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Tugce Ipek, Mariana Petronela Hanga, Andreas Hartwig, James Wolffsohn, Clare O'Donnell
PURPOSE: Cataract surgery can lead to the temporary development or worsening of dry eye symptoms. Contributing factors may include corneal incisions, agents used before, during or after surgery, light from the operating microscope, disruption of ocular surface tissues and inflammatory processes. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of light exposure on conjunctival fibroblasts in order to determine whether light has an effect on wound healing closure, assuming that operating microscopes might have an effect on the ocular surface...
December 6, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
G McLoughlin, J Palmer, S Makeig, N Bigdely-Shamlo, T Banaschewski, M Laucht, D Brandeis
Cognitive or executive control is a critical mental ability, an important marker of mental illness, and among the most heritable of neurocognitive traits. Two candidate genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and DRD4, which both have a roles in the regulation of cortical dopamine, have been consistently associated with cognitive control. Here, we predicted that individuals with the COMT Met/Met allele would show improved response execution and inhibition as indexed by event-related potentials in a Go/NoGo task, while individuals with the DRD4 7-repeat allele would show impaired brain activity...
December 8, 2017: Brain Topography
Micheal Sandbank, Paul Yoder, Alexandra P Key
Purpose: This investigation was conducted to determine whether young children with autism spectrum disorders exhibited a canonical neural response to word stimuli and whether putative event-related potential (ERP) measures of word processing were correlated with a concurrent measure of receptive language. Additional exploratory analyses were used to examine whether the magnitude of the association between ERP measures of word processing and receptive language varied as a function of the number of word stimuli the participants reportedly understood...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Jun Yuan, Shuxian Chen, Liping Wang, Tingting Xu, Xu Shi, Yi Jing, Haijiang Zhang, Yange Huang, Ying Xu, Dong Li, Xing Chen, Jianhui Chen, Qingping Xiong
The aim of this paper was to prepare purified fractions of polysaccharides from Monetaria moneta Linnaeus and further compare their characteristics and antioxidant activities. Firstly, three novel purified fractions, named MM-P1, MM-P2 and MM-P3, were successfully prepared by a DEAE-Sepharose fast-flow column. Then, their characteristics were compared using chemical testing, FT-IR, GC and HPGPC. The results suggested that MM-P3 had higher molecular weights than MM-P1 and MM-P2. MM-P1 was consisted of glucose, MM-P2 was consisted of glucose and xylose, and MM-P3 was comprised of glucose, xylose and mannose...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Cynthia Blankenship
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
Liurukara D Sanjeewa, Vasile O Garlea, Michael A McGuire, Matthias Frontzek, Colin D McMillen, Kyle Fulle, Joseph W Kolis
The structural and magnetic properties of a glaserite-type Na2BaFe(VO4)2 compound, featuring a triangular magnetic lattice of Fe2+ (S = 2), are reported. Temperature dependent X-ray single crystal studies indicate that at room temperature the system adopts a trigonal P3̅m1 structure and undergoes a structural phase transition to a C2/c monoclinic phase slightly below room temperature (Ts = 288 K). This structural transition involves a tilting of Fe-O-V bond angles and strongly influences the magnetic correlation within the Fe triangular lattice...
December 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Basmah S Al Dulaijan, Amr Mansouri, Jordan Karnyski, Jamil Azzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The main objective of this review is to briefly highlight how we gradually came to understand regulatory T cells (Tregs) and forkhead box p3 (FoxP3) biology, including their function and regulation. We will also discuss how this knowledge is being translated into the clinical setting and the significant challenges that need to be overcome. RECENT FINDINGS: CD4FoxP3 Tregs are key players in immune regulation. Their deficiency and dysfunction have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases...
