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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150967/drug-delivery-strategies-for-chemoprevention-of-uvb%C3%A2-induced-skin-cancer-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Arvind Bagde, Arindam Mondal, Mandip Singh
Annually, more skin cancer cases are diagnosed than the collective incidence of the colon, lung, breast and prostate cancer. Persistent contact with sunlight is a primary cause for all the skin malignancies. UVB radiation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the skin which eventually leads to DNA damage and mutation. Various delivery approaches for the skin cancer treatment/prevention have been evolving and are directed towards improvements in terms of delivery modes, therapeutic agents and site-specificity of therapeutics delivery...
November 18, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150954/physiological-role-of-urothelial-cancer-associated-1-long-noncoding-rna-in-human-skeletogenic-cell-differentiation
#2
Takanori Ishikawa, Takashi Nishida, Mitsuaki Ono, Takeshi Takarada, Nguyen Ha, Shinnosuke Kurihara, Takayuki Furumatsu, Yurika Murase, Masaharu Takigawa, Toshitaka Oohashi, Hiroshi Kamioka, Satoshi Kubota
A vast number of long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are found expressed in human cells, which RNAs have been developed along with human evolution. However, the physiological functions of these lncRNAs remain mostly unknown. In the present study, we for the first time uncovered the fact that one of such lncRNAs plays a significant role in the differentiation of chondrocytes and, possibly, of osteoblasts differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells, which cells eventually construct the human skeleton. The urothelial cancer-associated 1 (UCA1) lncRNA is known to be associated with several human malignancies...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150921/tgf-%C3%AE-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-when-a-friend-becomes-an-enemy
#3
Marco Arrese, Daniel Cabrera, Alejandra Hernandez, Luis Astete, Lisbell Estrada, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide accounting for more than 700 thousand deaths per year. Most of the HCC develops in a cirrhotic liver, a microenvironment where fibrotic tissue replaces parenchymal cells. Thus, there is a close connection between fibrosis and HCC development. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process is a crucial step to advance in novel therapeutic or pharmacological strategies to prevent or improve the course of this malignancy...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150876/toxicological-characterization-of-zno-nanoparticles-in-malignant-and-non-malignant-cells
#4
Helena Moratin, Agmal Scherzad, Thomas Gehrke, Pascal Ickrath, Katrin Radeloff, Norbert Kleinsasser, Stephan Hackenberg
The increasing usage of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in industrial applications as well as in consumer products raises concern regarding their potential adverse effects to a greater extend. Numerous studies have demonstrated toxic properties of NPs, however there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the underlying mechanisms. This study was designed to systematically investigate cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle alterations, and genotoxicity induced by ZnO-NP. Moreover, it was an aim of the investigations to specify the diverse effects of nanoparticle exposure in malignant in comparison with non-malignant cells...
November 18, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150829/brain-metastasis-of-penile-angiosarcoma
#5
Ozgur Kardes, Fatih Aydemir, Halil Ibrahim Suner, Emre Durdag, Soner Civi, Kadir Tufan, Fazilet Kayaselcuk
Angiosarcoma is a rare malignancy originating from vascular endothelial cells. Brain metastasis of aniosarcomas are uncommon up to the literature. Penile angiosarcomas are also seldom among all anjiosarcomas. A case with penile angiosarcoma with confirmed brain metastasis is aimed to be reported and contribute to the literature for similar cases.
November 16, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150719/preoperative-optimization-for-major-hepatic-resection
#6
REVIEW
Sarah Walcott-Sapp, Kevin G Billingsley
PURPOSE: Major hepatic resections are performed for primary hepatobiliary malignancies, metastatic disease, and benign lesions. Patients with chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and steatosis, are at an elevated risk of malnutrition and impaired strength and exercise capacity, deficits which cause increased risk of postoperative complications and mortality. The aims of this report are to discuss the pathophysiology of changes in nutrition, exercise capacity, and muscle strength in patient populations likely to require major hepatectomy, and review recommendations for preoperative evaluation and optimization...
