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Lung infection

Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jihyun An, Jong Woo Kim, Ju Hyun Shim, Seungbong Han, Chang Sik Yu, Jaewon Choe, Danbi Lee, Kang Mo Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Young-Hwa Chung, Yung Sang Lee, Dong Jin Suh, Jin Hyoung Kim, Han Chu Lee
BACKGROUND: Prior epidemiological evidences suggest that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is linked to cancers other than hepatocellular carcinoma. This prospective hospital registry-based case-control study aimed to investigate the sero-epidemiological association between chronic HBV infection and various types of cancer. METHODS: 95,034 patients with first-diagnosed non-hepatocellular malignancy in a tertiary hospital between 2007 and 2014; and 118,891 non-cancer individuals as controls from a health promotion center were included...
2018: PloS One
Ahmed A Aljohaney
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mortality rates and predictors among patients hospitalized with active tuberculosis (TB) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 291 active TB patients hospitalized in KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from December 2011 to December 2016. Medical records were collected and evaluated using a dedicated data extraction sheet. The records included demographics, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and drug resistance data...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Jeffrey Earl Gotts, Lauren F Chun, Jason Abbott, Xiaohui Fang, Naoki Takasaki, Stephen L Nishimura, Matthew L Springer, Suzaynn F Schick, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
Evidence is accumulating that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) increases the risk of developing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). S. pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, which in turn is the leading cause of ARDS. Chronic smokers have increased rates of pneumococcal colonization and develop more severe pneumococcal pneumonia than nonsmokers, yet mechanistic connections between CS exposure, bacterial pneumonia, and ARDS pathogenesis remain relatively unexplored. We exposed mice to 3 weeks of moderate whole-body CS or air, followed by intranasal inoculation with an invasive serotype of S...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Nazmi Narin, Ozge Pamukcu, Aydin Tuncay, Ali Baykan, Suleyman Sunkak, Onur Tasci, Kazim Uzum, Levent Saltık
Untreated ventricular septal defect (VSD) is an important cause of congestive heart failure in early infancy. Growth is impaired in this population, and surgical closure is challenging because of congestion in the lungs, making infants prone to respiratory infection, and because of their poor nutritional status. The aim of this study is to share our experience with percutaneous VSD closure in patients under 1 year of age. Patients with hemodynamically significant left-to-right shunt, less than 1 year of age, and with VSD diameter ≤ 6 mm were retrospectively included in the study between December 2014 and January 2017...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Valerie F L Yong, Min Min Soh, Tavleen Kaur Jaggi, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Sanjay H Chotirmall
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for both acute and chronic infection. Known as a colonising pathogen of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, it is implicated in other settings such as bronchiectasis. It has the ability to cause acute disseminated or localised infection particularly in the immunocompromised. Human hormones have been highlighted as potential regulators of bacterial virulence through crosstalk between analogous "quorum sensing" (QS) systems present in the bacteria that respond to mammalian hormones...
