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The devil

Zhirong Liu, P H Jones
We propose and demonstrate a novel high numerical aperture (NA) focusing system composed of an annular beam with alternate radially and azimuthally polarized rings, focused by a devil's lens (DL), and further investigate its radiation forces acting upon a Rayleigh particle both analytically and numerically. Strongly focused cylindrical vector beams produce either dark-centered or peak-centered intensity distributions depending on the state of polarization, whereas the DL produces a series of foci along the propagation direction...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Wojciech Niedzwiedz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
M Gholami, S H Hafezian, G Rahimi, A Farhadi, Z Rahimi, D Kahrizi, S Kiani, H Karim, S Vaziri, S Muhammadi, F Veisi, K Ghadiri, H Shetabi, J Zargooshi
There are two allelic forms of A1 and A2 of β-casein gene in dairy cattle. Proteolytic digestion of bovine β-casein A1 type produces bioactive peptide of β-casomorphin-7 known as milk devil. β-casomorphin-7 causes many diseases, including type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular disease syndrome, sudden death and madness. The aim of the present study was to determine the different allelic forms of β-casein gene in Iranian Holstein, Simmental and native cattle in order to identify A1 and A2 variants. The blood samples were collected randomly and DNA was extracted using modified salting out method...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Marc T Avey, David Moher, Katrina J Sullivan, Dean Fergusson, Gilly Griffin, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Brian Hutton, Manoj M Lalu, Malcolm Macleod, John Marshall, Shirley H J Mei, Michael Rudnicki, Duncan J Stewart, Alexis F Turgeon, Lauralyn McIntyre
Incomplete reporting of study methods and results has become a focal point for failures in the reproducibility and translation of findings from preclinical research. Here we demonstrate that incomplete reporting of preclinical research is not limited to a few elements of research design, but rather is a broader problem that extends to the reporting of the methods and results. We evaluated 47 preclinical research studies from a systematic review of acute lung injury that use mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a treatment...
2016: PloS One
Gina E Moseley, Yuri V Dublyansky, R Lawrence Edwards, Kathleen A Wendt, Mathieu Pythoud, Pu Zhang, Hai Cheng, Yanbin Lu, Ronny Boch, Christoph Spötl
Winograd and Coplen question the thorium-230 distribution model proposed to explain the age bias observed with increasing depth during Termination II. We have evaluated both criticisms and find that all samples display virtually identical fabrics, argue that the modern setting is not analogous to the conditions during Termination II, and reiterate the robustness of our age models. Our conclusions remain unchanged.
October 21, 2016: Science
Tyler B Coplen
Moseley et al's (Reports, 8 January 2016, p. 165) preferred-Termination-II age is subjective, as evidenced by variation in their Termination-II ages of 2500 years per meter. Termination-II-age bias decreases to zero at ~1.5 meters below the present-day water table, if one assumes linear variation with core-sample height. Maintaining the required gradient of thorium isotope (230)Th over 3.6 meters for 1000 years, much less 10,000 years, seems exceedingly unlikely.
October 21, 2016: Science
Isaac J Winograd
Moseley et al (Reports, 8 January 2016, p. 165) postulate an increase in dissolved thorium isotope (230)Th with depth below the water table as the explanation for the differing ages of Termination II. Flow of geothermal water through the Devils Hole caverns precludes this explanation. Deposition of younger secondary calcite into the initial porosity of the calcite comprising their cores is a plausible alternate explanation.
October 21, 2016: Science
Luciana Carraro, Mario Dalmaso, Luigi Castelli, Giovanni Galfano, Andrea Bobbio, Gabriele Mantovani
Humans typically exhibit a tendency to follow the gaze of conspecifics, a social attention behaviour known as gaze cueing. Here, we addressed whether episodically learned social knowledge about the behaviours performed by the individual bearing the gaze can influence this phenomenon. In a learning phase, different faces were systematically associated with either positive or negative behaviours. The same faces were then used as stimuli in a gaze-cueing task. The results showed that faces associated with antisocial norm-violating behaviours triggered stronger gaze-cueing effects as compared to faces associated with sociable behaviours...
November 11, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Jessica Cheok, Robert L Pressey, Rebecca Weeks, Serge Andréfouët, James Moloney
Spatial data characteristics have the potential to influence various aspects of prioritising biodiversity areas for systematic conservation planning. There has been some exploration of the combined effects of size of planning units and level of classification of physical environments on the pattern and extent of priority areas. However, these data characteristics have yet to be explicitly investigated in terms of their interaction with different socioeconomic cost data during the spatial prioritisation process...
2016: PloS One
Jenny Whilde, Mark Q Martindale, David J Duffy
The current species extinction crisis is being exacerbated by an increased rate of emergence of epizootic disease. Human-induced factors including habitat degradation, loss of biodiversity and wildlife population reductions resulting in reduced genetic variation are accelerating disease emergence. Novel, efficient and effective approaches are required to combat these epizootic events. Here, we present the case for the application of human precision medicine approaches to wildlife medicine in order to enhance species conservation efforts...
