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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092405/thrombin-contributes-to-protective-immunity-in-pneumonia-derived-sepsis-via-fibrin-polymerization-and-platelet-neutrophil-interactions
#1
Theodora A M Claushuis, Sacha F de Stoppelaar, Ingrid Stroo, Joris J T H Roelofs, Roelof Ottenhoff, Tom van der Poll, Cornelis van 't Veer
BACKGROUND: Innate immunity and coagulation are closely linked during sepsis. Their interaction can be detrimental for outcome due to microvascular failure but can also enhance host defense. The role of thrombin herein has not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the contribution of thrombin to the host response during pneumonia derived sepsis. METHODS: Mice treated with the specific thrombin inhibitor Dabigatran or control chow were infected with the common human sepsis pathogen Klebsiella (K...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092221/tuberculosis-mimicking-primary-systemic-vasculitis-not-to-be-missed
#2
Ankit Jain, Durga Prasanna Misra, A Ramesh, Debdatta Basu, Vikramraj K Jain, Vir Singh Negi
Infections are an important differential diagnosis in patients presenting with features of systemic vasculitis. We report a young lady with constitutional features, leg ulcers, digital gangrene and absent peripheral pulses with cervical adenopathy. Chest imaging revealed multiple necrotic lung lesions and involvement of left subclavian artery at its origin from the aorta, Histopathology from cervical lymph nodes showed multiple caseated lymph nodes, which in the context of a positive Mantoux test led us to diagnose tuberculosis and institute appropriate therapy...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091937/ocular-mycobacteriosis-dual-infection-of-m-tuberculosis-complex-with-m-fortuitum-and-m-bovis
#3
Kusum Sharma, Natasha Gautam, Megha Sharma, Mohit Dogra, Priya Bajgai, Basavaraj Tigari, Aman Sharma, Vishali Gupta, Surya Prakash Sharma, Ramandeep Singh
BACKGROUND: We report unfavorable outcome in a patient with subretinal granuloma caused by dual infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium bovis in an immunosuppressed, non-HIV patient. We did a systematic review of literature on dual infection due to M. tuberculosis and M. fortuitum via MEDLINE and PUBMED and could not find any case reported of causing this kind of dual infection in the eye. RESULTS: A 38-year-old Indian male patient presented with decreased vision in the left eye for 3 months, diagnosed as tubercular choroidal granuloma with associated retinal angiomatosis proliferans (RAP) lesion...
December 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091625/mplex-a-method-for-simultaneous-pathogen-inactivation-and-extraction-of-samples-for-multi-omics-profiling
#4
Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Jennifer E Kyle, Amie J Eisfeld, Cameron P Casey, Kelly G Stratton, Juan F Gonzalez, Fabien Habyarimana, Nicholas M Negretti, Amy C Sims, Sadhana Chauhan, Larissa B Thackray, Peter J Halfmann, Kevin B Walters, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Carrie D Nicora, Karl K Weitz, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Brian Ahmer, Michael E Konkel, Vladimir Motin, Ralph S Baric, Michael S Diamond, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Katrina M Waters, Richard D Smith, Thomas O Metz
The continued emergence and spread of infectious agents is of great concern, and systems biology approaches to infectious disease research can advance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships and facilitate the development of new therapies and vaccines. Molecular characterization of infectious samples outside of appropriate biosafety containment can take place only subsequent to pathogen inactivation. Herein, we describe a modified Folch extraction using chloroform/methanol that facilitates the molecular characterization of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of proteins, metabolites, and lipids for subsequent mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements...
January 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089718/cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-from-alligator-mississippiensis-has-antibacterial-activity-against-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumanii-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#5
Stephanie M Barksdale, Evelyn J Hrifko, Monique L van Hoek
Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator), a member of order Crocodilia, lives in bacteria-laden environments but is not often known to succumb to bacterial infections. Their serum has been shown to have antibacterial activity beyond that of human serum, and it is believed that this activity is partially due to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). CAMPs are produced by many organisms as part of the innate immune system. CAMPs are attractive possible therapies against multi-drug resistant bacteria, such as those found in biofilm-infected war wounds, because they seldom cause genetic resistance in bacteria and are effective against antibiotic resistant bacteria...
