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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513428/slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis-a-review-of-management-in-the-hip-impingement-era
#1
Mahmoud A Mahran, Mostafa M Baraka, Hany M Hefny
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) remains the most common adolescent hip disorder. Most cases present with stable slips, and in situ fixation is the most commonly adopted treatment worldwide. The introduction of the concept of femoroacetabular impingement and subsequent studies have revealed SCFE-related hip impingement to be a significant pre-arthritic condition, and the previously suggested remodeling of the proximal femur after in situ fixation has been called into question. Complex proximal femoral osteotomies and more recently intra-articular procedures via surgical hip dislocation have been employed...
2017: SICOT-J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508047/kin-based-cultural-transmission-of-tool-use-in-wild-chimpanzees
#2
Noemie Lamon, Christof Neumann, Thibaud Gruber, Klaus Zuberbühler
Current research on animal culture has focused strongly on cataloging the diversity of socially transmitted behaviors and on the social learning mechanisms that sustain their spread. Comparably less is known about the persistence of cultural behavior following innovation in groups of wild animals. We present observational data and a field experiment designed to address this question in a wild chimpanzee community, capitalizing on a novel tool behavior, moss-sponging, which appeared naturally in the community in 2011...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502014/inventions-and-patents-a-practical-tutorial
#3
Hina Mehta, Lille Tidwell, Lance A Liotta
Patents are designed to protect and encourage creativity and innovation. Patenting a biomedical discovery can be a requirement before a pharmaceutical company or biotech entity will invest in the lengthy and capital-intensive drug development and clinical trials necessary to achieve patient benefit. Although scientists and clinicians are well versed in research publication requirements, patent descriptions and claims are formatted in a manner quite different from a research paper. Patents require (a) a series of logical statements clearly delineating the boundaries of the novel aspects of the invention and (b) sufficient disclosure of the invention so that it can be reproduced by others...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497798/phosphorylation-induces-sequence-specific-conformational-switches-in-the-rna-polymerase-ii-c-terminal-domain
#4
Eric B Gibbs, Feiyue Lu, Bede Portz, Michael J Fisher, Brenda P Medellin, Tatiana N Laremore, Yan Jessie Zhang, David S Gilmour, Scott A Showalter
The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) large subunit cycles through phosphorylation states that correlate with progression through the transcription cycle and regulate nascent mRNA processing. Structural analyses of yeast and mammalian CTD are hampered by their repetitive sequences. Here we identify a region of the Drosophila melanogaster CTD that is essential for Pol II function in vivo and capitalize on natural sequence variations within it to facilitate structural analysis. Mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy reveal that hyper-Ser5 phosphorylation transforms the local structure of this region via proline isomerization...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495219/increases-in-use-and-activity-due-to-urban-renewal-effect-of-a-natural-experiment
#5
Henriette Bondo Andersen, Lars Breum Christiansen, Charlotte Demant Klinker, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Jens Troelsen, Jacqueline Kerr, Jasper Schipperijn
INTRODUCTION: Urban green space and other recreational facilities are associated with physical activity. For adolescents living in multistory housing, public outdoor spaces that support physical activity may play an important role in activity promotion strategies. However, stronger evidence for a relation between the built environment and adolescent physical activity is scarce. DESIGN: A natural experiment with a pre-experimental design was used with data collected in 2010 and 2012 before and after an urban renewal...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483497/bio-methane-from-an-aerobic-digestion-using-activated-carbon-adsorption
#6
Muhammad Farooq, Alexandra H Bell, M N Almustapha, John M Andresen
There is an increasing global demand for carbon-neutral bio-methane from an-aerobic digestion (AD) to be injected into national gas grids. Bio-gas, a methane -rich energy gas, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic matter through an-aerobic conditions where the presence of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide affects its performance. Although the microbiological process in the AD can be tailored to enhance the bio-gas composition, physical treatment is needed to convert the bio-gas into bio-methane...
