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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428392/ecosystem-management-as-a-wicked-problem
#1
REVIEW
Ruth DeFries, Harini Nagendra
Ecosystems are self-regulating systems that provide societies with food, water, timber, and other resources. As demands for resources increase, management decisions are replacing self-regulating properties. Counter to previous technical approaches that applied simple formulas to estimate sustainable yields of single species, current research recognizes the inherent complexity of ecosystems and the inability to foresee all consequences of interventions across different spatial, temporal, and administrative scales...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412765/advanced-value-chain-collaboration-in-ghana-s-cocoa-sector-an-entry-point-for-integrated-landscape-approaches
#2
Howard Deans, Mirjam A F Ros-Tonen, Mercy Derkyi
Value chain analyses have focused mainly on collaboration between chain actors, often neglecting collaboration "beyond the chain" with non-chain actors to tackle food security, poverty and sustainability issues in the landscapes in which these value chains are embedded. Comparing conventional and advanced value chain collaborations involving small-scale cocoa farmers in Ghana, this paper analyzes the merits of a more integrated approach toward value chain collaboration. It particularly asks whether advanced value chain collaboration targeting cocoa-producing areas potentially offers an entry point for implementing a landscape approach...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408395/high-throughput-low-loss-low-cost-and-label-free-cell-separation-using-electrophysiology-activated-cell-enrichment
#3
Shabnam A Faraghat, Kai F Hoettges, Max K Steinbach, Daan R van der Veen, William J Brackenbury, Erin A Henslee, Fatima H Labeed, Michael P Hughes
Currently, cell separation occurs almost exclusively by density gradient methods and by fluorescence- and magnetic-activated cell sorting (FACS/MACS). These variously suffer from lack of specificity, high cell loss, use of labels, and high capital/operating cost. We present a dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based cell-separation method, using 3D electrodes on a low-cost disposable chip; one cell type is allowed to pass through the chip whereas the other is retained and subsequently recovered. The method advances usability and throughput of DEP separation by orders of magnitude in throughput, efficiency, purity, recovery (cells arriving in the correct output fraction), cell losses (those which are unaccounted for at the end of the separation), and cost...
April 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405754/local-government-capacity-to-respond-to-environmental-change-insights-from-towns-in-new-york-state
#4
Lincoln R Larson, T Bruce Lauber, David L Kay, Bethany B Cutts
Local governments attempting to respond to environmental change face an array of challenges. To better understand policy responses and factors influencing local government capacity to respond to environmental change, we studied three environmental issues affecting rural or peri-urban towns in different regions of New York State: climate change in the Adirondacks (n = 63 towns), loss of open space due to residential/commercial development in the Hudson Valley (n = 50), and natural gas development in the Southern Tier (n = 62)...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400595/prediction-of-bacterial-contamination-outbursts-in-water-wells-through-sparse-coding
#5
Levi Frolich, Dalit Vaizel-Ohayon, Barak Fishbain
Maintaining water quality is critical for any water distribution company. One of the major concerns in water quality assurance, is bacterial contamination in water sources. To date, bacteria growth models cannot predict with sufficient accuracy when a bacteria outburst will occur in a water well. This is partly due to the natural sparsity of the bacteria count time series, which hinders the observation of deviations from normal behavior. This precludes the application of mathematical models nor statistical quality control methods for the detection of high bacteria counts before contamination occurs...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389560/introduction-to-the-thematic-minireview-series-host-microbiome-metabolic-interplay
#6
Ruma Banerjee
Long before the recent thrust of scientific research on the microbiome, the importance of its interface with the host was being acknowledged by practices such as probiotic supplementation e.g., after a course of antibiotics, which has the unwanted side effect of depleting commensal bacteria. The shared metabolite capital between the host and the microbiome is extensive and tightly controlled. However, despite the influence of microbial-derived metabolites on many aspects of host physiology, behavior and pathology, our understanding of this metabolic interface is still in its infancy and its therapeutic targeting is largely untapped...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364706/biosensor-for-detection-of-dissolved-chromium-in-potable-water-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Puja Biswas, Abhinav Kumar Karn, P Balasubramanian, Paresh G Kale
The unprecedented deterioration rate of the environmental quality due to rapid urbanization and industrialization causes a severe global health concern to both ecosystem and humanity. Heavy metals are ubiquitous in nature and being used extensively in industrial processes, the exposure to excessive levels could alter the biochemical cycles of living systems. Hence the environmental monitoring through rapid and specific detection of heavy metal contamination in potable water is of paramount importance. Various standard analytical techniques and sensors are used for the detection of heavy metals include spectroscopy and chromatographic methods along with electrochemical, optical waveguide and polymer based sensors...
