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anaesthetic pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122916/task-1-kcnk3-channels-in-the-lung-from-cell-biology-to-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Andrea Olschewski, Emma L Veale, Bence M Nagy, Chandran Nagaraj, Grazyna Kwapiszewska, Fabrice Antigny, Mélanie Lambert, Marc Humbert, Gábor Czirják, Péter Enyedi, Alistair Mathie
TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channel 1 (TASK-1 encoded by KCNK3) belongs to the family of two-pore domain potassium channels. This gene subfamily is constitutively active at physiological resting membrane potentials in excitable cells, including smooth muscle cells, and has been particularly linked to the human pulmonary circulation. TASK-1 channels are sensitive to a wide array of physiological and pharmacological mediators that affect their activity such as unsaturated fatty acids, extracellular pH, hypoxia, anaesthetics and intracellular signalling pathways...
November 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112549/european-guidelines-on-perioperative-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-patients-with-preexisting-coagulation-disorders-and-after-severe-perioperative-bleeding
#2
Aamer Ahmed, Sibylle Kozek-Langenecker, François Mullier, Sue Pavord, Cedric Hermans
: In patients with inherited bleeding disorders undergoing surgery, we recommend assessment of individual risk for venous thromboembolism, taking into account the nature of the surgery and anaesthetic, type and severity of bleeding disorder, age, BMI, history of thrombosis, the presence of malignancy and other high-risk comorbidities. Venous thromboembolism risk should be balanced against the increased bleeding risk associated with anticoagulant use in patients with known bleeding disorders (Grade 1C). In these patients undergoing major surgery, we recommend against routine postoperative use of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis, especially for patients with haemophilia A and B (Grade 1B)...
November 6, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018164/termination-of-vernakalant-resistant-atrial-fibrillation-by-inhibition-of-small-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channels-in-pigs
#3
Jonas Goldin Diness, Lasse Skibsbye, Rafel Simó-Vicens, Joana Larupa Santos, Pia Lundegaard, Carlotta Citerni, Daniel Rafael Peter Sauter, Sofia Hammami Bomholtz, Jesper Hastrup Svendsen, Søren-Peter Olesen, Ulrik S Sørensen, Thomas Jespersen, Morten Grunnet, Bo Hjorth Bentzen
BACKGROUND: Evidence has emerged that small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels constitute a new target for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). SK channels are predominantly expressed in the atria as compared with the ventricles. Various marketed antiarrhythmic drugs are limited by ventricular adverse effects and efficacy loss as AF progresses. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 43 pigs were used for the studies. AF reversion in conscious long-term tachypaced pigs: Pigs were subjected to atrial tachypacing (7 Hz) until they developed sustained AF that could not be reverted by vernakalant 4 mg/kg (18...
October 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972127/functional-characterization-of-5-ht1b-receptor-drugs-in-nonhuman-primates-using-simultaneous-pet-mr
#4
Hanne D Hansen, Joseph B Mandeville, Christin Y Sander, Jacob M Hooker, Ciprian Catana, Bruce R Rosen, Gitte M Knudsen
In the present study, we used a simultaneous PET-MR experimental design to investigate the effects of functionally different compounds (agonist, partial agonist, and antagonist) on 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) occupancy and the associated hemodynamic responses. In anesthetized male nonhuman primates (n = 3), we used positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the radioligand [(11)C]AZ10419369 administered as a bolus followed by constant infusion to measure changes in 5-HT1BR occupancy. Simultaneously, we measured changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) as a proxy of drug effects on neuronal activity...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970636/post-cardiac-transplant-recipient-implications-for-anaesthesia
#5
REVIEW
Minati Choudhury
The annual heart transplant rate is gradually increasing worldwide. A proportion of this patient population present for an elective or emergency surgery which may or may not be related to the transplanted heart. A MEDLINE search for heart transplant, anaesthesia, adult, paediatric and surgery was conducted to review anaesthetic management for heart transplant recipients. Anaesthesia and perioperative management are different in these cases. A thorough understanding of the physiology of denervated heart, post-transplant morbidities and pharmacology of immunosuppressants is essential for best perioperative management and improved post-operative outcome...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794532/local-anaesthetic-systemic-toxicity-following-oral-ingestion-in-a-child-revisiting-dibucaine
#6
Raylene Dias, Nandini Dave, Milind S Tullu, Chandrahas T Deshmukh
Dibucaine, a potent and toxic local anaesthetic, although currently withdrawn by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use as a spinal anaesthetic, continues to remain available in many over-the-counter topical formulations. Systemic toxicity following oral ingestion of local anaesthetics is rare. We report a case of accidental ingestion of dibucaine (ear drops) in a 7-year-old child who developed diplopia, giddiness, ventricular premature contractions and a right bundle branch block. We also present a brief discussion on the pharmacologic and toxicity profile of dibucaine, the Naranjo algorithm for assessing causality in case of adverse drug reactions and a review of current guidelines on the management of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757051/physiological-and-pharmacological-properties-of-inhibitory-postsynaptic-currents-mediated-by-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-2-gabaa-receptors
#7
Xiumin Chen, Angelo Keramidas, Joseph W Lynch
α5-containing GABAARs are potential therapeutic targets for clinical conditions including age-related dementia, stroke, schizophrenia, Down syndrome, anaesthetic-induced amnesia, anxiety and pain. α5-containing GABAARs are expressed in layer 5 cortical neurons and hippocampal pyramidal neurons where they mediate both tonic currents and slow inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs). A range of drugs has been developed to specifically modulate these receptors. The main α5-containing GABAARs that are likely to exist in vivo are the α5β1γ2, α5β2γ2 and α5β3γ2 isoforms...
