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The devil

Joshua D Sackett, Desiree C Huerta, Brittany R Kruger, Scott D Hamilton-Brehm, Duane P Moser
Devils Hole is the sole natural habitat of the critically endangered Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis). To establish a backup population, the Ash Meadows Fish Conservation Facility (AMFCF), a full-scale replica of the uppermost 6.7 m of Devils Hole, was constructed by management agencies in the mid-2010s. Despite rigorous efforts to mimic the bathymetric and physical details of the Devils Hole environment, the biogeochemistry and microbiology of the AMFCF refuge tank remain largely unaddressed. We evaluated water physicochemistry and employed Illumina DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries to evaluate planktonic and benthic bacterial and archaeal community composition within their respective physicochemical contexts in Devils Hole and AMFCF on the same day...
2018: PloS One
Mayur B Patel, John J Como, Elliott R Haut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Elizabeth Harford-Wright, Julie Gavard
Glioblastoma multiforme are mortifying brain tumors that contain a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem-like properties, termed as glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). These GSCs constitute an autonomous reservoir of aberrant cells able to initiate, maintain, and repopulate the tumor mass. A new therapeutic strategy would consist of targeting the GSC population. The GSCs are situated in perivascular niches, closely associated with brain microvascular endothelial cells thereby involved in bidirectional molecular and cellular interactions...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Manuel A Fernandez-Rojo, Evelyne Deplazes, Sandy S Pineda, Andreas Brust, Tano Marth, Patrick Wilhelm, Nick Martel, Grant A Ramm, Ricardo L Mancera, Paul F Alewood, Gregory M Woods, Katherine Belov, John J Miles, Glenn F King, Maria P Ikonomopoulou
The Tasmanian devil faces extinction due to devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a highly transmittable clonal form of cancer without available treatment. In this study, we report the cell-autonomous antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities exhibited by the spider peptide gomesin (AgGom) and gomesin-like homologue (HiGom) in DFTD cells. Mechanistically, both peptides caused a significant reduction at G0/G1 phase, in correlation with an augmented expression of the cell cycle inhibitory proteins p53, p27, p21, necrosis, exacerbated generation of reactive oxygen species and diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, all hallmarks of cellular stress...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Tracey Russell, Simeon Lisovski, Mats Olsson, Gregory Brown, Rebecca Spindler, Amanda Lane, Tamara Keeley, Chris Hibbard, Carolyn J Hogg, Frédéric Thomas, Katherine Belov, Beata Ujvari, Thomas Madsen
Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a highly contagious cancer, has decimated Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) numbers in the wild. To ensure its long-term survival, a captive breeding program was implemented but has not been as successful as envisaged at its launch in 2005. We therefore investigated the reproductive success of 65 captive devil pair combinations, of which 35 produced offspring (successful pairs) whereas the remaining 30 pairs, despite being observed mating, produced no offspring (unsuccessful pairs)...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melissa J Sharpe
We have long known that dopamine encodes the predictive relationship between cues and rewards. But what about relief learning? In this issue of Neuropsychopharmacology, Meyer et al. show that the same circuits encoding rewarding events also encode relief from aversive events. And this appears to be in a manner distinct from encoding of the aversive event itself. So does dopamine only contribute to learning about positive events? And are these events encoded in the same way regardless of how that positive experience came about? Not quite...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ruth Pye, Amanda Patchett, Elspeth McLennan, Russell Thomson, Scott Carver, Samantha Fox, David Pemberton, Alexandre Kreiss, Adriana Baz Morelli, Anabel Silva, Martin J Pearse, Lynn M Corcoran, Katherine Belov, Carolyn J Hogg, Gregory M Woods, A Bruce Lyons
Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is renowned for its successful evasion of the host immune system. Down regulation of the major histocompatabilty complex class I molecule (MHC-I) on the DFTD cells is a primary mechanism of immune escape. Immunization trials on captive Tasmanian devils have previously demonstrated that an immune response against DFTD can be induced, and that immune-mediated tumor regression can occur. However, these trials were limited by their small sample sizes. Here, we describe the results of two DFTD immunization trials on cohorts of devils prior to their wild release as part of the Tasmanian Government's Wild Devil Recovery project...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Charlène Gadais, Emmanuelle Devillers, Vincent Gasparik, Evelyne Chelain, Julien Pytkowicz, Thierry Brigaud
In order to accurately probe the local hydrophobicity increase of peptide sequences by trifluoromethylated amino acids (TfmAAs) incorporation, the chromatographic hydrophobicity indexes (φ0) of three series of tripeptides containing three unnatural trifluoromethylated amino acids have been measured and compared to the indexes of their non-fluorinated analogs. The hydrophobic contribution of each fluorinated amino acids was quantified by varying the position and the protection of (R) and (S)-α-trifluoromethyl alanine (TfmAla), (S)-trifluoromethyl cysteine (TfmCys) and (L)-trifluoromethionine (TFM) in a short peptide sequence...
