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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319817/indoor-air-quality-of-low-and-middle-income-urban-households-in-durban-south-africa
#1
Nkosana Jafta, Lars Barregard, Prakash M Jeena, Rajen N Naidoo
INTRODUCTION: Elevated levels of indoor air pollutants may cause cardiopulmonary disease such as lower respiratory infection, chronic obstructive lung disease and lung cancer, but the association with tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. So far the risk estimates of TB infection or/and disease due to indoor air pollution (IAP) exposure are based on self-reported exposures rather than direct measurements of IAP, and these exposures have not been validated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to characterize and develop predictive models for concentrations of three air pollutants (PM10, NO2 and SO2) in homes of children participating in a childhood TB study...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319404/encapsulation-of-an-ep67-conjugated-ctl-peptide-vaccine-in-nanoscale-biodegradable-particles-increases-the-efficacy-of-respiratory-immunization-and-affects-the-magnitude-and-memory-subsets-of-vaccine-generated-mucosal-and-systemic-cd8-t-cells-in-a-diameter
#2
Bala Vamsi Krishna Karuturi, Shailendra B Tallapaka, Pravin Yeapuri, Stephen M Curran, Sam D Sanderson, Joseph A Vetro
The diameter of biodegradable particles used to co-encapsulate immunostimulants and subunit vaccines affects the magnitude of memory CD8(+) T cells generated by systemic immunization. Possible effects on the magnitude of CD8(+) T cells generated by mucosal immunization or memory subsets that potentially correlate more strongly with protection against certain pathogens, however, are unknown. In this study, we conjugated our novel host-derived mucosal immunostimulant, EP67, to the protective MCMV CTL epitope, pp89, through a lysosomal protease-labile double arginine linker (pp89-RR-EP67) and encapsulated in PLGA 50:50 micro- or nanoparticles...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318885/genetic-association-of-the-functional-cdhr3-genotype-with-early-onset-adult-asthma-in-japanese-populations
#3
Jun Kanazawa, Hironori Masuko, Yohei Yatagai, Tohru Sakamoto, Hideyasu Yamada, Yoshiko Kaneko, Haruna Kitazawa, Hiroaki Iijima, Takashi Naito, Takefumi Saito, Emiko Noguchi, Satoshi Konno, Masaharu Nishimura, Tomomitsu Hirota, Mayumi Tamari, Nobuyuki Hizawa
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that a coding SNP (rs6967330, Cys529→Tyr) in cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3), which was previously associated with wheezing illness and hospitalizations in infancy, could support efficient human rhinovirus C (RV-C) entry and replication. Here, we sought to examine the genetic contribution of this variant to the development of adult asthma. METHODS: We performed a candidate gene case-control association study of 2 independent Japanese populations (a total of 3366 adults)...
March 16, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318782/role-of-the-microbiome-in-swine-respiratory-disease
#4
REVIEW
Megan C Niederwerder
Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318776/-a-case-of-lung-infection-imported-from-the-united-states
#5
Julien Calvani, Séverine Feuillet, Peter Dorfmuller, Vincent Thomas de Montpréville, Sacha Mussot, Maria Rosa Ghigna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318536/chromobacterium-violaceum-infection-in-a-horse
#6
Márcia Elisa Hammerschmitt, Veronica Machado Rolim, Gustavo Geraldo Medina Snel, Franciele Maboni Siqueira, David Driemeier, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini
Chromobacterium violaceum is an opportunistic pathogen of mammals that produces characteristic violet pigment in bacterial culture. We report pneumonia and septicaemia caused by C. violaceum in a horse. Necropsy examination was performed on a 3-year-old Quarter Horse stallion with a history of recurrent episodes of pneumonia, fever, dyspnoea and sanguineous nasal discharge. The lungs were not collapsed, but they contained dark red foci mixed with white areas, and multiple nodules of firm consistency. Within the liver and kidney there were randomly distributed, multifocal, white pinpoint lesions (0...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318380/pup-mortality-and-evidence-for-pathogen-exposure-in-galapagos-sea-lions-zalophus-wollebaeki-on-san-cristobal-island-galapagos-ecuador
#7
Judith Denkinger, Nataly Guevara, Sofia Ayala, Juan Carlos Murillo, Maximilian Hirschfeld, Ignasi Montero-Serra, Katharina Fietz, Tracey Goldstein, Mark Ackermann, Veronica Barragán, Francisco Cabrera, Cristina Chavez, Edward J Dubovi, Jael Martinez, Gabriel Trueba
The Galapagos sea lion ( Zalophus wollebaeki ), an endangered species, experiences high pup mortality (up to 100%) in years when El Niño events reduce food supply in the Galapagos Islands. Mortality of pups in non-El Niño years is estimated to be 5% in undisturbed colonies. From 2009 to 2012 we observed high pup mortality (up to 66%) in colonies close to the Galapagos capital, Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, where contact with humans, domestic animals, and rats is frequent. Gross postmortem findings from 54 pups included hemorrhagic lesions in liver and congestion in lungs; histopathology suggested a possible association with infectious diseases...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317798/nontuberculous-mycobacterial-species-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-coinfection-in-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-dr-soetomo-hospital-surabaya-indonesia
