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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163254/using-self-generated-cues-to-facilitate-recall-a-narrative-review
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca L Wheeler, Fiona Gabbert
We draw upon the Associative Network model of memory, as well as the principles of encoding-retrieval specificity, and cue distinctiveness, to argue that self-generated cue mnemonics offer an intuitive means of facilitating reliable recall of personally experienced events. The use of a self-generated cue mnemonic allows for the spreading activation nature of memory, whilst also presenting an opportunity to capitalize upon cue distinctiveness. Here, we present the theoretical rationale behind the use of this technique, and highlight the distinction between a self-generated cue and a self-referent cue in autobiographical memory research...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156096/males-that-drop-a-sexually-selected-weapon-grow-larger-testes
#2
Paul N Joseph, Zachary Emberts, Daniel A Sasson, Christine W Miller
Costly sexually selected weapons are predicted to trade off with postcopulatory traits, such as testes. Although weapons can be important for achieving access to females, individuals of some species can permanently drop (i.e. autotomize) their weapons, without regeneration, to escape danger. We capitalized on this natural behavior to experimentally address whether the loss of a sexually selected weapon leads to increased testes investment in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae)...
November 20, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151983/moving-beyond-china-in-africa-insights-from-zambian-immigration-data
#3
Hannah Postel
China's growing presence in Africa is not news: the expansion of bilateral trade and investment ties has garnered intense media and political focus over the past decade. However, less is known about the people accompanying these increasingly intensive flows of goods and capital. This paper focuses on Zambia, drawing on multiple primary datasets to shed light on both the scale and nature of Chinese migration to the continent. Two years of Department of Immigration employment-permit data serve as the basis for the first quantitative analysis of the "Chinese" in "Africa," illuminating the increasing diversity of this population flow...
2017: Journal of Current Chinese Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148749/glycosyl-cross-coupling-of-anomeric-nucleophiles-scope-mechanism-and-applications-in-the-synthesis-of-aryl-c-glycosides
#4
Feng Zhu, Jacob Rodriguez, Tianyi Yang, Ilia Kevlishvili, Eric Miller, Duk Yi, Sloane O'Neill, Michael Rourke, Peng Liu, Maciej A Walczak
Stereoselective manipulations at the C1 anomeric position of saccharides are one of the central goals of preparative carbohydrate chemistry. Historically, the majority of reactions forming a bond with anomeric carbon has focused on reactions of nucleophiles with saccharide donors equipped with a leaving group. Here, we describe a novel approach to stereoselective synthesis of C-aryl glycosides capitalizing on the highly stereospecific reaction of anomeric nucleophiles. First, methods for the preparation of anomeric stannanes have been developed and optimized to afford both anomers of common saccharides in high anomeric selectivities...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142013/urbanism-and-the-division-of-labour-in-the-roman-empire
#5
J W Hanson, S G Ortman, J Lobo
One of the hallmarks of human agglomeration is an increase in the division of labour, but the exact nature of this relationship has been debated among anthropologists, sociologists, economists, and historians and archaeologists. Over the last decade, researchers investigating contemporary urban systems have suggested a novel explanation for the links between the numbers of inhabitants in settlements and many of their most important characteristics, which is grounded in a view of settlements as social networks embedded in built environments...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138281/a-conserved-cytoskeletal-signaling-cascade-mediates-neurotoxicity-of-ftdp-17-tau-mutations-in-vivo
#6
Farah H Bardai, Liqun Wang, Yamini Mutreja, Mythili Yenjerla, T Chris Gamblin, Mel B Feany
The microtubule binding protein tau is strongly implicated in multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), which is caused by mutations in tau. In vitro, FTDP-17 mutant versions of tau can reduce microtubule binding and increase aggregation of tau, but the mechanism by which these mutations promote disease in vivo is not clear. Here we take a combined biochemical and in vivo modeling approach to define functional properties of tau driving neurotoxicity in vivo We express wild type human tau and five FTDP-17 mutant forms of tau in Drosophila using a site-directed insertion strategy to ensure equivalent levels of expression...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133409/psychological-targeting-as-an-effective-approach-to-digital-mass-persuasion
#7
S C Matz, M Kosinski, G Nave, D J Stillwell
People are exposed to persuasive communication across many different contexts: Governments, companies, and political parties use persuasive appeals to encourage people to eat healthier, purchase a particular product, or vote for a specific candidate. Laboratory studies show that such persuasive appeals are more effective in influencing behavior when they are tailored to individuals' unique psychological characteristics. However, the investigation of large-scale psychological persuasion in the real world has been hindered by the questionnaire-based nature of psychological assessment...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132634/a-model-to-determine-payments-associated-with-radiology-procedures
#8
Thusitha Mabotuwana, Christopher S Hall, Shiby Thomas, Christoph Wald
OBJECTIVE: Across the United States, there is a growing number of patients in Accountable Care Organizations and under risk contracts with commercial insurance. This is due to proliferation of new value-based payment models and care delivery reform efforts. In this context, the business model of radiology within a hospital or health system context is shifting from a primary profit-center to a cost-center with a goal of cost savings. Radiology departments need to increasingly understand how the transactional nature of the business relates to financial rewards...
