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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330987/architecture-and-mechanism-of-the-central-gear-in-an-ancient-molecular-timer
#1
REVIEW
Martin Egli
Molecular clocks are the product of natural selection in organisms from bacteria to human and their appearance early in evolution such as in the prokaryotic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus suggests that these timers served a crucial role in genetic fitness. Thus, a clock allows cyanobacteria relying on photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation to temporally space the two processes and avoid exposure of nitrogenase carrying out fixation to high levels of oxygen produced during photosynthesis. Fascinating properties of molecular clocks are the long time constant, their precision and temperature compensation...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325659/construction-of-a-novel-d-lactate-producing-pathway-from-dihydroxyacetone-phosphate-of-the-calvin-cycle-in-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc%C3%A2-7942
#2
Yasutaka Hirokawa, Ryota Goto, Yoshitaka Umetani, Taizo Hanai
Using engineered cyanobacteria to produce various chemicals from carbon dioxide is a promising technology for a sustainable future. Lactate is a valuable commodity that can be used for the biodegradable plastic, polylactic acid. Typically, lactate production using engineered cyanobacteria was via the conversion of pyruvate in glycolysis by lactate dehydrogenase. In cyanobacteria, the metabolic flux in the Calvin cycle is higher than that in glycolysis under photoautotrophic conditions. The construction of a novel lactate producing pathway that uses metabolites from the Calvin cycle could potentially increase lactate productivity in cyanobacteria...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315315/connectivity-among-photosystem-ii-centers-in-phytoplankters-patterns-and-responses
#3
Kui Xu, Jessica L Grant-Burt, Natalie Donaher, Douglas A Campbell
Fast Repetition and Relaxation chlorophyll fluorescence induction is used to estimate the effective absorption cross section of PSII (σPSII), to analyze phytoplankton acclimation and electron transport. The fitting coefficient ρ measures excitation transfer from closed PSII to remaining open PSII upon illumination, which could theoretically generate a progressive increase in σPSII for the remaining open PSII. To investigate how ρ responds to illumination we grew marine phytoplankters with diverse antenna structures (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, Ostreococcus and Thalassiosira pseudonana) under limiting or saturating growth light...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306743/characterization-of-spatial-distribution-of-the-bacterial-community-in-the-south-sea-of-korea
#4
Ji-Hui Seo, Ilnam Kang, Seung-Jo Yang, Jang-Cheon Cho
In order to investigate the importance of spatial and environmental factors on the structure and diversity of bacterial communities, high-resolution 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing was applied to bacterial communities in the littoral sea. Seawater samples were prepared from seven different stations in the South Sea of Korea, the marginal sea in the western Pacific Ocean, and were divided into three groups according to distances from the coastline. The majority of 19,860 sequences were affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria (58...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303150/development-of-synebrick-vectors-as-a-synthetic-biology-platform-for-gene-expression-in-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942
#5
Wook Jin Kim, Sun-Mi Lee, Youngsoon Um, Sang Jun Sim, Han Min Woo
Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes that are able to assimilate CO2 using solar energy and water. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has suggested the possibility of direct CO2 conversion to value-added chemicals. However, engineering of cyanobacteria has been limited due to the lack of various genetic tools for expression and control of multiple genes to reconstruct metabolic pathways for biochemicals from CO2. Thus, we developed SyneBrick vectors as a synthetic biology platform for gene expression in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a model cyanobacterium...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302170/identification-of-residues-important-for-the-activity-of-aldehyde-deformylating-oxygenase-through-investigation-into-the-structure-activity-relationship
#6
Qing Wang, Luyao Bao, Chenjun Jia, Mei Li, Jian-Jun Li, Xuefeng Lu
BACKGROUND: Aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of fatty alk(a/e)nes in cyanobacteria. However, cADO (cyanobacterial ADO) showed extreme low activity with the k cat value below 1 min(-1), which would limit its application in biofuel production. To identify the activity related key residues of cADO is urgently required. RESULTS: The amino acid residues which might affect cADO activity were identified based on the crystal structures and sequence alignment of cADOs, including the residues close to the di-iron center (Tyr39, Arg62, Gln110, Tyr122, Asp143 of cADO-1593), the protein surface (Trp 178 of cADO-1593), and those involved in two important hydrogen bonds (Gln49, Asn123 of cADO-1593, and Asp49, Asn123 of cADO-sll0208) and in the oligopeptide whose conformation changed in the absence of the di-iron center (Leu146, Asn149, Phe150 of cADO-1593, and Thr146, Leu148, Tyr150 of cADO-sll0208)...
