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Hong-Tai Chang, Chiang-Ting Chou, Chia-Cheng Yu, Jeng-Yu Tsai, Te-Kung Sun, Wei-Zhe Liang, Ko-Long Lin, Hui-Wen Tseng, Chun-Chi Kuo, Fu-An Chen, Daih-Huang Kuo, Chih-Chuan Pan, Chin-Man Ho, Pochuen Shieh, Chung-Ren Jan
Protriptyline, a tricyclic anti-depressant, is used primarily to treat the combination of symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, the effect of protriptyline on prostate caner is unknown. This study examined whether the anti-depressant protriptyline altered Ca(2+) movement and cell viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. The Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was used to measure [Ca(2+)](i). Protriptyline evoked [Ca(2+)](i) rises concentration-dependently. The response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+)...
2015: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
Shyambalaji Achuthan, Bikash Medhi
BACKGROUND: Snoring is the sound produced by the vibration of the soft tissues caused by the air passing through a narrow upper airway during sleep. It is usually associated with the conditions that increase upper airway resistance, but can occur in their absence too (primary snoring). Considering its sheer prevalence, the associated comorbidities, like carotid atherosclerosis and the social disorder that it can represent, treatment for snoring must be considered even in the absence of any other medical condition...
September 2015: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Sneha B Bansode, Asis K Jana, Kedar B Batkulwar, Shrikant D Warkad, Rakesh S Joshi, Neelanjana Sengupta, Mahesh J Kulkarni
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder involving multiple cellular and molecular processes. The discovery of drug molecules capable of targeting multiple factors involved in AD pathogenesis would greatly facilitate in improving therapeutic strategies. The repositioning of existing non-toxic drugs could dramatically reduce the time and costs involved in developmental and clinical trial stages. In this study, preliminary screening of 140 FDA approved nervous system drugs by docking suggested the viability of the tricyclic group of antidepressants against three major AD targets, viz...
2014: PloS One
Helen Parnell, Ginny Quirke, Sally Farmer, Sumbo Adeyemo, Veronica Varney
Hypercapnic respiratory failure is common in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is usually treated by nasal ventilation. Not all patients requiring such ventilation can tolerate it, with anxiety and phobia influencing their reaction, along with treatment failure. We report the case histories of six patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure who were at risk of death due to refusal of nasal ventilation or its failure despite ongoing treatment. We report their improvement with oral modafinil 200 mg tablets used as a respiratory stimulant, which led to discharge, improved arterial blood gases, and offset further admissions with hypercapnic respiratory failure...
2014: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Ralf Clauss
Oxygen based neurotransmitters in the synapses of the brain are proposed to play an important role in the generation of consciousness. They include the amino acids glutamate and GABA which use Krebs cycle precursors for their synthesis, and the monoamines dopamine, noradrenalin, adrenalin and serotonin, which are derived from tyrosine and tryptophan. During ischemia after an acute brain injury, a GABA surge often initiates brain suppression. It has been proposed that with chronic ischemia, a secondary, possibly epigenetic response occurs when neurotransmitters deplete, a glucose and oxygen saving mechanism termed neurodormancy that may invoke alternative long term low energy metabolic pathways in the brain, encountered in Disorders of Consciousness...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Arine F Ahmad, Wayne Heaselgrave, Peter W Andrew, Simon Kilvington
The free-living amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris causes usually fatal encephalitis in humans and animals. Only limited studies have investigated the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against the organism. Assay methods were developed to assess antimicrobial efficacy against both the trophozoite and cyst stage of B. mandrillaris (ATCC 50209). Amphotericin B, ciclopirox olamine, miltefosine, natamycin, paromomycin, pentamidine isethionate, protriptyline, spiramycin, sulconazole and telithromycin had limited activity with amoebacidal levels of > 135-500 μM...