May 5, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471206/the-complementary-roles-of-auditory-and-motor-information-evaluated-in-a-bayesian-perceptuo-motor-model-of-speech-perception
#7
Raphaël Laurent, Marie-Lou Barnaud, Jean-Luc Schwartz, Pierre Bessière, Julien Diard
There is a consensus concerning the view that both auditory and motor representations intervene in the perceptual processing of speech units. However, the question of the functional role of each of these systems remains seldom addressed and poorly understood. We capitalized on the formal framework of Bayesian Programming to develop COSMO (Communicating Objects using Sensory-Motor Operations), an integrative model that allows principled comparisons of purely motor or purely auditory implementations of a speech perception task and tests the gain of efficiency provided by their Bayesian fusion...
May 4, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461431/political-economies-and-environmental-futures-for-the-sharing-economy
#8
Koen Frenken
The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models...
June 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459540/homogeneous-functionalization-of-methane
#9
Niles Jensen Gunsalus, Anjaneyulu Koppaka, Sae Hume Park, Steven M Bischof, Brian G Hashiguchi, Roy A Periana
One of the remaining "grand challenges" in chemistry is the development of a next generation, less expensive, cleaner process that can allow the vast reserves of methane from natural gas to augment or replace oil as the source of fuels and chemicals. Homogeneous (gas/liquid) systems that convert methane to functionalized products with emphasis on reports after 1995 are reviewed. Gas/solid, bioinorganic, biological, and reaction systems that do not specifically involve methane functionalization are excluded...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450596/the-natural-capital-of-city-trees
#10
Katherine J Willis, Gillian Petrokofsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428392/ecosystem-management-as-a-wicked-problem
#11
REVIEW
Ruth DeFries, Harini Nagendra
Ecosystems are self-regulating systems that provide societies with food, water, timber, and other resources. As demands for resources increase, management decisions are replacing self-regulating properties. Counter to previous technical approaches that applied simple formulas to estimate sustainable yields of single species, current research recognizes the inherent complexity of ecosystems and the inability to foresee all consequences of interventions across different spatial, temporal, and administrative scales...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412765/advanced-value-chain-collaboration-in-ghana-s-cocoa-sector-an-entry-point-for-integrated-landscape-approaches
#12
Howard Deans, Mirjam A F Ros-Tonen, Mercy Derkyi
Value chain analyses have focused mainly on collaboration between chain actors, often neglecting collaboration "beyond the chain" with non-chain actors to tackle food security, poverty and sustainability issues in the landscapes in which these value chains are embedded. Comparing conventional and advanced value chain collaborations involving small-scale cocoa farmers in Ghana, this paper analyzes the merits of a more integrated approach toward value chain collaboration. It particularly asks whether advanced value chain collaboration targeting cocoa-producing areas potentially offers an entry point for implementing a landscape approach...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408395/high-throughput-low-loss-low-cost-and-label-free-cell-separation-using-electrophysiology-activated-cell-enrichment
#13
Shabnam A Faraghat, Kai F Hoettges, Max K Steinbach, Daan R van der Veen, William J Brackenbury, Erin A Henslee, Fatima H Labeed, Michael P Hughes
Currently, cell separation occurs almost exclusively by density gradient methods and by fluorescence- and magnetic-activated cell sorting (FACS/MACS). These variously suffer from lack of specificity, high cell loss, use of labels, and high capital/operating cost. We present a dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based cell-separation method, using 3D electrodes on a low-cost disposable chip; one cell type is allowed to pass through the chip whereas the other is retained and subsequently recovered. The method advances usability and throughput of DEP separation by orders of magnitude in throughput, efficiency, purity, recovery (cells arriving in the correct output fraction), cell losses (those which are unaccounted for at the end of the separation), and cost...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405754/local-government-capacity-to-respond-to-environmental-change-insights-from-towns-in-new-york-state
#14
Lincoln R Larson, T Bruce Lauber, David L Kay, Bethany B Cutts
Local governments attempting to respond to environmental change face an array of challenges. To better understand policy responses and factors influencing local government capacity to respond to environmental change, we studied three environmental issues affecting rural or peri-urban towns in different regions of New York State: climate change in the Adirondacks (n = 63 towns), loss of open space due to residential/commercial development in the Hudson Valley (n = 50), and natural gas development in the Southern Tier (n = 62)...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400595/prediction-of-bacterial-contamination-outbursts-in-water-wells-through-sparse-coding
