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Reijiro Nogami, Haruo Nishida, Dang Diem Hong, Minato Wakisaka
A solubility diagram was employed to understand growth promotion of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis by steelmaking slag (SMS). The growth promotion effect of 112 % of freshwater microalga A. platensis was obtained using 5 g/L SMS. However, metabolites, such as pigments, and protein content of A. platensis were not significantly affected. Several metals dissolved in Spirulina-Ogawa-Terui medium were detected by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry just after the addition of SMS. The solubility diagram provides information on the chemical speciation of metal elements based on pH and concentration...
December 2016: AMB Express
Ganapathy Kavitha, Chidambaram Kurinjimalar, Krishnan Sivakumar, Rajamani Aravind, Chinnadurai Gandhi Shree, Karunanithi Arthi, Perumal Palani, Venkatesan Kaviyarasan, Ramasamy Rengasamy
Six different strains of cyanobacteria were isolated from the freshwater lake, Arakkonam, India. Staining of cells with Nile Red showed the presence of large quantities of PHB granules in the cell cytoplasm of Arthrospira. Molecular identification of the strain was carried out using 16S rRNA analysis and their systematic position was ascertained as Arthrospira platensis RRGK. Studies were carried out on random mutagenesis approach using UV-B radiation for enhancing the production of PHB. Further, Response Surface Methodology was used for optimization of pH, temperature, and sodium bicarbonate for higher biomass and PHB production...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Prachi Zawar, Vivek Javalkote, Robert Burnap, Pramod Mahulikar, Pravin Puranik
The present study reports a process wherein CO2 is captured in the form of bicarbonates using calcium oxide and photosynthetically fixed into biomass. Microalgal cultures viz. Chlorella sorokiniana PAZ and Arthrospira sp. VSJ were grown in the medium containing bicarbonates. The rate of bicarbonate utilization by C. sorokiniana PAZ was higher when CO2 trapped in the presence of 2.67mM calcium oxide than in the presence of 10mM sodium hydroxide and with direct addition of 10mM sodium bicarbonate. For Arthrospira sp...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Frédéric Deschoenmaeker, Raphaël Facchini, Juan Carlos Cabrera Pino, Guillaume Bayon-Vicente, Neha Sachdeva, Patrick Flammang, Ruddy Wattiez
In Cyanobacteria, the nitrogen and carbon metabolisms are functionally bridged and consequently respond to the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Consequently, a nitrogen deficiency results in carbon excess. For the first time, the biological adaptation of Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 to nitrogen starvation has been deeply characterized at the cellular structure scale. The results indicated that the carbon excess is rerouted into carbon storage granules, such as the polyhydroxyalkanoate and glycogen granules corroborating existing data...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Elier Ekberg Neri-Torres, Jorge J Chanona-Pérez, Hector A Calderón, Neil Torres-Figueredo, German Chamorro-Cevallos, Georgina Calderón-Domínguez, Hugo Velasco-Bedrán
The objective of this work was to obtain Spirulina (Arthrospira maxima) nanoparticles (SNPs) by using high-impact mechanical milling and to characterize them by electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. The milling products were analyzed after various processing times (1-4 h), and particle size distribution and number mean size (NMS) were determined by analysis of high-resolution scanning electron microscopic images. The smallest particles are synthesized after 3 h of milling, had an NMS of 55.6±3.6 nm, with 95% of the particles being smaller than 100 nm...
August 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Effat Fahmy Shabana, Mahmoud Ali Gabr, Helal Ragab Moussa, Enas Ali El-Shaer, Mostafa M S Ismaiel
Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a blue-green alga, rich with bioactive components and nutrients. To evaluate effect of gamma irradiation, A. platensis was exposed to different doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5kGy. The data showed that the phenolic and proline contents significantly increased with the increase of gamma irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy, above which a reduction was observed. The soluble proteins and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were stimulated by all tested irradiation doses. Furthermore, the vitamins (A, K and B group) and mineral contents (N, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) were stimulated by the irradiation doses compared with the control...
