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Yu-Ping Lin, Charmaine Nelson, Holger Kramer, Anant B Parekh
The house dust mite is the principal source of perennial aeroallergens in man. How these allergens activate innate and adaptive immunity is unclear, and therefore, there are no therapies targeting mite allergens. Here, we show that house dust mite extract activates store-operated Ca2+ channels, a common signaling module in numerous cell types in the lung. Activation of channel pore-forming Orai1 subunits by mite extract requires gating by STIM1 proteins. Although mite extract stimulates both protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR2) and PAR4 receptors, Ca2+ influx is more tightly coupled to the PAR4 pathway...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Cell
Fenny S Zwart, Constance Th W M Vissers, Roy P C Kessels, Joseph H R Maes
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are two neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication skills. These skills are thought to develop largely through implicit-or automatic-learning mechanisms. The aim of the current paper was to investigate the role of implicit learning abilities in the atypical development of communication skills in ASD and SLI. In the current study, we investigated Response Times (RTs) and Event Related Potentials (ERPs) during implicit learning on a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task in a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 17), a group of autistic children (n = 16), and a group of children with SLI (n = 13)...
April 20, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Christoph Justen, Cornelia Herbert
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of passive and active deviance and target detection in the well-known auditory oddball paradigm by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The present auditory oddball study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of passive versus active deviance and target detection by analyzing amplitude modulations of early and late ERPs while at the same time exploring the neural sources underling this modulation with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) ...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Xin Liu, Xinmu Hu, Kan Shi, Xiaoqin Mai
Empathy plays a central role in social decisions involving psychological conflict, such as whether to help another person at the cost of one's own interests. Using the event-related potential (ERP) technique, the current study explored the neural mechanisms underlying the empathic effect on the evaluation processing of outcomes in conflict-of-interest situations, in which the gain of others resulted in the performer's loss. In the high-empathy condition, the beneficiaries were underprivileged students who were living in distress (stranger in need)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Inês Bártolo, Ana Rita Diniz, Pedro Borrego, João Pedro Ferreira, Maria Rosário Bronze, Helena Barroso, Rui Pinto, Carlos Cardoso, João F Pinto, Rafael Ceña Diaz, Pilar Garcia Broncano, Maria Angel Muñoz-Fernández, Nuno Taveira
Microbicides are an important strategy for preventing the sexual transmission of HIV but, so far, the most advanced tenofovir-based microbicides have had modest efficacy. This has been related to adherence problems and high prevalence of tenofovir-resistant HIV-1 strains. P3 is a new peptide with potent activity against HIV that may be a good microbicide candidate. In this work P3 was formulated in a gel of hydroxyethyl cellulose and its activity, stability and safety profile in Balb/c mice were evaluated. HIV infection was fully blocked by a 1...
2018: PloS One
Guochen Zhang, Xin Zhao, Ping Ning, Danni Yang, Xia Jiang, Wenju Jiang
In this study, MnO2 and pyrolusite were used as the catalysts to prepare modified activated carbon, i.e., AC-Mn and AC-P, respectively, from coals by blending method and steam activation. The BET results indicated that the AC-P had higher surface areas and micropore volumes than the AC-Mn with the same blending ratio. The relative contents of basic functional groups (i.e. C = O, π-π*) on AC-P were slightly lower than those on AC-Mn, while both contained the same main metal species, i.e. MnO. The desulfurization results showed that with 3 wt% of blending ratio, AC-Mn3 and AC-P3 had higher sulfur capacities at 220 and 205 mg/g, respectively, which were much higher than blank one (149...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Liqi Sun, Yingying Xie, Xiao-Zhen Liao, Hong Wang, Guoqiang Tan, Zonghai Chen, Yang Ren, Jihyeon Gim, Wan Tang, Yu-Shi He, Khalil Amine, Zi-Feng Ma
O3-type NaNi1/3 Fe1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NaNFM) is well investigated as a promising cathode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), but the cycling stability of NaNFM still needs to be improved by using novel electrolytes or optimizing their structure with the substitution of different elements sites. To enlarge the alkali-layer distance inside the layer structure of NaNFM may benefit Na+ diffusion. Herein, the effect of Ca-substitution is reported in Na sites on the structural and electrochemical properties of Na1- x Cax /2 NFM (x = 0, 0...
