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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324022/postnatal-ontogeny-of-the-circadian-expression-of-the-adrenal-clock-genes-and-corticosterone-rhythm-in-male-rats
#1
Silvia Liliana Ruiz Roa, Edson Zangiacomi Martinez, Clarissa Silva Martins, Sonir Rauber Antonini, Margaret de Castro, Ayrton Custódio Moreira
The postnatal synchronization of the circadian variation of the adrenal clock genes in mammals remains unknown. We evaluated the postnatal ontogeny of daily variation of clock genes (Clock/Bmal1/Per1/Per2/Per3/Cry1/Cry2/Rorα/Rev-Erbα) and steroidogenesis-related genes (Star and Mc2r) in rat adrenals and its relationship with the emergence of plasma corticosterone rhythm using Cosinor analysis. Plasma corticosterone circadian rhythm was detected from postnatal day (P) P1, with morning acrophase, between zeitgeber time (ZT) ZT0 and ZT2...
January 25, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319827/immunophenotypical-characterization-of-canine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-perivisceral-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-by-a-species-specific-panel-of-antibodies
#2
Ana Ivanovska, Stefano Grolli, Paolo Borghetti, Francesca Ravanetti, Virna Conti, Elena De Angelis, Francesca Macchi, Roberto Ramoni, Paolo Martelli, Ferdinando Gazza, Antonio Cacchioli
Immunophenotypical characterization of mesenchymal stem cells is fundamental for the design and execution of sound experimental and clinical studies. The scarce availability of species-specific antibodies for canine antigens has hampered the immunophenotypical characterization of canine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The aim of this study was to select a panel of species-specific direct antibodies readily useful for canine mesenchymal stem cells characterization. They were isolated from perivisceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples collected during regular surgeries from 8 dogs...
February 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300615/heritability-of-brain-activity-related-to-response-inhibition-a-longitudinal-genetic-study-in-adolescent-twins
#3
Andrey P Anokhin, Simon Golosheykin, Julia D Grant, Andrew C Heath
The ability to inhibit prepotent but context- or goal-inappropriate responses is essential for adaptive self-regulation of behavior. Deficits in response inhibition, a key component of impulsivity, have been implicated as a core dysfunction in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as ADHD and addictions. Identification of genetically transmitted variation in the neural underpinnings of response inhibition can help to elucidate etiological pathways to these disorders and establish the links between genes, brain, and behavior...
March 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299954/working-memory-load-affects-repetitive-behaviour-but-not-cognitive-flexibility-in-adolescent-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Nicole Wolff, Witold X Chmielewski, Christian Beste, Veit Roessner
OBJECTIVES: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with repetitive and stereotyped behaviour, suggesting that cognitive flexibility may be deficient in ASD. A central, yet not examined aspect to understand possible deficits in flexible behaviour in ASD relates (i) to the role of working memory and (ii) to neurophysiological mechanisms underlying behavioural modulations. METHODS: We analysed behavioural and neurophysiological (EEG) correlates of cognitive flexibility using a task-switching paradigm with and without working memory load in adolescents with ASD and typically developing controls (TD)...
March 16, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295700/ti-substituted-nani0-5-mn0-5-x-tix-o2-cathodes-with-reversible-o3-p3-phase-transition-for-high-performance-sodium-ion-batteries
#5
Peng-Fei Wang, Hu-Rong Yao, Xin-Yu Liu, Jie-Nan Zhang, Lin Gu, Xi-Qian Yu, Ya-Xia Yin, Yu-Guo Guo
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as potential candidates for stationary energy storage because of the low cost and wide availability of Na sources. O3-type layered oxides have been considered as one of the most promising cathodes for SIBs. However, they commonly show inevitable complicated phase transitions and sluggish kinetics, incurring rapid capacity decline and poor rate capability. Here, a series of sodium-sufficient O3-type NaNi0.5 Mn0.5-x Ti x O2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) cathodes for SIBs is reported and the mechanisms behind their excellent electrochemical performance are studied in comparison to those of their respective end-members...