#8
Ni Made Mertaniasih, Deby Kusumaningrum, Eko Budi Koendhori, Tutik Kusmiati, Desak Nyoman Surya Suameitria Dewi
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the detection of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) species derived from sputum specimens of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) suspects. Increasing prevalence and incidence of pulmonary infection by NTM species have widely been reported in several countries with geographical variation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2014 and September 2015, sputum specimens from chronic pulmonary TB suspect patients were analyzed...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317629/mycobacterium-kansasii-infection-in-a-patient-receiving-biologic-therapy-not-all-reactive-interferon-gamma-release-assays-are-tuberculosis
#9
Nasir Saleem, Raya Saba, Srikanth Maddika, Mitchell Weinstein
Mycobacterium kansasii, a nontuberculous mycobacterium, can lead to lung disease similar to tuberculosis. Immunotherapeutic biologic agents predispose to infections with mycobacteria, including M kansasii. T-cell-mediated interferon gamma release assays like QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test (QFT) are widely used by clinicians for the diagnosis of infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis; however, QFT may also show positive result with certain nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. We report a case of M kansasii pulmonary infection, with a positive QFT, in an immunocompromised patient receiving prednisone, leflunomide and tocilizumab, a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody...
April 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316965/surgical-outcomes-of-biologic-fixation-for-subtrochanteric-fracture-using-locking-compression-plates
#10
Jae Hoon Jang, Jae Min Ahn, Hee Jin Lee, Nam Hoon Moon
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the surgical outcomes of biologic plating using locking compression plate-distal femur (LCP-DF) in patients with subtrochanteric fracture of the femur. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2010 and December 2013, 28 consecutive patients with subtrochanteric fractures of the femur, treated with biologic fixation using LCP-DF, were enrolled. Preoperative values, including patient age, sex, body mass index, fracture type, type of lung injury, and surgical timing from injury to surgery, were retrospectively evaluated...
March 2017: Hip & Pelvis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315490/neutralization-of-both-il-1%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-plays-a-major-role-in-suppressing-combined-cigarette-smoke-virus-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-in-mice
#11
Hannes Bucher, Samuel Mang, Martina Keck, Michèl Przibilla, David Lamb, Felix Schiele, Mareike Wittenbrink, Klaus Fuchs, Birgit Jung, Klaus J Erb, Daniel Peter
Smoking is an important risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and viral infections are believed to be major triggers of exacerbations, which periodically lead to a worsening of symptoms. The pro-inflammatory IL-1 family members IL-1α and IL-1β are increased in COPD patients and might contribute to disease pathology. We investigated whether individual or combined inhibition of these cytokines reduced lung inflammation in cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed and H1N1-infected BALB/c mice...
March 15, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315387/functional-role-of-ompf-and-ompc-porins-in-pathogenesis-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#12
Hassan M A Hejair, Yingchu Zhu, Jiale Ma, Yue Zhang, Zihao Pan, Wei Zhang, Huochun Yao
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causes systemic infections in avian species and large economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. The functional role of porins during the infection and their mechanisms of interaction with host tissues for adhesion to and invasion are poorly understood. However, whether porins play a role in infection remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the potential of ompF and ompC outer membrane porins in the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain TW-XM...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315045/late-onset-chest-wall-abscess-due-to-a-biodegradable-rib-pin-infection-after-lung-transplantation
#13
Yasufumi Goda, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Masaaki Kusunose, Masatsugu Hamaji, Hideki Motoyama, Kyoko Hijiya, Akihiro Aoyama, Hiroshi Date
A 55-year-old man with end-stage emphysema underwent a right single-lung transplantation through a posterolateral thoracotomy. The fifth rib was divided and fused back using a biodegradable pin made of polylactide acid and hydroxyapatite. Two weeks postoperatively, he suffered from central vein catheter-related sepsis due to methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. After being successfully treated for sepsis, he was discharged. However, 3 months later, computed tomography revealed multiple loculated abscesses in the chest wall and the right pleural space...