January 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089673/the-value-of-participatory-development-to-support-antimicrobial-stewardship-with-a-clinical-decision-support-system
#6
Nienke Beerlage-de Jong, Jobke Wentzel, Ron Hendrix, Lisette van Gemert-Pijnen
BACKGROUND: Current clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are guideline- or expert-driven. They are focused on (clinical) content, not on supporting real-time workflow. Thus, CDSSs fail to optimally support prudent antimicrobial prescribing in daily practice. Our aim was to demonstrate why and how participatory development (involving end-users and other stakeholders) can contribute to the success of CDSSs in ASPs. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was applied, combining scenario-based prototype evaluations (to support verbalization of work processes and out-of-the-box thinking) among 6 medical resident physicians with an online questionnaire (to cross-reference findings of the prototype evaluations) among 54 Dutch physicians...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089099/clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-in-a-medical-center-in-taiwan
#7
Gu-Lung Lin, Hsiu-Hao Chang, Chun-Yi Lu, Chung-Ming Chen, Meng-Yao Lu, Ping-Ing Lee, Shiann-Tarng Jou, Yung-Li Yang, Li-Min Huang, Luan-Yin Chang
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies, especially those with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), recurrent acute leukemia, high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcome of IFIs in pediatric AML patients in a medical center in Taiwan. METHODS: We performed retrospective chart reviews...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088585/nocardiosis-in-south-of-france-during-the-last-ten-years
#8
Delphine Haussaire, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Karamoko Djiguiba, Valerie Moal, Tristan Legris, Rajsingh Purgus, Jeremy Bismuth, Xavier Elharrar, Martine Reynaud-Gaubert, Henri Vacher-Coponat
BACKGROUND: Nocardiosis is a rare disease with polymorphic presentations. Epidemiology and clinical presentation could change with the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. METHODS: Medical records and microbiologic data for patients affected by nocardiosis and treated in the university hospital of Marseille between 2004 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: We analyzed 34 patients infected by Nocardia spp during this period...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088526/subcutaneous-immunization-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-gapdh-confers-effective-protection-in-mice-via-tlr2-and-tlr4
#9
Xiaoyu Sun, Jichao Wang, Jie Zhou, Hong Wang, Xiaofang Wang, Jingwen Wu, Yujuan He, Yibing Yin, Xuemei Zhang, Wenchun Xu
The surface localized Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is best known as housekeeping protein. Currently, GAPDH has been recognized as moonlighting protein and virulent factor. Therefore, we investigate whether GAPDH can act as a suitable vaccine candidate protein to prevent pneumococcal infection. In this study, mice received subcutaneous vaccination with recombinant GAPDH followed by challenge with D39 and 19F showing higher survival rate and lower bacterial loads in nasal washes and lung homogenates than control...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088273/a-real-world-impact-of-cost-effectiveness-of-pegylated-interferon-ribavarin-regimens-on-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-in-taiwan
#10
Pei-Chien Tsai, Ta-Wei Liu, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Ming-Lun Yeh, Po-Cheng Liang, Yi-Hung Lin, Ching-I Huang, Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Nai-Jen Hou, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Jee-Fu Huang, Chia-Yen Dai, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu
Treatments with pegylated interferon/ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) has been standard-of-care in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) (CHC) infection and reimbursed in Taiwan. However, the actual cost-effectiveness remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate a real-world cost-effectiveness for CHC patients treated with PEG-IFN/RBV by using a clinical cohort with linkage to the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The total and itemized medical-care expenses of outpatient visits of 117 treatment-naïve CHC patients with linkage to the two million sampling of the National Health Insurance Research Database were collected...
January 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087945/innate-immune-responses-to-tuberculosis
#11
Jeffrey S Schorey, Larry S Schlesinger
Tuberculosis remains one of the greatest threats to human health. The causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is acquired by the respiratory route. It is exquisitely adapted to humans and is a prototypic intracellular pathogen of macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being the primary conduit of infection and disease. However, M. tuberculosis bacilli interact with and are affected by several soluble and cellular components of the innate immune system which dictate the outcome of primary infection, most commonly a latently infected healthy human host, in whom the bacteria are held in check by the host immune response within the confines of tissue granuloma, the host histopathologic hallmark...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087613/systemic-and-mucosal-pre-administration-of-recombinant-helicobacter-pylori-neutrophil-activating-protein-prevents-ovalbumin-induced-allergic-asthma-in-mice
#12
Shuai Zhou, Yanmei Huang, Bingshao Liang, Hui Dong, Shuwen Yao, Yinshuang Chen, Yongqiang Xie, Yan Long, Sitang Gong, Zhenwen Zhou
PURPOSE: Previous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an inverse association between Helicobacter pylori infection and the frequency of allergic asthma. The neutrophil-activating protein (NAP) of Helicobacter pylori has been identified as a modulator possessing anti-Th2 inflammation activity. Here, we sought to determine whether systemic or mucosal pre-administration of recombinant Helicobacter pylori NAP (rNAP) could prevent ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice. METHODS: Mice were exposed to purified rNAP through intraperitoneal injection or inhalation and then sensitized with ovalbumin...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087182/multimorbidity-and-acute-heart-failure-in-internal-medicine
#13
F Martínez, L Martínez-Ibañez, G Pichler, A Ruiz, J Redon
AIMS: To analyse the characteristics of hospitalized patients for AHF, with special attention to the clustering of morbidities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical records of patients, admitted in Internal Medicine due to AHF, during three years, were reviewed. The characteristics of patients-episodes were registered and key indicators of performance. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to assess the distribution of morbidities. LR models were used to study clinical variables related with death or readmission...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086955/evaluation-of-the-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-assay-and-microscopy-for-the-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-namibia
#14
Rooyen T Mavenyengwa, Emma Shaduka, Innocent Maposa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) kills approximately two million people and infects around nine million worldwide annually. Its proper management, especially in resource-limited settings, has been hindered by the lack of rapid and easy-to-use diagnostic tests. Sputum smear microscopy remains the cheapest, readily available diagnostic method but it only identifies less than half of the patients with a HIV/TB co-infection because the bacilli would have disseminated from the lungs to other areas of the body...