March 15, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295342/an-information-theory-account-of-late-frontoparietal-erp-positivities-in-cognitive-control
#6
Francisco Barceló, Patrick S Cooper
ERP research on task switching has revealed distinct transient and sustained positive waveforms (latency circa 300-900 ms) while shifting task rules or stimulus-response (S-R) mappings. However, it remains unclear whether such switch-related positivities show similar scalp topography and index context-updating mechanisms akin to those posed for domain-general (i.e., classic P300) positivities in many task domains. To examine this question, ERPs were recorded from 31 young adults (18-30 years) while they were intermittently cued to switch or repeat their perceptual categorization of Gabor gratings varying in color and thickness (switch task), or else they performed two visually identical control tasks (go/no-go and oddball)...
March 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294340/neuroprotective-effects-of-artemisinin-against-isoflurane-induced-cognitive-impairments-and-neuronal-cell-death-involve-jnk-erk1-2-signalling-and-improved-hippocampal-histone-acetylation-in-neonatal-rats
#7
Guang Xu, Yun-Li Huang, Ping-le Li, Hai-Ming Guo, Xue-Ping Han
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to assess the effect of artemisinin against isoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Artemisinin (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg b.wt/day; oral gavage) was administered to separate groups of neonatal rats starting from postnatal day 3 (P3) to postnatal day 21 (P21). On postnatal day 7 (P7), animals were exposed to inhalation anaesthetic isoflurane (0.75%) for 6 h. KEY FINDINGS: Neuronal apoptosis following anaesthetic exposure was significantly reduced by artemisinin...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294241/p2-and-p3-kxcoo2-as-an-electrochemical-potassium-intercalation-host
#8
Yuya Hironaka, Kei Kubota, Shinichi Komaba
Reversible and topotactic potassium intercalation of P2- and P3-KxCoO2 electrodes is studied in non-aqueous K cells for the first time. They deliver a highly reversible capacity of 60 mA h g(-1) in the voltage range 2.0-3.9 V accompanied by reversible phase transitions including potassium/vacancy orderings. The electrochemical properties and structural change of P2-KxCoO2 are compared to those of O2-LixCoO2 and P2-NaxCoO2.
March 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289850/neurophysiological-correlates-of-attentional-fluctuation-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Celeste H M Cheung, Gráinne McLoughlin, Daniel Brandeis, Tobias Banaschewski, Philip Asherson, Jonna Kuntsi
Cognitive performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised, in part, by frequent fluctuations in response speed, resulting in high reaction time variability (RTV). RTV captures a large proportion of the genetic risk in ADHD but, importantly, is malleable, improving significantly in a fast-paced, rewarded task condition. Using the temporal precision offered by event-related potentials (ERPs), we aimed to examine the neurophysiological measures of attention allocation (P3 amplitudes) and preparation (contingent negative variation, CNV), and their associations with the fluctuating RT performance and its improvement in ADHD...
March 14, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289304/blended-simulation-progress-testing-for-assessment-of-practice-readiness
#10
Neal Benedict, Pamela Smithburger, Amy Calabrese Donihi, Philip Empey, Lawrence Kobulinsky, Amy Seybert, Thomas Waters, Scott Drab, John Lutz, Deborah Farkas, Susan Meyer
Objective. To design an assessment of practice readiness using blended-simulation progress testing. Design. A five-station, blended simulation assessment was developed to evaluate patient care outcomes in first- and third-year pharmacy (P1 and P3) students, as well as first-year postgraduate (PGY1) pharmacy residents. This assessment of practice readiness included knowledge and performance evaluations administered as a progress test. Assessment. Eighteen PGY1 residents, 108 P3 students, and 106 P1 students completed the assessment...
