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Xiao Ying Huo, Shou Zhang Peng, Jing Yu Ren, Yang Cao, Yun Ming Chen
This study analyzed the dynamics of net primary productivity (NPP) of Pinus tabuliformis forest under future climate scenarios in Shaanxi Province during 2015-2100, using a dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS). The results showed that in the 2015-2100 period, annual mean temperature of this region would significantly increase by 0.12, 0.23 and 0.54 ℃·10 a-1 under RCP2.6 , RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively, while the annual precipitation would have no significant change under climate scenarios except RCP4...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell, Jean Decety
Survival is dependent on sociality within groups which ensure sustenance and protection. From an early age, children show a natural tendency to sort people into groups and discriminate among them. The computations guiding evaluation of third-party behaviors are complex, requiring integration of intent, consequences, and knowledge of group affiliation. This study examined how perceiving third-party morally laden behavior influences children's likelihood to exhibit or reduce group bias. Following a minimal group paradigm assignment, young children (4-7 years) performed a moral evaluation task where group affiliations and moral actions were systematically juxtaposed, so that they were exposed to disproportionately antisocial in-group and prosocial out-group scenarios...
April 25, 2018: Developmental Science
R Søgaard, J S Lindholt
BACKGROUND: Population-based screening and intervention for abdominal aortic aneurysm, peripheral artery disease and hypertension was recently reported to reduce the relative risk of mortality among Danish men by 7 per cent. The aim of this study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of vascular screening versus usual care (ad hoc primary care-based risk assessment) from a national health service perspective. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness evaluation was conducted alongside an RCT involving all men from a region in Denmark (50 156) who were allocated to screening (25 078) or no screening (25 078) and followed for up to 5 years...
April 25, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
M R Fontanilla, S Casadiegos, R H Bustos, M A Patarroyo
Cytokines, chemokines, and growth and remodeling factors orchestrate wound healing when skin damage occurs. During early stages, when the wound is still open, detection and quantification of these compounds might provide biomarkers of skin wound healing, which could aid to complete the scenario provided by clinical follow-up data and histological and histomorphometric analyses. This work assessed and compared the healing of full-thickness skin wounds grafted with artificial dermis made with autologous skin fibroblasts and unidirectional or multidirectional type I collagen scaffolds to test this hypothesis...
April 24, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
David Champredon, Marek Laskowski, Nathalie Charland, Seyed M Moghadas
New vaccine production technologies can significantly shorten the timelines for availability of a strain-specific vaccine in the event of an influenza pandemic. We sought to evaluate the potential benefits of early vaccination in reducing the clinical attack rate (CAR), taking into account the timing and speed of vaccination roll-out. Various scenarios corresponding to the transmissibility of a pandemic strain and vaccine prioritization strategies were simulated using an agent-based model of disease spread in Ontario, the largest Canadian province...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jimmy Gonzalez, Samantha Bryant, Evelyn R Hermes-DeSantis
PURPOSE: The efficacy and thrombogenicity of transdermal estradiol in the management of refractory uremic bleeding in adults are examined. SUMMARY: Platelet dysfunction from chronic kidney disease may induce uremic bleeding. This type of bleeding may involve the skin, oral and nasal mucosa, gingivae, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal or urinary tract. While the mainstay of treatment for uremic bleeding primarily involves dialysis and use of prohemostatic agents such as desmopressin and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, certain patients may experience bleeding refractory to these interventions...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
F El Hage, D Legland, N Borrega, M-P Jacquemot, Y Griveau, S Coursol, V Méchin, M Reymond
Water supply and valorization are two urgent issues in the utilization of maize biomass in the context of climate change and replacement of fossil resources. Maximizing maize biomass valorization is of interest to make biofuel conversion competitive, and to increase forage energetic value for animal fodder. One way to estimate biomass valorization is to quantify cell wall degradability. In this study, we evaluated the impact of water supply on cell wall degradability, cell wall contents and structure, and distribution of lignified cell types in maize internodes using dedicated high throughput tools to effectively phenotype maize internodes from 11 inbred lines under two contrasting irrigation scenarios in field trials over three years...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Siqiu Guo, Tao Zhang, Yulong Song, Feng Qian
This paper presents a particle swarm tracking algorithm with improved inertia weight based on color features. The weighted color histogram is used as the target feature to reduce the contribution of target edge pixels in the target feature, which makes the algorithm insensitive to the target non-rigid deformation, scale variation, and rotation. Meanwhile, the influence of partial obstruction on the description of target features is reduced. The particle swarm optimization algorithm can complete the multi-peak search, which can cope well with the object occlusion tracking problem...