March 7, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Robert P Richter, Priya Prabhakaran, Nancy M Tofil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
G Shaw, J Brisbois, L B G L Pinheiro, J Müller, S Blanco Alvarez, T Devillers, N M Dempsey, J E Scheerder, J Van de Vondel, S Melinte, P Vanderbemden, M Motta, W A Ortiz, K Hasselbach, R B G Kramer, A V Silhanek
We present a detailed quantitative magneto-optical imaging study of several superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures, including Nb deposited on top of thermomagnetically patterned NdFeB and permalloy/niobium with erasable and tailored magnetic landscapes imprinted in the permalloy layer. The magneto-optical imaging data are complemented with and compared to scanning Hall probe microscopy measurements. Comprehensive protocols have been developed for calibrating, testing, and converting Faraday rotation data to magnetic field maps...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Xavier Palard-Novello, Anne-Lise Blin, David Bourhis, Etienne Garin, Pierre-Yves Salaün, Anne Devillers, Solène Querellou, Patrick Bourguet, Florence Le Jeune, Hervé Saint-Jalmes
AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the kinetic analysis of18 F-labeled choline (FCH) uptake with static analysis and clinicopathological parameters in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-one patients were included. PSA was performed few days before FCH PET/CT. Gleason scoring (GS) was collected from systematic sextant biopsies. FCH PET/CT consisted in a dual phase: early pelvic list-mode acquisition (from 0 to10 min post-injection) and late whole-body acquisition (60 min post-injection)...
February 28, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
C Phillips, K Butler Gettings, J L King, D Ballard, M Bodner, L Borsuk, W Parson
The STR sequence template file published in 2016 as part of the considerations from the DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics on minimal STR sequence nomenclature requirements, has been comprehensively revised and audited using the latest GRCh38 genome assembly. The list of forensic STRs characterized was expanded by including supplementary autosomal, X- and Y-chromosome microsatellites in less common use for routine DNA profiling, but some likely to be adopted in future massively parallel sequencing (MPS) STR panels...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Youjian Tang, Cheng-Ing Chia, Vincent H Crespi
By adsorbing the same species onto both sides of a suspended, atomically thin membrane, it is possible to couple two distinct surface adsorption systems. This new system, with reflection symmetry about the membrane, is described by a phase diagram with two axes, both representing the chemical potential of the same element, but in distinct half-spaces. For the case of potassium adsorption onto a graphene membrane, the result is a devil's staircase of fractions for the proportion of adsorbates adhered to one side...
February 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Hasani Prabodha Sudasinghe, Dinithi C Peiris
Leaves of Passiflora suberosa L. (Family: Passifloraceae; common name: wild passion fruit, devil's pumpkin) are used in Sri Lankan traditional medicine for treating diabetes. The present study investigated the in vivo ability of P. suberosa leaves to manage blood sugar status and associated cholesterol levels. Mechanisms of action and toxicity were also determined. Phytochemical screening of aqueous extracts of P. suberosa leaves and carbohydrate content of the leaves were determined according to previously published methods...
2018: PeerJ
Florian Kronenberg
The picture of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) as the "good" cholesterol has eroded. This is even more surprising because there exists strong evidence that HDL-C is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population as well as in patients with impairment of kidney function and/or progression of CKD. However, drugs that dramatically increase HDL-C have mostly failed to decrease CVD events. Furthermore, genetic studies took the same line, as genetic variants that have a pronounced influence on HDL-C concentrations did not show an association with cardiovascular risk...
February 22, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Avia Rosenhouse-Dantsker
In recent years, it has become evident that cholesterol plays a direct role in the modulation of a variety of ion channels. In most cases, cholesterol downregulates channel activity. In contrast, our earlier studies have demonstrated that atrial G protein inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are upregulated by cholesterol. Recently, we have shown that hippocampal GIRK currents are also upregulated by cholesterol. A combined computational-experimental approach pointed to putative cholesterol-binding sites in the transmembrane domain of the GIRK2 channel, the primary subunit in hippocampal GIRK channels...
2018: Lipid Insights
David G Scherer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Tracey Russell, Thomas Madsen, Frédéric Thomas, Nynke Raven, Rodrigo Hamede, Beata Ujvari
Similar to parasites, malignant cells exploit the host for energy, resources and protection, thereby impairing host health and fitness. Although cancer is widespread in the animal kingdom, its impact on life history traits and strategies have rarely been documented. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a transmissible cancer, afflicting Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii), provides an ideal model system to monitor the impact of cancer on host life-history, and to elucidate the evolutionary arms-race between malignant cells and their hosts...
February 15, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
İsmail K Sağlam, Jason Baumsteiger, Matt J Smith, Javier Linares-Casenave, Andrew L Nichols, Sean M O'Rourke, Michael R Miller
The age of DHP and how pupfish colonized Devils Hole has always been a topic of interest. Recently, two different publications (Martin et al. 2016 & Sağlam et al. 2016) tackled this issue using genomic data sets and demographic models but came to widely different conclusions. In their comment, Martin & Höhna (2017) argue that our results (Sağlam et al. 2016) were misleading because we used inappropriate calibration information and biased a priori assumptions. They then re-analyzed our data using a "biologically informed" mutation rate prior and concluded that our data supports a much younger age of DHP (12...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Michele Amadori, Domenico Barone, Emanuela Scarpi, Devil Oboldi, Elena Amadori, Gianfranco Bandi, Alice Rossi, Fabio Ferroni, Angela Ragazzini, Andrea Casadei Gardini, Giovanni Luca Frassineti, Giampaolo Gavelli, Alessandro Passardi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate early changes in tumour perfusion parameters by dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (D-CEUS) and to identify any correlation with survival and tumour response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with bevacizumab (B). METHODS: Thirty-seven patients randomized to either chemotherapy (C) plus B or C alone were considered for this study. D-CEUS was performed at baseline and after the first treatment cycle (day 15)...
February 7, 2018: European Radiology
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