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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239908/pathogenicity-of-conidiobolus-coronatus-and-fusarium-solani-in-mouse-models
#1
Yadi Li, Xiangang Fang, Xiaoqian Zhou, Suying Geng, Yuxin Wang, Xiumin Yang
To study the pathogenicity of Conidiobolus coronatus (C. coronatus) and Fusarium solani (F. solani) in animal models. Immunocompromised mice were treated with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone via intraperitoneal injection before and after inoculation. According to pathogenic characteristics of different fungi, C. coronatus was used to infect mice via intravenous inoculation, intraperitoneal inoculation, gastrointestinal infusion and intradermal inoculation methods. And F. solani was used to infect mice by inoculation via the abraded or normal skin...
February 27, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239394/standardization-and-validation-of-dot-elisa-assay-for-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-antibody-detection
#2
Camila Mika Kamikawa, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes, Adriana Pardini Vicentini
BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a neglected systemic mycosis caused by a dimorphic fungus of the Paracoccidioides genus. The standard diagnosis is based on isolation of the fungi in culture, and by microscopic visualization of characteristic multiple budding yeast cells in biological samples. However, in some situations, access to the site of injury prevents the collection of biological material. A variety of immuno-serological techniques has proven useful for allowing inferring diagnosis with a certain degree of certainty, thus optimizing time...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239050/necrotizing-suppurative-nephritis-in-a-japanese-black-feedlot-steer-due-to-proteus-mirabilis-infection
#3
Tadatsugu Abe, Ayako Iizuka, Hirokazu Kojima, Kumiko Kimura, Tomoyuki Shibahara, Makoto Haritani
A Japanese black feedlot steer suddenly died after exhibiting astasia and cramping of the extremities. Necropsy of the animal revealed that the right kidney was enlarged and pale with severe nephrolithiasis. The urinary bladder displayed mucosal hemorrhage. Upon bacteriological investigation, Proteus mirabilis was isolated from the liver, spleen, right kidney, lungs and urine. Histopathological examination revealednecrotizing suppurative nephritis with the presence of numerous gram-negative bacilli and fibrinous suppurative cystitis with no bacilli...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238385/distributive-shock-in-the-emergency-department-sepsis-anaphylaxis-or-capillary-leak-syndrome
#4
Cansu Alyeşil, Nurettin Özgür Doğan, İbrahim Ulaş Özturan, Seda Güney
BACKGROUND: Distributive shock is a hyperdynamic process resulting from excessive vasodilatation. Impaired blood flow causes inadequate tissue perfusion, which can lead to end-organ damage. Although the most common etiology is septic shock, anaphylactic and other etiologies should be considered. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 30-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms and hypotension after a viral upper respiratory infection...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238305/polyomavirus-infection-in-gouldian-finches-erythrura-gouldiae-and-other-pet-birds-of-the-family-estrildidae
#5
E Circella, A Caroli, M Marino, M Legretto, N Pugliese, G Bozzo, G Cocciolo, D Dibari, A Camarda
A syndrome characterized by apathy, diarrhoea and high mortality of nestlings was observed in a flock of pet birds of the family Estrildidae. Enlargement of the liver, pulmonary congestion and urate accretions in the kidney were observed. Microscopically, there was glomerular atrophy, oedema and congestion of the lungs and necrosis and fibrosis of the liver. Cowdry type B intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected in the tissues. Polyomavirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction. The entire genome of the virus was amplified and sequenced, revealing 99 % identity to the sequence of finch polyomavirus isolated from the Eurasian bullfinch (family Fringillidae)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238229/suspecting-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-what-the-busy-primary-care-clinician-needs-to-know
#6
REVIEW
Diego J Maselli, Bravein Amalakuhan, Holly Keyt, Alejandro A Diaz
AIMS: Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is a chronic, progressive respiratory disorder characterised by irreversibly and abnormally dilated airways, persistent cough, excessive sputum production and recurrent pulmonary infections. In the last several decades, its prevalence has increased, making it likely to be encountered in the primary care setting. The aim was to review the clinical presentation and diagnosis of NCFB, with an emphasis on the role of computed tomography (CT)...
February 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237876/passive-transfer-of-interferon-%C3%AE-over-expressing-macrophages-enhances-resistance-of-scid-mice-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#7
Rajamouli Pasula, William J Martin, Banu Rekha Kesavalu, Maher Y Abdalla, Bradley E Britigan
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is associated with increased deaths worldwide. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a critical role in host defense against infection with this pathogen. In this work we tested the hypothesis that passive transfer of normal AMs, IFN-γ activated AMs, or macrophages transduced to over-express IFN-γ into the lungs of immunosuppressed SCID mice, where resident macrophages are present but not functional, would enhance alveolar immunity and increase clearance of pulmonary M...