February 25, 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289297/pharmacy-student-anxiety-and-success-with-objective-structured-clinical-examinations
#11
Daniel S Longyhore
Objective. To evaluate whether a relationship exists between the degree of student state-anxiety and pass rates on moderate-to-high stakes objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Methods. Third-professional year (P3) students were assessed using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) three weeks prior to their first moderate-to-high stakes OSCEs. Students' OSCE station pass rates, individual station analytical scores, and the overall pass rate for the class were compared with student responses on STAI surveys to measure their association...
February 25, 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289032/vrar-binding-to-the-promoter-region-of-agr-inhibits-its-function-in-visa-h-visa
#12
Yuanyuan Dai, Wenjiao Chang, Changcheng Zhao, Jing Peng, Liangfei Xu, Huaiwei Lu, Shusheng Zhou, Xiaoling Ma
Acquisition of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is often accompanied by a reduction in virulence, but the mechanisms underlying this change remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate this process in a clinical heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) strain 10827, a hVISA reference strain Mu3 and a VISA reference strain Mu50, along with their respective series of vancomycin-induced resistant strains. In these strains, increasing MICs of vancomycin were associated with increased expression of vancomycin resistance-associated regulator gene (vraR), and decreased expression of virulence genes (hla, hlb and coa) and virulence-regulated genes (RNAIII, agrA and saeR)...
March 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287133/activated-full-length-myosin-x-moves-processively-on-filopodia-with-large-steps-toward-diverse-two-dimensional-directions
#13
Osamu Sato, Hyun Suk Jung, Satoshi Komatsu, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Tomonobu M Watanabe, Kazuaki Homma, Mitsuo Ikebe
Myosin-X, (Myo 10), is an unconventional myosin that transports the specific cargos to filopodial tips, and is associated with the mechanism underlying filopodia formation and extension. To clarify the innate motor characteristic, we studied the single molecule movement of a full-length myosin-X construct with leucine zipper at the C-terminal end of the tail (M10(Full)LZ) and the tail-truncated myosin-X without artificial dimerization motif (BAP-M10(1-979)HMM). M10(Full)LZ localizes at the tip of filopodia like myosin-X full-length (M10(Full))...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287095/aboriginal-australian-mitochondrial-genome-variation-an-increased-understanding-of-population-antiquity-and-diversity
#14
Nano Nagle, Mannis van Oven, Stephen Wilcox, Sheila van Holst Pellekaan, Chris Tyler-Smith, Yali Xue, Kaye N Ballantyne, Leah Wilcox, Luka Papac, Karen Cooke, Roland A H van Oorschot, Peter McAllister, Lesley Williams, Manfred Kayser, R John Mitchell
Aboriginal Australians represent one of the oldest continuous cultures outside Africa, with evidence indicating that their ancestors arrived in the ancient landmass of Sahul (present-day New Guinea and Australia) ~55 thousand years ago. Genetic studies, though limited, have demonstrated both the uniqueness and antiquity of Aboriginal Australian genomes. We have further resolved known Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups and discovered novel indigenous lineages by sequencing the mitogenomes of 127 contemporary Aboriginal Australians...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285353/morphophysiological-study-of-digestive-system-litter-feeding-termite-cornitermes-cumulans-kollar-1832
#15
Géssica de Sousa, Vânia Cristina Dos Santos, Nelder de Figueiredo Gontijo, Reginaldo Constantino, Gabriela de Oliveira Paiva E Silva, Ana Cristina Bahia, Fabio Mendonça Gomes, Ednildo de Alcantara Machado
Termites are the major decomposers of lignocellulosic biomass on Earth and are commonly considered as biological reactor models for lignocellulose degradation. Despite their biotechnological potential, few studies have focused on the morphophysiological aspects of the termite digestive system. We therefore analyze the morphology, ultrastructure and gut luminal pH of the digestive system in workers of the litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Blattodea: Termitidae). Their digestive system is composed of salivary glands and an alimentary canal with a pH ranging from neutral to alkaline...
