress is elevated in clinical patients with sleep apnea and in rodents exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), an animal model for apnea-induced hypopnea...
March 8, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Lina A Matschke, Susanne Rinné, Terrance P Snutch, Wolfgang H Oertel, Amalia M Dolga, Niels Decher
The physiological, intrinsic activity of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is important for the control of sleep/wakefulness, cognition and autonomous body functions. Dysregulations of the LC-noradrenergic network contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and are key findings in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, identifying ion channels mediating the intrinsic pacemaking mechanism of LC neurons, which is in turn directly coupled to Ca2+ homeostasis and cell survival signaling pathways, can help to foster our understanding of the vulnerability of these neurons in neurodegenerative diseases...
March 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Alain A Gonfalone
What is known about sleep results from years of observation at the surface of the Earth. Since a few decade man has been able to reach space, escape from the earth attraction and spend days and nights in a weightless condition. Some major physiological changes have been observed during long stays and in particular the sleep duration in space is shorter than on ground. This paper reviews a novel hypothesis proposing that sleep is partly due to gravity. Gravity is a fundamental part of our environment, but is elusive and difficult to apprehend...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Marjolein Schoonakker, Johanna H Meijer, Tom Deboer, Karim Fifel
The Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) is a relatively large hypothalamic structure containing several neurochemically different, but spatially intermingled, neuronal populations. While the role of these neurons in the homeostatic regulation of diverse physiological and behavioural functions such as sleep/wake cycle has been studied extensively, the impact of sleep history on the electrophysiology of the LH and whether this effect is homogenous across LH is unknown. By combining Multi-unit Activity (MUA) recordings in different regions of LH with electroencephalogram recordings in freely moving rats, we unravelled a heterogeneity of neural-activity patterns within different sub-regions of LH...
March 7, 2018: Sleep
Arnaud W Thille, Faustine Reynaud, Damien Marie, Stéphanie Barrau, Ludivine Rousseau, Christophe Rault, Véronique Diaz, Jean-Claude Meurice, Rémi Coudroy, Jean-Pierre Frat, René Robert, Xavier Drouot
Sleep is markedly altered in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and may alter respiratory performance. Our objective was to assess the impact of sleep alterations on weaning duration. We conducted a prospective physiological study performed in a French teaching hospital. ICU-patients intubated at least 24 h and difficult-to-wean were included. Complete polysomnography was performed after the first spontaneous breathing trial failure. Presence of atypical sleep, duration of sleep stages particularly rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and electroencephalogram (EEG) reactivity at eye opening were assessed by a neurologist...
March 8, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Paul M Macey, Natasha Haris, Rajesh Kumar, M Albert Thomas, Mary A Woo, Ronald M Harper
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 10% of adults, and alters brain gray and white matter. Psychological and physiological symptoms of the disorder are sex-specific, perhaps related to greater injury occurs in female than male patients in white matter. Our objective was to identify influences of OSA separated by sex on cortical gray matter. METHODS: We assessed cortical thickness in 48 mild-severe OSA patients (mean age±std[range] = 46...
2018: PloS One
Philip R Holland, Mads Barloese, Jan Fahrenkrug
The interaction between sleep and primary headaches has gained considerable interest due to their strong, bidirectional, clinical relationship. Several primary headaches demonstrate either a circadian/circannual rhythmicity in attack onset or are directly associated with sleep itself. Migraine and cluster headache both show distinct attack patterns and while the underlying mechanisms of this circadian variation in attack onset remain to be fully explored, recent evidence points to clear physiological, anatomical and genetic points of convergence...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Hyoungkyu Kim, Anthony G Hudetz, Joseph Lee, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
The integrated information theory (IIT) proposes a quantitative measure, denoted as Φ, of the amount of integrated information in a physical system, which is postulated to have an identity relationship with consciousness. IIT predicts that the value of Φ estimated from brain activities represents the level of consciousness across phylogeny and functional states. Practical limitations, such as the explosive computational demands required to estimate Φ for real systems, have hindered its application to the brain and raised questions about the utility of IIT in general...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Deniz Ozturk, Omer Araz, Elif Yilmazel Ucar, Metin Akgun
PURPOSE: Although we spend about one-third of our lives in sleep and recognize its necessity for good health, sleep has only been partially elucidated in the last century. The nasal cycle of congestion and decongestion during sleep has various effects on human physiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of unilateral forced nostril breathing on sleep. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy male volunteers aged 18-24 years were included in the study...
March 1, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Albert Lee, Dimitrios Karamichos, Obianamma E Onochie, Audrey E K Hutcheon, Celeste B Rich, James D Zieske, Vickery Trinkaus-Randall
Deposition of matrix proteins during development and repair is critical to the transparency of the cornea. While many cells respond to a hypoxic state that can occur in a tumor, the cornea is exposed to hypoxia during development prior to eyelid opening and during the diurnal sleep cycle where oxygen levels can drop from 21% to 8%. In this study, we used 2 three-dimensional (3-D) models to examine how stromal cells respond to periods of acute hypoxic states. The first model, a stromal construct model, is a 3-D stroma-like construct that consists of human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) stimulated by a stable form of ascorbate for 1, 2, and 4 weeks to self-assemble their own extracellular matrix...
February 26, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Mohammad Bani Younis, Ferial A Hayajneh
Investigating sleep disturbances among intensive care unit (ICU) patients and its serious consequences is considered a crucial issue for nurses. The need of sleep increases during hospitalization time to preserve energy for the healing process. Previous studies have demonstrated that sleep disturbance is one of the most common complaints of patients in the ICUs, with a prevalence of more than 50%. Although the total sleep time might be normal, the patients' sleep is fragmented and light in the intensive care settings...
April 2018: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
George A Mandelaris, Bradley S DeGroot, Robert Relle, Brian Shah, Iwei Huang, Brian S Vence
Comorbidities that negatively impact orthodontic (malocclusion), periodontal (periodontitis, deficient dentoalveolar bone volume, mucogingival), and prosthetic (structural integrity compromise from caries, attrition, and erosion) conditions can affect the general health of the patient. In addition, emerging data highlights the importance of undiagnosed airway volume deficiencies and sleep-disordered breathing conditions in the adult and pediatric population. Deficiencies in dentoalveolar bone and discrepancies in skeletal relationships can impact the volume of hard- and soft-tissue structures of the periodontium and decrease oral cavity volume...
March 2018: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Hui-Li Yang, Wen-Jie Zhou, Chun-Jie Gu, Yu-Han Meng, Jun Shao, Da-Jin Li, Ming-Qing Li
Melatonin is a neurohormone synthesized from the aromatic amino acid tryptophan mainly by the pineal gland of mammals. Melatonin acts as a broad-spectrum antioxidant, powerful free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory agent, anticarcinogenic factor, sleep inducer and regulator of the circadian rhythm, and potential immunoregulator. Melatonin and reproductive system are interrelated under both physiological and pathological conditions. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune dysregulation are associated with the pathogenesis of the female reproductive system which causes endometriosis (EMS), recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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