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Matthew Stephen Palmer, George Heigenhauser, MyLinh Duong, Lawrence L Spriet
This study determined whether ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) vs. progressive dehydration affected skeletal muscle glycogen use and performance in ice hockey players during simulated ice hockey exercise comprised of 3 active "periods". Seven males (21.3±0.3 years, 184.7±1.2 cm, 84.2±3.9 kg, and 49.6±1.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a hockey-specific protocol on two occasions and either dehydrated progressively (NF), or stayed well-hydrated by ingesting a CES. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, before the 3(rd) period (P3), and after the final sprint in the protocol...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Maria Stein, Werner Fey, Thomas Koenig, Jacqueline Oehy, Franz Moggi
BACKGROUND: Most contemporary neuroscientific models of alcohol use disorders (AUD) incorporate an imbalance between enhanced cue reactivity, which results in a strong urge to consume, and the impaired inhibitory control of that urge. While these phenomena have been frequently investigated separately, studies involving both aspects and thus precisely investigating the postulated imbalance are rare. In this study, inhibition was investigated in an addiction-specific context and individual craving levels were also examined...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Marisa Christin Beck, Anne-Marie Glimm, Sarah Ohrndorf, Kirsten Minden, Ralf Trauzeddel, Stephanie Gabriele Werner, Gerd Horneff, Marina Backhaus, Gerd Rüdiger Burmester, Tilmann Kallinich, Hermann Girschick, Jens Klotsche
BACKGROUND: Valid detection of arthritis is essential in differential diagnosis of joint pain. Indocyanin green (ICG)-enhanced fluorescence optical imaging (FOI) is a new imaging method that visualizes inflammation in wrist and finger joints. Objectives of this study were to compare FOI with ultrasonography (US, by gray-scale (GS) and power Doppler (PD)) and clinical examination (CE) and to estimate the predictive power of FOI for discrimination between inflammatory and non-inflammatory juvenile joint diseases...
October 17, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
M L Meretska, R Uppu, G Vissenberg, A Lagendijk, W L Ijzerman, W L Vos
We have investigated the transport of light through slabs that both scatter and strongly absorb, a situation that occurs in diverse application fields ranging from biomedical optics, powder technology, to solid-state lighting. In particular, we study the transport of light in the visible wavelength range between 420 and 700 nm through silicone plates filled with YAG:Ce(3+) phosphor particles, that even re-emit absorbed light at different wavelengths. We measure the total transmission, the total reflection, and the ballistic transmission of light through these plates...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
Lingling Liu, Wenbo Wan, Zhuanping Qin, Limin Zhang, Jingying Jiang, Yihan Wang, Feng Gao, Huijuan Zhao
Interstitial determination of the tissue optical properties is important in biomedicine, especially for interstitial laser therapies. Continuous wave (CW) radiance techniques which examine light from multiple directions have been proposed as minimally invasive methods for determining the optical properties under an interstitial probe arrangement. However, both the fitting algorithm based on the P3 approximation and the analytical method based on the diffusion approximation (DA), which are currently used recovery algorithms, cannot extract the optical properties of tissue with low transport albedos accurately from radiance measurements...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
Cai-Bing Wei, Kun Tao, Rong Jiang, Lian-Di Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhang, Chun-Su Yuan
Triptolide (TP) is a diterpene triepoxide with various biological activities, but its clinical applications have been limited by potential hepatotoxicity, which can be attributed to T helper 17 (Th17)/T regulatory (Treg) cell imbalance. Quercetin (QE), a natural flavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties, including hepatoprotective activity against TP-induced liver injury. However, the hepatoprotection mechanisms have not been clarified. The present study was designed to explore the protective effect and the mechanism of QE against TP-induced liver injury...
October 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Shao'e Sun, Qi Li, Lingfeng Kong, Hong Yu
Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. The strand-specific bias in the nucleotide composition of the mtDNA has been known to be highly problematic for phylogenetic analyses. Here, the strand asymmetry was compared across 140 mollusc species and analyzed for a mtDNA fragment including twelve protein-coding genes. The analyses show that almost all species in Gastropoda (except Heterobranchia) and all species in Bivalvia present reversals of strand bias...