April 18, 2018: Small
Gheath Alatrash, Alexander A Perakis, Celine Kerros, Haley L Peters, Pariya Sukhumalchandra, Mao Zhang, Haroon Jakher, Madhushree Zope, Rebecca S Patenia, Anna Sergeeva, Shuhua Yi, Ken H Young, Anne V Philips, Amanda C Herrmann, Haven R Garber, Na Qiao, Jinsheng Weng, Lisa S St John, Sijie Lu, Karen Clise-Dwyer, Elizabeth A Mittendorf, Qing Ma, Jeffrey J Molldrem
PURPOSE: PR1 is a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 nonameric peptide derived from neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (P3). We have previously shown that PR1 is cross-presented by solid tumors, leukemia, and antigen presenting cells, including B cells. We have also shown that cross-presentation of PR1 by solid tumors renders them susceptible to killing by PR1-targeting immunotherapies. Since multiple myeloma (MM) is derived from B cells, we investigated whether MM is also capable of PR1 cross-presentation and subsequently capable of being targeted using PR1 immunotherapies...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Hardany Primarizky, Bambang Sektiari Lukiswanto
Aim: This research aimed to evaluate the effects of pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid on the incised wound in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty albino rats were divided into 10 treatment groups. The five groups were sacrificed on the 8th day, while the others were sacrificed on the 15th day. Two groups of albino rats with incised wound were not treated at all (P0), the other two groups of albino rats with incised wound were treated with Betadine® (P1) ointment, and the rest of the groups were treated with pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid with a concentration of 2...
March 2018: Veterinary World
Fu-Hsien Yu, Chin-Tien Wang
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 protease (PR) activation is triggered by Gag-Pol dimerization. Premature PR activation results in reduced virion yields due to enhanced Gag cleavage. A p6* transframe peptide located directly upstream of protease is believed to play a modulating role in PR activation. Previous reports indicate that the C-terminal p6* tetra-peptide prevents premature PR activation triggered by a leucine zipper (LZ) dimerization motif inserted in the deleted p6* region. To clarify the involvement of C-terminal p6* residues in mitigating enhanced LZ-incurred Gag processing, we engineered constructs containing C-terminal p6* residue substitutions with and without a mutation blocking the p6*/PR cleavage site, and created other Gag or p6* domain-removing constructs...
April 14, 2018: Retrovirology
Elise D Kortink, Wouter D Weeda, Michael J Crowley, Bregtje Gunther Moor, Melle J W van der Molen
Monitoring social threat is essential for maintaining healthy social relationships, and recent studies suggest a neural alarm system that governs our response to social rejection. Frontal-midline theta (4-8 Hz) oscillatory power might act as a neural correlate of this system by being sensitive to unexpected social rejection. Here, we examined whether frontal-midline theta is modulated by individual differences in personality constructs sensitive to social disconnection. In addition, we examined the sensitivity of feedback-related brain potentials (i...
April 12, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Brian L Venables, Ny Sin, Alan Xiangdong Wang, Li-Qiang Sun, Yong Tu, Dennis Hernandez, Amy Sheaffer, Min Lee, Cindy Dunaj, Guangzhi Zhai, Diana Barry, Jacques Friborg, Fei Yu, Jay Knipe, Jason Sandquist, Paul Falk, Dawn Parker, Andrew C Good, Ramkumar Rajamani, Fiona McPhee, Nicholas A Meanwell, Paul M Scola
A series of tripeptidic acylsulfonamide inhibitors of HCV NS3 protease were prepared that explored structure-activity relationships (SARs) at the P4 position, and their in vitro and in vivo properties were evaluated. Enhanced potency was observed in a series of P4 ureas; however, the PK profiles of these analogues were less than optimal. In an effort to overcome the PK shortcomings, modifications to the P3-P4 junction were made. This included a strategy in which one of the two urea N-H groups was either N-methylated or replaced with an oxygen atom...