#15
Levi Frolich, Dalit Vaizel-Ohayon, Barak Fishbain
Maintaining water quality is critical for any water distribution company. One of the major concerns in water quality assurance, is bacterial contamination in water sources. To date, bacteria growth models cannot predict with sufficient accuracy when a bacteria outburst will occur in a water well. This is partly due to the natural sparsity of the bacteria count time series, which hinders the observation of deviations from normal behavior. This precludes the application of mathematical models nor statistical quality control methods for the detection of high bacteria counts before contamination occurs...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389560/introduction-to-the-thematic-minireview-series-host-microbiome-metabolic-interplay
#16
Ruma Banerjee
Long before the recent thrust of scientific research on the microbiome, the importance of its interface with the host was being acknowledged by practices such as probiotic supplementation e.g., after a course of antibiotics, which has the unwanted side effect of depleting commensal bacteria. The shared metabolite capital between the host and the microbiome is extensive and tightly controlled. However, despite the influence of microbial-derived metabolites on many aspects of host physiology, behavior and pathology, our understanding of this metabolic interface is still in its infancy and its therapeutic targeting is largely untapped...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364706/biosensor-for-detection-of-dissolved-chromium-in-potable-water-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Puja Biswas, Abhinav Kumar Karn, P Balasubramanian, Paresh G Kale
The unprecedented deterioration rate of the environmental quality due to rapid urbanization and industrialization causes a severe global health concern to both ecosystem and humanity. Heavy metals are ubiquitous in nature and being used extensively in industrial processes, the exposure to excessive levels could alter the biochemical cycles of living systems. Hence the environmental monitoring through rapid and specific detection of heavy metal contamination in potable water is of paramount importance. Various standard analytical techniques and sensors are used for the detection of heavy metals include spectroscopy and chromatographic methods along with electrochemical, optical waveguide and polymer based sensors...
March 24, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359313/an-examination-of-the-causes-consequences-and-policy-responses-to-the-migration-of-highly-trained-health-personnel-from-the-philippines-the-high-cost-of-living-leaving-a-mixed-method-study
#18
Erlinda Castro-Palaganas, Denise L Spitzer, Maria Midea M Kabamalan, Marian C Sanchez, Ruel Caricativo, Vivien Runnels, Ronald Labonté, Gail Tomblin Murphy, Ivy Lynn Bourgeault
BACKGROUND: Dramatic increases in the migration of human resources for health (HRH) from developing countries like the Philippines can have consequences on the sustainability of health systems. In this paper, we trace the outflows of HRH from the Philippines, map out its key causes and consequences, and identify relevant policy responses. METHODS: This mixed method study employed a decentered, comparative approach that involved three phases: (a) a scoping review on health workers' migration of relevant policy documents and academic literature on health workers' migration from the Philippines; and primary data collection with (b) 37 key stakeholders and (c) household surveys with seven doctors, 329 nurses, 66 midwives, and 18 physical therapists...
March 31, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349311/integrating-ecosystem-services-in-terrestrial-conservation-planning
#19
Mei-Hua Yuan, Shang-Lien Lo, Chih-Kai Yang
The purpose of this study is to estimate the benefits of ecosystem services for prioritization of land use conservation and to highlight the importance of ecosystem services by comparison between ecosystem service value and green GDP accounting. Based on land use pattern and benefit transfer method, this research estimated value of ecosystem services in Taiwan. Scientific information of land use and land cover change is accessed through multi-year satellite imagery moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), and geographic information system (GIS) technology...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348838/sequence-based-analysis-of-the-genus-ruminococcus-resolves-its-phylogeny-and-reveals-strong-host-association
#20
Alex J La Reau, Jan P Meier-Kolthoff, Garret Suen
It has become increasingly clear that the composition of mammalian gut microbial communities is substantially diet driven. These microbiota form intricate mutualisms with their hosts, which have profound implications on overall health. For example, many gut microbes are involved in the conversion of host-ingested dietary polysaccharides into host-usable nutrients. One group of important gut microbial symbionts are bacteria in the genus Ruminococcus. Originally isolated from the bovine rumen, ruminococci have been found in numerous mammalian hosts, including other ruminants, and non-ruminants such as horses, pigs and humans...
December 2016: Microbial Genomics
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