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Youmei Chen, Jing Xu, Li Zhou, Ya Zheng
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia, the reduced capacity to experience pleasure, has long been regarded as a cardinal symptom in depression and schizophrenia. Recent evidence highlights that anhedonia is not a single construct but consists of an anticipatory component and a consummatory component, which is captured by the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS). The current event-related potential study examined the electrophysiological underpinnings of anticipatory and consummatory aspects of anhedonia as assessed by the TEPS in a non-clinical sample...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Daniel P Hsu, Shana L Hansen, Timothy A Roberts, Clinton K Murray, Vincent Mysliwiec
Introduction: In 2013, the U.S. Army Surgeon General implemented the Performance Triad (P3), an educational initiative to improve health-related behaviors of soldiers throughout the U.S. Army. The components of P3 are Sleep, Activity, and Nutrition with tenet behaviors for each component. This study reports the results of the 2015 U.S. Army Medical Corps survey regarding physician knowledge and adherence to the tenet behaviors of P3. Methods: In 2015, an anonymous survey was sent to all active duty U...
April 18, 2018: Military Medicine
Jie Yang, Mohammad Afsar Uddin, Yumin Tang, Yulun Wang, Yang Wang, Huimin Su, Rutian Gao, Zhi-Kuan Chen, Junfeng Dai, Han Young Woo, Xugang Guo
We present here a series of wide band gap (Eg: > 1.8 eV) polymer donors by incorporating thiophene-flanked phenylene as electron-donating unit and quinoxaline as electron-accepting co-unit to attain large open-circuit voltages (Vocs) and short-circuit currents (Jscs) in non-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs). Fluorination was utilized to fine-tailor the energetics of polymer frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) by replacing a variable number of H atoms on the phenylene moiety with F. It was found that fluorination can effectively modulate polymer backbone planarity through intramolecular noncovalent S…F and/or H…F interactions...
June 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jitka Annen, Séverine Blandiaux, Nicolas Lejeune, Mohamed A Bahri, Aurore Thibaut, Woosang Cho, Christoph Guger, Camille Chatelle, Steven Laureys
Detection and interpretation of signs of "covert command following" in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) remains a challenge for clinicians. In this study, we used a tactile P3-based BCI in 12 patients without behavioral command following, attempting to establish "covert command following." These results were then confronted to cerebral metabolism preservation as measured with glucose PET (FDG-PET). One patient showed "covert command following" (i.e., above-threshold BCI performance) during the active tactile paradigm...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Itziar Serna Martin, Narin Hengrung, Max Renner, Jane Sharps, Mónica Martínez-Alonso, Simonas Masiulis, Jonathan M Grimes, Ervin Fodor
Influenza virus RNA polymerase (FluPol), a heterotrimer composed of PB1, PB2, and PA subunits (P3 in influenza C), performs both transcription and replication of the viral RNA genome. For transcription, FluPol interacts with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), which enables FluPol to snatch capped RNA primers from nascent host RNAs. Here, we describe the co-crystal structure of influenza C virus polymerase (FluPolC ) bound to a Ser5-phosphorylated CTD (pS5 -CTD) peptide. The position of the CTD-binding site at the interface of PB1, P3, and the flexible PB2 C-terminal domains suggests that CTD binding stabilizes the transcription-competent conformation of FluPol...
May 25, 2018: Molecular Cell
Vladimir Kosonogov, Jose M Martinez-Selva, Eduvigis Carrillo-Verdejo, Ginesa Torrente, Luis Carretié, Juan P Sanchez-Navarro
The social content of affective stimuli has been proposed as having an influence on cognitive processing and behaviour. This research was aimed, therefore, at studying whether automatic exogenous attention demanded by affective pictures was related to their social value. We hypothesised that affective social pictures would capture attention to a greater extent than non-social affective stimuli. For this purpose, we recorded event-related potentials in a sample of 24 participants engaged in a digit categorisation task...
June 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Yu Long, Sixin Li, Jingchun Qin, Liwei Xie, Liping Gan, Fengming Jie, Yanli Wu, Yanwu Li, Qun Du
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cells and T helper 17 (Th17) cells play crucial roles in ulcerative colitis (UC). Kuijieling (KJL) is an effective Chinese medicine formula for treating UC in clinic. Kuijieling has shown remedy effect on the imbalance between Treg and Th17 cells. This study aimed to further reveal the exact underlying mechanism of how Kuijieling regulates the differentiation of Treg and Th17 cells in the treatment of UC. METHODS: Colitis was induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in rats and treated by KJL...
