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Natural capital

Michael Chae, Lin Xia, Chengyong Zhu, David C Bressler
Although the improved dewaterability and digestibility of primary biosolids subjected to thermal hydrolysis has been studied for decades, there are a surprisingly small number of studies exploring the use of this thermal treatment for digested biosolids that are typically left to settle in large settling lagoons. This is likely because of the high capital and operating costs associated with thermal hydrolysis, coupled with the limited applications and value of the resulting products. However, due to the anticipated increases in the amount of generated biosolids combined with issues surrounding potential environmental release and the limited availability of land for additional lagoons, other biosolids management strategies are being explored...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Alessio Musio
The notions of ″human capital″ and ″self-entrepreneurship″ are by now widespread. The present work takes a critical look at their pervasive acceptance and stresses the self-exploitation to which they give rise. The concept of self-entrepreneurship needs to take into account, in fact, the nature of a revolution in temporal phenomenology. This revolution not only blurs the distinction between time dedicated to life and time dedicated to one's profession. It means that time spent on whatever is traditionally irrelevant to work is potentially time robbed from successful self-entrepreneurship...
May 2018: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Pablo I Nikel, Víctor de Lorenzo
The itinerary followed by Pseudomonas putida from being a soil-dweller and plant colonizer bacterium to become a flexible and engineer-able platform for metabolic engineering stems from its natural lifestyle, which is adapted to harsh environmental conditions and all sorts of physicochemical stresses. Over the years, these properties have been capitalized biotechnologically owing to the expanding wealth of genetic tools designed for deep-editing the P. putida genome. A suite of dedicated vectors inspired in the core tenets of synthetic biology have enabled to suppress many of the naturally-occurring undesirable traits native to this species while enhancing its many appealing properties, and also to import catalytic activities and attributes from other biological systems...
May 11, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Felix Blei, Florian Baldeweg, Janis Fricke, Dirk Hoffmeister
Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the main alkaloid of the fungal genus Psilocybe, the so-called "magic mushrooms". The pharmaceutical interest in this psychotropic natural product as a future medication to treat depression and anxiety is strongly re-emerging. Here, we present an enhanced enzymatic route of psilocybin production by adding TrpB, the tryptophan synthase of the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis, to the reaction. We capitalized on its substrate flexibility and show psilocybin formation from 4-hydroxyindole and L-serine, which are less cost-intensive substrates, compared to the previous method...
May 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Priscilla Rose Selvaraj, Christine Suniti Bhat
BACKGROUND: Behavioral health treatment is grounded in the medical model with language of deficits and problems, rather than resources and strengths. With developments in the field of positive psychology, re-focusing on well-being rather than illness is possible. AIMS: The primary purpose of this study was to examine relationships and predictions that exist between levels of mental health in college students, i.e., flourishing, moderate mental health, and languishing, and psychological capital (PsyCap)...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
Andy Hong, James F Sallis, Abby C King, Terry L Conway, Brian Saelens, Kelli L Cain, Eric H Fox, Lawrence D Frank
This study examines the moderating effect of perceived safety on the association of green space with neighborhood social capital in older adults. Green space may play an important role for promoting neighborhood social capital and health for older adults; however, safety remains a significant challenge in maximizing the benefits of green space. Data were drawn from 647 independent-living seniors who participated in the Senior Neighborhood Quality of Life Study in the Seattle/King County and Baltimore/Washington DC region...
April 30, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Jianying Xu, Qing Wang, Ming Kong
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are expected to promote ecological restoration while simultaneously improving human livelihoods. As an adaptive management tool, PES programs should be dynamic and adjusted according to changing natural and socio-economic contexts. Taking the implementation of China's famous ecological restoration policy known as the Grain for Green Program (GGP) in the Wolong National Nature Reserve as an example, we analyzed changes in the livelihood capitals and strategies of local households that had participated in the GGP over a 10-year period and discussed the implications of these changes for the next stage of the program's implementation...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jaroslav Mysiak, Silvia Torresan, Francesco Bosello, Malcolm Mistry, Mattia Amadio, Sepehr Marzi, Elisa Furlan, Anna Sperotto
We describe a climate risk index that has been developed to inform national climate adaptation planning in Italy and that is further elaborated in this paper. The index supports national authorities in designing adaptation policies and plans, guides the initial problem formulation phase, and identifies administrative areas with higher propensity to being adversely affected by climate change. The index combines (i) climate change-amplified hazards; (ii) high-resolution indicators of exposure of chosen economic, social, natural and built- or manufactured capital (MC) assets and (iii) vulnerability, which comprises both present sensitivity to climate-induced hazards and adaptive capacity...
June 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Nasir Ahmad, Sybil Derrible, Shunsuke Managi
Using human (HC), natural (NC), and produced (PC) capital from Inclusive Wealth as representatives of the triple bottom line of sustainability and utilizing elements of network science, we introduce a Network-based Frequency Analysis (NFA) method to track sustainable development in world countries from 1990 to 2014. The method compares every country with every other and links them when values are close. The country with the most links becomes the main trend, and the performance of every other country is assessed based on its 'orbital' distance from the main trend...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Hai Yan Liu, Quan Guo Cheng, Jian Bing Wei, Xiao Huang
Natural capital trends of Shenyang from 1995 to 2014 were analyzed using improved three-dimensional ecological footprint model. The results showed that, from 1995 to 2014, the ecological carrying capacity per capita of Shenyang fluctuated within a narrow range generally; the per capital ecological footprint, ecological deficit, footprint size and the footprint depth per capita increased along a wave-like curve. The changing rates of footprint size and depth tended to stabilize gradually. The way of natural capital utilization of cultivated land changed from capital flow in 2004 to capital stock, the capital stock replaced capital flow and became a source to meet the need of na-tural resources in the regional cultivated land, the use ratios of stock-flows increased gradually...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Deepak Kumar, Anshuman Singh, Rishi Kumar Jha
Investigation of presence of Uranium (U) in groundwater/drinking water is an active are of research due to its chemical and radiological toxicity as well as long-term health effects. The current study had the objective of estimating U as a naturally occurring radioactive element in groundwater samples and assessment of ingestion dose, when groundwater is the source of drinking water. The random sampling method was chosen for the collection of samples based on population density. The estimation of U was done using LED fluorimeter...