March 17, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314957/lipoteichoic-acids-from-staphylococcus-aureus-stimulate-proliferation-of-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#14
Katja Hattar, Christian P Reinert, Ulf Sibelius, Mira Y Gökyildirim, Florentine S B Subtil, Jochen Wilhelm, Bastian Eul, Gabriele Dahlem, Friedrich Grimminger, Werner Seeger, Ulrich Grandel
Pulmonary infections are frequent complications in lung cancer and may worsen its outcome and survival. Inflammatory mediators are suspected to promote tumor growth in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Hence, bacterial pathogens may affect lung cancer growth by activation of inflammatory signalling. Against this background, we investigated the effect of purified lipoteichoic acids (LTA) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) on cellular proliferation and liberation of interleukin (IL)-8 in the NSCLC cell lines A549 and H226...
March 17, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314768/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-liberates-transmissible-cytotoxic-prion-amyloids
#15
Ron Balczon, K Adam Morrow, Chun Zhou, Bradley Edmonds, Mikhail Alexeyev, Jean-Francois Pittet, Brant M Wagener, Stephen A Moser, Silas Leavesley, Xiangming Zha, Dara W Frank, Troy Stevens
Patients who recover from pneumonia subsequently have elevated rates of death after hospital discharge as a result of secondary organ damage, the causes of which are unknown. We used the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia, as a model for investigating this phenomenon. We show that infection of pulmonary endothelial cells by P. aeruginosa induces production and release of a cytotoxic amyloid molecule with prion characteristics, including resistance to various nucleases and proteases...
March 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314688/nivolumab-treatment-for-oesophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-an-open-label-multicentre-phase-2-trial
#16
Toshihiro Kudo, Yasuo Hamamoto, Ken Kato, Takashi Ura, Takashi Kojima, Takahiro Tsushima, Shuichi Hironaka, Hiroki Hara, Taroh Satoh, Satoru Iwasa, Kei Muro, Hirofumi Yasui, Keiko Minashi, Kensei Yamaguchi, Atsushi Ohtsu, Yuichiro Doki, Yuko Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab is a human monoclonal IgG4 antibody that inhibits programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressed on activated T cells. We investigated the safety and activity of nivolumab in patients with treatment-refractory oesophageal cancer. METHODS: We did an open-label, single-arm, multicentre phase 2 study. Eligible patients had advanced squamous-cell carcinoma, adenosquamous-cell carcinoma, or adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus refractory or intolerant to fluoropyrimidine-based, platinum-based, and taxane-based chemotherapy...
March 14, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314668/extracellular-superoxide-dismutase-increased-the-therapeutic-potential-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-radiation-pulmonary-fibrosis
#17
Li Wei, Jing Zhang, Zai-Liang Yang, Hua You
BACKGROUND AIMS: Pulmonary fibrosis induced by irradiation is a significant problem of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is found to be predominantly and highly expressed in the extracellular matrix of lung and plays a pivotal role against oxidative damage. Early administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been demonstrated to reduce fibrosis of damaged lung. However, injection of MSCs at a later stage would be involved in fibrosis development...
March 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314479/new-insights-into-the-effects-and-mechanism-of-a-classic-traditional-chinese-medicinal-formula-on-influenza-prevention
#18
Huan Chen, Chong Jie, Lu-Ping Tang, He Meng, Xiao-Bo Li, Yan-Bing Li, Le-Xing Chen, Chang Yan, Hiroshi Kurihara, Yi-Fang Li, Rong-Rong He
BACKGROUND: KangBingDu (KBD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicinal formula widely used to treat influenza. However, little information is available from controlled studies regarding the anti-influenza pharmacological activities of KBD and its underlying mechanisms, at least partly due to the lack of appropriate study models. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that KBD might provide a protection against influenza infection by reducing the host's susceptibility to viruses...
April 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314381/dysregulation-of-alveolar-macrophage-ppar%C3%AE-nadph-oxidases-and-tgf%C3%AE-sub-1-sub-in-otherwise-healthy-hiv-infected-individuals
#19
Samantha M Yeligar, Janine M Ward, Frank L Harris, Lou Ann Brown, David Guidot, Sushma K Cribbs
<u>Rationale:</u> Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), respiratory infections increase mortality in individuals living with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In experimental and clinical studies of chronic HIV infection, alveolar macrophages (AMs) exhibit impaired phagocytosis and bacterial clearance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, NADPH oxidase (Nox) isoforms Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ<sub>1</sub>) are critical mediators of AM oxidative stress and phagocytic dysfunction...
March 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314071/epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcome-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-heart-and-heart-lung-transplant-recipients
#20
Jackrapong Bruminhent, Kelly A Cawcutt, Charat Thongprayoon, Tanya M Petterson, Walter K Kremers, Raymund R Razonable
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a major cause of diarrhea in thoracic organ transplant recipients. We investigated the epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in heart and heart-lung transplant (HT) recipients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study from 2004-2013. CDI was defined by diarrhea and a positive toxigenic Clostridium difficile in stool measured by toxin enzyme immunoassay (2004-2006) or polymerase chain reaction (2007-2013)...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
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