March 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284624/attenuation-of-an-original-us-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-strain-pc22a-via-serial-cell-culture-passage
#16
Chun-Ming Lin, Yixuan Hou, Douglas G Marthaler, Xiang Gao, Xinsheng Liu, Lanlan Zheng, Linda J Saif, Qiuhong Wang
Although porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has caused huge economic losses in the pork industry worldwide, an effective live, attenuated vaccine is lacking. In this study, an original US, highly virulent PED virus (PEDV) strain PC22A was serially passaged in Vero CCL81 and Vero BI cells. The virus growth kinetics in cell culture, virulence in neonatal pigs and the whole genomic sequences of selected passages were examined. Increased virus titers and sizes of syncytia were observed at the 65th passage level (P65) and P120, respectively...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283845/brief-report-biological-sound-processing-in-children-with-autistic-spectrum-disorder
#17
Melissa Lortie, Léa Proulx-Bégin, Dave Saint-Amour, Dominique Cousineau, Hugo Théoret, Jean-François Lepage
There is debate whether social impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are truly domain-specific, or if they reflect generalized deficits in lower-level cognitive processes. To solve this issue, we used auditory-evoked EEG responses to assess novelty detection (MMN component) and involuntary attentional orientation (P3 component) induced by socially-relevant, human-produced, biological sounds and acoustically-matched control stimuli in children with ASD and controls. Results show that early sensory and novelty processing of biological stimuli are preserved in ASD, but that automatic attentional orientation for biological sounds is markedly altered...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282096/bithienopyrroledione-vs-thienopyrroledione-based-copolymers-dramatic-increase-of-power-conversion-efficiency-in-bulk-heterojunction-solar-cells
#18
Xiaolan Qiao, Weichao Chen, Qinghe Wu, Shiqian Zhang, Hongzhuo Wu, Zhiqiang Liu, Renqiang Yang, Hongxiang Li
Bithienopyrroledione (bi-TPD) based polymers P1 and P2 are designed and synthesized. Photovoltaic devices based on P1:PC71BM and P2:PC71BM blend films show power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 8.22% and 9.08%, respectively, whereas devices based on their thienopyrroledione (TPD)-based analogue P3 and PC71BM blend films display a PCE of 5.10%.
March 10, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281852/the-patterns-of-eeg-changes-in-early-onset-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#19
Xuetao He, Yuhu Zhang, Jieling Chen, Chunge Xie, Rong Gan, Rong Yang, Limin Wang, Kun Nie, Lijuan Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of brain activities changes in early-onset parkinson's disease(EOPD) patients and its relationship with the severity of disease and motor deterioration. Electroencephalography (EEG) was performed in a sample of 52 nondemented EOPD patients and 20 healthy controls with similar age. All patients underwent a battery to assess PD severity and motor deterioration. The EEG data were rated by visual and quantitative analyses with the Grant total EEG(GTE) score and NicoletOne Software...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280493/t-cells-specific-for-a-self-peptide-of-apob-100-exacerbate-aortic-atheroma-in-murine-atherosclerosis
#20
Michael K Shaw, Kevin Y Tse, Xiaoqing Zhao, Kathryn Welch, Daniel T Eitzman, Raghavendar R Thipparthi, Paul C Montgomery, Ryan Thummel, Harley Y Tse
On the basis of mouse I-A(b)-binding motifs, two sequences of the murine apolipoprotein B-100 (mApoB-100), mApoB-1003501-3515 (designated P3) and mApoB-100978-992 (designated P6), were found to be immunogenic. In this report, we show that P6 is also atherogenic. Immunization of Apoe(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with P6 resulted in enhanced development of aortic atheroma as compared to control mice immunized with an irrelevant peptide MOG35-55 or with complete Freund's adjuvant alone. Adoptive transfer of lymph node cells from P6-immunized donor mice to recipients fed an HFD caused exacerbated aortic atheromas, correlating P6-primed cells with disease development...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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