July 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719515/anaesthetic-management-of-patients-with-myopathies
#8
Mark Schieren, Jerome Defosse, Andreas Böhmer, Frank Wappler, Mark U Gerbershagen
: The anaesthetic management of patients with myopathies is challenging. Considering the low incidence and heterogeneity of these disorders, most anaesthetists are unfamiliar with key symptoms, associated co-morbidities and implications for anaesthesia. The pre-anaesthetic assessment aims at the detection of potentially undiagnosed myopathic patients and, in case of known or suspected muscular disease, on the quantification of disease progression. Ancillary testing (e.g. echocardiography, ECG, lung function testing etc...
October 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693035/k2p2-1-trek-1-activator-complexes-reveal-a-cryptic-selectivity-filter-binding-site
#9
Marco Lolicato, Cristina Arrigoni, Takahiro Mori, Yoko Sekioka, Clifford Bryant, Kimberly A Clark, Daniel L Minor
Polymodal thermo- and mechanosensitive two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels of the TREK subfamily generate 'leak' currents that regulate neuronal excitability, respond to lipids, temperature and mechanical stretch, and influence pain, temperature perception and anaesthetic responses. These dimeric voltage-gated ion channel (VGIC) superfamily members have a unique topology comprising two pore-forming regions per subunit. In contrast to other potassium channels, K2P channels use a selectivity filter 'C-type' gate as the principal gating site...
July 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691744/dentists-attitudes-towards-acute-pharmacological-pain-management-in-children-and-adolescents
#10
Henrik Berlin, Thomas List, Karin Ridell, Gunilla Klingberg
AIM: This study aimed to investigate Swedish dentists' attitudes regarding pain management strategies for treating children and adolescents. It assessed recommendations for pre- and postoperative analgesics, and use of local anaesthesia, and whether application of these strategies differs between general dental practitioners (GDPs) and specialists in paediatric dentistry (SPDs). DESIGN: We invited all GDPs (n = 807) in southern Sweden (Region Skåne), and all registered SPDs (n = 122) working in Sweden (929 actively practising dentists under age 65 years) to participate in a postal survey on pain management in paediatric dental care...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681962/systematic-review-of-management-of-chronic-pain-after-surgery
#11
REVIEW
V Wylde, J Dennis, A D Beswick, J Bruce, C Eccleston, N Howells, T J Peters, R Gooberman-Hill
BACKGROUND: Pain present for at least 3 months after a surgical procedure is considered chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) and affects 10-50 per cent of patients. Interventions for CPSP may focus on the underlying condition that indicated surgery, the aetiology of new-onset pain or be multifactorial in recognition of the diverse causes of this pain. The aim of this systematic review was to identify RCTs of interventions for the management of CPSP, and synthesize data across treatment type to estimate their effectiveness and safety...
September 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670327/asthma-pressurised-metered-dose-inhaler-performance-propellant-effect-studies-in-delivery-systems
#12
William F S Sellers
BACKGROUND: Current pressurised metered dose asthma inhaler (pMDI) propellants are not inert pharmacologically as were previous chlorofluorocarbons, have smooth muscle relaxant' partial pressure effects in the lungs and inhaled hydrofluoroalkane 134a (norflurane) has anaesthetic effects. Volumes of propellant gas per actuation have never been measured. METHODS: In-vitro studies measured gas volumes produced by pMDIs on air oxygen (O2) levels in valved holding chambers (VHC) and the falls in O2% following actuation into lung ventilator delivery devices...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635081/understanding-and-improving-photo-control-of-ion-channels-in-nociceptors-with-azobenzene-photo-switches
#13
Alexandre Mourot, Christian Herold, Michael A Kienzler, Richard H Kramer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The photo-isomerizable local anaesthetic, quaternary ammonium-azobenzene-quaternary ammonium (QAQ), provides rapid, optical control over pain signalling without involving genetic modification. In darkness or in green light, trans-QAQ blocks voltage-gated K(+) and Na(+) channels and silences action potentials in pain-sensing neurons. Upon photo-isomerization to cis with near UV light, QAQ blockade is rapidly relieved, restoring neuronal activity. However, the molecular mechanism of cis and trans QAQ blockade is not known...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632910/withdrawn-hypnosis-for-children-undergoing-dental-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Sharifa Al-Harasi, Paul F Ashley, David R Moles, Susan Parekh, Val Walters
BACKGROUND: Managing children is a challenge that many dentists face. Many non-pharmacological techniques have been developed to manage anxiety and behavioural problems in children, such us: 'tell, show & do', positive reinforcement, modelling and hypnosis. The use of hypnosis is generally an overlooked area, hence the need for this review. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review attempted to answer the question: What is the effectiveness of hypnosis (with or without sedation) for behaviour management of children who are receiving dental care in order to allow successful completion of treatment?Null hypothesis: Hypnosis has no effect on the outcome of dental treatment of children...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590211/a-systematic-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-palliative-interventions-to-treat-rectal-tenesmus-in-cancer
#15
Áine Ní Laoire, Lucy Fettes, Fliss Em Murtagh
BACKGROUND: Rectal tenesmus is a distressing symptom in patients with advanced cancer and challenging to treat. There is lack of consensus on the appropriate management of tenesmus in this patient population. AIM: To identify and examine the effectiveness of interventions to palliate rectal tenesmus caused by advanced cancer when surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy are no longer treatment options. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature following standard systematic review methodology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance...