November 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Peipei Xu, Wei Fan, Zheng Zhang, June Wang, Ping Wang, Yirong Li, Mingxia Yu
Background and Objective: Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) is known as the specific marker for regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs), which are responsible for self-tolerance and disturb the antitumor immunity. However, the prognostic implication of tumor-infiltrating FoxP3+ Tregs in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) still remains controversial. The aim of this present study was to investigate the prognostic role of FoxP3+ Tregs in CRC through meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for relevant articles up to December 12, 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Nafiseh Sadat Nabavi, Fakhrozzaman Pezeshkpoor, Narges Valizadeh, Sanaz Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Seyyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
The immunopathogenesis of lupoid leishmaniasis is challenging. Although, an appropriate immune response is critical for controlling these parasites, inappropriate inflammatory reactions can also promote increased pathology. The role of immune-modulatory effect of the main transcription factors and cytokines of Tregulatory and Th-17 cells in pathogenesis of leishmaniasis chronicity was investigated in the present study. The gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1), forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), interleukin-17(IL-17A), and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (ROrC) was assessed in PBMCs of eighty blood samples from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients with usual lesions (n = 31), lupoid lesions (n = 29), and healthy volunteers (n = 20)...
December 4, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Ruolei Gu, Dandan Zhang, Yi Luo, Hongyan Wang, Lucas S Broster
Event-related potential (ERP) has the potential to reveal the temporal neurophysiological dynamics of risk decision-making, but this potential has not been fully explored in previous studies. When predicting risk decision with ERPs, most studies focus on between-trial analysis that reflects feedback learning, while within-trial analysis that could directly link option assessment with behavioral output has been largely ignored. Suitable task design is crucial for applying within-trial prediction. In this study, we used a modified version of the classic Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART)...
December 4, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Solana G Alculumbre, Violaine Saint-André, Jeremy Di Domizio, Pablo Vargas, Philemon Sirven, Pierre Bost, Mathieu Maurin, Paolo Maiuri, Maxime Wery, Mabel San Roman, Léa Savey, Maxime Touzot, Benjamin Terrier, David Saadoun, Curdin Conrad, Michel Gilliet, Antonin Morillon, Vassili Soumelis
Innate immune cells adjust to microbial and inflammatory stimuli through a process termed environmental plasticity, which links a given individual stimulus to a unique activated state. Here, we report that activation of human plasmacytoid predendritic cells (pDCs) with a single microbial or cytokine stimulus triggers cell diversification into three stable subpopulations (P1-P3). P1-pDCs (PD-L1+CD80-) displayed a plasmacytoid morphology and specialization for type I interferon production. P3-pDCs (PD-L1-CD80+) adopted a dendritic morphology and adaptive immune functions...
December 4, 2017: Nature Immunology
L Bourdier, Y Morvan, G Kotbagi, L Kern, L Romo, S Berthoz
It is now recognized that emotions can influence food intake. While some people report eating less when distressed, others report either no change of eating or eating more in the same condition. The question whether this interindividual variability also occurs in response to positive emotions has been overlooked in most studies on Emotional Eating (EE). Using the Emotional Appetite Questionnaire (EMAQ) and Latent Profile Analysis, this study aimed to examine the existence of latent emotion-induced changes in eating profiles, and explore how these profiles differ by testing their relations with 1) age and sex, 2) BMI and risk for eating disorders (ED) and 3) factors that are known to be associated with EE such as perceived positive/negative feelings, depression, anxiety, stress symptoms and impulsivity...
December 1, 2017: Appetite
Gildardo Rivera, Syed Shoaib Ahmad Shah, Daniel Arrieta-Baez, Isidro Palos, Antonio Mongue, Luvia Enid Sánchez-Torres
Quinoxalines display diverse and interesting pharmacological activities as antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic and anticancer agents. Particularly, their 1`4-di-N-oxide derivatives have proved to be cytotoxic agents that are active under hypoxic conditions as that of solid tumours. A new series of quinoxaline 1`4-di-N-oxide substitutes at 7-position with esters group were synthetized and characterized by infrared (IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Seventeen derivatives (M1-M3, E1-E8, P1-P3 and DR1-DR3) were selected and evaluated for antitumor activities using the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines screen...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Yun Bu, Yan Gao
The Tullbergiidae of Tibet is studied for the first time and the genus Metaphorura Bagnall, 1936 is firstly recorded in China. Metaphorura motuoensissp. n. from southeastern Tibet is described and illustrated. It is characterized by the presence of 1+1 pseudocelli on thoracic segment I, few vesicles (14 -16) on PAO, pseudocellar formula as 11/111/11111, all pseudocelli of type II, setae p4 on abdominal segment V as microsetae, weakly differentiated sensory seta p3 on abdominal segment V, absence of median process on Abd VI...
