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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777923/diagnosis-and-management-of-pulmonary-infection-due-to-rhodococcus-equi
#1
REVIEW
Weijie V Lin, Robert L Kruse, Katharine Yang, Daniel M Musher
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus equi is a recognized cause of disease in humans, especially in patients who are immunocompromised. Because diphtheroids are regarded as part of normal respiratory flora, the importance of R. equi as a pulmonary pathogen may not be fully appreciated and its prevalence underestimated. Most treatment recommendations for R. equi infection were established before antiretroviral drugs became available for HIV/AIDS therapy, and therapeutic strategies may need to be updated...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777836/phage-therapy-against-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-lung-infection-in-a-patient-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-case-report
#2
N Hoyle, P Zhvaniya, N Balarjishvili, D Bolkvadze, L Nadareishvili, D Nizharadze, J Wittmann, C Rohde, M Kutateladze
Respiratory infections can lead to serious complications in CF patients, especially when infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria. Alternative treatments for these infections are being sought out to help address this problem. We present a clinical case of a cystic fibrosis (CF) patient, with multi-drug resistant (MDR) Achromobacter xylosoxidans chronic lung infection who was successfully managed with bacteriophage therapy.
May 16, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777306/respiratory-manifestations-in-lps-responsive-beige-like-anchor-lrba-protein-deficient-patients
#3
Oded Shamriz, Bella Shadur, Adeeb NaserEddin, Irina Zaidman, Natalia Simanovsky, Orly Elpeleg, Eitan Kerem, Joel Reiter, Polina Stepensky
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) protein deficiency is a rare syndrome of primary immune deficiency and immune dysregulation. In this study, we sought to summarize our experience with respiratory manifestations in LRBA-deficient patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of LRBA-deficient patients treated at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. Data retrieved included pulmonary workup, disease course, treatment, and outcome. Ten patients were included...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776611/nasal-delivery-of-chitosan-alginate-nanoparticle-encapsulated-bee-apis-mellifera-venom-promotes-antibody-production-and-viral-clearance-during-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-by-modulating-t-cell-related-responses
#4
Jina Lee, Yun-Mi Kim, Ju-Heon Kim, Cheong-Weon Cho, Jong-Woon Jeon, Jin-Kyu Park, Sang-Ho Lee, Bock-Gie Jung, Bong-Joo Lee
In this study, we administered specially developed chitosan/alginate nanoparticle encapsulated BV (CH/AL-BV) which has slow-releasing properties and mucosal adhesiveness to pig via nasal route and evaluate whether it can facilitate systemic immune response and improve clearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The CH/AL-BV-administered group with PRRSV vaccination showed significantly enhanced Th1-related responses including a high population of CD4+ T lymphocyte and cytokine mRNA levels including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-12 and increased PRRSV-specific IgG levels...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775486/peroxidasin-contributes-to-lung-host-defense-by-direct-binding-and-killing-of-gram-negative-bacteria
#5
Ruizheng Shi, Zehong Cao, Hong Li, Jochen Graw, Guogang Zhang, Victor J Thannickal, Guangjie Cheng
Innate immune recognition is classically mediated by the interaction of host pattern-recognition receptors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns; this triggers a series of downstream signaling events that facilitate killing and elimination of invading pathogens. In this report, we provide the first evidence that PXDN (also known as vascular peroxidase-1) directly binds to gram-negative bacteria and mediates bactericidal activity, thus, contributing to lung host defense. PXDN contains five leucine-rich repeats and four immunoglobulin domains, which allows for its interaction with lipopolysaccharide, a membrane component of gram-negative bacteria...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775484/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-type-iv-minor-pilins-and-pily1-regulate-virulence-by-modulating-fims-algr-activity
#6
Victoria A Marko, Sara L N Kilmury, Lesley T MacNeil, Lori L Burrows
Type IV pili are expressed by a wide range of prokaryotes, including the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These flexible fibres mediate twitching motility, biofilm maturation, surface adhesion, and virulence. The pilus is composed mainly of major pilin subunits while the low abundance minor pilins FimU-PilVWXE and the putative adhesin PilY1 prime pilus assembly and are proposed to form the pilus tip. The minor pilins and PilY1 are encoded in an operon that is positively regulated by the FimS-AlgR two-component system...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775480/titan-cells-formation-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-is-finely-tuned-by-environmental-conditions-and-modulated-by-positive-and-negative-genetic-regulators
#7
Benjamin Hommel, Liliane Mukaremera, Radames J B Cordero, Carolina Coelho, Christopher A Desjardins, Aude Sturny-Leclère, Guilhem Janbon, John R Perfect, James A Fraser, Arturo Casadevall, Christina A Cuomo, Françoise Dromer, Kirsten Nielsen, Alexandre Alanio