February 23, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237664/il-10-deficient-mice-express-ifn-%C3%AE-mrna-and-clear-leptospira-interrogans-from-their-kidneys-more-rapidly-than-normal-c57bl-6-mice
#8
Amy A Devlin, Priya J Halvorsen, Jennifer C Miller, Scott M Laster
Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans), the causative agent of leptospirosis, is a widespread zoonotic spirochete that lives a dual lifestyle. L. interrogans infects mice, rats, and wildlife in a persistent and asymptomatic fashion, while also causing productive and acute infections in other mammals such as humans and hamsters. Infections in humans can be fatal, accompanied by a cytokine storm and shock-like symptoms. Production of IL-10 has been noted in both rodent and human infections which has led a number of investigators to hypothesize that IL-10 plays a role in the pathogenesis of this disease...
February 10, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237038/local-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-the-lung-tissue-of-tb-infected-mice-diminishes-the-level-of-pathology
#9
Galena Shepelkova, Vladimir Evstifeev, Tatiana Kondratieva, Irina Bocharova, Mikhail Averbakh, Alexander Apt
Mice of the genetically TB-susceptible strain I/St were infected with ∼100 CFU of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv, and after week 3 post-infection treated by inhalations of the NBD peptide selectively blocking NF-κB activation pathway. This therapy resulted in a pronounced attenuation of lung pathology and down-regulation of the expression of several genes encoding major inflammatory molecules, but did not diminish the level of mycobacterial multiplication in the lungs.
March 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236807/pediatric-tuberculosis-human-immunodeficiency-virus-co-infection-in-the-united-kingdom-highlights-the-need-for-better-therapy-monitoring-tools-a-case-report
#10
Dimitrios Evangelopoulos, Elizabeth Whittaker, Isobella Honeyborne, Timothy D McHugh, Nigel Klein, Delane Shingadia
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is an infection that requires at least 6 months of chemotherapy in order to clear the bacteria from the patient's lungs. Usually, therapeutic monitoring is dependent on smear microscopy where a decline in acid-fast bacilli is observed. However, this might not be indicative of the actual decline of bacterial load and thus other tools such as culture and molecular assays are required for patient management. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report the case of a 12-year-old Black African boy co-infected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus who remained smear culture positive and liquid culture negative for a prolonged period of time following chemotherapy...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236369/patients-hospitalized-with-an-infective-exacerbation-of-bronchiectasis-unrelated-to-cystic-fibrosis-clinical-physiological-and-sputum-characteristics
#11
Victoria Venning, James Bartlett, Lata Jayaram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchiectasis is a growing health burden both globally and in Australasia. Associated with repeated respiratory infections, the disease often results in hospital admission, impaired quality of life, reduced lung function and shortened life expectancy. We describe the local clinical, physiological and sputum characteristics in patients hospitalized with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis. METHODS: This study examined the medical records of all 61 adults admitted to a metropolitan Australian hospital with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis in a calendar year...
February 24, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236029/how-is-post-mortem-microbiology-appraised-by-pathologists-results-from-a-practice-survey-conducted-by-esgfor
#12
V Saegeman, M C Cohen, J Alberola, N Ziyade, C Farina, G Cornaglia, A Fernández-Rodríguez
Post-mortem microbiology (PMM) is an important tool in forensic pathology, assisting to determine the cause and manner of death. However, there is a lack of standardisation of PMM sampling. In order to get a better insight into the methods used, the available technical options and developmental needs, ESCMID Study Group for Forensic and Postmortem Microbiology (ESGFOR) members designed a survey aimed at pathologists regarding common practices of PMM in clinical and forensic autopsies. Multiple choice questions were developed based on Cumulative Techniques and Procedures in Clinical Microbiology (Cumitech)...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235485/modulation-of-autophagy-in-exjsrv-env-transfected-cells-through-the-akt-mtor-and-mapk-signaling-pathway
#13
Xiaolin Sun, Fangyuan Du, Shuying Liu
The envelope (Env) of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is an oncoprotein of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). Autophagy is involved in different cancers, but how it is carcinogenic in JSRV Env is unclear. Modulation of autophagy in exJSRV-env-NM-transfected cells through the Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathway was studied, and we observed strong positive labeling of p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-MEK1/2, p-ERK1/2, p-p38 and p-JNK in tumor cells and typical type II pneumocytes in naturally infected OPA lung tissues, which was co-aligned with JSRV-Env positive cells as shown by immunohistochemical and microscopic analysis...
February 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235408/the-chinese-prescription-lianhuaqingwen-capsule-exerts-anti-influenza-activity-through-the-inhibition-of-viral-propagation-and-impacts-immune-function
#14
Yuewen Ding, Lijuan Zeng, Runfeng Li, Qiaoyan Chen, Beixian Zhou, Qiaolian Chen, Pui Leng Cheng, Wang Yutao, Jingping Zheng, Zifeng Yang, Fengxue Zhang
BACKGROUND: Lianhuaqingwen Capsule (LH-C) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula used to treat respiratory tract infectious diseases in Chinese. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral activity of LH-C and its immunomodulatory effects on viral infection. METHOD: The in vitro cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of LH-C was determined by MTT and Plaque reduction assays. Time course study under single-cycle virus growth conditions were used to determine which stage of viral replication was blocked...