September 2013: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Kuo-Sheng Liu, Su-Jong Chen, Yu-Wen Chen, K C Sung, Jhi-Joung Wang
BACKGROUND: Acute detoxification may lead to withdrawal syndrome. The syndrome is sufficiently aversive in those who are morphine-dependents and thus it hinders abstinence. The opioids are most often used clinically to lighten this syndrome. Here, we evaluated the effects of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in treating physical dependence to opioids upon acute detoxification in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult NRL mice were rendered physically dependent on morphine by increasing daily doses of subcutaneous morphine for 3 days and precipitated withdrawal jumping by subcutaneous naloxone on Day 4...
March 2013: Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica: Official Journal of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists
B M da Fonseca, I E D Moreno, M Barroso, S Costa, J A Queiroz, E Gallardo
A method using microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) is described for the determination of seven antipsychotic drugs in human plasma. The studied compounds were chlorpromazine (CPZ), haloperidol (HAL), cyamemazine, quetiapine, clozapine, olanzapine (OLZ), and levomepromazine; promazine, protriptyline, and deuterated CPZ were used as internal standards. The validation parameters included selectivity, linearity and limits of detection and quantitation, intra- and interday precision and trueness, recovery, and stability and were studied according to internationally accepted guidelines...
May 2013: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Kamisha L Johnson-Davis, Joetta M Juenke, Rebecka Davis, Gwendolyn A McMillin
Depression is a psychiatric condition that affects about 120 million people worldwide and can interfere with independence and productivity in essentially all aspects of daily life. Depression is also associated with risk of self-harm, and ultimately suicide. Antidepressant medications are widely used to treat symptoms of depression. While there are several classes of antidepressants, therapeutic drug management (TDM) is most common for the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). TDM of TCAs is important due to wide inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics, production of active metabolites, and a high risk of drug-drug interactions...
2012: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ioannis Papoutsis, Alaa Khraiwesh, Panagiota Nikolaou, Constantinos Pistos, Chara Spiliopoulou, Sotirios Athanaselis
Antidepressant drugs are widely used for the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders and as a result they are involved in numerous clinical and forensic cases. The aim of this study was the development, optimization and validation of a simple, specific and sensitive GC/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 11 antidepressant drugs and 4 of their metabolites (amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, maprotiline, desmethyl-maprotiline, mirtazapine, desmethyl-mirtazapine, nortriptyline, paroxetine, sertraline, desmethyl-sertraline, venlafaxine and desmethyl-venlafaxine) in whole blood...
November 2012: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Enrico Tedeschini, Yeciel Levkovitz, Nadia Iovieno, Victoria E Ameral, J Craig Nelson, George I Papakostas
OBJECTIVE: Late-life depression is an important public health issue, given the growing proportion of the elderly relative to the general population in the developed world. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of antidepressants for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in elderly patients. DATA SOURCES: PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants for treatment of both adult (nonelderly) MDD (patients aged < 65 years) and late-life MDD (patients aged ≥ 55 years)...
December 2011: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Carl E Wolf, Sara J Kester-Florin, Alphonse Poklis
BACKGROUND: Guanfacine, an α2-adrenergic α2A)agonist long indicated to treat hypertension, is now being used to treat attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. This new therapeutic use may require urine testing to document compliance or abuse. A simple rapid high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method to detect and quantify guanfacine in urine following therapeutic administration is presented. METHODS: Guanfacine and protriptyline internal standard were extracted from alkalinized urine with ethyl acetate...
March 2012: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Sotirios Athanaselis, Giorgos Alevizopoulos, Constantinos Pistos, Christina Paraskevopoulou, Chara Spiliopoulou
Sildenafil (SDL) is a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor and it is approved for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. SDL is extensively metabolized to its pharmacologically active metabolite, desmethyl-sildenafil (DSDL). A sensitive and specific GC/MS method for the determination of SDL and DSDL in whole blood was developed and validated to support therapeutic drug monitoring of SDL patients. The combination of solid-phase extraction with derivatization using BSTFA with 1% TMCS in acetonitrile efficiently reduced matrix effect and improved sensitivity of the method...