January 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Yuemei Wu, Suying Wang, Shirui Dong
OBJECTIVE: Based on 16S rRNA and rpoC1 gene sequences, the phylogenetic relationship between Spirulina and Arthrospira were studied and compared. METHODS: We amplified, sequenced and analyzed 16S rRNA and rpoC1 of 84 strains. Then the phylogenetic trees were constructed and compared. RESULTS: The conserved sites percentage, average G+C content and sequence identity of rpoC1 were 49.7%, 47.7%, 76%-100% respectively, significantly lower than 79...
February 4, 2016: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, Acta Microbiologica Sinica
Gitte S Jensen, Cassandra Drapeau, Miki Lenninger, Kathleen F Benson
The goal for this study was to evaluate safety regarding anticoagulant activity and platelet activation during daily consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), containing a high dose of phycocyanin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, 24 men and women were enrolled after informed consent, and consumed either ACE (2.3 g/day) or placebo daily for 2 weeks. The ACE dose was equivalent to ∼1 g phycocyanin per day, chosen based on the highest dose Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U...
July 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Teng Xu, Song Qin, Yongwu Hu, Zhijian Song, Jianchao Ying, Peizhen Li, Wei Dong, Fangqing Zhao, Huanming Yang, Qiyu Bao
Arthrospira platensis is a multi-cellular and filamentous non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that is capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis. In this study, we determined the nearly complete genome sequence of A. platensis YZ. A. platensis YZ genome is a single, circular chromosome of 6.62 Mb in size. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses revealed that A. platensis YZ was more closely related to A. platensis NIES-39 than Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 and A. platensis C1. Broad gene gains were identified between A...
August 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
M Kashith, B Keerthana, S Sriram, V Ramamurthy
Cyclic 3',5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule, but its role in higher plants was in doubt due to its very low concentration. In this study we wanted to look at the flux of cAMP in response to light in algae, considered to be the more primitive form of photosynthetic organisms. While it did not fluctuate very much in the tested green algae, in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis its level was closely linked to exposure to light. The expression from cyaC, the major isoform of adenylate cyclase was strongly influenced by exposure of the cells to light...
August 19, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Giorgos Markou, Koenraad Muylaert
Herein the effect of increasing light intensity on the degree of ammonia toxicity and its impact on the photosynthetic performance of Arthrospira and Chlorella was investigated using Chl fluorescence as a technique to characterize their photosystem II (PSII) activity. The results revealed that the increase of light intensity amplifies the ammonia toxicity on PSII. Chl fluorescence transients shown that at a given free ammonia (FA) concentration (100mg-N/L), the photochemistry potential decreased by increasing light intensity...
September 2016: Bioresource Technology
Changhong Yao, Peichun Wu, Yanfei Pan, Hongbin Lu, Lei Chi, Yingying Meng, Xupeng Cao, Song Xue, Xiaoyi Yang
Sustainable microalgal cultivation at commercial scale requires nitrogen recycling. This study applied hydrothermal carbonization to recover N of hot-water extracted Arthrospira platensis biomass residue into aqueous phase (AP) under different operation conditions and evaluated the N utilization, biomass yield and quality of A. platensis cultures using AP as the sole N source. With the increase of temperature at 190-210°C or reaction time of 2-3h, the N recovery rate decreased under nitrogen-repletion (+N) cultivation, while contrarily increased under nitrogen-limitation (-N) cultivation...
September 2016: Bioresource Technology
Hideaki Shiraishi
Efficient cryopreservation conditions for the edible alkalophilic cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis were investigated using a model strain A. platensis NIES-39. As a result, it was found that more than 60% of cells were viable upon thawing, when they had been frozen at a cooling rate of approximately -1 °C min(-1) in the presence of 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide. Further examination with other Arthrospira strains showed that many of them had strain-dependent optimal conditions for cryopreservation...
