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Mohammad Reza Safari, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Rezvan Noroozi, Arezou Sayad, Mir Davood Omrani, Alireza Komaki, Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Mohammad Taheri
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a group of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders associated with immune system dysregulation. There are supporting evidences for the role of Forkhead Box P3 (FOXP3) gene as a lineage specification factor of regulatory T cells in the pathogenesis of ASD. The aim of this study was to explore possible relationship between genetic variants rs2232365 and rs3761548 of FOXP3 and ASD in 523 ASD patients versus 472 control individuals. Allele frequency analyses showed significant overpresentation of rs2232365-G allele in cases versus controls...
October 14, 2016: Gene
Shi-Fa Zhang, Yan Zhou, Kai-Jing Zhang, Jia-Jie Luan, Shi-Mei Qi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) silencing with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) on brain injury repair in preterm rats with brain injury caused by intrauterine infection and related mechanism of action. METHODS: The pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (with a gestational age of 15 days) were selected, and premature delivery was induced by RU486 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The preterm rats delivered by those treated with RU486 were selected as the control group...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Muhammad Sallouh, Marvin Jarocki, Omar Sallouh, Patrick Degen, Andreas Faissner, Ralf Weberskirch
This article reports the behavior of embryonic neural stem cells on a hydrogel that combines cationic, non-specific cell adhesion motifs with glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine-phenylalanine (GRGDSF)-peptides as specific cell adhesion moieties. Therefore, three hydrogels are prepared by free radical polymerization that contains either a GRGDSF-peptide residue (P1), amino ethylmethacrylate as a cationic residue (P2), or a combination of both motifs (P3). For each gel, cross linker concentrations of 8 mol% is used to have a comparable gel stiffness of 8-9 kPa...
October 17, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Jonathan M Highsmith, Karl L Wuensch, Tuan Tran, Alexandra J Stephenson, D Erik Everhart
ERP studies commonly utilize gambling-based reinforcement tasks to elicit feedback negativity (FN) responses. This study used a pattern learning task in order to limit gambling-related fallacious reasoning and possible affective responses to gambling, while investigating relationships between the FN components between high and low reward expectation conditions. Eighteen undergraduates completed measures of reinforcement sensitivity, trait and state affect, and psychophysiological recording. The pattern learning task elicited a FN component for both high and low win expectancy conditions, which was found to be independent of reward expectation and showed little relationship with task and personality variables...
April 18, 2016: Brain Informatics
Shu-Jing Yu, Rong Jiang, Ying Z Mazzu, Cai-Bing Wei, Zong-Liang Sun, Yu-Zhen Zhang, Lian-Di Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhang
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure. Disruption of the Th17/Treg balance can lead to hepatic inflammation, which causes the main symptoms of DILI. Here we investigate the protective mechanisms of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on triptolide (TP)-induced DILI that shows the Th17/Treg imbalance. Pretreatment with EGCG (5[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for 10 days before TP (0.5[Formula: see text]mg/kg) administration in mice significantly reduced the increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ([Formula: see text]) induced by TP treatment...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Namita A Padgaonkar, Theodore P Zanto, Jacob Bollinger, Adam Gazzaley
Older adults, compared to younger adults, do not benefit from predictive information regarding either what type of stimuli they will see or when to expect them, yet it is unclear whether older adults benefit when given both types of predictive information. Here, electroencephalogram recordings of older (aged 62-87 years) and younger (aged 20-32 years) adults were recorded during a working memory task. Each trial contained 2 faces and 2 scenes presented sequentially, followed by a 5-second delay and a probe stimulus...