March 16, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301562/diversity-and-community-structure-of-cyanobacteria-and-other-microbes-in-recycling-irrigation-reservoirs
#7
Ping Kong, Patricia Richardson, Chuanxue Hong
Recycling irrigation reservoirs (RIRs) are emerging aquatic environments of global significance to crop production, water conservation and environmental sustainability. This study characterized the diversity and population structure of cyanobacteria and other detected microbes in water samples from eight RIRs and one adjacent runoff-free stream at three ornamental crop nurseries in eastern (VA1 and VA3) and central (VA2) Virginia after cloning and sequencing the 16S rRNA gene targeting cyanobacteria and chloroplast of eukaryotic phytoplankton...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299555/molecular-characterization-and-homology-modeling-of-spermidine-synthase-from-synechococcus-sp-pcc-7942
#8
Apiradee Pothipongsa, Saowarath Jantaro, Tiina A Salminen, Aran Incharoensakdi
Spermidine synthase (Spds) catalyzes the formation of spermidine by transferring the aminopropyl group from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM) to putrescine. The Synechococcus spds gene encoding Spds was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme had a molecular mass of 33 kDa and showed optimal activity at pH 7.5, 37 °C. The enzyme had higher affinity for dcSAM (K m, 20 µM) than for putrescine (K m, 111 µM) and was highly specific towards the diamine putrescine with no activity observed towards longer chain diamines...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287087/global-metabolic-rewiring-for-improved-co2-fixation-and-chemical-production-in-cyanobacteria
#9
Masahiro Kanno, Austin L Carroll, Shota Atsumi
Cyanobacteria have attracted much attention as hosts to recycle CO2 into valuable chemicals. Although cyanobacteria have been engineered to produce various compounds, production efficiencies are too low for commercialization. Here we engineer the carbon metabolism of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to improve glucose utilization, enhance CO2 fixation and increase chemical production. We introduce modifications in glycolytic pathways and the Calvin Benson cycle to increase carbon flux and redirect it towards carbon fixation...
March 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286551/systems-analysis-of-ethanol-production-in-the-genetically-engineered-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-sp-pcc-7002
#10
Joachim Kopka, Stefanie Schmidt, Frederik Dethloff, Nadin Pade, Susanne Berendt, Marco Schottkowski, Nico Martin, Ulf Dühring, Ekaterina Kuchmina, Heike Enke, Dan Kramer, Annegret Wilde, Martin Hagemann, Alexandra Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Future sustainable energy production can be achieved using mass cultures of photoautotrophic microorganisms, which are engineered to synthesize valuable products directly from CO2 and sunlight. As cyanobacteria can be cultivated in large scale on non-arable land, these phototrophic bacteria have become attractive organisms for production of biofuels. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, one of the cyanobacterial model organisms, provides many attractive properties for biofuel production such as tolerance of seawater and high light intensities...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284152/characterization-of-zinc-stress-response-in-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-sp-iu-625
#11
Robert Newby, Lee H Lee, Jose L Perez, Xin Tao, Tinchun Chu
The ability of cyanobacteria to survive many environmental stress factors is a testament to their resilience in nature. Of these environmental stress factors, overexposure to zinc is important to study since excessive zinc intake can be a severe hazard. Zinc toxicity in freshwater has been demonstrated to affects organisms such as invertebrates, algae and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria which possess increased resistance to zinc have been isolated. It is therefore important to elucidate the mechanism of survival and response to determine what factors allow their survival; as well as any remediation implications they may have...