November 3, 2016: Global Change Biology
Philipp Comanns, Philip C Withers, Falk J Esser, Werner Baumgartner
Moisture-harvesting lizards, such as the Australian thorny devil, Moloch horridus, have the remarkable ability to inhabit arid regions. Special skin structures, comprising a micro-structured surface with capillary channels in between imbricate overlapping scales, enable the lizard to collect water by capillarity and transport it to the mouth for ingestion. The ecological role of this mechanism is the acquisition of water from various possible sources such as rainfall, puddles, dew, condensation on the skin, or absorption from moist sand, and we evaluate here the potential of these various sources for water uptake by M...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Hugo Devillers, François Brunel, Xymena Połomska, Véronique Sarilar, Zbigniew Lazar, Małgorzata Robak, Cécile Neuvéglise
Yarrowia lipolytica is an early diverging species of the Saccharomycotina subphylum, which is recognized as a valuable host for many biotechnological applications exploiting its oleaginous capacities. The 20.5-Mb genome of the Polish Y. lipolytica strain A-101 will greatly help decipher the genetic basis of the regulation of its lipid metabolism.
October 6, 2016: Genome Announcements
Massimo Volpe, Allegra Battistoni, Giuseppe Mancia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2016: Circulation Research
M Balasubramanian, J Hurst, S Brown, N J Bishop, P Arundel, C DeVile, R C Pollitt, L Crooks, D Longman, J F Caceres, F Shackley, S Connolly, J H Payne, A C Offiah, D Hughes, M J Parker, W Hide, T M Skerry
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), the commonest inherited bone fragility disorder, affects 1 in 15,000 live births resulting in frequent fractures and reduced mobility, with significant impact on quality of life. Early diagnosis is important, as therapeutic advances can lead to improved clinical outcome and patient benefit. REPORT: Whole exome sequencing in patients with OI identified, in two patients with a multi-system phenotype, compound heterozygous variants in NBAS (neuroblastoma amplified sequence)...
January 2017: Bone
Alexander C Jones, David Lim, Jacoby J Wayne-Thompson, Natasha Urbina, Georgina Puentedura, Stanley Hillyard, Frank Van Breukelen
The habitat of the critically endangered Devils Hole Pupfish, Cyprinodon diabolis is marked by constant high temperatures and low oxygen availability. In order to explore the effects of these conditions on development and recruitment of eggs in Devils Hole, we tested the effects of two ecologically relevant temperatures on the development, hatch success, and oxygen consumption of eggs from a refuge population of pupfish derived from C. diabolis and eggs from its close sister species, Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
David Goldberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2016: Liver Transplantation
Wojciech Niedzwiedz
Two studies now show that Ewing's tumour-associated antigen 1 (ETAA1) is recruited to sites of DNA replication stress through its interaction with replication protein A, where it stimulates the ATR kinase to promote efficient genome duplication. These findings provide exciting insight into the already very complex regulatory mechanism of the ATR activation cascade.
October 27, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
Kostas Delaunay, Florence Le Jeune, Etienne Garin, Anne Devillers, Xavier Palard-Novello
A 75-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer was referred to our department to perform F-choline (FCH) PET/CT. FCH PET/CT showed a markedly increased uptake in the right temporoparietal junction brain. Three weeks earlier, acute ischemic stroke was diagnosed in the right temporoparietal junction brain on diffusion-weighted sequence and thrombosis in a distal branch of the right middle cerebral artery on MR angiography. Choline precursors promote repair and growth of cell membranes in neurologic diseases, so FCH PET/CT uptake could be explained by repair processes during early outcome of acute ischemic stroke...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Mariia Lunova, Vitalii Zablotskii, Nora M Dempsey, Thibaut Devillers, Milan Jirsa, Eva Syková, Šárka Kubinová, Oleg Lunov, Alexandr Dejneka
Intracellular and extracellular mechanical forces play a crucial role during tissue growth, modulating nuclear shape and function and resulting in complex collective cell behaviour. However, the mechanistic understanding of how the orientation, shape, symmetry and homogeneity of cells are affected by environmental geometry is still lacking. Here we investigate cooperative cell behaviour and patterns under geometric constraints created by topographically patterned substrates. We show how cells cooperatively adopt their geometry, shape, positioning of the nucleus and subsequent proliferation activity...
October 14, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Nektaria Pezos, Damien J Keating
BACKGROUND: Huntingtin-associated Protein 1 (HAP1) is expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, and is critical for postnatal survival in mice. HAP1 shares a conserved "HAP1_N" domain with TRAfficking Kinesin proteins TRAK1 and TRAK2 (vertebrate), Milton (Drosophila) and T27A3.1 (C. elegans). HAP1, TRAK1 and TRAK2 have a degree of common function, particularly regarding intracellular receptor trafficking. However, TRAK1, TRAK2 and Milton (which have a "Milt/TRAK" domain that is absent in human and rodent HAP1) differ in function to HAP1 in that they are mitochondrial transport proteins, while HAP1 has emerging roles in starvation response...
October 13, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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