March 14, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Chia-Yen Dai, Yi-Shan Tsai, Wen-Wen Chou, Tawei Liu, Chung-Feng Huang, Shu-Chi Wang, Pei-Chien Tsai, Ming-Lun Yeh, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Ching-I Huang, Shang-Yin Vanson Liu, Jee-Fu Huang, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu
Background/Aims: MicroRNA-125b (miR-125b) has been found to regulate inflammation and acts as an oncogene in many cancers. The mechanisms of miR-125b expression during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain to be clarified. The present study aims to identify the factors that might regulate miR-125b expression in HCV infection. Results: High expression of miR-125b was found to correlate with HCV infection in replicon cells and in sera from HCV-infected patients, whereas the miR-125b inhibitor reduced HCV gene expression...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Haili Luo, Shaohong Wang, Tongmei Yuan, Jingtao Liu, Ling Yao, Xianguo Pan, Xuemei Long, Juncheng Wu, Feng Shen
BACKGROUND: More and more cases of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 have been reported since it was first mentioned in 2013 in China, but concurrence of influenza A H7N9 with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, however, has never been described. Here, we reported the case of a woman co-infected by influenza A H7N9 and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, whose treatment process was a little bit longer and a little bit complicated as well. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was an 80-year-old Chinese woman who presented with fever, cough, chest tightness, and shortness of breath...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Jie Tong, Ying Yu, Linlin Zheng, Chong Zhang, Yabin Tu, Yonggang Liu, Jianan Wu, Hai Li, Shujie Wang, Chenggang Jiang, En-Min Zhou, Gang Wang, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has been responsible for several viral attacks in the Asian porcine industry, since the first outbreak in China in 2006. During the early stages of the HP-PRRSV infection, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines are noted in the host peripheral blood, which are accompanied by severe lesions in the lungs and immune system organs; these are considered as the greatest contributors to the overall disease burden...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Lara Danziger-Isakov, William J Steinbach, Grant Paulsen, Flor M Munoz, Leigh R Sweet, Michael Green, Marian G Michaels, Janet A Englund, Alastair Murray, Natasha Halasa, Daniel E Dulek, Rebecca Pellett Madan, Betsy C Herold, Brian T Fisher
Background: Respiratory virus infection (RVI) in pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients poses a significant risk; however, the epidemiology and effects of an RVI after pediatric SOT in the era of current molecular diagnostic assays are unclear. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort of pediatric SOT recipients (January 2010 to June 2013) was assembled from 9 US pediatric transplant centers. Charts were reviewed for RVI events associated with hospitalization within 1 year after the transplant...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Danila de Souza Carraro, Rafael Medeiros Carraro, Silvia Vidal Campos, Leandro Ryuchi Iuamoto, Karina Andrighetti de Oliveira Braga, Lea Campos de Oliveira, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Flavia Rossi, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of Burkholderia cepacia complex colonization in cystic fibrosis patients undergoing lung transplantation. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed clinical data and respiratory tract samples (sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage) collected from suppurative lung disease patients between January 2008 and November 2013. We also subtyped different Burkholderia cepacia complex genotypes via DNA sequencing using primers against the recA gene in samples collected between January 2012 and November 2013...
March 12, 2018: Clinics
Alberto J Leon, Viktoriya Borisevich, Nahal Boroumand, Robert Seymour, Rebecca Nusbaum, Olivier Escaffre, Luoling Xu, David J Kelvin, Barry Rockx
Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans that can be fatal. To characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection in vivo, we performed experimental infections in ferrets followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis of lung and brain tissues. The Hendra, Nipah-Bangladesh, and Nipah-Malaysia strains caused severe respiratory and neurological disease with animals succumbing around 7 days post infection. Despite the presence of abundant viral shedding, animal-to-animal transmission did not occur...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sean A McGhee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although biologic therapies can provide outstanding efficacy in the management of lung disease, especially asthma, most of these agents have been approved only for adults. Recent findings provide new strategies for using these agents in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive evidence has consistently demonstrated the efficacy and safety of biologic therapy for asthma. In addition, some studies have documented potentially important secondary effects, such as improving response to respiratory virus infection in asthmatic patients...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Megan A Schilling, Robab Katani, Sahar Memari, Meredith Cavanaugh, Joram Buza, Jessica Radzio-Basu, Fulgence N Mpenda, Melissa S Deist, Susan J Lamont, Vivek Kapur
