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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634323/intestinal-microbial-dysbiosis-aggravates-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-drosophila
#1
Shih-Cheng Wu, Zih-Syuan Cao, Kuo-Ming Chang, Jyh-Lyh Juang
Neuroinflammation caused by local deposits of Aβ42 in the brain is key for the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's disease. However, inflammation in the brain is not always a response to local primary insults. Gut microbiota dysbiosis, which is recently emerging as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, can also initiate a brain inflammatory response. It still remains unclear however, whether enteric dysbiosis also contributes to Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that in a Drosophila Alzheimer's disease model, enterobacteria infection exacerbated progression of Alzheimer's disease by promoting immune hemocyte recruitment to the brain, thereby provoking TNF-JNK mediated neurodegeneration...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631193/current-concepts-of-memory-disorder-in-epilepsy-edging-towards-a-network-account
#2
REVIEW
Genevieve Rayner, Chris Tailby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A paradigm shift in contemporary epileptology has been the reframing of both epilepsy and its comorbid memory disorders as the product of diseased brain networks. The current review discusses some of the clinical and theoretical implications that stem from this shift. RECENT FINDINGS: Some implications of a network conceptualisation of epilepsy include a need for more widespread cognitive phenotyping in epilepsy; recognition that memory disorders in epilepsy can be multi-determined, including by non-structural factors; deeper consideration given to the neurodevelopmental context in which memory problems emerge; the utility of new methods to characterise memory impairments in epilepsy; and a call for greater recognition of the close interrelationships between memory comorbidities and psychiatric symptoms in epilepsy...
August 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630456/rare-disruptive-variants-in-the-disc1-interactome-and-regulome-association-with-cognitive-ability-and-schizophrenia
#3
S Teng, P A Thomson, S McCarthy, M Kramer, S Muller, J Lihm, S Morris, D C Soares, W Hennah, S Harris, L M Camargo, V Malkov, A M McIntosh, J K Millar, D H Blackwood, K L Evans, I J Deary, D J Porteous, W R McCombie
Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are common psychiatric illnesses. All have been associated with lower cognitive ability, and show evidence of genetic overlap and substantial evidence of pleiotropy with cognitive function and neuroticism. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein directly interacts with a large set of proteins (DISC1 Interactome) that are involved in brain development and signaling. Modulation of DISC1 expression alters the expression of a circumscribed set of genes (DISC1 Regulome) that are also implicated in brain biology and disorder...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629290/functional-foods-how-functional-are-they-a-case-report-of-supplement-induced-psychosis
#4
Priyanka Yadav, Kyle Stigall, Hannah E Johnson, Abner O Rayapati, Nitin Chopra
There is rising evidence of patients' use of alternative and complementary medicine. The percentage of the U.S. population who used at least one dietary supplement increased from 42% in 1988-1994 to 53% in 2003-2006. We present a case of an Asian female in her 40s, with no previous psychiatric illness, who presented to the emergency room following a brief psychotic episode, during which she self-amputated the tips of her fingers, after using multivitamins and herbal supplements including ginseng, gui yuan rou (Chinese herb), astaxanthin, goji (Chinese fruit), selenium, saw palmetto, grape seed extract, citrus bioflavanoid, lutein (zeaxantin), resvexatrol, sun chlorella, spirulina powder, phytoceramides, phytoestrogen, glucosatrin, bromelain plus, and American bee pollen...
August 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629225/cortical-plasticity-in-depression
#5
Mariagiovanna Cantone, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Lanza, Manuela Pennisi, Placido Bramanti, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
Neural plasticity is considered the neurophysiological correlate of learning and memory, although several studies have also noted that it plays crucial roles in a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Indeed, impaired brain plasticity may be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlies both cognitive decline and major depression. Moreover, a degree of cognitive impairment is frequently observed throughout the clinical spectrum of mood disorders, and the relationship between depression and cognition is often bidirectional...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628050/arizona-hospital-discharge-and-emergency-department-database-implications-for-occupational-health-surveillance
#6
Philip Harber, Jennifer Ha, Matthew Roach
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the project was to identify trends in emergency department visits and inpatient admissions for occupational injury and disease frequency and describe the financial impact from specific clinical groups known to have occupational risk factors. METHODS: Workers compensation cases among 19 million records in the Arizona statewide hospital discharge database (HDD) were assessed for seven clinical groups from 2008 to 2014, including back, cardiac, carpal tunnel syndrome, heat-related, psychiatric, pulmonary, and trauma...