June 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Mariko Nukaga, Hideyuki Tabata, Mayumi Enseki, Kota Hirai, Hiroyuki Furuya, Masahiko Kato, Hiroyuki Mochizuki
BACKGROUND: Breath sound parameters have been suggested to be new biomarkers of airway function in patients with asthma. METHODS: We investigated the effect of bronchodilation on breath sound parameters in sixty-four children (mean age, 8.9 years; range, 6-16 years) using a breath sound analyzer. The breath sound parameters included frequency limiting 50% and 99% of the power spectrum (F50 and F99 ), roll-off from 600-1200 Hz (slope), and spectrum curve indices such as the ratios of the third and fourth power area to the total area of the power spectrum (P3 /PT and P4 /PT ), total area under the curve (A3 /AT and B4 /AT ), and the ratio of power and frequency at 50% and 75% of the highest frequency of the power spectrum (RPF75 and RPF50 )...
June 13, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Nyisztor Zsolt, Denes Viktoria, Kovacs-Valasek Andrea, Hideg Orsolya, Berta Gergely, Gabriel Robert
PACAP1-38, a ubiquitous and multifunctional regulator has been in the focus of neurotoxicity research due to its impressive neuroprotective potential. Although the literature extensively demonstrated its repressive effect on the apoptotic machinery in neurodegenerative models, there is a striking absence of analysis on its role in normal development. We performed quantitative analyses on caspase activity in developing retina upon 100, 50, 25 or 1 pmol intravitreal PACAP1-38 injection from postnatal day 1 (P1) through P7 in Wistar rats...
June 12, 2018: Neuroscience
Syed Aoun Ali, Deeba N Baig
Ezrin, Radixin and Moesin (ERM) are critical membranous component involved in cross-linking of actin filaments. Moesin (Msn) is recognized as a pivotal protein involved in regulation of cell signalling events associated with the maintenance of epithelial integrity, actin organization and polarity. Radixin (Rad) is known to cell-to-cell adherens junction as a barbed end-capping protein whereas ezrin (Ezr) is recognized at cell adhesion, motility, apoptosis and phagocytosis. The current study for the first time reports the transcriptional and RNA secondary structural variations among brain-specific ERM genes...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Mitsuo Ishida, Munehisa Kaneda, Aki Akamine, Masahito Sakakibara
Attentional bias (sensitization) for negative information was estimated using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We used a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm that comprised a small diamond standard stimulus (66.7%), a large diamond target stimulus (16.7%), and deviant word stimuli (16.7%) written in Kanji. Furthermore, half the deviant words were negative emotional words (e.g., destruction or scream) and the others half were neutral words (e.g., structure or range). Healthy participants (N = 26) were instructed to press a button after the target appeared while ignoring the other stimuli...
June 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Qi Chen, Fangfang Shi, Xi Yang, Limin Liu, Yueming Song
Objective: To research the biological characteristics of different generations of rabbit nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) that were cultured with natural culture and subculture method. Methods: The thoracolumbar segments of New Zealand white rabbits (6-8 weeks old and weighing 1.5-2.5 kg) were obtained and nucleus pulposus were isolated from disc regions. And NPCs were harvested by enzymatic digestion from nucleus pulposus. Primary NPCs were counted as P0 generation...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Regina W Y Wang, Yi-Chung Chen, I-Ning Liu, Shang-Wen Chuang
Stealth placement marketing, where consumers are unaware that they are being marketed to, attempts to reduce the audiences' resistance to traditional persuasive advertising. It is a form of advertising that involves targeted exposure of brands or products incorporated in other works, usually with or without explicit reference to the brands or products. Brand placement can be presented in different visual and auditory forms in video programs. The present study proposed that different 'representations' (i.e., representable or non-representable) and 'sounds' (i...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jörg Bormann, Cornelia Heinze, Christine Blum, Michael Mentges, Anke Brockmann, Arne Alder, Svenja Kim Landt, Brian Josephson, Daniela Indenbirken, Michael Spohn, Birte Plitzko, Sandra Loesgen, Michael Freitag, Wilhelm Schäfer
Infections of fungi by mycoviruses are often symptomless but sometimes also fatal as they perturb sporulation, growth, and, if applicable, virulence of the fungal host. Hypovirulence-inducing mycoviruses, therefore, represent a powerful mean to defeat fungal epidemics on crop plants. Infection with Fusarium graminearum virus China 9 (FgV-ch9), a dsRNA chrysovirus-like mycovirus, debilitates Fusarium graminearum , the causal agent of Fusarium Head Blight. In search for potential symptom alleviation or aggravation factors in F...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Cristiane R Ferreira, Shuchun Zhao, Malaya K Sahoo, Benjamin Pinsky, Jenna Weber, Luis A P C Lage, Juliana Pereira, Maria C N Zerbini, Yasodha Natkunam
Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is a specific marker for regulatory T-cells (Tregs). We report 6 cases of T-cell lymphomas with Treg phenotype based on diffuse positivity for FOXP3 in tumor cells. The patients showed a median age of 56years with a male predominance. Sites of disease included lymph nodes (4), skin (2), subcutaneous tissue (1) and bone marrow (1). All cases showed monomorphic large cells, some with Hodgkin-like or anaplastic cells. All cases expressed pan T cell markers and lacked cytotoxic markers; one case showed diffuse PD1 staining...