March 24, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359313/an-examination-of-the-causes-consequences-and-policy-responses-to-the-migration-of-highly-trained-health-personnel-from-the-philippines-the-high-cost-of-living-leaving-a-mixed-method-study
#8
Erlinda Castro-Palaganas, Denise L Spitzer, Maria Midea M Kabamalan, Marian C Sanchez, Ruel Caricativo, Vivien Runnels, Ronald Labonté, Gail Tomblin Murphy, Ivy Lynn Bourgeault
BACKGROUND: Dramatic increases in the migration of human resources for health (HRH) from developing countries like the Philippines can have consequences on the sustainability of health systems. In this paper, we trace the outflows of HRH from the Philippines, map out its key causes and consequences, and identify relevant policy responses. METHODS: This mixed method study employed a decentered, comparative approach that involved three phases: (a) a scoping review on health workers' migration of relevant policy documents and academic literature on health workers' migration from the Philippines; and primary data collection with (b) 37 key stakeholders and (c) household surveys with seven doctors, 329 nurses, 66 midwives, and 18 physical therapists...
March 31, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349311/integrating-ecosystem-services-in-terrestrial-conservation-planning
#9
Mei-Hua Yuan, Shang-Lien Lo, Chih-Kai Yang
The purpose of this study is to estimate the benefits of ecosystem services for prioritization of land use conservation and to highlight the importance of ecosystem services by comparison between ecosystem service value and green GDP accounting. Based on land use pattern and benefit transfer method, this research estimated value of ecosystem services in Taiwan. Scientific information of land use and land cover change is accessed through multi-year satellite imagery moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), and geographic information system (GIS) technology...
March 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348838/sequence-based-analysis-of-the-genus-ruminococcus-resolves-its-phylogeny-and-reveals-strong-host-association
#10
Alex J La Reau, Jan P Meier-Kolthoff, Garret Suen
It has become increasingly clear that the composition of mammalian gut microbial communities is substantially diet driven. These microbiota form intricate mutualisms with their hosts, which have profound implications on overall health. For example, many gut microbes are involved in the conversion of host-ingested dietary polysaccharides into host-usable nutrients. One group of important gut microbial symbionts are bacteria in the genus Ruminococcus. Originally isolated from the bovine rumen, ruminococci have been found in numerous mammalian hosts, including other ruminants, and non-ruminants such as horses, pigs and humans...
December 2016: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329791/contributions-of-the-individual-differences-approach-to-cognitive-aging
#11
Timothy A Salthouse
Objective: To review selected research in cognitive aging incorporating an individual differences approach. Method: Three contributions of the individual differences perspective in cognitive aging are illustrated with data from the Virginia Cognitive Aging Project. Results: Research capitalizing on the variability among individuals has been used to: (a) improve sensitivity and validity of measurement of cognitive functioning, and evaluate possible age differences in the meaning of the measures; (b) investigate relations between age and individual cognitive measures in the context of other types of cognitive measures; and (c) examine the degree to which age-related influences on target measures are statistically independent of age-related influences on other cognitive measures...
July 2, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280395/residential-greenness-current-perspectives-on-its-impact-on-maternal-health-and-pregnancy-outcomes
#12
REVIEW
Rachel F Banay, Carla P Bezold, Peter James, Jaime E Hart, Francine Laden
Recent research in environmental epidemiology has attempted to estimate the effects of exposure to nature, often operationalized as vegetation, on health. Although many analyses have focused on vegetation or greenness with regard to physical activity and weight status, an incipient area of interest concerns maternal health and birth outcomes. This paper reviews 14 studies that examined the association between greenness and maternal or infant health. Most studies were cross-sectional and conducted in birth cohorts...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280291/the-impact-of-congestion-charging-on-social-capital
#13
Luke A Munford
We analyse a new data set to examine how congestion charging policies affect an individual's investment social capital. We exploit a (quasi-) natural experiment - the implementation of the Western Extension Zone (WEZ) to the London Congestion Charging zone in 2007. We measure investment in social capital by using the frequency of visits to friends and family before and after the implementation of the WEZ. Using longitudinal data collected in January and November 2007 made available by Transport for London, we perform difference-in-difference analysis, using both OLS and interval regression, with the treatment group defined as those who used a car to make visits pre-WEZ...