January 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081127/transient-in-vivo-resistance-mechanisms-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-to-ceftazidime-and-molecular-markers-for-monitoring-treatment-response
#15
Jason E Cummings, Richard A Slayden
Much is known about the mode of action of drugs and resistance mechanisms under laboratory growth conditions, but research on the bacterial transcriptional response to drug pressure in vivo or efficacious mode of action and transient resistance mechanisms of clinically employed drugs is limited. Accordingly, to assess active alternative metabolism and transient resistance mechanisms, and identify molecular markers of treatment response, the in vivo transcriptional response of Burkholderia pseudomallei 1026b to treatment with ceftazidime in infected lungs was compared to the in vitro bacterial response in the presence of drug...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079883/cysteamine-re-establishes-the-clearance-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-macrophages-bearing-the-cystic-fibrosis-relevant-f508del-cftr-mutation
#16
Eleonora Ferrari, Romina Monzani, Valeria R Villella, Speranza Esposito, Francesca Saluzzo, Federica Rossin, Manuela D'Eletto, Antonella Tosco, Fabiola De Gregorio, Valentina Izzo, Maria C Maiuri, Guido Kroemer, Valeria Raia, Luigi Maiuri
Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal monogenic disease in Caucasians, is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and colonization, mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, resulting in unresolved airway inflammation. CF is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, which functions as a chloride channel in epithelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Impaired bacterial handling by macrophages is a feature of CF airways, although it is still debated how defective CFTR impairs bacterial killing...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079836/symptomatic-cytomegalovirus-infections-in-the-first-year-of-life-when-is-antiviral-therapy-conceived-to-be-justified
#17
Katharina Schuster, Rangmar Goelz, Carsten Speckmann, Philipp Henneke
All infants treated with antiviral medication for symptomatic congenital (diagnosis <3 weeks) and probably postnatal (>3 weeks) cytomegalovirus infection were characterized with the help of a survey covering all German Pediatric hospitals between 2012 and 2013. We found that >50% of infants treated for cytomegalovirus were classified as probably postnatal cytomegalovirus infection, which was associated with preterm birth and underlying diseases of the immune system, heart or lung.
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078736/investigation-of-underlying-comorbidities-as-risk-factors-for-symptomatic-human-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#18
S Zhang, C Chen, J Peng, X Li, D Zhang, J Yan, Y Zhang, C Lu, J Xun, W Li, Y Ling, Y Huang, L Chen
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection occurs in few infected subjects, and the risk factors are not completely known. AIMS: To explore the risk factors for adverse clinical outcomes in acute HEV infections. METHODS: A large retrospective study was conducted. The baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, and laboratory data of 512 acute HEV infection cases were analysed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: All patients exhibited autochthonous sporadic HEV infections, and most were elderly...
January 12, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077642/studies-on-the-interaction-of-tumor-derived-hd5-alpha-defensins-with-adenoviruses-and-implications-for-oncolytic-adenovirus-therapy
#19
Charles Vragniau, Jens-Martin Hübner, Peter Beidler, Sucheol Gil, Kamola Saydaminova, Zhuo-Zhuang Lu, Roma Yumul, Hongjie Wang, Maximilian Richter, Pavel Sova, Charles Drescher, Pascal Fender, André Lieber
: Defensins are small anti-microbial peptides capable of neutralizing human adenovirus (HAdV) in vitro by binding capsid proteins and blocking endosomal escape of virus. In humans, the alpha defensin HD5 is produced by specialized epithelial cells of the gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary tracts. Here we demonstrate that HD5 is also expressed as an active, secreted peptide by epithelial ovarian and lung cancer cells in situ, in patient biopsies. This finding triggered us to study the role of HD5 in infection and spread of replication-competent, oncolytic HAdV type 3 virus...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077636/klebsiella-phage-%C3%AE-k64-1-encodes-multiple-depolymerases-for-multiple-host-capsular-types
#20
Yi-Jiun Pan, Tzu-Lung Lin, Ching-Ching Chen, Yun-Ting Tsai, Yi-Hsiang Cheng, Yi-Yin Chen, Pei-Fang Hsieh, Yi-Tsung Lin, Jin-Town Wang
: The genome of the multi-host bacteriophage ΦK64-1, capable of infecting Klebsiella capsular types K1, K11, K21, K25, K30, K35, K64, and K69, as well as new capsular types KN4 and KN5 was analyzed and revealed that 11 genes (S1-1, S1-2, S1-3, S2-1, S2-2, S2-3, S2-4, S2-5, S2-6, S2-7, and S2-8) encode proteins with amino acid sequence similarity to tail fibers/spikes or lyases. S2-5 previously was shown to encode a K64 capsule depolymerase (K64dep). Specific capsule-degrading activities of an additional 8 putative capsule depolymerases (S2-4 against K1; S1-1 against K11; S1-3 against K21; S2-2 against K25; S2-6 against K30/K69; S2-3 against K35; S1-2 against KN4; S2-1 against KN5) was demonstrated by expression and purification of the recombinant proteins...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
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