April 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627923/examination-of-the-triarchic-assessment-procedure-for-inconsistent-responding-in-six-non-english-language-samples
#7
Shannon E Kelley, Josanne D M van Dongen, M Brent Donnellan, John F Edens, Hedwig Eisenbarth, Andrea Fossati, Katarina Howner, Antonella Somma, Karolina Sörman
The Triarchic Assessment Procedure for Inconsistent Responding (TAPIR; Mowle et al., 2016) was recently developed to identify inattentiveness or comprehension difficulties that may compromise the validity of responses on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM; Patrick, 2010). The TAPIR initially was constructed and cross-validated using exclusively English-speaking participants from the United States; however, research using the TriPM has been increasingly conducted internationally, with numerous foreign language translations of the measure emerging...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626043/the-diverse-roles-of-arrestin-scaffolds-in-g-protein-coupled-receptor-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Yuri K Peterson, Louis M Luttrell
The visual/β-arrestins, a small family of proteins originally described for their role in the desensitization and intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), have emerged as key regulators of multiple signaling pathways. Evolutionarily related to a larger group of regulatory scaffolds that share a common arrestin fold, the visual/β-arrestins acquired the capacity to detect and bind activated GPCRs on the plasma membrane, which enables them to control GPCR desensitization, internalization, and intracellular trafficking...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625767/early-life-stress-perturbs-the-function-of-microglia-in-the-developing-rodent-brain-new-insights-and-future-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Frances K Johnson, Arie Kaffman
The role of the innate immune system in mediating some of the consequences of childhood abuse and neglect has received increasing attention in recent years. Most of the work to date has focused on the role that neuroinflammation plays in the long-term adult psychiatric and medical complications associated with childhood maltreatment. The effects of stress-induced neuroinflammation on neurodevelopment have received little attention because until recently this issue has not been studied systematically in animal models of early life stress...
June 15, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624847/the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis-implications-for-schizophrenia-and-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain
#10
REVIEW
S Kanji, T M Fonseka, V S Marshe, V Sriretnakumar, M K Hahn, D J Müller
With the emergence of knowledge implicating the human gut microbiome in the development and regulation of several physiological systems, evidence has accumulated to suggest a role for the gut microbiome in psychiatric conditions and drug response. A complex relationship between the enteric nervous system, the gut microbiota and the central nervous system has been described which allows for the microbiota to influence and respond to a variety of behaviors and psychiatric conditions. Additionally, the use of pharmaceuticals may interact with and alter the microbiota to potentially contribute to adverse effects of the drug...
June 17, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623497/-psychiatric-emergencies
#11
F Schneider, S Weber-Papen
Psychiatric emergencies present a frequent and interdisciplinary challenge. Clinical diagnosis and management are complicated by the acuity, and the patient's compliance is often limited by the illness. Psychiatric emergencies include states of acute agitation, suicidality, delirium, stupor, and drug-induced emergencies. Sometimes interventions such as conversational contact, responding empathically to patients, or "talking down" are sufficient. If pharmacotherapy is necessary, benzodiazepines and antipsychotic drugs are the primary agents of choice...
June 16, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623183/phone-based-interventions-in-adolescent-psychiatry-a-perspective-and-proof-of-concept-pilot-study-with-a-focus-on-depression-and-autism
#12
Robert Yuzen Chen, Jordan Robert Feltes, William Shun Tzeng, Zoe Yunzhu Lu, Michael Pan, Nan Zhao, Rebecca Talkin, Kavon Javaherian, Anne Glowinski, Will Ross
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine has emerged as an innovative platform to diagnose and treat psychiatric disorders in a cost-effective fashion. Previous studies have laid the functional framework for monitoring and treating child psychiatric disorders electronically using videoconferencing, mobile phones (smartphones), and Web-based apps. However, phone call and text message (short message service, SMS) interventions in adolescent psychiatry are less studied than other electronic platforms. Further investigations on the development of these interventions are needed...
June 16, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622813/evaluation-of-drug-use-and-medication-compliance-in-adolescents-admitted-to-a-psychiatric-facility-from-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#13
George Sam Wang, Genie Roosevelt, Amy Becker, Lina Brou, Jeffrey L Galinkin
OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of drug use and medication compliance during mental health evaluation can help guide evaluation and treatment. The objective was to evaluate drug use and medication compliance in a pediatric emergency department (PED) psychiatric population by comparing medical history, standard urine drug screen (EIA), and expanded urine drug screen (HPLC-MS/MS). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of admitted psychiatric patients ≥13years and ≤18years in a tertiary-care children's hospital psychiatric ED from January 31, 2013 through April 16, 2014...