2017: ZooKeys
Tao Jiang, Xiu-Qin Wang, Chuan Ding, Xue-Lian Du
Anesthetics are used extensively in surgeries and related procedures to prevent pain. However, there is some concern regarding neuronal degeneration and cognitive deficits arising from regular anesthetic exposure. Recent studies have indicated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are involved in learning and memory processes. Genistein, a plant-derived isoflavone, has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects. The present study was performed to examine the protective effect of genistein against isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in rats...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Aya Yokota-Nakatsuma
 Vitamin A (VA) plays critical roles in gut homeostasis. Dendritic cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN-DCs) can metabolize VA to retinoic acid (RA), thereby inducing gut-tropic lymphocytes and enhancing peripheral differentiation of regulatory T cells expressing forkhead box P3. We found that MLN-DCs from VA-deficient mice induced a distinct inflammatory T helper type 2 (Th2)-cell subset that produced abundant interleukin-13 (IL-13) and expressed receptors for homing to skin and inflammatory sites but not to the intestine...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Luis H Braga, Melissa McGrath, Forough Farrokhyar, Kizanee Jegatheeswaran, Armando J Lorenzo
PURPOSE: The Urinary Tract Dilation (UTD) grading system for prenatal hydronephrosis (HN) was introduced to address potential shortcomings of the SFU classification. HN resolution is an important patient outcome and frequently discussed during family counselling. Herein we compare these two grading systems and their ability to predict time to HN resolution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 855 prospectively screened patients between 2009-2015 with prenatal HN due to uretero-pelvic junction-like, primary non-refluxing megaureter or vesico-ureteral reflux; with 454 being excluded due to surgeries, late referrals, absence of postnatal dilation and presence of other anomalies, resulting in 401 eligible patients to be included for analyses...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Urology
F Gorzin, A A Amirzargar, M J Mahmoudi, Z Rahnemoon, F Najmi Varzaneh, M Hedayat, S Sadati, V Eskandari, Z Rahmati, N Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Distinct subsets of T cells play crucial regulatory roles in inflammatory processes of chronic heart failure (CHF). Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-γt (Ror-γt) and Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) have been defined as the "master regulators" of Th17 cells and Treg cells, respectively. At the same time, anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 may neutralize inflammation in CHF. The current study was designed to compare FOXP3, RORγt and IL-10 protein expression in the blood and IL-10 in supernatant PBMCs in CHF patients versus normal subjects...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Yebing Yu, Changhai Wang, Aimin Wang, Wenping Yang, Fu Lv, Fei Liu, Bo Liu, Cunxin Sun
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various Bacillus coagulans feeding patterns on growth, antioxidant parameter and Nrf2 pathway in juvenile gibel carp. The similar size of gibel carp (initial weight: 14.33 ± 0.15 g) were subjected to three levels of B. coagulans supplementation (0, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) and two feeding modes (supplementing B. coagulans continuously or for two days of B. coagulans after 5 days of a basal diet) according to a 3 × 2 factorial design. The fish that were continuously fed 500 mg/kg B...
November 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Qiwei Yang, Ding Zhao, Yan Wu, Ping Tang, Ruolei Gu, Yue-Jia Luo
Previous research has revealed that incidental emotions of different valence (positive/negative/neutral) produce distinct impacts on risk decision-making. This study went on to compare the effects of different emotions of which the valence are identical. We focused on anger and fear, both of which are negative emotions but differ in motivational and appraisal dimensions. Participants finished a forced-choice gambling task, during which incidental emotions (anger/fear/happy) were elicited by facial stimuli selected from the Chinese Facial Affective Picture System...
November 28, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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