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Natural capital

David R Smith
Foods of animal origin, including beef and dairy products, are nutritious and important to global food security. However, there are important risks to human health from hazards that are introduced to beef and dairy products on the farm. Food safety hazards may be chemical, biological, or physical in nature. Considerations about protecting the safety of beef and dairy products must begin prior to harvest because some potential food safety hazards introduced at the farm (e.g., chemical residues) cannot be mitigated by subsequent postharvest food processing steps...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Alexander C Hayes, S Enongene Ekwe, Steve Mervin, Earl Jenson
The extraction of natural resources often involves housing workers in remote work camps far from population centres. These camps are prevalent in northern Alberta where they house approximately 40,000 workers involved in oil sands processing. The central, full-service cafeterias at these camps produce a significant quantity of food and cardboard waste. Due to their remote nature, these camps face high waste disposal costs associated with trucking waste long distances to the landfill. In this study, we investigated the techno-economic feasibility of on-site treatment of food and cardboard waste in a tandem dry batch, garage-style anaerobic digestion-compost process in which the waste material is converted into renewable energy used to heat the camp water supply and a nutrient-rich soil amendment for local land reclamation projects...
October 4, 2016: Waste Management
Rosalynn Adeline Vega
This article examines the humanized birth movement in Mexico and analyzes how the remaking anew of tradition-the return to "traditional" birthing arts (home birth, midwife-assisted birth, "natural" birth)- inadvertently reinscribes racial "hierarchies." The great irony of the humanized birth movement lies in parents' perspective of themselves as critics of late capitalism; all the while, their very rejection of consumerism bolsters ongoing commodification of "indigenous culture" and collapses "indigeneity," "nature," and "tradition" onto one another...
September 26, 2016: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
Delphine Kapps, Marta Cela, Anne Théobald-Dietrich, Tamara Hendrickson, Magali Frugier
In this Review, we examine the so-called 'OB-fold', a tRNA-binding domain homologous to the bacterial tRNA-binding protein Trbp111. We highlight the ability of OB-fold homologs to bind tRNAs and summarize their distribution in evolution. Nature has capitalized on the advantageous effects acquired when an OB-fold domain binds to tRNA by evolutionarily selecting this domain for fusion to different enzymes. Here, we review our current understanding of how the complexity of OB-fold containing proteins and enzymes developed to expand their functions, especially in unicellular, pathogenic eukaryotes...
October 7, 2016: FEBS Letters
Alex D Washburne, Joshua W Burby, Daniel Lacker
Systems as diverse as the interacting species in a community, alleles at a genetic locus, and companies in a market are characterized by competition (over resources, space, capital, etc) and adaptation. Neutral theory, built around the hypothesis that individual performance is independent of group membership, has found utility across the disciplines of ecology, population genetics, and economics, both because of the success of the neutral hypothesis in predicting system properties and because deviations from these predictions provide information about the underlying dynamics...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Ricardo Mallarino, Hopi E Hoekstra, Marie Manceau
For decades, mammalian developmental genetic studies have focused almost entirely on two laboratory models: Mus and Rattus, species that breed readily in the laboratory and for which a wealth of molecular and genetic resources exist. These species alone, however, do not capture the remarkable diversity of morphological, behavioural and physiological traits seen across rodents, a group that represents >40% of all mammal species. Due to new advances in molecular tools and genomic technologies, studying the developmental events underlying natural variation in a wide range of species for a wide range of traits has become increasingly feasible...
September 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Feng Xu, Kyle W Hershey, Russell J Holmes, Thomas R Hoye
We describe here three alkynyl substituted naphthalenes that display promising luminescence characteristics. Each compound is easily and efficiently synthesized in three steps by capitalizing on the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) cycloisomerization reaction in which an intermediate benzyne is captured by tetraphenylcyclopentadienone, a classical trap for benzyne itself. These compounds luminesce in the deep blue when stimulated either optically (i.e., photoluminescence in both solution and solid films) or electrically [in a light-emitting diode (LED)]...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Suvi Konsti-Laakso, Virpi Koskela, Suvi-Jonna Martikainen, Helinä Melkas, Laura Mellanen
BACKGROUND: Social enterprises are often seen as a source of new and innovative solutions to persistent societal problems and a means for better inclusion of employees and customers. Because social enterprises combine business logic and social goals, they have vast potential to renew business and social life; therefore, it is vital to understand how their creation can be initiated and supported. OBJECTIVE: This study provides an overview of the participatory design process for a new social enterprise as it appears in practice...
September 7, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Geoffrey P Hammond, Bo Li
Environmental or 'ecological' footprints have been widely used in recent years as indicators of resource consumption and waste absorption presented in terms of biologically productive land area [in global hectares (gha)] required per capita with prevailing technology. In contrast, 'carbon footprints' are the amount of carbon (or carbon dioxide equivalent) emissions for such activities in units of mass or weight (like kilograms per functional unit), but can be translated into a component of the environmental footprint (on a gha basis)...
September 2016: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
Julija Michailova, Tadeusz Tyszka, Katarzyna Pfeifer
Previous research has demonstrated that in naturalistic risky decisions people tend to have little interest in receiving information about probabilities. The present research asked whether subjects search for and employ probabilistic information in situations that are representative of natural disasters: namely, situations where (1) they have no control over the occurrence of a negative event and (2) there might be huge losses of physical and human capital. Pseudo-realistic scenarios involving risky situations were presented to 116 experimental participants...