April 5, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Sae Byul Lee, Guiyun Sohn, Jisun Kim, Il Yong Chung, Hee Jeong Kim, Beom Seok Ko, Jong Won Lee, Byung Ho Son, Sung-Bae Kim, Sei-Hyun Ahn
Purpose: This study aimed to chronologically evaluate survival of patients with breast cancer in Korea and investigate the observed changes during the last 20 years. We also sought to determine factors that may influence outcomes and changes in the duration of survival over time. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a total of 10,988 patients with breast cancer who were treated at our institution between January 1993 and December 2008. We divided the study period into three periods (P1, 1993-1997; P2, 1998-2002; and P3, 2003-2008)...
March 2018: Journal of Breast Cancer
Oscar Hincapié, Paula Giraldo, Sergio Orduz
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have the potential to become valuable antimicrobial drugs in the coming years, since they offer wide spectrum of action, rapid bactericidal activity, and low probability for resistance development in comparison with traditional antibiotics. The search and improvement of methodologies for discovering new AMPs to treat resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are needed for further development of antimicrobial products...
April 6, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Clarence W Chan, Benjamin R Kiesel, Alfonso Mondragón
RNase P catalyzes the removal of 5' leaders of tRNA precursors and its central catalytic RNA subunit is highly conserved across all domains of life. In eukaryotes, RNase P and RNase MRP, a closely related ribonucleoprotein enzyme, share several of the same protein subunits, contain a similar catalytic RNA core, and exhibit structural features that do not exist in their bacterial or archaeal counterparts. A unique feature of eukaryotic RNase P/MRP is the presence of two relatively long and unpaired internal loops within the P3 region of their RNA subunit bound by a heterodimeric protein complex, Rpp20/Rpp25...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Aysun Uz
There are still different descriptions of the segmentation of the posterior cerebral artery, although there is a radiological and anatomical consensus on the segmentation of the anterior and the middle cerebral artery. This study aims to define the most appropriate localization for origin and end points of the segments through reviewing the segmentation of the posterior cerebral artery. The segments and the cortical branches originating from those segments of the 40 posterior cerebral arteries of 20 cadaver brains were examined under operating microscope...
April 6, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Patrick K Akakpo, Kofi Ulzen-Appiah, Evans Agbeno, Leonard Derkyi-Kwarteng
Objective: To raise awareness of the existence of a rare type of malignant trophoblastic tumor and discuss the diagnostic challenges and management of this lesion in a low resource setting. Case report and intervention: A 35 -year -old G6 P3 woman was referred to our facility on account of persistent vaginal bleeding due to a suspected incomplete miscarriage with a cervical mass. Her serum β-HCG was elevated (36,900 mIU/ml) and examination showed a bleeding cervical mass...
December 2017: Ghana Medical Journal
Hao Wu, Xuesong Xu, Jinzheng Li, Jianping Gong, Min Li
An acute reaction response (AR) following liver transplantation (LT) is caused by immune responses that are primarily mediated by T lymphocytes. Kupffer cells (KCs) are the largest antigen presenting cell (APC) group in vivo and are the primary modulators of the inflammatory or tolerogenic immune response in liver tissues. T cell immunoglobulin‑domain and mucin‑domain-4 (TIM‑4), the only TIM protein not expressed on T cells, is expressed on APCs; suggesting that it mediates the various immune responses...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Qiang Feng, Tao Tian, Junfeng Liu, Li Zhang, Jiangang Qi, Xiaojuan Lin
The present study aimed to identify the association between microRNA (miRNA/miR)‑31a‑5p and the development of hypertension, and its potential molecular mechanism. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blot analyses were performed to validate the candidate miRNA and genes involved in hypertension, following which an online miRNA database search, luciferase assay, and RT‑qPCR and western blot analyses were performed to confirm the interaction between miR‑31a‑5p and TP53...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Heni Puspitasari, Lucia T Suwanti, Mufasirin
Background: The study aimes to determine the effect of administering anti- T. gondii membrane IgY against liver damage (Necrotic index) and the effectiveness of the antibody's delivery time. Materials and Methods: This research was a laboratory experiment with five treatments and five replicantions. Each treatment used female mice ( Mus musculus ) as animal models. The treatment groups consisted of a P0 group (not infected), P1 group (infected), P2 group (anti- T...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
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