June 10, 2018: Human Pathology
Debapratim Dutta, Ivan A Belashov, Joseph E Wedekind
Non-coding RNAs engage in numerous biological activities including gene regulation. To fully understand RNA function it is necessary to probe biologically relevant conformations in living cells. To address this challenge, we coupled RNA-mediated regulation of the GFPuv-reporter gene to icSHAPE (<u>i</u>n <u>c</u>ell <u><u>S</u></u>elective 2´-<u>H</u>ydroxyl <u><u>A</u></u>cylation analyzed by <u><u>P</u></u>rimer <u>E</u>xtension)...
June 13, 2018: Biochemistry
Alexander Ovchinnikov, Matej Bobnar, Yurii Prots, Horst Borrmann, Jörg Sichelschmidt, Yuri Grin, Peter Höhn
Two new calcium nitridomanganates, Ca12[Mn19N23] (P3, a = 11.81341(3) Å, c = 5.58975(2) Å, Z = 1) and Ca133[Mn216N260] (P-3, a = 39.477(1) Å, c = 5.5974(2) Å, Z = 1), were obtained by a gas-solid reaction of Ca3N2 and Mn with N2 at 1273 K and 1223 K, respectively. The crystal structure of the former compound was determined from high-resolution X-ray synchrotron powder diffraction data, whereas single-crystal X-ray diffraction was employed to establish the crystal structure of the latter phase, which classifies as a complex metallic alloy (CMA)...
June 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Robert C Rennert, Ben A Strickland, Kristine Ravina, Joshua Bakhsheshian, Vance Fredrickson, Joseph Carey, Jonathan J Russin
BACKGROUND: Revascularization strategies for complex cerebral aneurysms are largely based on subjective interpretation of flow demands, or indirect measures of perfusion in at-risk territories. Indocyanine Green -based flow analyses ((ICG-BFA); Flow 800, Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) provide a real-time, semiquantitative measure of intraoperative cortical perfusion during cerebral bypass surgery for complex aneurysms. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of intraoperative ICG-BFA for assessing cortical perfusion in at-risk territories during cerebral bypass for complex aneurysms requiring vessel sacrifice...
June 12, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Zheng-Bang Pan, Ying-Chu Wang, Gomathy Chakkaradhari, Jian Fan Zhu, Rong-Yu He, Yu-Ci Liu, Chia-Hui Hsu, Igor O Koshevoy, Pi-Tai Chou, Sheng-Wei Pan, Mei-Lin Ho
In this work, we present a facile preparation of a paper-based glucose assay for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative measurement of glucose in blood plasma and urine. Two copper phosphorescent complexes [Cu(2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)(2,6-dimethylphenylisocyanide)2][B(C6H3(CF3)2)4] (Cu1) and [Cu(2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)(2,6-dimethylphenylisocyanide)2][B(C6H3(CF3)2)4] (Cu2) and a new silver congener [Ag(P3)CNAg(P3)][B(C6H3(CF3)2)4] (Ag3) (P3 = PPh2C6H4-PPh-C6H4PPh2 [bis(o-diphenylphosphinophenyl)phenylphosphine]) have been synthesized and their oxygen sensing abilities were investigated...
June 13, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Evanthia Perikleous, Paschalis Steiropoulos, Argyris Tzouvelekis, Evangelia Nena, Maria Koffa, Emmanouil Paraskakis
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by phenotypic variations, which can be partly attributed to specific gene polymorphisms. Recent studies have focused on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in order to permit a more precise perception about clinical phenotyping and targeted therapies. The aim of this review was to synthesize the current state of knowledge on the relation between DNA methylation patterns and the development of pediatric OSA, in light of the apparent limited literature in the field...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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