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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915317/initiating-retinopathy-of-prematurity-screening-before-discharge-from-the-neonatal-care-unit-effect-on-enrolment-in-rural-india
#1
Anand Vinekar, Chaitra Jayadev, Shwetha Mangalesh, Mathew Kurian, Mangat Dogra, Noel Bauer, Bhujang Shetty
OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefits of initiating Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) screening at first contact with the admitted infant prior to hospital discharge ('early screening') with screening performed between 21 and 28 days after birth ('conventional screening') in rural India. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Two Level II neonatal intensive care units (NICU), from two district headquarters in Karnataka state. PARTICIPANTS: Participants: 329 infants admitted in the two NICUs...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915265/the-ethics-of-unilateral-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillators-and-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-with-defibrillator-deactivation-patient-perspectives
#2
Margaret Daeschler, Ralph J Verdino, James N Kirkpatrick
AIMS: Decisions about deactivation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are complicated. Unilateral do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders (against patient/family wishes) have been ethically justified in cases of medical futility. Unilateral deactivation of ICDs may be seen as a logical extension of a unilateral DNR order. However, the ethical implications of unilateral ICD deactivation have not been explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty patients who had an ICD or cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) were interviewed at a quaternary medical centre outpatient electrophysiology practice...
December 2, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915239/emergency-cardiac-double-valve-surgery-in-active-infective-endocarditis-due-to-acinetobacter-baumannii-with-aortic-root-abscess-in-a-patient-with-dialysis-dependent-end-stage-renal-failure-a-rare-case-report
#3
Moosa Kunhi, Sachin Sanagar, N Jagadeesh, Bhima Shankar, Abi Abraham
We report an end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient on regular haemodialysis awaiting renal transplant having native aortic valve endocarditis due to Acinetobacter baumannii complicated with aortic root abscess and severe mitral valve regurgitation with NYHA class IV symptoms. He underwent emergency aortic root abscess debridement, reconstruction with autologous pericardial patch and bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement along with mitral valve repair. This emergency intervention in active infective endocarditis due to A...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915181/bioenergy-and-biodiversity-intensified-biomass-extraction-from-hedges-impairs-habitat-conditions-for-birds
#4
Ralf Sauerbrei, Birgit Aue, Christian Krippes, Eva Diehl, Volkmar Wolters
Biomass is increasingly used as an alternative source for energy in Europe. Woody material cut from hedges is considered to provide a suitable complement to maize and oilseed rape, which are currently the dominant biomass sources. Since shrubs and trees are also important habitats for birds, however, coppicing of hedges at the landscape scale may adversely affect the diversity of the avifauna. To evaluate this risk, we estimated the response of hedge birds to three management scenarios differing in cutting intensity and hedge selection...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915148/antioxidant-response-of-the-hard-shelled-mussel-mytilus-coruscus-exposed-to-reduced-ph-and-oxygen-concentration
#5
Yanming Sui, Menghong Hu, Yueyong Shang, Fangli Wu, Xizhi Huang, Sam Dupont, Daniela Storch, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Jiale Li, Weiqun Lu, Youji Wang
Ocean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are increasing worldwide problems, their interactive effects have not been well clarified, although their co-occurrence is prevalent. The East China Sea (the Yangtze River estuary area) suffers from not only coastal hypoxia but also pH fluctuation, representing an ideal study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia on marine bivalves. We experimentally evaluated the antioxidant response of the mussel Mytilus coruscus exposed to three pH levels (8.1, 7...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914913/vitamin-fortified-snack-food-may-lead-consumers-to-make-poor-dietary-decisions
#6
Linda Verrill, Dallas Wood, Sheryl Cates, Amy Lando, Yuanting Zhang
BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) fortification policy discourages the fortification of certain foods, including sugars and snack foods such as cookies, candies, cakes, chips, and carbonated beverages, yet manufacturers sometimes add vitamins and minerals to snack foods. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether vitamin-fortified snack foods affect consumers' information-seeking, purchase decisions, and product-related health perceptions. DESIGN: For this experimental study, participants were randomly assigned to study conditions to compare products that varied in product type, nutrition profile, and fortification and nutrient claim status...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914853/monitoring-the-fitness-of-antiviral-resistant-influenza-strains-during-an-epidemic-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#7
Kathy Leung, Marc Lipsitch, Kwok Yung Yuen, Joseph T Wu