September 13, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Elke Godefroid, Jan R Wiersema
The current study examined the mechanisms of attention allocation in adult ADHD to investigate the frequently reported diminished target processing in ADHD as well as the less consistently observed increased distractibility by task-irrelevant distracting stimuli. To this end, while high-density EEG was recorded, 25 adults with ADHD and 23 healthy controls completed a 4-stimulus oddball task that comprised a frequently presented standard stimulus and 3 different categories of equally infrequent stimuli: task-relevant targets, task-irrelevant nontargets, and task-irrelevant unfamiliar novels...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Christian Pagnoux
Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are small-vessel vasculitides that include granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener's granulomatosis), microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Renal-limited ANCA-associated vasculitides can be considered the fourth entity. Despite their rarity and still unknown cause(s), research pertaining to ANCA-associated vasculitides has been very active over the past decades. The pathogenic role of antimyeloperoxidase ANCA (MPO-ANCA) has been supported using several animal models, but that of antiproteinase 3 ANCA (PR3-ANCA) has not been as strongly demonstrated...
September 2016: Eur J Rheumatol
Wei Fan, Yiping Zhong, Jin Li, Zilu Yang, Youlong Zhan, Ronghua Cai, Xiaolan Fu
We investigated the influence of negative emotion on the degree of self-reference effect using event-related potentials (ERPs). We presented emotional pictures and self-referential stimuli (stimuli that accelerate and improve processing and improve memory of information related to an individual's self-concept) in sequence. Participants judged the color of the target stimulus (self-referential stimuli). ERP results showed that the target stimuli elicited larger P2 amplitudes under neutral conditions than under negative emotional conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Miran Han, Hyun Gi Kim, Jung-Dong Lee, Seon Young Park, Young Keun Sur
BACKGROUND: The urinary tract dilation (UTD) classification system was proposed in 2014. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correspondence and reliability of two US grading systems for postnatal urinary tract dilatation in infants: the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) and the UTD systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed 180 kidneys in infants younger than 1 year. Four radiologists assessed the kidneys twice using both the SFU system (grades 0 to 4) and the UTD system (grades normal, P1, P2, P3)...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Jian-Fei Tu, Ya-Hui Ding, Xi-Hui Ying, Fa-Zong Wu, Xin-Mu Zhou, Deng-Ke Zhang, Hai Zou, Jian-Song Ji
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumour, especially in Asia. Its prognosis is poor, and there are limited methods for predicting patient survival. This study was carried out to analyse the prognostic value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), especially regulatory T cells (Tregs), in HCC patients. TILs were analysed in 57 randomly selected HCC patients. The prognostic effects of groups with high and low numbers were evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier and Cox model analyses. Although higher densities of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) as well as CD56(+) NK cells and CD68(+) macrophages were observed in peritumoural tissue, increased numbers of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor P3(+) (FOXP3(+)) Tregs were found in intratumoural tissue...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Pratibha Kottapalli, Mauricio Ulloa, Kameswara Rao Kottapalli, Paxton Payton, John Burke
The objective of this study was to explore the known narrow genetic diversity and discover single-nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers for marker-assisted breeding within Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) leaf transcriptomes. cDNA from 25-day plants of three diverse cotton genotypes [Pima S6 (PS6), Pima S7 (PS7), and Pima 3-79 (P3-79)] was sequenced on Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 28.9 million reads (average read length of 138 bp) were generated by sequencing cDNA libraries of these three genotypes...
2016: Genomics Insights
Moritz Mückschel, Krutika Gohil, Tjalf Ziemssen, Christian Beste
The ability to execute several actions in a specific temporal order to achieve an overarching goal, a process often termed action cascading or multi-component behavior, is essential for everyday life requirements. We are only at the beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms important for these cognitive processes. However, it is likely that the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system may be of importance. In the current study we examine the relevance of the LC-NE system for action cascading processes using a system neurophysiological approach combining high-density EEG recordings and source localization to analyze event-related potentials (ERPs) with recordings of pupil diameter as a proximate of LC-NE system activity...
October 5, 2016: NeuroImage
Marcella Araújo Manfredi, Alyne Alexandrino Antunes, Larissa de Oliveira Passos Jesus, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Luiz Juliano, Wagner Alves de Souza Judice
Kex2 is a Ca(2+)-dependent serine protease from S. cerevisiae. Characterization of the substrate specificity of Kex2 is of particular interest because this protease serves as the prototype of a large family of eukaryotic subtilisin-related proprotein-processing proteases that cleave sites consisting of pairs or clusters of basic residues. Our goal was to study the prime region subsite S' of Kex2 because previous studies have only taken into account non-prime sites using AMC substrates but not the specificity of prime sites identified through structural modeling or predicted cleavage sites...
