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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323528/current-directions-in-laboratory-studies-of-personality-pathology-examples-from-borderline-personality-disorder-psychopathy-and-schizotypy
#1
Alexis K Matusiewicz, Katherine L McCauley, Julie M McCarthy, Nadia Bounoua, C W Lejuez
Much of the earliest research on personality pathology was observational and descriptive in nature, drawing heavily on subjective self-reports, however, the last 20 years have seen a surge of interest in laboratory-based studies. Laboratory research offers a number of benefits for researchers interested in personality disorders and personality pathology including the opportunities to use objective performance-based and behavioral measures, reveal the neuropsychological and biobehavioral processes that may help shape the experience and behavior of individuals with personality disorders, and create experimental designs that allow researchers to systematically explore the effect of context on emotional, behavioral and cognitive responding...
January 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302275/rapid-evolution-leads-to-differential-population-dynamics-and-top-down-control-in-resurrected-daphnia-populations
#2
Eyerusalem Goitom, Laurens J Kilsdonk, Kristien Brans, Mieke Jansen, Pieter Lemmens, Luc De Meester
There is growing evidence of rapid genetic adaptation of natural populations to environmental change, opening the perspective that evolutionary trait change may subsequently impact ecological processes such as population dynamics, community composition, and ecosystem functioning. To study such eco-evolutionary feedbacks in natural populations, however, requires samples across time. Here, we capitalize on a resurrection ecology study that documented rapid and adaptive evolution in a natural population of the water flea Daphnia magna in response to strong changes in predation pressure by fish, and carry out a follow-up mesocosm experiment to test whether the observed genetic changes influence population dynamics and top-down control of phytoplankton...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302274/detecting-the-invisible-fraction-bias-in-resurrection-experiments
#3
Arthur E Weis
The resurrection approach is a powerful tool for estimating phenotypic evolution in response to global change. Ancestral generations, revived from dormant propagules, are grown side by side with descendent generations in the same environment. Phenotypic differences between the generations can be attributed to genetic change over time. Project Baseline was established to capitalize on this potential in flowering plants. Project participants collected, froze, and stored seed from 10 or more natural populations of 61 North American plant species...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297395/between-lake-baikal-and-the-baltic-sea-genomic-history-of-the-gateway-to-europe
#4
Petr Triska, Nikolay Chekanov, Vadim Stepanov, Elza K Khusnutdinova, Ganesh Prasad Arun Kumar, Vita Akhmetova, Konstantin Babalyan, Eugenia Boulygina, Vladimir Kharkov, Marina Gubina, Irina Khidiyatova, Irina Khitrinskaya, Ekaterina E Khrameeva, Rita Khusainova, Natalia Konovalova, Sergey Litvinov, Andrey Marusin, Alexandr M Mazur, Valery Puzyrev, Dinara Ivanoshchuk, Maria Spiridonova, Anton Teslyuk, Svetlana Tsygankova, Martin Triska, Natalya Trofimova, Edward Vajda, Oleg Balanovsky, Ancha Baranova, Konstantin Skryabin, Tatiana V Tatarinova, Egor Prokhortchouk
BACKGROUND: The history of human populations occupying the plains and mountain ridges separating Europe from Asia has been eventful, as these natural obstacles were crossed westward by multiple waves of Turkic and Uralic-speaking migrants as well as eastward by Europeans. Unfortunately, the material records of history of this region are not dense enough to reconstruct details of population history. These considerations stimulate growing interest to obtain a genetic picture of the demographic history of migrations and admixture in Northern Eurasia...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294735/women-s-mobility-and-the-situational-conditions-of-rape-cases-reported-to-hospitals
#5
Vania Ceccato, Douglas J Wiebe, Bita Eshraghi, Katerina Vrotsou
A third of all rapes in Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, take place in public outdoor places. Yet, little is known about the events that precede this type of sexual offence and less about the situational context of rape. This study aims to improve the understanding of the nature of situational conditions that immediately precede events of rape. Using medical records of 147 rape victims during 2012 and 2013, we constructed time- and place-specific records of the places women traveled through or spent time at, the activities they engaged in, and the people they interacted with sequentially over the course of the day when they were raped...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289811/causes-and-consequences-of-teen-childbearing-evidence-from-a-reproductive-health-intervention-in-south-africa
#6
Nicola Branson, Tanya Byker
We use a natural experiment to estimate the causal impact of a public health intervention aimed at reducing teenage childbearing. The geographic and timing variation in the rollout of the South African National Adolescent Friendly Clinic Initiative (NAFCI) in the early 2000s provides a plausibly exogenous increase in reproductive health knowledge and clinical access for teens. We investigate the causal pathway from the intervention's initial impact on early-teen childbearing to subsequent consequences for later-life outcomes of prime policy interest - education, employment and child health...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279379/two-types-of-aggression-in-human-evolution
#7
Richard W Wrangham
Two major types of aggression, proactive and reactive, are associated with contrasting expression, eliciting factors, neural pathways, development, and function. The distinction is useful for understanding the nature and evolution of human aggression. Compared with many primates, humans have a high propensity for proactive aggression, a trait shared with chimpanzees but not bonobos. By contrast, humans have a low propensity for reactive aggression compared with chimpanzees, and in this respect humans are more bonobo-like...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277976/a-struggle-on-two-fronts-boundary-drawing-in-the-lower-region-of-the-social-space-and-the-symbolic-market-for-down-to-earthness
#8
Vegard Jarness, Magne Paalgard Flemmen
In this article we use qualitative interviews to examine how Norwegians possessing low volumes of cultural and economic capital demarcate themselves symbolically from the lifestyles of those above and below them in social space. In downward boundary drawing, a range of types of people are regarded as inferior because of perceived moral and aesthetic deficiencies. In upward boundary drawing, anti-elitist sentiments are strong: people practising resource-demanding lifestyles are viewed as harbouring 'snobbish' and 'elitist' attitudes...
