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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934282/assessing-ecosystem-service-provision-under-climate-change-to-support-conservation-and-development-planning-in-myanmar
#1
Lisa Mandle, Stacie Wolny, Nirmal Bhagabati, Hanna Helsingen, Perrine Hamel, Ryan Bartlett, Adam Dixon, Radley Horton, Corey Lesk, Danielle Manley, Manishka De Mel, Daniel Bader, Sai Nay Won Myint, Win Myint, Myat Su Mon
Inclusion of ecosystem services (ES) information into national-scale development and climate adaptation planning has yet to become common practice, despite demand from decision makers. Identifying where ES originate and to whom the benefits flow-under current and future climate conditions-is especially critical in rapidly developing countries, where the risk of ES loss is high. Here, using Myanmar as a case study, we assess where and how ecosystems provide key benefits to the country's people and infrastructure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895220/consumers-response-to-an-on-shelf-nutrition-labelling-system-in-supermarkets-evidence-to-inform-policy-and-practice
#2
Erin Hobin, Bryan Bollinger, Jocelyn Sacco, Eli Liebman, Lana Vanderlee, Fei Zuo, Laura Rosella, Mary L'abbe, Heather Manson, David Hammond
Policy Points: On-shelf nutrition labelling systems in supermarkets, such as the Guiding Stars system, are intended to provide consumers with simple, standardized nutrition information to support more informed and healthier food choices. Policies that support the provision of simplified nutrition labelling systems may encourage consumers to make positive shifts in food-purchasing behaviors. The shifts in consumer food-purchasing patterns observed in our study after the introduction of the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets translated into measurable nutritional benefits, including more items purchased with slightly less trans fat and sugar and more fiber and omega-3 fatty acids...
September 2017: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887865/plasma-rich-plasma-the-ultimate-secret-for-youthful-skin-elixir-and-hair-growth-triggering
#3
REVIEW
Ebtisam Elghblawi
The clinical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is based on the increase in the concentration of growth factors that are released from alpha-granule of the concentrated platelets and in the secretion of proteins which are able to capitalize on the healing process at the cellular level. It has been invented to restore the natural beauty by starting the natural rejuvenation process of the skin and aiming to make it function as a younger one and to keep the skin youthful and maintain it. Besides that, it is also emerged to include hairs as a new injectable procedure to enable stimulating hair growth locally and topically; preventing its fall; improving hair shaft, hair stem, and its caliber; increasing its shine, vitality, and pliability; and declining hair splitting and breakage...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886502/nature-based-solutions-in-the-eu-innovating-with-nature-to-address-social-economic-and-environmental-challenges
#4
Nicolas Faivre, Marco Fritz, Tiago Freitas, Birgit de Boissezon, Sofie Vandewoestijne
Contemporary societies are facing a broad range of challenges, from pressures on human health and well-being to natural capital depletion, and the security of food, water and energy. These challenges are deeply intertwined with global processes, such as climate change and with local events such as natural disasters. The EU's research & innovation (R&I) policy is now seeking to address these challenges from a new perspective, with Nature-Based Solutions, and turn them into innovation opportunities that optimise the synergies between nature, society and the economy...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886058/sparse-trees-and-shrubs-confers-a-high-biodiversity-to-pastures-case-study-on-spiders-from-transylvania
#5
Róbert Gallé, István Urák, Gallé-Szpisjak Nikolett, Tibor Hartel
The integration of food production and biodiversity conservation represents a key challenge for sustainability. Several studies suggest that even small structural elements in the landscape can make a substantial contribution to the overall biodiversity value of the agricultural landscapes. Pastures can have high biodiversity potential. However, their intensive and monofunctional use typically erodes its natural capital, including biodiversity. Here we address the ecological value of fine scale structural elements represented by sparsely scattered trees and shrubs for the spider communities in a moderately intensively grazed pasture in Transylvania, Eastern Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881042/nature-nurture-and-capital-punishment-how-evidence-of-a-genetic-environment-interaction-future-dangerousness-and-deliberation-affect-sentencing-decisions
#6
Natalie Gordon, Edie Greene
Research has shown that the low-activity MAOA genotype in conjunction with a history of childhood maltreatment increases the likelihood of violent behaviors. This genetic-environment (G × E) interaction has been introduced as mitigation during the sentencing phase of capital trials, yet there is scant data on its effectiveness. This study addressed that issue. In a factorial design that varied mitigating evidence offered by the defense [environmental (i.e., childhood maltreatment), genetic, G × E, or none] and the likelihood of the defendant's future dangerousness (low or high), 600 mock jurors read sentencing phase evidence in a capital murder trial, rendered individual verdicts, and half deliberated as members of a jury to decide a sentence of death or life imprisonment...