May 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622045/age-related-characteristics-of-outpatients-with-anxiety-disorders-the-leiden-routine-outcome-monitoring-study
#14
Anke Schat, Martijn S van Noorden, Therese van Amelsvoort, Erik J Giltay, Nic J A van der Wee, Marc J Noom, Robert R J M Vermeiren, Frans G Zitman
OBJECTIVE: It has been hypothesised that clinically important age-related differences between adults with anxiety disorders exist; this study aims to elucidate these differences. METHODS: We analysed data from 1950 outpatients diagnosed with DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders treated at a Dutch hospital or affiliated mental healthcare centres. Three age-groups (young- (18-25; n = 435), mid- (26-40; n = 788) and older adult (41-65; n = 727)) were compared with regard to social demographic characteristics, diagnostic characteristics, anxiety symptom profile, general psychiatric symptom profile and generic health status, in addition, linear analyses were carried out with age as a continuous variable...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620909/pregabalin-and-heart-failure-a-population-based-study
#15
Joanne M-W Ho, Erin M Macdonald, Jin Luo, Tara Gomes, Tony Antoniou, Muhammad M Mamdani, David N Juurlink
PURPOSE: The anticonvulsant pregabalin is increasingly prescribed for pain, seizures, and psychiatric disorders. Although evidence suggests pregabalin can cause edema and heart failure, its cardiac safety profile in clinical practice is unknown. We sought to examine the risk of heart failure among older patients receiving pregabalin compared to those receiving gabapentin. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of Ontarians aged 66 and older with a history of seizure who received pregabalin or gabapentin between April 2013 and March 2014...
June 16, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619038/the-experiences-of-women-with-maternal-near-miss-and-their-perception-of-quality-of-care-in-kelantan-malaysia-a-qualitative-study
#16
Mohd Noor Norhayati, Nik Hussain Nik Hazlina, Ab Razak Asrenee, Zaharah Sulaiman
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality has been the main way of ascertaining the outcome of maternal and obstetric care. However, maternal morbidities occur more frequently than maternal deaths; therefore, maternal near miss was suggested as a more useful indicator for the evaluation and improvement of maternal health services. Our study aimed to explore the experiences of women with maternal near miss and their perception of the quality of care in Kelantan, Malaysia. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological approach with in-depth interview method was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia...
June 15, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617206/utilization-patterns-at-a-specialized-children-s-comprehensive-psychiatric-emergency-program
#17
Ruth Gerson, Jennifer Havens, Mollie Marr, Amy Storfer-Isser, Mia Lee, Carolena Rojas Marcos, Michelle Liu, Sarah McCue Horwitz
OBJECTIVE: Most youths experiencing a psychiatric crisis present to emergency departments (EDs) that lack the specialized staff to evaluate them, so youths are often discharged without appropriate mental health assessment or treatment. To better understand the needs of this population, this study described clinical details and disposition associated with visits for psychiatric emergencies to a specialized ED staffed 24/7 by child psychiatrists. METHODS: Through retrospective chart review, 1,180 visits to the ED during its first year of operation were reviewed for clinical characteristics, prior service utilization, and demographic characteristics...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616830/the-efficacy-of-genetic-counseling-for-psychiatric-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#18
Ramona Moldovan, Sebastian Pintea, Jehannine Austin
Psychiatric illnesses are complex, highly heritable disorders that have substantial implications for both affected individuals and their families. Though genetic testing is currently limited in its clinical usefulness in this area, interest in genetic counseling for psychiatric disorders has a relatively long history and many positive outcomes have been posited. Yet, empirical studies of genetic counseling outcomes have been emerging only more recently. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to analyze the efficacy of genetic counseling and explore potential moderators of its effect...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614434/post-stroke-psychosis-how-long-should-we-treat
#19
Maria do Céu Ferreira, Célia Machado, Beatriz Santos, Álvaro Machado
Objective: To describe a rare case of a patient who developed psychotic symptoms after a right stroke that disappeared with antipsychotic treatment, but appears to need low-dose maintenance antipsychotic therapy. Case description: A 65-year-old man presented at the psychiatric emergency service with a history of persistent delusional jealousy, visual illusions and agitation with onset about 1 month after a right posterior cerebral artery ischemic stroke. These symptoms only disappeared with therapeutic dosages of an antipsychotic drug (3 mg/day of risperidone)...
June 12, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613973/the-association-of-cannabis-use-on-inpatient-psychiatric-hospital-outcomes
#20
Melanie Rylander, Helena R Winston, Haley Medlin, Madelyne Hull, Abraham Nussbaum
BACKGROUND: The associations between cannabis use and psychosis are well documented in numerous studies. There is a need to evaluate the impact of cannabis use on inpatient psychiatric utilization and outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of cannabis use on psychiatric hospital outcomes. METHODS: This study was conducted between April 20, 2015 and October 20, 2015. All patients (n = 120) admitted to Denver Health with psychotic symptoms were administered a urine toxicology screening testing for the presence of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH, the active metabolite of cannabis)...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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