October 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Diego A Esquivel-Hernández, Víctor H López, José Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Gibrán S Alemán-Nava, Sara P Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Magdalena Rostro-Alanis, Roberto Parra-Saldívar
Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The temperature (T) factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (ethanol) (CS) were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14%) and (4.27% ± 0.10%) for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christiane Herrmann, Navajyoti Kalita, David Wall, Ao Xia, Jerry D Murphy
Microalgae can be used to upgrade biogas to biomethane and subsequently be digested for biogas production. However, the low C:N ratio of species such as Arthrospira platensis may cause ammonia inhibition and low process stability during anaerobic digestion. This study investigates co-fermentation of A. platensis with carbon-rich co-substrates (barley straw, beet silage and brown seaweed) at a C:N ratio of 25 to enhance biomass conversion. No synergistic effects on biomethane potential could be proven in batch fermentation tests...
August 2016: Bioresource Technology
Gennady Ananyev, Colin Gates, G Charles Dismukes
We have measured flash-induced oxygen quantum yields (O2-QYs) and primary charge separation (Chl variable fluorescence yield, Fv/Fm) in vivo among phylogenetically diverse microalgae and cyanobacteria. Higher O2-QYs can be attained in cells by releasing constraints on charge transfer at the Photosystem II (PSII) acceptor side by adding membrane-permeable benzoquinone (BQ) derivatives that oxidize plastosemiquinone QB(-) and QBH2. This method allows uncoupling PSII turnover from its natural regulation in living cells, without artifacts of isolating PSII complexes...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Changhong Yao, Yanfei Pan, Hongbin Lu, Peichun Wu, Yingying Meng, Xupeng Cao, Song Xue
In the context of sustainable cultivation of microalgae, the present study focused on the use of nitrogen from the hot-water extracted biomass residue of Arthrospira platensis by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and the sequential cultivation of the same alga with the HTC aqueous phase (AP). Nearly 90% of the nitrogen recovered from HTC into AP was in the organic form. Under nitrogen-limited condition with HTCAP as nitrogen source the yield and content of carbohydrate were enhanced by 21% and 15% respectively compared with that under the same nitrogen level provided by NaNO3, which entitled HTCAP for the substitution of conventional nitrate...
July 2016: Bioresource Technology
Yi-Hsiang Chen, Gi-Kung Chang, Shu-Ming Kuo, Sheng-Yu Huang, I-Chen Hu, Yu-Lun Lo, Shin-Ru Shih
Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts and specific substances derived from Spirulina, and here we show that this Spirulina cold water extract has low cellular toxicity, and is well-tolerated in animal models at one dose as high as 5,000 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg/kg/day for 14 successive days...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fei Wu, Xiaonan Zang, Xuecheng Zhang, Ran Zhang, Xiaoyun Huang, Lulu Hou, Minjie Jiang, Chang Liu, Chunhong Pang
A new bilin lyase gene cpcU was cloned from Arthrospira platensis FACHB314 to study the assembly of the phycocyanin β-Subunit. Two recombinant plasmids, one contained the phycocyanobilin (PCB) producing genes (hoxI and pcyA), while the other contained the gene of the β-Subunit of phycobiliprotein (cpcB) and the lyase gene (cpcU, cpcS, or cpcU/S) were constructed and separately transferred into Escherichia coli in order to test the activities of relevant lyases for catalyzing PCB addition to CpcB during synthesizing fluorescent β-PC of A...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Joeri Coppens, Ralph Lindeboom, Maarten Muys, Wout Coessens, Abbas Alloul, Ken Meerbergen, Bart Lievens, Peter Clauwaert, Nico Boon, Siegfried E Vlaeminck
Urine contains the majority of nutrients in urban wastewaters and is an ideal nutrient recovery target. In this study, stabilization of real undiluted urine through nitrification and subsequent microalgae cultivation were explored as strategy for biological nutrient recovery. A nitrifying inoculum screening revealed a commercial aquaculture inoculum to have the highest halotolerance. This inoculum was compared with municipal activated sludge for the start-up of two nitrification membrane bioreactors. Complete nitrification of undiluted urine was achieved in both systems at a conductivity of 75mScm(-1) and loading rate above 450mgNL(-1)d(-1)...
July 2016: Bioresource Technology
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