December 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129524/urban-flood-mitigation-planning-for-guwahati-a-case-of-bharalu-basin
#9
Tanaya Sarmah, Sutapa Das
Guwahati, the capital city of Assam and the gateway to the seven north-eastern Indian states, is located in the Brahmaputra valley-one of the most flood prone regions of the world. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1688 mm and is highly vulnerable towards frequent urban floods because of uncontrolled dumping of solid waste and siltation have choked the natural water channels. This coupled with the absence of an integrated drainage network and rapid urbanisation causes floods in many parts of the city, after a quick downpour...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126978/toxoplasma-gondii-seroprevalence-in-goats-cats-and-humans-in-russia
#10
Eduard A Shuralev, Nikolai D Shamaev, Malik N Mukminov, Kisaburo Nagamune, Yuji Taniguchi, Taizo Saito, Katsuya Kitoh, Marina I Arleevskaya, Anastasiya Yu Fedotova, Diana R Abdulmanova, Natalya M Aleksandrova, Marina A Efimova, Aynur I Yarullin, Anna R Valeeva, Kamil S Khaertynov, Yasuhiro Takashima
Toxoplasmosis, a most common zoonosis, is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. However, there is little epidemiological information on T. gondii infections in humans and livestock animals in Russia. Therefore, in this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats in Russia was investigated. A total of 216 goats from 32 farms were investigated and 95 of them were seropositive for T. gondii. The difference in seroprevalence between the examined regions was not statistically significant. We next collected serum samples from 99 cats and 181 humans in Kazan city, the state capital of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and examined their T...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104575/-hotspots-of-antigen-presentation-revealed-by-human-leukocyte-antigen-ligandomics-for-neoantigen-prioritization
#11
Markus Müller, David Gfeller, George Coukos, Michal Bassani-Sternberg
The remarkable clinical efficacy of the immune checkpoint blockade therapies has motivated researchers to discover immunogenic epitopes and exploit them for personalized vaccines. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-binding peptides derived from processing and presentation of mutated proteins are one of the leading targets for T-cell recognition of cancer cells. Currently, most studies attempt to identify neoantigens based on predicted affinity to HLA molecules, but the performance of such prediction algorithms is rather poor for rare HLA class I alleles and for HLA class II...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095894/suicides-as-a-response-to-adverse-market-sentiment-1980-2016
#12
Pankaj Agrrawal, Doug Waggle, Daniel H Sandweiss
Financial crises inflict significant human as well as economic hardship. This paper focuses on the human fallout of capital market stress. Financial stress-induced behavioral changes can manifest in higher suicide and murder-suicide rates. We find that these rates also correlate with the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate (negatively associated; a -0.25% drop [in the rate of change in annual suicides for a +1% change in the independent variable]), unemployment rate (positive link; 0.298% increase), inflation rate (positive link; 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093732/dynamic-gene-resource-landscape-management-of-norway-spruce-combining-utilization-and-conservation
#13
Milan Lstibůrek, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Tore Skrøppa, Gary R Hodge, Jørn H Sønstebø, Arne Steffenrem
Traditional gene-resource management programs for forest trees are long-term endeavors requiring sustained organizational commitment covering extensive landscapes. While successful in maintaining adaptation, genetic diversity and capturing traditional growth attributes gains, these programs are dependent on rigid methods requiring elaborate mating schemes, thus making them slow in coping with climate change challenges. Here, we review the significance of Norway spruce in the boreal region and its current management practices...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068497/leveraging-natural-capital-to-solve-the-shared-education-and-conservation-crisis
#14
Kathryn T Stevenson, M Nils Peterson, Robert R Dunn
Education and conservation have a shared crisis: neither fully serves diverse populations. Where poverty, race, and ethnicity covary, those left behind educationally are disproportionately from underrepresented groups. Global achievement gaps associated with socioeconomic and minority status have existed for decades (Morgan et al. 2016). These populations are also underrepresented in conservation professions; thus, conservation decisions often reflect the views of elites (Foster et al. 2014). Conservation and education have shared problems, and we argue they have shared solutions...