September 7, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875409/disorganization-theory-neighborhood-social-capital-and-ethnic-inequalities-in-intimate-partner-violence-between-arab-and-jewish-women-citizens-of-israel
#7
Nihaya Daoud, Ruslan Sergienko, Patricia O'Campo, Ilana Shoham-Vardi
We draw on social disorganization (SD) theory and social capital to examine the impact of neighborhood environment on the ethnic gap in intimate partner violence (IPV) between Arab and Jewish women in Israel. We linked census data on neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) to national data we gathered in 2014-2015 on 1401 women (436 Arab, 965 Jewish) age 16-48. Women were interviewed while visiting 65 maternal and child health clinics throughout Israel. We used General Estimated Equation (GEE) multivariate logistic regression models to adjust for clinic cluster effects and estimated the contribution of neighborhood collective efficacy, problems, relative socioeconomic status (SES), bridging and linking social capital, and social support to explaining ethnic inequalities in IPV, while adjusting for women's socioeconomic and socio-demographic characteristics...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867960/estimating-the-upper-limit-of-prehistoric-peak-ground-acceleration-using-an-in-situ-intact-and-vulnerable-stalagmite-from-plaveck%C3%A3-priepast-cave-detrek%C3%A5-i-zsomboly-little-carpathians-slovakia-first-results
#8
K Gribovszki, K Kovács, P Mónus, G Bokelmann, P Konecny, M Lednická, G Moseley, C Spötl, R L Edwards, M Bednárik, L Brimich, L Tóth
Earthquakes hit urban centres in Europe infrequently, but occasionally with disastrous effects. Obtaining an unbiased view of seismic hazard (and risk) is therefore very important. In principle, the best way to test probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs) is to compare them with observations that are entirely independent of the procedure used to produce PSHA models. Arguably, the most valuable information in this context should be information on long-term hazard, namely maximum intensities (or magnitudes) occurring over time intervals that are at least as long as a seismic cycle...
2017: Journal of Seismology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864310/cost-effective-treatment-of-swine-wastes-through-recovery-of-energy-and-nutrients
#9
Adib Amini, Veronica Aponte-Morales, Meng Wang, Merrill Dilbeck, Ori Lahav, Qiong Zhang, Jeffrey A Cunningham, Sarina J Ergas
Wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are challenging to treat because they are high in organic matter and nutrients. Conventional swine waste treatment options in the U.S., such as uncovered anaerobic lagoons, result in poor effluent quality and greenhouse gas emissions, and implementation of advanced treatment introduces high costs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance and life cycle costs of an alternative system for treating swine CAFO waste, which recovers valuable energy (as biogas) and nutrients (N, P, K(+)) as saleable fertilizers...
August 29, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857267/natural-hazard-events-and-social-capital-the-social-impact-of-natural-disasters
#10
Frederike Albrecht
This study investigates if and to what extent natural disasters affect social capital. Twelve different events in Europe are examined in a quantitative analysis, using data derived from the European Social Survey and the EM-DAT International Disaster Database. The study uses social trust as an indicator of social capital and offers evidence that a change in social trust is a possible occurrence during or after a disaster, but that it is not an inevitable consequence of it. The results reveal that social trust decreases after a disaster with a death toll of at least nine...
August 30, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856846/emergence-of-an-exotic-strain-of-serotype-o-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-o-me-sa-ind-2001d-in-south-east-asia-in-2015
#11
Y Qiu, R Abila, P Rodtian, D P King, N J Knowles, L T Ngo, V T Le, S Khounsy, P Bounma, S Lwin, B C Verin, P Widders
The O/Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA)/Ind-2001 lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is endemic in the Indian subcontinent and has been reported in the Middle East and North Africa, but it had not been detected in South-East Asia (SEA) before 2015. This study reports the recent incursions of this viral lineage into SEA, which caused outbreaks in Vientiane Capital of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) in April 2015, in Dak Nong, Dak Lak and Ninh Thuan Provinces of Vietnam from May to October 2015, and in Rakhine State of Myanmar in October 2015...
August 30, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854063/a-tale-of-two-towns-a-comparative-study-exploring-the-possibilities-and-pitfalls-of-social-capital-among-people-seeking-recovery-from-substance-misuse
#12
Samantha Weston, Stuart Honor, David Best
BACKGROUND: Social capital has become an influential concept in debating and understanding the modern world. Within the drug and alcohol sector, the concept of 'recovery capital' has gained traction with researchers suggesting that people who have access to such capital are better placed to overcome their substance use-related problems than those who do not (Cloud and Granfield, 2008), leading to requests for interventions that focus on building social capital networks (Neale & Stevenson, 2015)...
August 30, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792075/analysing-news-media-coverage-of-the-2015-nepal-earthquake-using-a-community-capitals-lens-implications-for-disaster-resilience
#13
Subas P Dhakal
South Asia is one of the regions of the world most vulnerable to natural disasters. Although news media analyses of disasters have been conducted frequently in various settings globally, there is little research on populous South Asia. This paper begins to fill this gap by evaluating local and foreign news media coverage of the earthquake in Nepal on 25 April 2015. It broadens the examination of news media coverage of disaster response beyond traditional framing theory, utilising community capitals (built, cultural, financial, human, natural, political, and social) lens to perform a thematic content analysis of 405 news items...