November 18, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150601/decoding-critical-long-non-coding-rna-in-ovarian-cancer-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#7
Ramkrishna Mitra, Xi Chen, Evan J Greenawalt, Ujjwal Maulik, Wei Jiang, Zhongming Zhao, Christine M Eischen
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) are emerging as contributors to malignancies. Little is understood about the contribution of lncRNA to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which correlates with metastasis. Ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed after metastasis. Here we report an integrated analysis of >700 ovarian cancer molecular profiles, including genomic data sets, from four patient cohorts identifying lncRNA DNM3OS, MEG3, and MIAT overexpression and their reproducible gene regulation in ovarian cancer EMT...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150545/tumour-diameter-is-not-reliable-for-management-of-non-secreting-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours
#8
Logan Mills, Panagiotis Drymousis, Yogesh Vashist, Christoph Burdelski, Andreas Prachalias, Parthi Srinivasan, Krishna Menon, Corina Cotoi, Saboor Khan, Judith Cave, Thomas Armstrong, Martin O Weickert, Jakob Izbicki, Joerg Schrader, Andreja Frilling, John K Ramage, Raj Srirajaskanthan
Small non-functioning pancreatic NETs (pNETs) ≤2 cm can pose a management dilemma in terms of surveillance or resection. There is evidence to suggest that a surveillance approach can be considered since there are no significant radiological changes observed in lesions during long-term follow-up. However, other studies have suggested loco-regional spread can be present in ≤2 cm pNETs. The aim of this study was to characterise the prevalence of malignant features and identify any useful predictive variables in a surgically resected cohort of pNETs...
November 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150421/final-analysis-of-survival-outcomes-in-the-randomized-phase-3-first-trial
#9
Thierry Facon, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Angela Dispenzieri, John V Catalano, Andrew Belch, Michele Cavo, Antonello Pinto, Katja Weisel, Heinz Ludwig, Nizar J Bahlis, Anne Banos, Mourad Tiab, Michel Delforge, Jamie D Cavenagh, Catarina Geraldes, Je-Jung Lee, Christine Chen, Albert Oriol, Javier De La Rubia, Darell White, Daniel Binder, Jin Lu, Kenneth C Anderson, Philippe Moreau, Michel Attal, Aurore Perrot, Bertrand Arnulf, Lugui Qiu, Murielle Roussel, Eileen Boyle, Salomon Manier, Mohamad Mohty, Herve Avet-Loiseau, Xavier Leleu, Annette Ervin-Haynes, Guang Chen, Vanessa Houck, Lotfi Benboubker, Cyrille Hulin
This FIRST trial final analysis examined survival outcomes in patients with transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) treated with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone until disease progression (Rd continuous), Rd for 72 weeks (18 cycles; Rd18), or melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide (MPT; 72 weeks). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS; primary comparison: Rd continuous vs MPT). Overall survival (OS) was a key secondary endpoint (final analysis prespecified ≥ 60 months' follow-up)...
November 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150365/correlation-between-ultrasound-appearance-of-small-breast-cancer-and-axillary-lymph-node-metastasis
#10
Xiaoqin Yu, Xiaoyan Hao, Jing Wan, Yingying Wang, Lan Yu, Binyue Liu
To study the correlation of ultrasonographic signs of small breast cancer (maximum diameter ≤2.0 cm) with axillary lymph node metastasis, pre-operative ultrasonographic images of 153 small breast malignant neoplasms in 143 breast cancer patients were analyzed according to their pathologic features. Of the small breast tumors included, 47 showed axillary lymph node metastasis. Diagnosis of all patients was obtained with radical axillary surgery or a sentinel lymph node biopsy procedure. Ultrasonographic signs included irregular shape, microlobulated contour, spiculation, microcalcification, posterior echo attenuation, blood-flow grade, perforating vessels, changes in fascia or cooper's ligament and maximum cortical thickness of lymph nodes...
November 14, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150352/dysregulation-of-mrna-translation-and-energy-metabolism-in-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Matthew Leibovitch, Ivan Topisirovic
Dysregulated mRNA translation and aberrant energy metabolism are frequent in cancer. Considering that mRNA translation is an energy demanding process, cancer cells must produce sufficient ATP to meet energy demand of hyperactive translational machinery. In recent years, the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) emerged as a central regulatory node which coordinates energy consumption by the translation apparatus and ATP production in mitochondria. Aberrant mTOR signaling underpins the vast majority of cancers whereby increased mTOR activity is thought to be a major determinant of both malignant translatomes and metabolomes...
November 2, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150348/de-novo-head-and-neck-cancer-arising-in-solid-organ-transplantation-recipients-the-asan-medical-center-experience
#12
Marn Joon Park, Jong-Lyel Roh, Seung-Ho Choi, Soon Yuhl Nam, Sang Yoon Kim, Yoon Se Lee
OBJECTIVE: De novo cancers of head and neck area in solid organ transplantation recipients show standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 3.8. Immunosuppression following transplantation is suggested to play as a crucial factor in pathogenesis of secondary malignancy. Prognosis of head and neck cancer arising in solid organ transplantation recipients is proven to have poor prognosis. The incidence, risk, prognosis, and survival of de novo malignancy of head and neck area in solid organ transplantation recipients in single-tertiary medical center followed up for 20 years...