March 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276499/mutagenesis-and-redox-partners-analysis-of-the-p450-fatty-acid-decarboxylase-oletje
#12
Bo Fang, Huifang Xu, Yi Liu, Fengxia Qi, Wei Zhang, Hui Chen, Cong Wang, Yilin Wang, Wenxia Yang, Shengying Li
The cytochrome P450 enzyme OleTJE from Jeotgalicoccus sp. ATCC 8456 is capable of converting free long-chain fatty acids into α-alkenes via one-step oxidative decarboxylation in presence of H2O2 as cofactor or using redox partner systems. This enzyme has attracted much attention due to its intriguing but unclear catalytic mechanism and potential application in biofuel production. Here, we investigated the functionality of a select group of residues (Arg245, Cys365, His85, and Ile170) in the active site of OleTJE through extensive mutagenesis analysis...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273592/distribution-of-picoplankton-in-the-northeastern-south-china-sea-with-special-reference-to-the-effects-of-the-kuroshio-intrusion-and-the-associated-mesoscale-eddies
#13
Jiajun Li, Xin Jiang, Gang Li, Zhiyou Jing, Linbin Zhou, Zhixin Ke, Yehui Tan
We investigated picoplankton distribution patterns and environmental variables along an east-to-west transect in the northeastern South China Sea (SCS) during late winter 2016, giving us the opportunity to examine the impacts of the Kuroshio intrusion and the associated eddies. The results indicated that the subsurface (50-75m) phytoplankton biomass chlorophyll (Chl a) maximum (SCM) disappeared and was replaced by higher Chl a in the middle part of the transect due to the impacts of the Kuroshio intrusion and mesoscale eddies...
March 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270800/adaptation-to-blue-light-in-marine-synechococcus-requires-mpeu-an-enzyme-with-similarity-to-phycoerythrobilin-lyase-isomerases
#14
Rania M Mahmoud, Joseph E Sanfilippo, Adam A Nguyen, Johann A Strnat, Frédéric Partensky, Laurence Garczarek, Nabil Abo El Kassem, David M Kehoe, Wendy M Schluchter
Marine Synechococcus has successfully adapted to environments with different light colors, which likely contributes to this genus being the second most abundant group of microorganisms worldwide. Populations of Synechococcus that grow in deep, blue ocean waters contain large amounts of the blue-light absorbing chromophore phycourobilin (PUB) in their light harvesting complexes (phycobilisomes). Here, we show that all Synechococcus strains adapted to blue light possess a gene called mpeU. MpeU is structurally similar to phycobilin lyases, enzymes that ligate chromophores to phycobiliproteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235875/engineering-cyanobacterial-cell-morphology-for-enhanced-recovery-and-processing-of-biomass
#15
Adam Jordan, Jenna Chandler, Joshua S MacCready, Jingcheng Huang, Katherine W Osteryoung, Daniel C Ducat
Cyanobacteria are emerging as alternative crop species for the production of fuels, chemicals, and biomass. Yet, the success of these microbes depends upon the development of cost-effective technologies that permit scaled cultivation and cell harvesting. Here, we investigate the feasibility of engineering cell morphology in order to improve biomass recovery and decrease energetic costs associated with lysing cyanobacterial cells. Specifically, we modify the levels of Min system proteins in Synechococcus elongatus sp...