March 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575332/effects-of-arterial-load-variations-on-dynamic-arterial-elastance-an-experimental-study
#16
M I Monge García, P Guijo González, M Gracia Romero, A Gil Cano, A Rhodes, R M Grounds, M Cecconi
Background.: Dynamic arterial elastance (Ea dyn ), the relationship between pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV), has been suggested as a functional assessment of arterial load. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of arterial load changes during acute pharmacological changes, fluid administration, and haemorrhage on Ea dyn . Methods.: Eighteen anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated New Zealand rabbits were studied. Arterial load changes were induced by phenylephrine ( n =9) or nitroprusside ( n =9)...
June 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547743/the-anaesthetized-rabbit-with-acute-atrioventricular-block-provides-a-new-model-for-detecting-drug-induced-torsade-de-pointes
#17
Mihoko Hagiwara, Seiji Shibuta, Kazuhiro Takada, Ryuichi Kambayashi, Misako Nakajo, Megumi Aimoto, Yoshinobu Nagasawa, Akira Takahara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several rabbit proarrhythmia models have been developed using genetic or pharmacological methods to suppress the slow component of delayed rectifier K(+) currents in the ventricle, leading to reduction of the repolarization reserve. Here we have characterized a novel rabbit in vivo proarrhythmia model with severe bradycardia caused by acute atrioventricular block (AVB). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Bradycardia was induced in isoflurane-anaesthetized rabbits by inducing AVB with catheter ablation, and the ventricle was electrically driven at 60 beats min(-1) throughout the experiment except when extrasystoles appeared...
August 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542844/the-inward-rectifier-current-inhibitor-pa-6-terminates-atrial-fibrillation-and-does-not-cause-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-goat-and-dog-models
#18
Yuan Ji, Rosanne Varkevisser, Dragan Opacic, Alexandre Bossu, Marion Kuiper, Jet D M Beekman, Sihyung Yang, Azinwi Phina Khan, Dobromir Dobrev, Niels Voigt, Michael Zhuo Wang, Sander Verheule, Marc A Vos, Marcel A G van der Heyden
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The density of the inward rectifier current (IK1 ) increases in atrial fibrillation (AF), shortening effective refractory period and thus promoting atrial re-entry. The synthetic compound pentamidine analogue 6 (PA-6) is a selective and potent IK1 inhibitor. We tested PA-6 for anti-AF efficacy and potential proarrhythmia, using established models in large animals. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: PA-6 was applied i.v. in anaesthetized goats with rapid pacing-induced AF and anaesthetized dogs with chronic atrio-ventricular (AV) block...
August 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476925/detachable-glass-microelectrodes-for-recording-action-potentials-in-active-moving-organs
#19
Mladen Barbic, Angel Moreno, Tim D Harris, Matthew W Kay
Here, we describe new detachable floating glass micropipette electrode devices that provide targeted action potential recordings in active moving organs without requiring constant mechanical constraint or pharmacological inhibition of tissue motion. The technology is based on the concept of a glass micropipette electrode that is held firmly during cell targeting and intracellular insertion, after which a 100-µg glass microelectrode, a "microdevice," is gently released to remain within the moving organ. The microdevices provide long-term recordings of action potentials, even during millimeter-scale movement of tissue in which the device is embedded...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409497/identification-of-myoelectric-signals-of-pregnant-rat-uterus-new-method-to-detect-myometrial-contraction
#20
Kálmán F Szűcs, György Grosz, Miklós Süle, Anikó Nagy, Zita Tiszai, Reza Samavati, Róbert Gáspár
AIM: To develop an electromyography method for pregnant rat uterus in vivo and to separate myometrial signals from the gastrointestinal tract signals. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8) were anaesthetized and their stomach, small intestine, and large intestine were removed from the abdomen. A pair of thread electrodes was inserted into the uterus, while a pair of disk electrodes was placed subcutaneously above the myometrium. Additionally, a strain gauge sensor was fixed on the surface of the myometrium and cecum for the parallel detection of mechanical contractions in rats (n=18) with intact gastrointestinal tract...
April 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
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