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans exhibits morphological changes in cell size during lung infection, producing both typical size 5 to 7 μm cells and large titan cells (> 10 μm and up to 100 μm). We found and optimized in vitro conditions that produce titan cells in order to identify the ancestry of titan cells, the environmental determinants, and the key gene regulators of titan cell formation. Titan cells generated in vitro harbor the main characteristics of titan cells produced in vivo including their large cell size (>10 μm), polyploidy with a single nucleus, large vacuole, dense capsule, and thick cell wall...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774857/influenza-d-virus-infection-in-feral-swine-populations-united-states
#8
Lucas Ferguson, Kaijian Luo, Alicia K Olivier, Fred L Cunningham, Sherry Blackmon, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Hailiang Sun, John Baroch, Mark W Lutman, Bianca Quade, William Epperson, Richard Webby, Thomas J DeLiberto, Xiu-Feng Wan
Influenza D virus (IDV) has been identified in domestic cattle, swine, camelid, and small ruminant populations across North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Our study investigated seroprevalence and transmissibility of IDV in feral swine. During 2012-2013, we evaluated feral swine populations in 4 US states; of 256 swine tested, 57 (19.1%) were IDV seropositive. Among 96 archived influenza A virus-seropositive feral swine samples collected from 16 US states during 2010-2013, 41 (42.7%) were IDV seropositive...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774297/parasitic-and-zoonotic-meningoencephalitis-in-humans-and-equids-current-knowledge-and-the-role-of-halicephalobus-gingivalis
#9
REVIEW
ThankGod E Onyiche, Theresa O Okute, Oluwasina S Oseni, Dennis O Okoro, Abdullahi A Biu, Albert W Mbaya
Halicephalobus gingivalis is a saprophytic nematode parasite that causes a rare form of fatal meningoencephalomyelitis in equids, humans, and ruminants. This nematode has neurotropic activity, but has also been found in the kidney, liver, lungs, optic nerves and even heart of its host. Despite the zoonotic potential and severity of the disease, the epidemiology, pathogenesis, life cycle, and risk factors are poorly understood. Cases have been reported from several countries in Europe countries and North America but none is recorded in Africa except Egypt...
February 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774023/ferritin-h-deficiency-in-myeloid-compartments-dysregulates-host-energy-metabolism-and-increases-susceptibility-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#10
Vineel P Reddy, Krishna C Chinta, Vikram Saini, Joel N Glasgow, Travis D Hull, Amie Traylor, Fernanda Rey-Stolle, Miguel P Soares, Rajhmun Madansein, Md Aejazur Rahman, Coral Barbas, Kievershen Nargan, Threnesan Naidoo, Pratistadevi K Ramdial, James F George, Anupam Agarwal, Adrie J C Steyn
Iron is an essential factor for the growth and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb) . However, little is known about the mechanisms by which the host controls iron availability during infection. Since ferritin heavy chain (FtH) is a major intracellular source of reserve iron in the host, we hypothesized that the lack of FtH would cause dysregulated iron homeostasis to exacerbate TB disease. Therefore, we used knockout mice lacking FtH in myeloid-derived cell populations to study Mtb disease progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773606/optimising-experimental-research-in-respiratory-diseases-an-ers-statement
#11
Philippe Bonniaud, Aurélie Fabre, Nelly Frossard, Christophe Guignabert, Mark Inman, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Tania Maes, Wei Shi, Martin Stampfli, Stefan Uhlig, Eric White, Martin Witzenrath, Pierre-Simon Bellaye, Bruno Crestani, Oliver Eickelberg, Heinz Fehrenbach, Andreas Guenther, Gisli Jenkins, Guy Joos, Antoine Magnan, Bernard Maitre, Ulrich A Maus, Petra Reinhold, Juanita H J Vernooy, Luca Richeldi, Martin Kolb
Experimental models are critical for the understanding of lung health and disease and are indispensable for drug development. However, the pathogenetic and clinical relevance of the models is often unclear. Further, the use of animals in biomedical research is controversial from an ethical perspective.The objective of this task force was to issue a statement with research recommendations about lung disease models by facilitating in-depth discussions between respiratory scientists, and to provide an overview of the literature on the available models...
May 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773465/pulmonary-manifestations-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-pleural-involvement-acute-pneumonitis-chronic-interstitial-lung-disease-and-diffuse-alveolar-hemorrhage
#12
Georgina Aguilera-Pickens, Carlos Abud-Mendoza
Systemic lupus erythematosus is the diffuse autoimmune connective tissue disease that most frequently involves pulmonary involvement, affecting 20% of 90% of the patients. The percentage varies depending on the defining criteria (symptoms, pulmonary tests or histopathological studies). At least once during the disease course, 50% of those affected have pleural and/or pulmonary manifestations, which are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary involvement has no correlation with lupus activity biomarkers, and it is necessary to rule out infectious processes in the initial approach...