October 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ewa A Zaobidna, Krystyna Żółtowska, Elżbieta Łopieńska-Biernat
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has emerged as the major pest of honeybees. Despite extensive research efforts, the pathogenesis of varroosis has not been fully explained. Earlier studies suggested that V. destructor infestation leads to the suppression of the host's immune system. The aim of this study was to analyze the immune responses of 14 genes in the Toll signal transduction pathways, including effector genes of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), in developing Apis mellifera workers and drones infested with V...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
Wei Qin, Katherine R Heal, Rasika Ramdasi, Julia N Kobelt, Willm Martens-Habbena, Anthony D Bertagnolli, Shady A Amin, Christopher B Walker, Hidetoshi Urakawa, Martin Könneke, Allan H Devol, James W Moffett, E Virginia Armbrust, Grant J Jensen, Anitra E Ingalls, David A Stahl
Four mesophilic, neutrophilic, and aerobic marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea, designated strains SCM1(T), HCA1(T), HCE1(T) and PS0(T), were isolated from a tropical marine fish tank, dimly lit deep coastal waters, the lower euphotic zone of coastal waters, and near-surface sediment in the Puget Sound estuary, respectively. Cells are straight or slightly curved small rods, 0.15-0.26 µm in diameter and 0.50-1.59 µm in length. Motility was not observed, although strain PS0(T) possesses genes associated with archaeal flagella and chemotaxis, suggesting it may be motile under some conditions...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Jingli Lu, Chaoqi Zhang, Lifeng Li, Wenhua Xue, Chengliang Zhang, Xiaojian Zhang
Recent progress in regulatory T cells (Tregs) biology emphasizes the importance of understanding tissue-resident Tregs in response to tissue-specific environment. Now, emerging evidence suggests that pancreatic-resident forkhead box P3(+) Tregs have distinguishable effects on the suppression of over-exuberant immune responses in autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D). Thus, there is growing interest in elucidating the role of pancreatic-resident Tregs that function and evolve in the local environment. In this review, we discuss the phenotype and function of Tregs residing in pancreatic tissues and pancreatic lymph nodes, with emphasis on the unique subpopulations of Tregs that control the disease progression in the context of T1D...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Markus Kiefer, Ute Neff, Markus M Schmid, Manfred Spitzer, Bernhard J Connemann, Carlos Schönfeldt-Lecuona
Adult patients with borderline personality disorders (BPD) frequently have attachments to inanimate transitional objects (TOs) such as stuffed animals. Using event-related potential (ERP) recordings, we determined in patients with BPD the neural correlates of the processing of these attachment-relevant objects and their functional significance. Sixteen female patients with BPD viewed pictures of their TOs, other familiar stuffed toys (familiar objects, FOs), and unfamiliar objects (UOs). ERPs in the patients were compared to those in 16 matched healthy controls who possessed a stuffed animal of comparably high familiarity...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nicole Wolff, Moritz Mückschel, Tjalf Ziemssen, Christian Beste
Cognitive flexibility is a major requirement for successful goal-directed behavior and their neurobiological underpinnings are becoming better understood. However, the role of the norepinephrine system during task switching is largely enigmatic, despite neurobiological considerations make it likely that the norepinephrine system likely plays an important role. Theoretical considerations also suggest that the norepinephrine system mainly modulates task-switching processes when these rely upon working memory mechanisms...