November 14, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150219/non-neoplastic-histiocytic-and-dendritic-cell-disorders-in-lymph-nodes
#13
REVIEW
Caoimhe Egan, Elaine S Jaffe
Benign and malignant proliferations of histiocytes and dendritic cells may be encountered in lymph nodes. Reactive histiocytic and dendritic cell infiltrates occur in response to diverse stimuli and in addition to causing lymphadenopathy, may be present unexpectedly in lymph nodes excised for other indications. This review summarizes the pathogenesis and histopathological features of the various non-neoplastic histiocytic and dendritic cell infiltrates that can occur in lymph nodes.
November 3, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150141/hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-the-era-of-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Hao-Wen Sim, Jennifer Knox
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common malignancy which usually emerges on a background of chronic liver disease. Unfortunately, with contemporary management, patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma have few treatment options, and prognosis is poor. The emergence of immunotherapy has afforded new therapeutic opportunities. This article reviews the clinical evidence for immunotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and presents ideas for future drug development.
November 14, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150048/dna-dependent-protein-kinase-modulates-the-anti-cancer-properties-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-human-cancer-cells
#15
Hui Kheng Lim, Resham Lal Gurung, M Prakash Hande
Silver nanoparticles (Ag-np) were reported to be toxic to eukaryotic cells. These potentially detrimental effects of Ag-np can be advantageous in experimental therapeutics. They are currently being employed to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of cancer drugs. In this study, we demonstrate that Ag-np treatment trigger the activation of DNA-PKcs and JNK pathway at selected doses, presumably as a physiologic response to DNA damage and repair in normal and malignant cells. Ag-np altered the telomere dynamics by disrupting the shelterin complex located at the telomeres and telomere lengths...
December 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150042/empyema-from-obstructing-lung-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Julian Guitron
Pleural collections on the side of an obstructing bronchial cancer pose a particular challenge. All efforts should be placed into determining whether the collection is malignant or para-malignant with its significant implications on cancer staging. This article discusses various diagnostic modalities and therapeutic interventions needed for the optimal management of patients presenting with this situation. The order of interventions is dictated by the individual circumstances that patients present with, often requiring the pleural interventions to take place ahead of the bronchial obstruction management...
February 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150040/management-of-malignant-lung-entrapment-the-oncothorax
#17
REVIEW
Roman Petrov, Charles Bakhos, Abbas E Abbas
Pleural metastasis is a common occurrence in up to 30% of patients with metastatic cancer. When lung entrapment and loculation of fluid occur, treatment is more difficult and we have named this condition "oncothorax." The malignant adhesions that entrap the lung in an oncothorax are not typically amenable to surgical decortication. The standard approach for managing these patients is to place an indwelling catheter. Other options may include pleurectomy and decortication, intrapleural hyperthermic chemoperfusion, and intrapleural photodynamic therapy...
February 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150033/lung-cancer-and-lung-transplantation
#18
REVIEW
Timothy Brand, Benjamin Haithcock
Lung transplantation remains a viable option for patients with endstage pulmonary disease. Despite removing the affected organ and replacing both lungs, the risk of lung malignancies still exists. Regardless of the mode of entry, lung cancer affects the prognosis in these patients and diligence is required.
February 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150024/decreased-uchl1-expression-as-a-cytologic-biomarker-for-aggressive-behavior-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#19
Maureen D Moore, Brendan Finnerty, Katherine D Gray, Rana Hoda, Yi-Fan Liu, Lauren Soong, Toni Beninato, Rema Rao, Rasa Zarnegar, Thomas J Fahey
BACKGROUND: There are currently no reliable markers associated with aggressive behavior in well-differentiated and moderately differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. We aimed to determine whether expression of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 in conjunction with Ki67 can identify metastatic potential of well-differentiated and moderately differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors from fine-needle aspiration samples obtained by endoscopic ultrasound. METHODS: Retrospective review of 48 patients with well-differentiated and moderately differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration at a single center identified 35 biopsy samples with adequate material for analysis...
November 14, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149920/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-disease-in-the-inflammatory-myopathies
#20
REVIEW
Chiranjeevi Gadiparthi, Amneet Hans, Kyle Potts, Mohammad K Ismail
Although muscle weakness is the pathognomonic feature of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, systemic organ involvement is not uncommon. The gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations are well known. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is the most common gastrointestinal symptom and can be severe. Gastric and small intestinal motility disorders, including chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, celiac disease, and inflammatory bowel disease have been described. Comprehensive cancer screening is warranted soon after the diagnosis of inflammatory myopathies due to high risk of occult malignancies...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
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