August 9, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791926/the-science-of-value-economic-expertise-and-the-valuation-of-human-life-in-us-federal-regulatory-agencies
#14
Katherine Hood
This article explores efforts to apply economic logic to human life. To do so, it looks at federal regulatory agencies, where government planners and policy makers have spent over a century trying to devise a scientifically sound way to measure the economic value of lives lost or saved by public programs. The methods they have drawn on, however, have changed drastically in the past 40 years, shifting from a 'human capital' approach based on models of economic productivity and producing relatively low dollar values to a 'willingness-to-pay' approach reflecting consumer choice and producing much higher values...
August 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783318/sustainable-low-carbon-expansion-for-the-power-sector-of-an-emerging-economy-the-case-of-kenya
#15
Juan-Pablo Carvallo, Brittany J Shaw, Nkiruka I Avila, Daniel M Kammen
Fast growing and emerging economies face the dual challenge of sustainably expanding and improving their energy supply and reliability while at the same time reducing poverty. Critical to such transformation is to provide affordable and sustainable access to electricity. We use the capacity expansion model SWITCH to explore low carbon development pathways for the Kenyan power sector under a set of plausible scenarios for fast growing economies that include uncertainty in load projections, capital costs, operational performance, and technology and environmental policies...
August 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783009/substituting-freshwater-can-ocean-desalination-and-water-recycling-capacities-substitute-for-groundwater-depletion-in-california
#16
Pierre Badiuzzaman, Eoin McLaughlin, Darren McCauley
While the sustainability of resource depletion is a longstanding environmental concern, wider attention has recently been given to growing water scarcity and groundwater depletion. This study seeks to test the substitutability assumption embedded in weak sustainability indicators using a case study of Californian water supply. The volume of groundwater depletion is used as a proxy for unsustainable water consumption, and defined by synthesising existing research estimates into low, medium and high depletion baselines...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782024/residential-relocation-and-change-in-social-capital-a-natural-experiment-from-the-2011-great-east-japan-earthquake-and-tsunami
#17
Hiroyuki Hikichi, Yasuyuki Sawada, Toru Tsuboya, Jun Aida, Katsunori Kondo, Shihoko Koyama, Ichiro Kawachi
Social connections in the community ("social capital") represent an important source of resilience in the aftermath of major disasters. However, little is known about how residential relocation due to housing destruction affects survivors' social capital. We examined changes in social capital among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. People who lost their homes were resettled to new locations by two primary means: (i) group relocation to public temporary trailer housing or (ii) individual relocation, in which victims moved into government-provided housing by lottery or arranged for their own accommodation (market rental housing or private purchase/new construction)...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763731/natural-assurance-scheme-a-level-playing-field-framework-for-green-grey-infrastructure-development
#18
Benjamin Denjean, Mónica A Altamirano, Nina Graveline, Raffaele Giordano, Peter van der Keur, David Moncoulon, Josh Weinberg, María Máñez Costa, Zdravko Kozinc, Mark Mulligan, Polona Pengal, John Matthews, Nora van Cauwenbergh, Elena López Gunn, David N Bresch
This paper proposes a conceptual framework to systematize the use of Nature-based solutions (NBS) by integrating their resilience potential into Natural Assurance Scheme (NAS), focusing on insurance value as corner stone for both awareness-raising and valuation. As such one of its core goal is to align research and pilot projects with infrastructure development constraints and priorities. Under NAS, the integrated contribution of natural infrastructure to Disaster Risk Reduction is valued in the context of an identified growing need for climate robust infrastructure...
July 29, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751749/soil-natural-capital-in-europe-a-framework-for-state-and-change-assessment
#19
David A Robinson, Panos Panagos, Pasquale Borrelli, Arwyn Jones, Luca Montanarella, Andrew Tye, Carl G Obst
Soils underpin our existence through food production and represent the largest terrestrial carbon store. Understanding soil state-and-change in response to climate and land use change is a major challenge. Our aim is to bridge the science-policy interface by developing a natural capital accounting structure for soil, for example, attempting a mass balance between soil erosion and production, which indicates that barren land, and woody crop areas are most vulnerable to potential soil loss. We test out our approach using earth observation, modelling and ground based sample data from the European Union's Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey (LUCAS) soil monitoring program...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745642/assessing-spatial-memory-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-using-a-radial-water-tread-maze
#20
Marcella M Cline, Megan A Ostlie, Chloe G Cross, Gregory G Garwin, Satoshi Minoshima, Donna J Cross
Despite the recent increase in use of mouse models in scientific research, researchers continue to use cognitive tasks that were originally designed and validated for rat use. The Radial Water Tread (RWT) maze test of spatial memory (designed specifically for mice and requiring no swimming) has been shown previously to successfully distinguish between controlled cortical impact-induced TBI mice and sham controls. Here, a detailed protocol for this task is presented. The RWT maze capitalizes on the natural tendency of mice to avoid open areas in favor of hugging the sides of an apparatus (thigmotaxis)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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