Traditional approaches to assess the immune response of chickens to infection are through animal trials, which are expensive, require enhanced biosecurity, compromise welfare, and are frequently influenced by confounding variables. Since the chicken embryo becomes immunocompetent prior to hatch, we here characterized the transcriptional response of selected innate immune genes to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chicken embryos at days 10, 14, and 18 of embryonic development. The results suggest that the innate immune response 72 h after challenge of 18-day chicken embryo is both consistent and robust...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Wenting He, Shengfeng Hu, Xialin Du, Qian Wen, Xiao-Ping Zhong, Xinying Zhou, Chaoying Zhou, Wenjing Xiong, Yuchi Gao, Shimeng Zhang, Ruining Wang, Jiahui Yang, Li Ma
The mechanisms by which vitamins regulate immunity and their effect as an adjuvant treatment for tuberculosis have gradually become very important research topics. Studies have found that vitamin B5 (VB5) can promote epithelial cells to express inflammatory cytokines. We aimed to examine the proinflammatory and antibacterial effect of VB5 in macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain H37Rv and the therapeutic potential of VB5 in vivo with tuberculosis. We investigated the activation of inflammatory signal molecules (NF-κB, AKT, JNK, ERK, and p38), the expression of two primary inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6) and the bacterial burdens in H37Rv-infected macrophages stimulated with VB5 to explore the effect of VB5 on the inflammatory and antibacterial responses of macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xuejiao Li, Zhongxiu Jiang, Xiangmin Li, Xiaoye Zhang
Osteopontin (OPN) is a promoter for tumor progression. It has been reported to promote non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression via the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. As the increased acetylation of NF-κB p65 is linked to NF-κB activation, the regulation of NF-κB p65 acetylation could be a potential treatment target for OPN-induced NSCLC progression. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a deacetylase, and the role of SIRT1 in tumor progression is still controversial. The effect and mechanism of SIRT1 on OPN-induced tumor progression remains unknown...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Theerasuk Kawamatawong, Jitsupa Onnipa, Thitiporn Suwatanapongched
Background: The prevalence rate of bronchiectasis in COPD is variable. Coexisting bronchiectasis and COPD may influence COPD severity and exacerbation. Objective: We investigated whether bronchiectasis is associated with frequent or severe COPD exacerbation. Lower airway bacterial and mycobacterial infections are a possible mechanism for bronchiectasis. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013-2014. COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations were reviewed...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Hyeok-Il Kwon, Eun-Ha Kim, Young-Il Kim, Su-Jin Park, Young-Jae Si, In-Won Lee, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Kwang Min Yu, Min-Ah Yu, Ju Hwan Jung, Won-Suk Choi, Jin Jung Kwon, Su Jeong Ahn, Yun Hee Baek, Dam Van Lai, Ok-Jun Lee, Si-Wook Kim, Min-Suk Song, Sun-Woo Yoon, Chul-Joong Kim, Richard J Webby, In-Pil Mo, Young Ki Choi
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N6) and A(H5N8) virus infections resulted in the culling of more than 37 million poultry in the Republic of Korea during the 2016/17 winter season. Here we characterize two representative viruses, A/Environment/Korea/W541/2016 [Em/W541(H5N6)] and A/Common Teal/Korea/W555/2017 [CT/W555(H5N8)], and evaluate their zoonotic potential in various animal models. Both Em/W541(H5N6) and CT /W555(H5N8) are novel reassortants derived from various gene pools of wild bird viruses present in migratory waterfowl arising from eastern China...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Mira C Patel, Kari Ann Shirey, Marina S Boukhvalova, Stefanie N Vogel, Jorge C G Blanco
Host-derived "danger-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) contribute to innate immune responses and serve as markers of disease progression and severity for inflammatory and infectious diseases. There is accumulating evidence that generation of DAMPs such as oxidized phospholipids and high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) during influenza virus infection leads to acute lung injury (ALI). Treatment of influenza virus-infected mice and cotton rats with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist Eritoran blocked DAMP accumulation and ameliorated influenza virus-induced ALI...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Megumi Yazaki, Takehiko Oami, Kazuya Nakanishi, Ryota Hase, Hiroyuki Watanabe
Although vancomycin administration is recommended for the treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), it is unclear whether an alternative agent, daptomycin, can be used to treat IE with pulmonary complications. A 26-year-old female who had undergone surgical repair of a ventricular septal defect as an early teenager presented with fever, headache, and vomiting. She was admitted to our hospital and diagnosed with right-sided IE with septic pulmonary embolism caused by MRSA...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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