April 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J M McArthur, P K Sikdar, M J Leng, U Ghosal, I Sen
Kolkata, the capital city of West Bengal, exploits groundwater for public water-supply. The groundwater has been reported to be widely polluted by arsenic (As). Analysis for As in 280 groundwaters from across Kolkata, failed to detect As concentrations >10 μg/L from natural processes. Arsenic concentrations between 10 and 79 μg/L found in 14 of the 280 groundwaters are remnant from a pollution-plume emanating from a single factory site where Paris Green, an arsenical pesticide, was manufactured between 1965 and 1985...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Michael Kahsay Ghebremariam, Tiny Hlokwe, Victor P M G Rutten, Alberto Allepuz, Simeon Cadmus, Adrian Muwonge, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Anita L Michel
Mycobacterium bovis (M.bovis) is the main causative agent for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and can also be the cause of zoonotic tuberculosis in humans. In view of its zoonotic nature, slaughterhouse surveillance, potentially resulting in total or partial condemnation of the carcasses and organs, is conducted routinely.Spoligotyping, VNTR profiling, and whole genome sequencing (WGS)ofM. bovis isolated from tissues with tuberculosis-like lesions collected from 14 cattle at Eritrea's largest slaughterhouse in the capital Asmara, were conducted...
April 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Maria Gudnadottir, Thordis Katrin Thorsteinsdottir, Brynjolfur Mogensen, Thor Aspelund, Edda Bjork Thordardottir
BACKGROUND: To date, the majority of studies assessing accidental injuries among the elderly have focused on fall injuries, while studies of other mechanisms of injuries have been lacking. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate all injury-related visits among older adults to an emergency department and risk factors for injuries. METHODS: Data were collected on all registered visits of adults, ≥67 years old, living in the capital of Iceland, to the emergency department of Landspitali, the National University Hospital, in 2011 and 2012...
April 13, 2018: International Emergency Nursing
Sunita Vs Bandewar, Amita Pitre, Lakshmi Lingam
It is five years since the fatal gang rape of Jyothi Singh (Nirbhaya), a physiotherapy student, on December 16, 2012, in New Delhi, the capital of India. The legal and policy reforms triggered by the Nirbhaya case will remain a watershed moment in the history of efforts towards seeking justice for survivors of gender-based violence in India. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 and the "Guidelines and protocols: Medico-legal care for survivors/victims of sexual violence" issued by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in March 2014 are two landmark reforms...
March 28, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Thomas J Sharpton
Darwin referred to life as a struggle. Organisms compete for limited resources in nature, and their traits influence the outcome. Victory carries great weight as winners survive, reproduce, and progenate subsequent generations. Consequently, organismal traits that influence fitness drive adaptation and their discovery clarifies evolution. Recent research implicates the vertebrate gut microbiome as an agent of fitness, selection, and evolution. Going forward, we must define the functional effects of the gut microbiome to determine how it impacts evolution...
March 2018: MSystems
Melodie Melbouci, Robert W Mason, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Toshiyuki Fukao, Tadao Orii, Shunji Tomatsu
Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders that affect regulation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) processing. In MPS, the lysosomes cannot efficiently break down GAGs, and the specific GAGs accumulated depend on the type of MPS. The level of impairment of breakdown varies between patients, making this one of the many factors that lead to a range of clinical presentations even in the same type of MPS. These clinical presentations usually involve skeletal dysplasia, in which the most common feature is bone growth impairment and successive short stature...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Shyamala Ratnayeke, Frank T van Manen, Gopalasamy Reuben Clements, Noor Azleen Mohd Kulaimi, Stuart P Sharp
Mammalian carnivores play a vital role in ecosystem functioning. However, they are prone to extinction because of low population densities and growth rates, and high levels of persecution or exploitation. In tropical biodiversity hotspots such as Peninsular Malaysia, rapid conversion of natural habitats threatens the persistence of this vulnerable group of animals. Here, we carried out the first comprehensive literature review on 31 carnivore species reported to occur in Peninsular Malaysia and updated their probable distribution...
2018: PloS One
Chinmoy Sarkar, Chris Webster, John Gallacher
BACKGROUND: Increased urbanisation and the associated reduced contact of individuals with natural environments have led to a rise in mental disorders, including depression. Residential greenness, a fundamental component of urban design, has been shown to reduce the public health burden of mental disorders. The present study investigates the association between residential green exposure and prevalence of major depressive disorders using a large and diverse cross-sectional dataset from the UK Biobank...
April 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Guangde Jiang, Yucheng Zhang, Magan M Powell, Peilan Zhang, Ran Zuo, Yi Zhang, Dimitrios Kallifidas, Albert M Tieu, Hendrik Luesch, Rosemary Loria, Yousong Ding
Thaxtomins are virulence factors of most plant pathogenic Streptomyces strains. Due to their potent herbicidal activity, attractive environmental compatibility and inherent biodegradability, thaxtomins are key active ingredients of bioherbicides approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the low yield of thaxtomins in native Streptomyces producers limits their wide agricultural applications. Here, we describe the high-yield production of thaxtomins in a heterologous host. The thaxtomin gene cluster from S...
March 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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