October 5, 2016: Biochimie
M A Tosca, M Silvestri, R Olcese, O Sacco, A Pistorio, G A Rossi, G Ciprandi
BACKGROUND: Respiratory allergy is characterised by an IgE-mediated reaction. The immune system functions, including IgE production, progressively decline over time with growing up and ageing. Molecular-based allergy diagnostic defines sensitisation profile. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of age on serum allergen-specific IgE to molecular component levels in a large sample of subjects. METHODS: Serum IgE to: rCor a11, rPru p3, nJug r3, rAra h8, rGly m4, rCor a8, nPen m1, nAct d8, Bos d 8, and nGal d2 were assessed by ISAC method...
October 5, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Tammie Wei Yi Tham, Xu Xu, Andrew Ti Heong Yeoh, Weibiao Zhou
Three commercial infant formulas (denoted as P1, P2 and P3) were stored at 25, 45 and 60°C for up to 6weeks to study the caking phenomenon caused by fat bridging. At 60°C, both the surface free-fat content and the caking strength increased significantly. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of P1 showed that high-melting-point fatty acids were present on powder surface whereas low-melting-point fatty acids remained within powder particles. There was no preferential migration or retention of specific fatty acids in P2...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Sónia do Vale, Lenka Selinger, João Martin Martins, Manuel Bicho, Isabel do Carmo, Carles Escera
Several studies have suggested that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) may enhance working memory and attention, yet current evidence is still inconclusive. The balance between both forms of the hormone might be crucial regarding the effects that DHEA and DHEAS exert on the central nervous system. To test the hypothesis that higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratios might enhance working memory and/or involuntary attention, we studied the DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio in relation to involuntary attention and working memory processing by recording the electroencephalogram of 22 young women while performing a working memory load task and a task without working memory load in an audio-visual oddball paradigm...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Sungji Ha, Hyunjun Park, Usman Mahmood, Jeong Chan Ra, Yoo-Hun Suh, Keun-A Chang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and patients often display repetitive behaviors. Although the global prevalence of ASD has increased over time, the etiology and treatments for ASD are poorly understood. Recently, some researchers have suggested that stem cells have therapeutic potential for ASD. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs), a kind of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adipose tissue, on ASD using valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism model mice...
October 4, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Elmer Hoekstra, Asha M Das, Marcella Willemsen, Marloes Swets, Peter J K Kuppen, Christien J van der Woude, Marco J Bruno, Jigisha P Shah, Timo L M Ten Hagen, John D Chisholm, William G Kerr, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Gwenny M Fuhler
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death, encouraging the search for novel therapeutic targets affecting tumor cell proliferation and migration. These cellular processes are under tight control of two opposing groups of enzymes; kinases and phosphatases. Aberrant activity of kinases is observed in many forms of cancer and as phosphatases counteract such "oncogenic" kinases, it is generally assumed that phosphatases function as tumor suppressors. However, emerging evidence suggests that the lipid phosphatase SH2-domain-containing 5 inositol phosphatase (SHIP2), encoded by the INPPL1 gene, may act as an oncogene...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
Anawat Pakdeesuwan, Tomohiro Araki, Sakda Daduang, Wisarut Payoungkiattikun, Nisachon Jangpromma, Sompong Klaynongsruang
The hydrolysis of proteins constitutes an invaluable tool granting access to a variety of peptide fragments with potentially interesting biological properties. Therefore, hemoglobin (Hb) hydrolysate of Crocodylus siamensis was generated by digestion under acidic conditions. The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Hb hydrolysate were assessed in comparison with intact Hb. A disc diffusion assay revealed that the Hb hydrolysate exhibited antibacterial activity against eight strains of Gram-positive bacteria and showed a higher efficacy than intact Hb...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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