October 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Jiaping Cheng, Can Jiao, Yuejia Luo, Fang Cui
In the current study, we explored the time course of processing other's pain under induced happy or sad moods. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded when participants observing pictures showing others in painful or non-painful situations. Mood induction procedures were applied to the participants before the picture observation task. Happy and sad moods were induced by listening to about 10 minutes of music excerpts selected from the Chinese Affective Music System (CAMS). The ERP results revealed that the induced mood can influence the early automatic components N1, P2, and N2 but not the later top-down controlled components P3 and LPP...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Caitlin M Hudac, Cathryn S Cortesa, Patrick S Ledwidge, Dennis L Molfese
Sports-related concussions occur in approximately 21% of college athletes with implications for long-term cognitive impairments in working memory. Working memory involves the capacity to maintain short-term information and integrate with higher-order cognitive processing for planning and behavior execution, critical skills for optimal cognitive and athletic performance. This study quantified working memory impairments in 36 American football college athletes (18-23years old) using event-related potentials (ERPs)...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Hidetomo Kobayashi, Tadamune Otsubo, Fumiteru Teraoka, Kiyoshi Ikeda, Soshi Seike, Eizo Takahashi, Keinosuke Okamoto, Toru Yoshida, Hideaki Tsuge, Hiroyasu Yamanaka
Aeromonas sobria serine protease (ASP) is an extracellular serine protease secreted by the organism. Here, we identified the amino acid residue of ASP that contributes to substrate specificity by using both synthetic peptides and biological protein components. The results showed that the arginine residue at position 566 (Arg-566) of ASP, which is located in the extra occluding region of ASP close to an entrance of the catalytic cavity, is involved in the substrate specificity. A substitutional point mutation of the Arg-566 residue of ASP to Ala residue (ASP[R566A]) caused a decrease of the proteolytic efficiency for a certain substrate...
2017: PloS One
Xiaobo Pan, Ming Wen, Guijie He, Hongyi Li, Dianzeng Jia
Pb2Mg(PO4)2, Pb4Zn8(PO4)8 and α-BaZn2(PO4)2 have been synthesized by the standard solid-state reaction and their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction for the first time. Pb2Mg(PO4)2, Pb4Zn8(PO4)8 and α-BaZn2(PO4)2 crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system, P21/c, C2/c and the trigonal crystal system, P3[combining macron]m1, respectively. The structure of Pb2Mg(PO4)2 possesses a three-dimensional framework consisting of MgO6 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra and the Pb(2+) cations reside in the [Mg6P6O12] tunnels...
October 12, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Zoe J Oliver, Filipe Cristino, Mark V Roberts, Alan J Pegna, E Charles Leek
The role of stereo disparity in the recognition of 3-dimensional (3D) object shape remains an unresolved issue for theoretical models of the human visual system. We examined this issue using high-density (128 channel) recordings of event-related potentials (ERPs). A recognition memory task was used in which observers were trained to recognize a subset of complex, multipart, 3D novel objects under conditions of either (bi-) monocular or stereo viewing. In a subsequent test phase they discriminated previously trained targets from untrained distractor objects that shared either local parts, 3D spatial configuration, or neither dimension, across both previously seen and novel viewpoints...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
C R S Prakoeswa, N Herwanto, R Prameswari, L Astari, S Sawitri, A N Hidayati, D M Indramaya, E R Kusumowidagdo, I S Surono
Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 is a novel probiotic isolated from dadih, an Indonesian traditional fermented buffalo milk. It's in vitro and in vivo probiotic properties have been assessed. Probiotic function has been shown in vivo by the suppression of allergic reactions in BALB/c mice through the action of T-regulatory cells cytokines by balancing Th1 and Th2 immune response. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disease characterised by the imbalance of Th1 and Th2. The aim of the study was to assess the probiotic function of L...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
Aditya Sudhalkar, Laurent Kodjikian, Jay Chhablani, Deepak Bhojwani, Abhay Vasavada
PURPOSE: To determine the association between the dexamethasone implant position in the vitreous cavity and ocular hypertension (OHT). METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with at least one intravitreal dexamethasone implant injection between 2012 and 2016. Patients who had a minimum follow-up for 6 months and documented evidence of the implant position were included in the study. Steroid responders, glaucoma patients, vitrectomized eyes, and eyes with liquefied vitreous were excluded...
October 9, 2017: Retina
Ruida Zhu, Haiyan Wu, Zhenhua Xu, Honghong Tang, Xueyi Shen, Xiaoqin Mai, Chao Liu
Shame and guilt have been compared in many behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. However, the time course of shame and guilt processing remains unknown. We conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study to investigate the temporal dynamics of shame and guilt in an interpersonal context. Behaviorally, participants reported "shame" when their wrong advice was correctly rejected by a confederate, whereas reported "guilt" when their wrong advice resulted in economic loss of a confederate...
October 10, 2017: Social Neuroscience
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