March 2017: Transportation Research. Part A, Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272806/a-markov-model-assessing-the-impact-on-primary-care-practice-revenues-and-patient-s-health-when-using-mid-level-providers-lesson-learned-from-the-united-kingdom
#14
Harry Hill, Richard Macey, Paul Brocklehurst
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using mid-level providers for dental "check-up" examinations and the treatment of caries in different NHS settings in the United Kingdom. Mid-level providers are a broad category that describes non-dentist members of dental teams. This study focused on the potential use of Dental Hygiene Therapists undertaking dental "check-up" examinations and simple restorative treatment, instead of dentists. METHODS: A Markov model was used to construct the natural history of caries development in adults that visit a dental practice every six months over a five-year period...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264677/does-capitation-affect-the-delivery-of-oral-healthcare-and-access-to-services-evidence-from-a-pilot-contact-in-northern-ireland
#15
Harry Hill, Stephen Birch, Martin Tickle, Ruth McDonald, Michael Donaldson, Donncha O'Carolan, Paul Brocklehurst
BACKGROUND: In May 2009, the Northern Ireland government introduced General Dental Services (GDS) contracts based on capitation in dental practices newly set up by a corporate dental provider to promote access to dental care in populations that had previously struggled to secure service provision. Dental service provision forms an important component of general health services for the population, but the implications of health system financing on care delivered and the financial cost of services has received relatively little attention in the research literature...
March 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260290/-the-influence-of-the-intrapartum-inventions-on-the-maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-of-vaginal-birth-after-cesarean
#16
S W Wu, D He, W Y Zhang
Objective: To investigate the maternal and neonatal outcomes after different intrapartum interventions for vaginal birth after cesarean (Vaginal Birth After Cesarean-section, VBAC). Methods: One hundred and forty three cases in Beijing Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2015 to November 2016 were selected retrospectively.The relationship between the intrapartum inventions such as induction style, oxytocin usage and spinal analgesia and the maternal and neonatal outcomes such as delivery way, labor time, postpartum hemorrhage and fetal distress were analyzed in pregnant women underwent VBAC...
February 21, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254377/impact-of-androstane-a-and-d-ring-inversion-on-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-3-inhibitory-activity-androgenic-effect-and-metabolic-stability
#17
Francisco Cortés-Benítez, Jenny Roy, René Maltais, Donald Poirier
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD3) is a major player in human endocrinology, being one of the most important enzymes involved in testosterone production. To capitalize on the discovery of RM-532-105, a steroidal 17β-HSD3 inhibitor, we explored the effect of its backbone configuration on inhibitory activity, androgenic profile, and metabolic stability. Two modifications that greatly alter the natural shape of steroids, i.e. inversion of the methyl on carbon 13 (13α-CH3 instead of 13β-CH3) and inversion of the hydrogen on carbon 5 (5β-H instead of 5α-H), were tested after the syntheses in 6 steps of 2 isomeric forms (5α/13α-RM-532-105 (6a) and 5β/13β-RM-532-105 (6b), respectively) of the 17β-HSD3 inhibitor RM-532-105 (5α/13β-configurations)...
February 9, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231294/association-of-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-and-t-lymphocytes-with-the-pathogenesis-and-progression-of-hbv-associated-primary-liver-cancer
#18
Xiaoli Liu, Lingling He, Junyan Han, Lijia Wang, Mengge Li, Yuyong Jiang, Xianbo Wang, Zhiyun Yang
BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a new prognostic predictor for patients with liver cancer. The association of NLR and T lymphocytes with the pathogenesis and progression of liver cancer is poorly understood. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated primary liver cancer (HBV-PLC), 50 patients with HBV-associated liver cirrhosis (HBV-LC) and 37 patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB) were prospectively enrolled from July 1, 2013 to February 28, 2014 in Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University (Beijing, China)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222743/estimating-deaths-attributable-to-airborne-particles-sensitivity-of-the-results-to-different-exposure-assessment-approaches
#19
Simone Giannini, Michela Baccini, Giorgia Randi, Giovanni Bonafè, Paolo Lauriola, Andrea Ranzi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidences support the existence of an effect of airborne particulate on population health. However, few studies evaluated the robustness of the results to different exposure assessment approaches. In this paper, we estimated short term effects and impacts of high levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) and ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), one of the most polluted areas in Europe, in the period 2006-2010, and checked if the results changed when different exposure definitions were used...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220773/new-crispr-cas-systems-discovered
#20
Hui Yang, Dinshaw J Patel
In bacteria and archaea, CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems utilize RNA-guided endonucleases to defend against invasion by foreign nucleic acids of bacteriophage, virus and plasmid origin. In a recent paper published in Nature, Burstein et al. identified the first Cas9 protein in uncultivated archaea and two novel CRISPR-CasX and CRISPR-CasY systems in uncultivated bacteria by capitalizing on analysis of terabase-scale metagenomic datasets from natural uncultivated organisms.
March 2017: Cell Research
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