October 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045732/life-history-adaptations-to-seasonality
#15
Øystein Varpe
Seasonality creates a template for many natural processes and evolutionary adaptations. Organisms are often faced with an annual cycle consisting of a productive (favorable) and unproductive period. This yearly cycle along with other seasonal variations in abiotic factors and associated biotic interactions form strong selection pressures shaping the scheduling of annual activities and the developmental stages and modes of life through the year. Annual decisions impact trade-offs that involve both current and future reproductive value (RV), and life history theory provides the foundation to understand these linkages between phenology and an organism's full life...
November 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038723/survey-of-awareness-of-diabetes-mellitus-among-the-arar-population-northern-border-region-of-saudi-arabia
#16
Aseel Menwer Alanazi, Nagah Mohamed Abo El-Fetoh, Hanan Khalid Alotaibi, Khalid Ayed Alanazi, Banan Khalid Alotaibi, Sultan Majed Alshammari, Saud Rteamy Alanazi, Meshari Dalaf Alhazmi, Yousef Talal Alshammari, Zaid Qati Alshammari
BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most widely prevalent diseases in Saudi Arabia. Health education is considered an essential component to improve knowledge and change behavior. People affected by diabetes often have inadequate knowledge about the nature of diabetes, its risk factors and associated complication. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of the Arar population with various aspects of diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Arar city, the capital of the Northern Province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033655/waarnemingen-be-plant-occurrences-in-flanders-and-the-brussels-capital-region-belgium
#17
Roosmarijn Steeman, Wouter Vanreusel, Rutger Barendse, Filip Verloove, Nico Wysmantel, Walter Van den Bussche, Thomas Gyselinck, Pieter Hendrickx, Arnout Zwaenepoel, Pierre Van Vooren, Steven Jacobs, Peter Desmet, Karin Gielen, Marc Herremans, Kristijn R R Swinnen
Waarnemingen.be - Plant occurrences in Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region, Belgium is a species occurrence dataset published by Natuurpunt. The dataset contains almost 1.2 million plant occurrences of 1,222 native vascular plant species, mostly recorded by volunteers (citizen scientists), mainly since 2008. The occurrences are derived from the database http://www.waarnemingen.be, hosted by Stichting Natuurinformatie and managed by the nature conservation NGO Natuurpunt. Together with the datasets Florabank1 (Van Landuyt and Brosens 2017) and the Belgian IFBL (Instituut voor Floristiek van België en Luxemburg) Flora Checklists (Van Landuyt and Noé 2015), the dataset represents the most complete overview of indigenous plants in Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032310/building-addiction-recovery-capital-through-online-participation-in-a-recovery-community
#18
Ana-Maria Bliuc, David Best, Muhammad Iqbal, Katie Upton
RATIONALE: This study examines how online participation in a community of recovery contributes to personal journeys of recovery. It investigates whether recovery capital building - as indicated by increased levels and quality of online social interactions - and markers of positive identity development predict retention in a recovery program designed around fostering community involvement for early stage recovery addicts. HYPOTHESES: It was predicted that online participation on the group's Facebook page and positive identity development are associated to retention in the program...
November 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027970/stereopermutation-on-the-putative-structure-of-the-marine-natural-product-mucosin
#19
Simen G Antonsen, Harrison Gallantree-Smith, Carl Henrik Görbitz, Trond Vidar Hansen, Yngve H Stenstrøm, Jens M J Nolsøe
A stereodivergent total synthesis has been executed based on the plausibly misassigned structure of the unusual marine hydrindane mucosin (1). The topological connectivity of the four contiguous all-carbon stereocenters has been examined by selective permutation on the highlighted core. Thus, capitalizing on an unprecedented stereofacial preference of the cis-fused bicycle[4.3.0]non-3-ene system when a Michael acceptor motif is incorporated, copper-mediated conjugate addition furnished a single diastereomer...
October 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023699/using-host-species-traits-to-understand-the-consequences-of-resource-provisioning-for-host-parasite-interactions
#20
Daniel J Becker, Daniel G Streicker, Sonia Altizer
1.Supplemental food provided to wildlife by human activities can be more abundant and predictable than natural resources, and subsequent changes to wildlife ecology can have profound impacts on host-parasite interactions. Identifying traits of species associated with increases or decreases in infection outcomes with resource provisioning could improve assessments of wildlife most prone to disease risks in changing environments. 2.We conducted a phylogenetic meta-analysis of 342 host-parasite interactions across 56 wildlife species and three broad taxonomic groups of parasites to identify host-level traits that influence whether provisioning is associated with increases or decreases in infection...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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