February 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220442/synechococcus-production-and-grazing-loss-rates-in-nearshore-tropical-waters
#16
Pei Li Heng, Joon Hai Lim, Choon Weng Lee
Temporal variation of Synechococcus, its production (μ) and grazing loss (g) rates were studied for 2 years at nearshore stations, i.e. Port Dickson and Port Klang along the Straits of Malacca. Synechococcus abundance at Port Dickson (0.3-2.3 × 10(5) cell ml(-1)) was always higher than at Port Klang (0.3-7.1 × 10(4) cell ml(-1)) (p < 0.001). μ ranged up to 0.98 day(-1) (0.51 ± 0.29 day(-1)), while g ranged from 0.02 to 0.31 day(-1) (0.15 ± 0.07 day(-1)) at Port Klang. At Port Dickson, μ and g averaged 0...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217745/the-baltic-sea-virome-diversity-and-transcriptional-activity-of-dna-and-rna-viruses
#17
Lisa Zeigler Allen, John P McCrow, Karolina Ininbergs, Christopher L Dupont, Jonathan H Badger, Jeffery M Hoffman, Martin Ekman, Andrew E Allen, Birgitta Bergman, J Craig Venter
Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were generated from size-fractionated samples from 11 sites within the Baltic Sea and adjacent marine waters of Kattegat and freshwater Lake Torneträsk in order to investigate the diversity, distribution, and transcriptional activity of virioplankton. Such a transect, spanning a salinity gradient from freshwater to the open sea, facilitated a broad genome-enabled investigation of natural as well as impacted aspects of Baltic Sea viral communities. Taxonomic signatures representative of phages within the widely distributed order Caudovirales were identified with enrichments in lesser-known families such as Podoviridae and Siphoviridae...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196492/long-term-microfluidic-tracking-of-coccoid-cyanobacterial-cells-reveals-robust-control-of-division-timing
#18
Feiqiao Brian Yu, Lisa Willis, Rosanna Man Wah Chau, Alessandro Zambon, Mark Horowitz, Devaki Bhaya, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Stephen R Quake
BACKGROUND: Cyanobacteria are important agents in global carbon and nitrogen cycling and hold great promise for biotechnological applications. Model organisms such as Synechocystis sp. and Synechococcus sp. have advanced our understanding of photosynthetic capacity and circadian behavior, mostly using population-level measurements in which the behavior of individuals cannot be monitored. Synechocystis sp. cells are small and divide slowly, requiring long-term experiments to track single cells...
February 14, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194920/specific-interaction-between-redox-phospholipid-polymers-and-plastoquinone-in-photosynthetic-electron-transport-chain
#19
Kenya Tanaka, Masahiro Kaneko, Masahito Ishikawa, Souichiro Kato, Hidehiro Ito, Toshiaki Kamachi, Kazuhide Kamiya, Shuji Nakanishi
Redox phospholipid polymers added in culture media are known to be capable of extracting electrons from living photosynthetic cells across bacterial cell membranes with high cytocompatibility. In the present study, we aimed to identify the intracellular redox species that transfers electrons to the polymers. The open-circuit electrochemical potential of an electrolyte containing the redox polymer and extracted thylakoid membranes shifted to positive (or negative) under light irradiation, when an electron transport inhibitor specific for the upstream (or downstream) of plastoquinone in the photosynthetic electron transport chain was added...
February 13, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185041/variety-in-excitation-energy-transfer-processes-from-phycobilisomes-to-photosystems-i-and-ii
#20
Yoshifumi Ueno, Shimpei Aikawa, Kyosuke Niwa, Tomoko Abe, Akio Murakami, Akihiko Kondo, Seiji Akimoto
The light-harvesting antennas of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms capture light energy and transfer it to the reaction centers of their photosystems. The light-harvesting antennas of cyanobacteria and red algae, called phycobilisomes (PBSs), supply light energy to both photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII). However, the excitation energy transfer processes from PBS to PSI and PSII are not understood in detail. In the present study, the energy transfer processes from PBS to PSs in various cyanobacteria and red algae were examined in vivo by selectively exciting their PSs or PBSs, and measuring the resulting picosecond to nanosecond time-resolved fluorescences...
February 9, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
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