May 14, 2018: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773323/primary-laryngeal-tuberculosis-our-experiences-at-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-eastern-india
#13
Santosh Kumar Swain, Ishwar Chandra Behera, Mahesh Chandra Sahu
INTRODUCTION: Primary laryngeal tuberculosis is a chronic bacterial infection of the larynx by Mycobacterium tuberculosis without affecting the lungs. It is a rare type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis seen in clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of primary laryngeal tuberculosis at a tertiary care teaching hospital in eastern India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 11 cases of primary laryngeal tuberculosis managed between December 2013 and January 2018...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773296/nontuberculous-mycobacterial-and-aspergillus-infections-among-cadaveric-lung-transplant-recipients-in-japan
#14
Kazunobu Tachibana, Yoshinori Okada, Yasushi Matsuda, Kentaroh Miyoshi, Takahiro Oto, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Date, Masato Minami, Meinoshin Okumura, Akinori Iwasaki, Takeshi Shiraishi, Sumiko Maeda, Yuji Matsumura, Takahiro Nakajima, Ichiro Yoshino, Seiji Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is an effective treatment modality for respiratory failure. Chronic lung infections, including infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and Aspergillus, are difficult to control, and uncontrolled infections are relative contraindications for lung transplantation. However, few reports have documented the incidence and outcome of these infections in lung transplant recipients. METHODS: To quantify the incidence and outcomes of colonization and disease caused by NTM and aspergillosis in recipients before and after lung transplantation, we reviewed the medical records and microbiology data from 240 consecutive cadaveric lung transplant recipients between 2000 and 2014...
May 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773288/first-multicenter-study-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-and-or-aspergillus-infections-in-lung-transplant-recipients-in-japan
#15
EDITORIAL
Jiro Fujita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773197/efficient-zinc-uptake-is-critical-for-the-ability-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-to-express-virulence-traits-and-colonize-the-human-lung
#16
Maria Chiara Mastropasqua, Iain Lamont, Lois W Martin, David W Reid, Melania D'Orazio, Andrea Battistoni
We have recently shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen that chronically infects the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and other forms of lung disease, is extremely efficient in recruiting zinc from the environment and that this capability is required for its ability to cause acute lung infections in mice. To verify that P. aeruginosa faces zinc shortage when colonizing the lungs of human patients, we analyzed the expression of three genes that are highly induced under conditions of zinc deficiency (zrmA, dksA2 and rpmE2), in bacteria in the sputum of patients with inflammatory lung disease...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773137/microsatellite-pattern-analysis-of-neospora-caninum-from-a-naturally-infected-goat-fetus
#17
Lucía María Campero, María Laura Gos, Dadin Prando Moore, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Juan Manuel Unzaga, Gastón Moré, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, María Cecilia Venturini
Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan responsible for abortion in ruminants. The present study aimed to diagnose an abortion from an Anglo Nubian goat from a dairy herd located in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The goat delivered a fetus of approximately 3 months gestation that was studied by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), Immunoblot (IB), histopathology (HP), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular assays (PCR, sequencing and microsatellite genotyping). Interferon gamma knock-out mice were inoculated with a pool of tissues for isolation attempts...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772585/thoracoplasty-current-view-on-indication-and-technique
#18
Oleg Kuhtin, Marina Veith, Mohammed Alghanem, Ivan Martel, Dmitrii Giller, Viktor Haas, Ludwig Lampl
Thoracoplasty was invented for removing cavities between thoracic wall and remnant lung or mediastinum. It was initially used in cases of tuberculosis or unspecific infections, while currently it is used mainly for space problems after lobectomy/pneumonectomy.This article presents an overview of the historical and current techniques of this surgical procedure.Nowadays, thoracoplasty is rarely performed due to the low incidence of diseases for which this method is necessary. Therefore, this method has even been discredited...
May 17, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772263/comparative-analysis-of-microrna-expression-in-dog-lungs-infected-with-the-h3n2-and-h5n1-canine-influenza-viruses
#19
Yun Zheng, Xinliang Fu, Lifang Wang, Wenyan Zhang, Pei Zhou, Xin Zhang, Weijie Zeng, Jidang Chen, Zongxi Cao, Kun Jia, Shoujun Li
MicroRNAs, a class of noncoding RNAs 18 to 23 nucleotides (nt) in length, play critical roles in a wide variety of biological processes. The objective of this study was to examine differences in microRNA expression profiles derived from the lungs of beagle dogs infected with the avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) or the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus (canine-origin isolation strain). After dogs were infected with H3N2 or H5N1, microRNA expression in the lungs was assessed using a deep-sequencing approach...
May 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772011/induction-of-influenza-specific-local-cd8-t-cells-in-the-respiratory-tract-after-aerosol-delivery-of-vaccine-antigen-or-virus-in-the-babraham-inbred-pig
#20
Katie Tungatt, Garry Dolton, Sophie B Morgan, Meriem Attaf, Anna Fuller, Thomas Whalley, Johanneke D Hemmink, Emily Porter, Barbara Szomolay, Maria Montoya, John A Hammond, John J Miles, David K Cole, Alain Townsend, Mick Bailey, Pierre J Rizkallah, Bryan Charleston, Elma Tchilian, Andrew K Sewell
There is increasing evidence that induction of local immune responses is a key component of effective vaccines. For respiratory pathogens, for example tuberculosis and influenza, aerosol delivery is being actively explored as a method to administer vaccine antigens. Current animal models used to study respiratory pathogens suffer from anatomical disparity with humans. The pig is a natural and important host of influenza viruses and is physiologically more comparable to humans than other animal models in terms of size, respiratory tract biology and volume...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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