February 24, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231567/innate-lung-defense-during-invasive-aspergillosis-new-mechanisms
#15
Jaleesa M Garth, Chad Steele
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is one of the most difficult to treat and, consequently, one of the most lethal fungal infections known to man. Continued use of immunosuppressive agents during chemotherapy and organ transplantation often leads to the development of neutropenia, the primary risk factor for IA. However, IA is also becoming more appreciated in chronic diseases associated with corticosteroid therapy. The innate immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus, the primary agent in IA, plays a pivotal role in the recognition and elimination of organisms from the pulmonary system...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231023/increasing-nocardia-incidence-associated-with-bronchiectasis-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#16
Michael H Woodworth, Jennifer L Saullo, Paul M Lantos, Gary M Cox, Jason E Stout
RATIONALE: Nocardia is a genus of pathogens that most commonly afflicts immunocompromised hosts, but may be an emerging infection among persons with bronchiectasis. OBJECTIVES: To examine the epidemiology and clinical presentation of adult patients with Nocardia and bronchiectasis relative to other patient groups. METHODS: We examined a retrospectively-assembled cohort of adults at Duke University Hospital in Durham, North Carolina with at least one positive culture from a bodily fluid or tissue specimen for Nocardia between January 1996 and December 2013...
February 23, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231019/pro-inflammatory-cytokines-impair-vitamin-d-induced-host-defense-in-cultured-airway-epithelial-cells
#17
Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Gimano D Amatngalim, Joris B Veldkamp, Renate M Verhoosel, Dennis K Ninaber, Soledad R Ordonez, Anne M van der Does, Henk P Haagsman, Pieter S Hiemstra
Vitamin D is a regulator of host defense against infections and induces expression of the antimicrobial peptide hCAP18/LL-37. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic inflammatory lung diseases and respiratory infections. However, it is incompletely understood if and how (chronic) airway inflammation affects vitamin D metabolism and action. We hypothesized that long-term exposure of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to pro-inflammatory cytokines alters their vitamin D metabolism, antibacterial activity and expression of hCAP18/LL-37...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230928/reactivation-of-hepatitis-b-in-patients-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#18
Ming-Lun Yeh, Chung-Feng Huang, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Yu-Min Ko, Kuan-Yu Chen, Ta-Wei Liu, Yi-Hung Lin, Po-Cheng Liang, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Ching-I Huang, Jee-Fu Huang, Po-Lin Kuo, Chia-Yen Dai, Ming-Lung Yu, Wan-Long Chuang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) may reactivate when treating chronic hepatitis C (CHC) with direct acting antivirals (DAA). We aim to investigate the risk of HBV reactivation during DAA therapy. METHODS: CHC patients receiving pan-oral DAA therapy from Dec. 2013 to Aug. 2016 were evaluated. Fifty-seven patients that had a past HBV infection (negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)) and positive hepatitis B core antibody (Anti-HBc)) and 7 patients that had a current HBV infection (positive HBsAg) were enrolled...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229276/effects-of-chlorella-vulgaris-on-tumor-growth-in-mammary-tumor-bearing-balb-c-mice-discussing-association-of-an-immune-suppressed-protumor-microenvironment-with-serum-ifn%C3%AE-and-igg-decrease-and-spleen-igg-potentiation
#19
Ahad Khalilnezhad, Elham Mahmoudian, Nariman Mosaffa, Ali Anissian, Mohsen Rashidi, Davar Amani
PURPOSE: Chlorella vulgaris (CV) has exhibited immune-enhancing and protective activities against cancer and infections. However, there is an increasing concern about the use of Chlorella species in human, regarding its various molecules with antigenic features found in infectious microorganisms. Our goal was to investigate the impact of higher concentrations of CV on tumor growth in spontaneous mouse mammary tumor (SMMT) models. METHODS: Balb/c mice were daily given CV powder at doses of 0, 200, or 300 mg/kg for 42 days (CONTROL, CV200, and CV300 groups, respectively; n = 6/group)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228842/worldwide-malaria-incidence-and-cancer-mortality-are-inversely-associated
#20
Li Qin, Changzhong Chen, Lili Chen, Ran Xue, Ming Ou-Yang, Chengzhi Zhou, Siting Zhao, Zhengxiang He, Yu Xia, Jianxing He, Pinghua Liu, Nanshan Zhong, Xiaoping Chen
BACKGROUND: Investigations on the effects of malaria infection on cancer mortality are limited except for the incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) in African children. Our previous murine lung cancer model study demonstrated that malaria infection significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. This study aims to assess the possible associations between malaria incidence and human cancer mortality. METHODS: We compiled data on worldwide malaria incidence and age-standardized mortality related to 30 types of cancer in 56 countries for the period 1955-2008, and analyzed their longitudinal correlations by a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM), adjusted for a nonlinear year effect and potential confounders such as country's income levels, life expectancies and geographical locations...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
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