BACKGROUND: Antivirals (eg, oseltamivir) are important for mitigating influenza epidemics. In 2007, an oseltamivir-resistant influenza seasonal A H1N1 strain emerged and spread to global fixation within 1 year. This event showed that antiviral-resistant (AVR) strains can be intrinsically more transmissible than their contemporaneous antiviral-sensitive (AVS) counterpart. Surveillance of AVR fitness is therefore essential. Our objective was to develop a simple method for estimating AVR fitness from surveillance data...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914740/predicting-the-relative-impacts-of-maternal-and-neonatal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccine-target-product-profiles-a-consensus-modelling-approach
#8
Wirichada Pan-Ngum, Timothy Kinyanjui, Moses Kiti, Sylvia Taylor, Jean-François Toussaint, Sompob Saralamba, Thierry Van Effelterre, D James Nokes, Lisa J White
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major viral cause of infant and childhood lower respiratory tract disease worldwide. Defining the optimal target product profile (TPP) is complicated due to a wide range of possible vaccine properties, modalities and an incomplete understanding of the mechanism of natural immunity. We report consensus population level impact projections based on two mathematical models applied to a low income setting. METHOD: Two structurally distinct age-specific deterministic compartmental models reflecting uncertainty associated with the natural history of infection and the mechanism by which immunity is acquired and lost were constructed...
November 28, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914655/crohn-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Joana Torres, Saurabh Mehandru, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, with increasing incidence worldwide. Crohn's disease might result from a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and altered gut microbiota, leading to dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. The typical clinical scenario is a young patient presenting with abdominal pain, chronic diarrhoea, weight loss, and fatigue. Assessment of disease extent and of prognostic factors for complications is paramount to guide therapeutic decisions...
November 30, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914555/forensic-expectations-investigating-a-crime-scene-with-prior-information
#10
Claire A J van den Eeden, Christianne J de Poot, Peter J van Koppen
In a large body of research the influence of contextual information on decisions made in a broad range of disciplines has been studied. To date, the influence of these expectancy effects on the crime scene investigation has not been studied. In the present study we explored the effect of prior information given to crime scene investigators on their perception and interpretation of an ambiguous crime scene. Participants (N=58) were experienced crime scene investigators who were provided with a panoramic photograph of an ambiguous mock crime scene...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914546/analysis-of-transferred-fragrance-and-its-forensic-implications
#11
Simona Gherghel, Ruth M Morgan, Christopher S Blackman, Kersti Karu, Ivan P Parkin
Perfumes are widely used by many people in developed countries, and a large number of both men and women wear perfumes on a daily basis. Analysis of perfume trace materials from clothing is not commonly employed within forensic casework, yet as a form of trace evidence it has the potential to provide valuable intelligence. In order to appreciate the value of trace evidence there is a fundamental need for an evidence base that can both offer insight into how a trace material behaves under different scenarios and activities, and from which inferences can be made...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914460/possible-mechanisms-of-acquisition-of-herpesvirus-virokines
#12
E A Gorshkova, E S Shilov
The genomes of certain types of human and primate herpesviruses contain functional homologs of important host cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10), or so-called virokines. Virokines can interact with immune cell receptors, transmit a signal to them, and thus switch the type of immune response that facilitates viral infection development. In this work, we have summarized possible ways of virokine origin and proposed an evolutionary scenario of virokine acquisition with involvement of retroviral coinfection of the host...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914323/quantitative-farm-to-fork-human-norovirus-exposure-assessment-of-individually-quick-frozen-raspberries-and-raspberry-puree
#13
L Jacxsens, A Stals, A De Keuckelaere, B Deliens, A Rajkovic, M Uyttendaele
A quantitative human norovirus (NoV) exposure model describing transmission of NoV during pre-harvest, harvest and further processing of soft red fruits exemplified by raspberries is presented. The outcomes of the model demonstrate the presence of NoV in raspberry puree or individual quick frozen (IQF) raspberry fruits and were generated by Monte Carlo simulations by combining GoldSim® and @Risk® software. Input data were collected from scientific literature, observational studies and assumptions. NoV contamination of soft red fruits is assumed to take place at farms by application of contaminated water for pesticides dilution or by berries' pickers shedding NoV...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914259/city-scale-analysis-of-water-related-energy-identifies-more-cost-effective-solutions
#14
Ka Leung Lam, Steven J Kenway, Paul A Lant
Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia...