November 2011: Journal of Separation Science
Alaa Khraiwesh, Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Constantinos Pistos, Chara Spiliopoulou, Sotirios Athanaselis
A sensitive and specific GC/MS method for the determination of sertraline and its main metabolite desmethyl-sertraline in whole blood has been developed, optimized and validated. Sample preparation included solid-phase extraction of both analytes and their derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA). Protriptyline was used as internal standard for the determination of both analytes. Limits of detection and quantification for both sertraline and desmethyl-sertraline were 0.30 and 1.00 μg/L, respectively...
September 1, 2011: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Panagiota Nikolaou, Ioannis Papoutsis, Sotirios Athanaselis, Giorgos Alevisopoulos, Alaa Khraiwesh, Constantinos Pistos, Chara Spiliopoulou
Tadalafil is a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor and it is used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and erectile dysfunction. A sensitive and specific method is described for the determination of tadalafil in whole blood. Tadalafil and its internal standard (protriptyline) were isolated from the matrix by solid phase extraction, and were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after derivatization by N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoracetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorsilane (TMCS)...
November 1, 2011: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Yeciel Levkovitz, Enrico Tedeschini, George I Papakostas
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the efficacy of antidepressants in dysthymic disorder and to compare antidepressant and placebo response rates between major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymic disorder. DATA SOURCES: PubMed/MEDLINE databases were searched for double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants used as monotherapy for treatment of MDD or dysthymic disorder. We defined antidepressants as those with a letter of approval by the US, Canadian, or European Union drug regulatory agencies for treatment of MDD or dysthymic disorder, which included the following: amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, clomipramine, trimipramine, protriptyline, dothiepin, doxepin, lofepramine, amoxapine, maprotiline, amineptine, nomifensine, bupropion, phenelzine, tranylcypromine, isocarboxazid, moclobemide, brofaromine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, zimelidine, tianeptine, ritanserin, trazodone, nefazodone, agomelatine, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, reboxetine, mirtazapine, and mianserin...
April 2011: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Sotirios Athanaselis, Constantinos Pistos, Constantinos Maravelias, Chara Spiliopoulou
Vardenafil (VDN) is one of the three commercially available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and it is mainly used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. A sensitive and specific gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for the determination of VDN in blood has been developed and validated. Sample preparation included solid-phase extraction and derivatization with N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and 1% tert-butyldimethylsilylchloride (TBDMSCl). Protriptyline was used as the internal standard for this assay...
January 2011: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Ekaterina A Korobkova, William Ng, Abhishek Venkatratnam, Alicia K Williams, Madina Nizamova, Nikolay Azar
Studies show that tricyclic antidepressants prescribed for migraines, anxiety, and child enuresis have numerous adverse effects in living cells. One of the undesired outcomes observed under treatment with these drugs is DNA damage. However, the mechanisms underlying damage have yet to be elucidated. We performed in vitro studies of the DNA damage caused by four tricyclic antidepressants: imipramine, amitriptyline, opipramol, and protriptyline. We focused particularly on the DNA damage aided by peroxidases. As a model of a peroxidase, we used horseradish peroxidase (HRP)...
September 20, 2010: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Cynthia Coulter, Margaux Taruc, James Tuyay, Christine Moore
An analytical procedure for the determination of widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders, including amitriptyline, cyclobenzaprine, imipramine, dothiepin, doxepin, fluoxetine, sertraline, trimipramine, protriptyline, chlorpromazine, clomipramine, and some of their metabolites (nortriptyline, desmethyldoxepin, desipramine, desmethyltrimipramine, norclomipramine) in oral fluid has been developed and validated using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectral detection...
March 2010: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Malcolm Kohler, Konrad E Bloch, John R Stradling
BACKGROUND: Currently the treatment of choice for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Some patients with OSA do not tolerate CPAP or have insufficiently severe symptoms to justify its use; for these patients, drug therapy would be a desirable potential therapeutic alternative. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current evidence on the effectiveness of drug therapy in patients with OSA. METHODS: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was performed to investigate the effects of drug therapy on OSA...
May 2009: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
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