August 23, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Henry B Glick, Charlie Bettigole, Daniel S Maynard, Kristofer R Covey, Jeffrey R Smith, Thomas W Crowther
Remote sensing and geographic analysis of woody vegetation provide means of evaluating the distribution of natural resources, patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem structure, and socio-economic drivers of resource utilization. While these methods bring geographic datasets with global coverage into our day-to-day analytic spheres, many of the studies that rely on these strategies do not capitalize on the extensive collection of existing field data. We present the methods and maps associated with the first spatially-explicit models of global tree density, which relied on over 420,000 forest inventory field plots from around the world...
2016: Scientific Data
Douglas R Warrick, Tyson L Hedrick, Andrew A Biewener, Kristen E Crandell, Bret W Tobalske
While prior studies of swallow manoeuvering have focused on slow-speed flight and obstacle avoidance in still air, swallows survive by foraging at high speeds in windy environments. Recent advances in field-portable, high-speed video systems, coupled with precise anemometry, permit measures of high-speed aerial performance of birds in a natural state. We undertook the present study to test: (i) the manner in which barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) may exploit wind dynamics and ground effect while foraging and (ii) the relative importance of flapping versus gliding for accomplishing high-speed manoeuvers...
September 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Jozsef Kovacs
This paper invokes the conceptual framework of Bourdieu to analyse the mechanisms, which help to maintain inappropriate authorship practices and the functions these practices may serve. Bourdieu's social theory with its emphasis on mechanisms of domination can be applied to the academic field, too, where competition is omnipresent, control mechanisms of authorship are loose, and the result of performance assessment can be a matter of symbolic life and death for the researchers. This results in a problem of game-theoretic nature, where researchers' behaviour will be determined more by the logic of competition, than by individual character or motives...
August 13, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Jia Yin, Xiaolin Wei, Haitao Li, Yanling Jiang, Chunfang Mao
OBJECTIVE: China issued the national primary care policy of promoting general practitioner (GP) team service in 2011. We conducted this study to assess the impact of the GP team service on quality of primary care as perceived by patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). DESIGN: Natural experimental study. SETTING: This study was conducted in Shanghai, where the policy was effectively implemented, and Kunming, where the policy was not implemented...
August 10, 2016: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
B Adderley, J Carey, J Gibbins, M Lucquiaud, R Smith
Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) can be achieved using a variety of technologies. Importantly it is applicable to a wide range of processes and may also be retrofitted in certain cases. This paper covers the use of PCC for low carbon power generation from new natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants that are expected to be built in the UK in the 2020s and 2030s and that will run into the 2050s. Costs appear potentially comparable with other low carbon and controllable generation sources such as nuclear or renewables plus storage, especially with the lower gas prices that can be expected in a carbon-constrained world...
October 20, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Hanson Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Faith Nankasa Mambulu, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Isaac Luginaah, Esther Lupafya
This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably...
September 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Robert I McDonald, Katherine F Weber, Julie Padowski, Tim Boucher, Daniel Shemie
Urban water systems are impacted by land use within their source watersheds, as it affects raw water quality and thus the costs of water treatment. However, global estimates of the effect of land cover change on urban water-treatment costs have been hampered by a lack of global information on urban source watersheds. Here, we use a unique map of the urban source watersheds for 309 large cities (population > 750,000), combined with long-term data on anthropogenic land-use change in their source watersheds and data on water-treatment costs...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
R Migliani, S Keïta, B Diallo, S Mesfin, W Perea, B Dahl, G Rodier
Ebola Zaire species variant Makona between its emergence in December 2013 and April 2016, resulted in an epidemic of Guinea importance and unprecedented gravity with 3814 reported cases of which 3358 were confirmed (88.0%) and 2544 were died (66.7%). The epidemic has evolved in phases: a silent phase without identification of all fatal cases until February 2014; a first outbreak from March 2014, when the alarm is raised and the virus detected, which lasted until July 2014; a second increase, which was the most intense, from August 2014 to January 2015 focused primarily on the forest Guinea; and a final increase from February 2015 centered on lower Guinea and the capital Conakry...
July 25, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Marianna Usai, Aldo Domenico Atzei, Mauro Marchetti
Two species of Melissa are currently present in Sardinia: Melissa officinalis L. and Melissa romana Mill. Our research can only count on a few supported evidences (as reported in Flora Italiana and Moris) and some notes on new stations in Sardinia that give us some information about morphology, distribution, bioecological, and ethnobotanical characteristics of both species. In this paper, we present the results of the research about morphological aspects of M. romana vs. M. officinalis, and their essential oils in different stations at different phenological periods...
August 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Symielle Gaston, Nicole Nugent, Edward S Peters, Tekeda F Ferguson, Edward J Trapido, William T Robinson, Ariane L Rung
INTRODUCTION: Oil spill exposures are associated with increased levels of depression, which is often measured using continuous scores or dichotomous cut points on screening tools in population-based studies. Latent profile analysis can overcome analytic limitations such as 1) masking of heterogeneity in outcomes among people within dichotomous categories and 2) loss of information about symptom patterns among those with the same continuous score. This study examined variation in depressive symptoms and assessed the associations between depressive symptomatology and oil spill exposure, socioeconomic risk factors, and social capital...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
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