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anaesthetic pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635081/understanding-and-improving-photo-control-of-ion-channels-in-nociceptors-with-azobenzene-photoswitches
#1
Alexandre Mourot, Christian Herold, Michael A Kienzler, Richard H Kramer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We previously developed a photoisomerizable local anaesthetic, named QAQ, to gain rapid, optical control over pain signaling without involving genetic modification. In darkness or in green light, trans-QAQ blocks voltage-gated K(+) and Na(+) channels and silences action potentials in pain-sensing neurons. Upon photoisomerization to cis with near UV light, QAQ blockade is rapidly relieved and neuronal activity is restored. However, the molecular mechanism of cis and trans QAQ blockade is not known...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632910/withdrawn-hypnosis-for-children-undergoing-dental-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Sharifa Al-Harasi, Paul F Ashley, David R Moles, Susan Parekh, Val Walters
BACKGROUND: Managing children is a challenge that many dentists face. Many non-pharmacological techniques have been developed to manage anxiety and behavioural problems in children, such us: 'tell, show & do', positive reinforcement, modelling and hypnosis. The use of hypnosis is generally an overlooked area, hence the need for this review. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review attempted to answer the question: What is the effectiveness of hypnosis (with or without sedation) for behaviour management of children who are receiving dental care in order to allow successful completion of treatment?Null hypothesis: Hypnosis has no effect on the outcome of dental treatment of children...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590211/a-systematic-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-palliative-interventions-to-treat-rectal-tenesmus-in-cancer
#3
Áine Ní Laoire, Lucy Fettes, Fliss Em Murtagh
BACKGROUND: Rectal tenesmus is a distressing symptom in patients with advanced cancer and challenging to treat. There is lack of consensus on the appropriate management of tenesmus in this patient population. AIM: To identify and examine the effectiveness of interventions to palliate rectal tenesmus caused by advanced cancer when surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy are no longer treatment options. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature following standard systematic review methodology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance...
March 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575332/effects-of-arterial-load-variations-on-dynamic-arterial-elastance-an-experimental-study
#4
M I Monge García, P Guijo González, M Gracia Romero, A Gil Cano, A Rhodes, R M Grounds, M Cecconi
Background.: Dynamic arterial elastance (Ea dyn ), the relationship between pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV), has been suggested as a functional assessment of arterial load. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of arterial load changes during acute pharmacological changes, fluid administration, and haemorrhage on Ea dyn . Methods.: Eighteen anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated New Zealand rabbits were studied. Arterial load changes were induced by phenylephrine ( n =9) or nitroprusside ( n =9)...
June 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547743/unremodelled-and-bradycardic-heart-of-the-anaesthetized-rabbit-is-applicable-for-detection-of-drug-induced-torsades-de-pointes-arrhythmias
#5
Mihoko Hagiwara, Seiji Shibuta, Kazuhiro Takada, Ryuichi Kambayashi, Misako Nakajo, Megumi Aimoto, Yoshinobu Nagasawa, Akira Takahara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several rabbit proarrhythmia models have been recently developed by genetic or pharmacological methods to suppress the slow component of delayed rectifier K(+) currents in the ventricle, leading to reduction of the repolarization reserve. The present study was designed to characterize a novel rabbit in vivo proarrhythmia model with severe bradycardia caused by acute atrioventricular block (AVB). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Bradycardia was induced in isoflurane-anaesthetized rabbits by creation of AVB using catheter ablation, and the ventricle was electrically driven at 60 beats min(-1) throughout the experiment except when extrasystole appeared...
May 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542844/the-inward-rectifier-current-inhibitor-pa-6-terminates-atrial-fibrillation-and-does-not-cause-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-dedicated-goat-and-dog-models
#6
Yuan Ji, Rosanne Varkevisser, Dragan Opacic, Alexandre Bossu, Marion Kuiper, Jet D M Beekman, Sihyung Yang, Azinwi Phina Khan, Dobromir Dobrev, Niels Voigt, Michael Zhuo Wang, Sander Verheule, Marc A Vos, Marcel A G Van der Heyden
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inward rectifier current (IK1 ) density increases in atrial fibrillation (AF), shortening effective refractory period and thus promotes atrial reentry. Pentamidine-Analogue 6 (PA-6) is a selective and potent IK1 inhibitor. We tested PA-6 for anti-AF efficacy and potential proarrhythmia, in established large animal models. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: PA-6 was applied i.v. in anaesthetized goats with rapid pacing induced AF and anaesthetized chronic AV block dogs...