April 23, 2018: Sensors
Oscar Morales-Ponce, Elad M Schiller, Paolo Falcone
We consider the design of a disagreement correction protocol in multi-vehicle systems. Vehicles broadcast in real-time vital information such as position, direction, speed, acceleration, intention, etc. This information is then used to identify the risks and adapt their trajectory to maintain the highest performance without compromising the safety. To minimize the risk due to the use of inconsistent information, all cooperating vehicles must agree whether to use the exchanged information to operate in a cooperative mode or use the only local information to operate in an autonomous mode...
April 22, 2018: Sensors
Fabrizio Schifano, Stefania Chiappini, John M Corkery, Amira Guirguis
Recently, a range of prescription and over-the-counter drugs have been reportedly used as Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS), due to their potential for abuse resulting from their high dosage/idiosyncratic methods of self-administration. This paper provides a systematic review of the topic, focusing on a range of medications which have emerged as being used recreationally, either on their own or in combination with NPS. Among gabapentinoids, pregabalin may present with higher addictive liability levels than gabapentin, with pregabalin being mostly identified in the context of opioid, polydrug intake...
April 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
Jae Young Lee, Ejin Kim, Woo-Seop Lee, Yeora Chae, Ho Kim
The Paris Agreement aims to limit the global temperature increase to below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to even below 1.5 °C. Now, it should be asked what benefits are in pursuing these two targets. In this study, we assessed the temperature⁻mortality relationship using a distributed lag non-linear model in seven major cities of South Korea. Then, we projected future temperature-attributable mortality under different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) scenarios for those cities...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Peter HlavÁČ, Oto NaklÁdal
The new species, Ubychia assingi sp. nov., an endogean and anophthalmous weevil is described from the Greek island Samos. A list of species of the genus is given and the distribution and a posible biogeographic scenario for the genus is discussed.
March 16, 2018: Zootaxa
Danilo cÉsar Ament
The monotypic genus Hirotophora Brown et al. is revised, with a new species from Chile, Hirotophora chilensis sp. nov., described, and Chaetopleurophora dividua and Chaetopleurophora flavimarginata transferred to this genus. The addition of these species is based on the genus diagnosis, which is amended here, and on the synapomorphies recognized for Hirotophora. All species of the genus are extensively illustrated and new diagnostic characters are described. Females of Hirotophora are more structurally divergent than males, which show almost no conspicuous differences in the male terminalia among the species...
March 16, 2018: Zootaxa
JosÉ A GonzÁlez
The complete list of Canarian marine decapods (last update by González Quiles 2003, popular book) currently comprises 374 species/subspecies, grouped in 198 genera and 82 families; whereas the Cape Verdean marine decapods (now fully listed for the first time) are represented by 343 species/subspecies with 201 genera and 80 families. Due to changing environmental conditions, in the last decades many subtropical/tropical taxa have reached the coasts of the Canary Islands. Comparing the carcinofaunal composition and their biogeographic components between the Canary and Cape Verde archipelagos would aid in: validating the appropriateness in separating both archipelagos into different ecoregions (Spalding et al...
April 23, 2018: Zootaxa
Alberto Mangano, Federico Gheza, Pier Cristoforo Giulianotti
The number of robotic surgical procedures has been increasing worldwide. It is important to maximize the cost-effectiveness of robotic surgical training and safely reduce the time needed for trainees to reach proficiency. The use of preliminary lab training in robotic skills is a good strategy for the rapid acquisition of further, standardized robotic skills. Such training can be done either by using a simulator or by exercises in a dry or wet lab. While the use of an actual robotic surgical system for training may be problematic (high cost, lack of availability), virtual reality (VR) simulators can overcome many of these obstacles...