November 26, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914207/demographic-history-of-the-trace-metal-hyperaccumulator-noccaea-caerulescens-j-presl-and-c-presl-f-k-mey-in-western-europe
#15
Cédric Gonneau, Nausicaa Noret, Cécile Godé, Hélène Frérot, Catherine Sirguey, Thibault Sterckeman, Maxime Pauwels
Noccaea caerulescens (Brassicaceae) is a major pseudometallophyte model for the investigation of the genetics and evolution of metal hyperaccumulation in plants. We studied the population genetics and demographic history of this species to advance the understanding of among-population differences in metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance abilities. Sampling of seven to 30 plants was carried out in 62 sites in Western Europe. Genotyping was done using a combination of new chloroplast and nuclear neutral markers...
December 3, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914073/competition-for-iron-between-host-and-pathogen-a-structural-case-study-on-helicobacter-pylori
#16
Wei Xia
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a highly successful bacterial pathogen, which colonizes the stomach of more than half of the world's population. To colonize and survive in such an acidic and inhospitable niche, H. pylori cells have evolved complex mechanisms to acquire nutrients from human hosts, including iron, an essential nutrient for both the pathogens and host cells. However, human cells also utilize diverse strategies in withholding of irons to prevent the bacterial outgrowth. The competition for iron is the central battlefield between pathogen and host...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913943/the-cost-effectiveness-of-interventions-targeting-lifestyle-change-for-the-prevention-of-diabetes-in-a-swedish-primary-care-and-community-based-prevention-program
#17
Anne Neumann, Lars Lindholm, Margareta Norberg, Olaf Schoffer, Stefanie J Klug, Fredrik Norström
BACKGROUND: Policymakers need to know the cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a T2D prevention initiative targeting weight reduction, increased physical activity and healthier diet in persons in pre-diabetic states by comparing a hypothetical intervention versus no intervention in a Swedish setting. METHODS: A Markov model was used to study the cost-effectiveness of a T2D prevention program based on lifestyle change versus a control group where no prevention was applied...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913897/rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-pro-oxidant-and-genotoxic-responses-following-acute-and-chronic-exposure-to-the-antibiotic-oxytetracycline
#18
Sara Rodrigues, Sara C Antunes, Alberto T Correia, Bruno Nunes
Oxytetracycline (OTC), an antibacterial agent, is extensively used in aquaculture practices all over the world, but also in human and veterinary medicines. Because of its intensive use, low rates of absorption by treated animals, inadequate disposal, and low efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants, the potential harmful effects on aquatic organisms are of great concern. This work aimed to assess the effects of this antibiotic in rainbow trout, following both acute and chronic exposures. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers, in gills and liver...
December 2, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913823/mathematical-models-suggest-facilitated-fatty-acids-crossing-of-the-luminal-membrane-in-the-cardiac-muscle
#19
Efrath Barta
Long-chain fatty acids cross a few membranes on their way from the capillary blood to the cardiomyocyte cytosol, where they are utilized as an essential source of energy. Details of the transport mechanism across those membranes remained elusive despite decades of laboratory and theoretical work. Here we inspect several optional scenarios for the crossing of the luminal membrane of the endothelial cell, the first barrier that should be crossed: a passive diffusion, facilitation by receptors for albumin and facilitation by fatty acids transporters...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913352/towards-zero-waste-furniture-design
#20
Bongjin Koo, Jean Hergel, Sylvain Lefebvre, Niloy Mitra
In traditional design, shapes are first conceived, and then fabricated. While this decoupling simplifies the design process, it can result in unwanted material wastage, especially where off-cut pieces are hard to reuse. In absence of explicit feedback on material usage, the designer remains helpless to effectively adapt the design - even when design variabilities exist.We investigate waste minimizing furniture design wherein based on the current design, the user is presented with design variations that result in less wastage of materials...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
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