May 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476925/detachable-glass-microelectrodes-for-recording-action-potentials-in-active-moving-organs
#7
Mladen Barbic, Angel Moreno, Timothy D Harris, Matthew W Kay
We describe new detachable floating glass micropipette electrode devices that provide targeted action potential recordings in active moving organs without requiring constant mechanical constraint or pharmacological inhibition of tissue motion. The technology is based on the concept of a glass micropipette electrode that is held firmly during cell targeting and intracellular insertion, after which a 100µg glass microelectrode, a "microdevice", is gently released to remain within the moving organ. The microdevices provide long-term recordings of action potentials, even during millimeter-scale movement of tissue in which the device is embedded...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409497/identification-of-myoelectric-signals-of-pregnant-rat-uterus-new-method-to-detect-myometrial-contraction
#8
Kálmán F Szűcs, György Grosz, Miklós Süle, Anikó Nagy, Zita Tiszai, Reza Samavati, Róbert Gáspár
AIM: To develop an electromyography method for pregnant rat uterus in vivo and to separate myometrial signals from the gastrointestinal tract signals. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8) were anaesthetized and their stomach, small intestine, and large intestine were removed from the abdomen. A pair of thread electrodes was inserted into the uterus, while a pair of disk electrodes was placed subcutaneously above the myometrium. Additionally, a strain gauge sensor was fixed on the surface of the myometrium and cecum for the parallel detection of mechanical contractions in rats (n=18) with intact gastrointestinal tract...
April 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374972/ventilation-strategy-has-a-major-influence-on-remote-ischaemic-preconditioning-in-mice
#9
Sean M Davidson, Zhenhe He, Alex Dyson, Daniel I Bromage, Derek M Yellon
Whether oxygen should be administered acutely during ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is debated. Despite this controversy, the possible influence of supplementary oxygen on animal models of ischaemia-reperfusion injury or cardioprotection is rarely considered. We used an in vivo mouse model of ischaemia and reperfusion to investigate the effect of ventilation with room air versus 100% oxygen. The coronary artery of anaesthetized mice was occluded for 40 min. followed by 2-hrs reperfusion. Infarct size was measured by tetrazolium staining and expressed as a percentage of area at risk, determined using Evan's blue...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340572/does-sevoflurane-add-to-outpatient-procedural-sedation-in-children-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#10
Hugo Sérgio de Oliveira Gomes, Heloisa de Sousa Gomes, Joji Sado-Filho, Luciane Rezende Costa, Paulo Sucasas Costa
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence concerning the effect of sevoflurane in outpatient procedural sedation, especially in children. We hypothesised that the addition of sevoflurane to a sedation regimen improves children's behaviour with minimal adverse events. METHODS: This is a randomised, triple-blind clinical trial conducted on an outpatient basis. Participants were 27 healthy children aged 4 to 6 years, who previously refused dental treatment with non-pharmacologic methods...
March 24, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283552/anaesthetic-considerations-for-surgery-in-newborns
#11
Constance S Houck, Amy E Vinson
Almost 30 years ago, the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn coauthored a policy statement strongly advocating for the use of anaesthesia in all neonates stating 'local or systemic pharmacologic agents now available permit relatively safe administration of anesthesia or analgesia to neonates undergoing surgical procedures and that such administration is indicated according to the usual guidelines for the administration of anesthesia to high-risk, potentially unstable patients'. With current techniques and advanced monitoring, preterm and full-term infants routinely undergo surgical procedures under general anaesthesia to repair congenital defects that were lethal in years past...
March 10, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270141/pharmacological-basis-for-the-medicinal-use-of-polyherbal-formulation-and-its-ingredients-in-cardiovascular-disorders-using-rodents
#12
Abdul Malik, Malik Hassan Mehmood, Hajra Channa, Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
BACKGROUND: A compound herbal formulation (POL4) has been used in the indigenous system of medicine to treat cardiometabolic disorders like diabetes and associated hypertension. POL4 and most of its constituents have not been studied widely for its therapeutic use in hypertension. This study is aimed to determine the efficacy and possible insight into mechanism(s) for the medicinal use of POL4 and its ingredients in hypertension. METHODS: The aqueous methanolic extracts of POL4 (POL4...