April 23, 2018: Surgical Technology International
Daniel Jablonski, Václav Gvoždík, Lukáš Choleva, David Jandzik, Jiří Moravec, Zdeněk Mačát, Milan Veselý
The maternal origin of isolated populations of the common wall lizard (Podracis muralis) in the Czech Republic, representing the north-eastern range border of the species, was addressed. We compared mitochondrial DNA sequences of the cytochrome b gene of samples from these populations with those from within the continuous range in Slovakia, the northern Balkan region, and those available from previous studies. We recorded five main haplogroups in the studied region, with all available Central European samples belonging to the same haplogroup...
April 21, 2018: Mitochondrion
Neil M Thomas, Tim Donovan, Susan Dewhurst, Theodoros M Bampouras
Balance control during overground walking was assessed in 10 young (23.6 ± 3.4) and 10 older (71.0 ± 5.5 years) healthy females during free gaze, and when fixating or tracking another person in an everyday use waiting room. Balance control was characterised by medial/lateral sacrum acceleration dispersion, and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with eye tracking equipment. The results showed decreased balance control when fixating a stationary (p = 0.003, gav  = 0.19) and tracking a walking (p = 0...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Claudia I Vidal, Eric A Armbrect, Aleodor A Andea, Angela K Bohlke, Nneka I Comfere, Sarah R Hughes, Jinah Kim, Jessica A Kozel, Jason B Lee, Konstantinos Linos, Brandon R Litzner, Tricia A Missall, Roberto A Novoa, Uma Sundram, Brian L Swick, M Yadira Hurley, Murad Alam, Zsolt Argenyi, Lyn M Duncan, Dirk M Elston, Patrick O Emanuel, Tammie Ferringer, Maxwell A Fung, Gregory A Hosler, Alexander J Lazar, Lori Lowe, Jose A Plaza, Victor G Prieto, June K Robinson, Andras Schaffer, Antonio Subtil, Wei-Lien Wang
BACKGROUND: Appropriate use criteria (AUC) provide physicians guidance in test selection, can affect health care delivery, reimbursement policy, and physician decision-making. OBJECTIVES: The American Society of Dermatopathology (ASDP), with input from the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) and the College of American Pathologists (CAP), sought to develop AUC in dermatopathology. METHODS: The RAND/UCLA appropriateness methodology, which combines evidence-based medicine, clinical experience and expert judgment, was used to develop AUC in dermatopathology...
April 21, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Laura L Olenick, Julianne M Troiano, Nikolay Smolentsev, Paul E Ohno, Sylvie Roke, Franz M Geiger
By combining dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and infrared (IR) spectroscopy with the interface- and bond-specificity of vibrational sum frequency generation scattering (SFS) spectroscopy, we probe several structural aspects of how zwitterionic DMPC lipids adsorbed to oil droplets suspended in water (D2O) respond to the presence of the common polycation polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) in the presence of low and high salt concentration. We show that the polycation interactions with the lipids generally results in two distinct outcomes that depend upon salt and PAH concentration, identified here as Scenario 1 (observed under conditions of high salt concentration) and Scenario 2 (observed under conditions of low salt concentration)...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Samuel Soubeyrand, Pauline de Jerphanion, Olivier Martin, Mathilde Saussac, Charles Manceau, Pascal Hendrikx, Christian Lannou
Unravelling the ecological structure of emerging plant pathogens persisting in multi-host systems is challenging. In such systems, observations are often heterogeneous with respect to time, space and host species, and may lead to biases of perception. The biased perception of pathogen ecology may be exacerbated by hidden fractions of the whole host population, which may act as infection reservoirs. We designed a mechanistic-statistical approach to help understand the ecology of emerging pathogens by filtering out some biases of perception...
April 24, 2018: New Phytologist
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