March 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228076/transdermal-drug-delivery-opportunities-and-challenges-for-controlled-delivery-of-therapeutic-agents-using-nanocarriers
#13
Balak Das Kurmi, Pawan Tekchandani, Rishi Paliwal, Shivani Rai Paliwal
BACKGROUND: Transdermal drug delivery represents an extremely attractive and innovative route across the skin owing to the possibility for achieving systemic effect of drugs. Present scenario demands a special focus on developing safe medicine with minimize toxic adverse effects related to most of the pharmacologically active agents. Transdermal drug delivery would be a focal paradigm which provides patient convenience, first-pass hepatic metabolism avoidance, local targeting and reduction in toxic effect related to various categories of drugs like, analgesics, anti-inflammatory, antibiotics, antiviral, anaesthetic, anticancer etc...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159688/altered-regional-connectivity-reflecting-effects-of-different-anaesthesia-protocols-in-the-mouse-brain
#14
Tong Wu, Joanes Grandjean, Simone C Bosshard, Markus Rudin, David Reutens, Tianzi Jiang
Studies in mice using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have provided opportunities to investigate the effects of pharmacological manipulations on brain function and map the phenotypes of mouse models of human brain disorders. Mouse rs-fMRI is typically performed under anaesthesia, which induces both regional suppression of brain activity and disruption of large-scale neural networks. Previous comparative studies using rodents investigating various drug effects on long-distance functional connectivity (FC) have reported agent-specific FC patterns, however, effects of regional suppression are sparsely explored...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146459/smartphone-based-behavioural-intervention-alleviates-children-s-anxiety-during-anaesthesia-induction-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Débora O Cumino, Joaquim E Vieira, Luciana C Lima, Livia P Stievano, Raquel A P Silva, Ligia A S T Mathias
BACKGROUND: Preoperative anxiety negatively influences children's anaesthetic and surgical experience, and results in postoperative complications, such as emergence delirium and behavioural changes. Nonpharmacological management using alternative therapies that alleviate psychological stress can be as important as pharmacological ones in reducing children's anxiety. Nevertheless, their validity as an effective anxiety-reducing strategy in children remains controversial. OBJECTIVE(S): To verify whether nonpharmacological strategies, that is, leaflet and distraction with smartphone application presented to parents/guardians and children, respectively, were effective in preventing children's anxiety during anaesthesia induction...
March 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100529/children-and-parental-anxiolysis-in-paediatric-ambulatory-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-study-comparing-0-3%C3%A2-mg-kg-1-midazolam-to-tablet-computer-based-interactive-distraction
#16
C Marechal, J Berthiller, S Tosetti, B Cogniat, H Desombres, L Bouvet, B Kassai, D Chassard, M de Queiroz Siqueira
BACKGROUND: The operating theatre, anaesthesia induction and separation from parents create fear and anxiety in children. Anxiety leads to adverse behavioral changes appearing and sometimes persisting during the postoperative period. Our aim was to compare the effects of midazolam (0.3 mg kg(-)(1): MDZ) for premedication with age-appropriate tablet game apps (TAB) on children anxiety during and after ambulatory surgery. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted from May 16th, 2013 to March 25th, 2014 at the Children Hospital of Lyon...
February 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033682/the-effect-of-two-drug-delivery-systems-in-ropivacaine-cytotoxicity-and-cytokine-release-by-human-keratinocytes-and-fibroblasts
#17
Luiz Eduardo Nunes Ferreira, Bruno Vilela Muniz, Jonny Burga-Sánchez, Maria Cristina Volpato, Eneida de Paula, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro Rosa, Francisco Carlos Groppo
OBJECTIVES: Modified drug delivery systems have been developed to improve pharmacological properties of local anaesthetics. However, the inflammatory potential of these formulations was not investigated. This study compared the in-vitro effects of ropivacaine (ropi) in plain, liposomal (MLV) or 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) formulations on cell viability, apoptosis and cytokine (IL-1α, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) release. METHODS: Human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human immortalized gingival fibroblasts (HGF) were exposed to 1-100 μm ropi concentrations...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956674/patient-reported-outcome-of-adult-perioperative-anaesthesia-in-the-united-kingdom-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#18
E M K Walker, M Bell, T M Cook, M P W Grocott, S R Moonesinghe
BACKGROUND: Understanding the patient perspective on healthcare is central to the evaluation of quality. This study measured selected patient-reported outcomes after anaesthesia in order to identify targets for research and quality improvement. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study in UK National Health Service hospitals, recruited adults undergoing non-obstetric surgery requiring anaesthesia care over a 48 h period. Within 24 h of surgery, patients completed the Bauer questionnaire (measuring postoperative discomfort and satisfaction with anaesthesia care), and a modified Brice questionnaire to elicit symptoms suggestive of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA)...
December 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918069/quality-of-reporting-in-surgical-randomized-clinical-trials
#19
J Yu, X Li, Y Li, X Sun
BACKGROUND: RCTs testing surgical interventions can change clinical practice. The adequate reporting of surgical trials is an important issue. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken by searching PubMed for two-arm parallel randomized trials assessing surgical interventions published in 2003 or 2013. Quality of reporting was evaluated against the CONSORT checklist containing 29 items (standard CONSORT plus CONSORT Extension for Trials Assessing Non-Pharmacological Treatments)...
February 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856784/usefulness-of-an-injectable-anaesthetic-protocol-for-semen-collection-through-urethral-catheterisation-in-domestic-cats
#20
Maria Carmela Pisu, Patrizia Ponzio, Chiara Rovella, Michela Baravalle, Maria Cristina Veronesi
OBJECTIVES: Although less often requested in comparison with dogs, the collection of semen in cats can be necessary for artificial insemination, for semen evaluation in tom cats used for breeding and for semen storage. Urethral catheterisation after pharmacological induction with medetomidine has proved to be useful for the collection of semen in domestic cats. However, most of the previously used protocols require the administration of high doses of medetomidine that can increase the risk of side effects, especially on the cardiovascular system...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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