December 26, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244670/kienb%C3%A3-ck-disease-in-a-patient-with-congenital-synostosis-of-the-lunate-and-the-triquetrum-a-case-report
#9
Elissa S Finkler, Terry R Light
CASE: We describe the case of a 40-year-old man with Minnaar type-III congenital synostosis of the lunate and the triquetrum who presented with Lichtman stage-I Kienböck disease. Surgical treatment consisted of capitate shortening with a capitate-hamate fusion. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the tenuous regional nature of the vascularity to the lunate, even in the setting of a complete lunotriquetral synostosis.
April 2017: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243053/should-biodiversity-and-nature-have-to-earn-their-keep-what-it-really-means-to-bring-environmental-goods-into-the-marketplace
#10
REVIEW
Donald S Maier
Pursuit of economic gain has sponsored much of our planet's despoliation. Yet conservation increasingly operates as an economic sector that markets biodiversity, ecosystems, and nature as natural capital, service provider, or option value. This essay first elucidates what basic moral theory says about the principle that the goodness of biodiversity and nature is largely economic. It explains why economic valuations may be morally unimportant, inapt for environmental goods, and subversive of more important ideals...
December 14, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223078/impact-on-mortality-of-biomass-combustion-from-wildfires-in-spain-a-regional-analysis
#11
C Linares, R Carmona, P Salvador, J Díaz
Studies that analyse the impact on mortality of particulate matter (PM) produced by biomass combustion from wildfires mostly focus on a single city or on cities in different countries, with very few concentrating on one country as a whole. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyse the impact that PM has on daily mortality in Spain on days with biomass combustion from wildfires. To analyse natural PM advections the Ministry of Agriculture and Fishing, Food & Environment divides Spain into 9 geographical regions...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217396/a-2018-horizon-scan-of-emerging-issues-for-global-conservation-and-biological-diversity
#12
REVIEW
William J Sutherland, Stuart H M Butchart, Ben Connor, Caroline Culshaw, Lynn V Dicks, Jason Dinsdale, Helen Doran, Abigail C Entwistle, Erica Fleishman, David W Gibbons, Zhigang Jiang, Brandon Keim, Xavier Le Roux, Fiona A Lickorish, Paul Markillie, Kathryn A Monk, Diana Mortimer, James W Pearce-Higgins, Lloyd S Peck, Jules Pretty, Colleen L Seymour, Mark D Spalding, Femke H Tonneijck, Rosalind A Gleave
This is our ninth annual horizon scan to identify emerging issues that we believe could affect global biological diversity, natural capital and ecosystem services, and conservation efforts. Our diverse and international team, with expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, as well as conservation science, practice, and policy, reviewed 117 potential issues. We identified the 15 that may have the greatest positive or negative effects but are not yet well recognised by the global conservation community...
November 27, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215634/expansion-of-patient-derived-circulating-tumor-cells-from-liquid-biopsies-using-a-ctc-microfluidic-culture-device
#13
Bee Luan Khoo, Gianluca Grenci, Ying Bena Lim, Soo Chin Lee, Jongyoon Han, Chwee Teck Lim
The development of personalized cancer therapy depends on a robust system to monitor the patient's individual response to anticancer treatment. Anticancer drug efficacy has been tested on circulating tumor cells (CTCs) derived from patient blood samples after ex vivo expansion into CTC clusters. Current attempts to culture these primary cancer cells focus on long-term maintenance under growth factor supplements into cell lines, which usually takes >6 months and results in a CTC expansion efficiency of <20%...
January 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214553/mora-or-more-the-phonological-unit-of-japanese-word-production-in-the-stroop-color-naming-task
#14
Rinus G Verdonschot, Sachiko Kinoshita
In English, Dutch, and other European languages, it is well established that the fundamental phonological unit in word production is the phoneme; in contrast, recent studies have shown that in Chinese it is the (atonal) syllable and in Japanese the mora. The present study investigated whether this cross-language variation in the size of the unit of word production is due to the type of script used in the language (i.e., alphabetic, morphosyllabic, or moraic). Capitalizing on the multiscriptal nature of Japanese, and using the Stroop color naming task, we show that the overlap in the initial mora between the color name and the written distractor facilitates color naming independent of script type...
December 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198378/fantastic-beasts-and-how-to-sequence-them-ecological-genomics-for-obscure-model-organisms
#15
REVIEW
Mikhail V Matz
The application of genomic approaches to 'obscure model organisms' (OMOs), meaning species with no prior genomic resources, enables increasingly sophisticated studies of the genomic basis of evolution, acclimatization, and adaptation in real ecological contexts. I consider here ecological questions that can be addressed using OMOs, and indicate optimal sequencing and data-handling solutions for each case. With this I hope to promote the diversity of OMO-based projects that would capitalize on the peculiarities of the natural history of OMOs and could feasibly be completed within the scope of a single PhD thesis...
November 29, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175699/-do-it-yourself-vaccine-rejection-and-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-cam
#16
Katie Attwell, Paul R Ward, Samantha B Meyer, Philippa J Rokkas, Julie Leask
In this article, we elucidate a symbiotic relationship between complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and rejection of, or hesitancy towards, vaccination. In Fremantle, Western Australia, and Adelaide, South Australia, we conducted in-depth interviews from September 2013-December 2015 with 29 parents who had refused or delayed some or all of their children's vaccines. Our qualitative analysis found that for many, their do-it-yourself ethic and personal agency was enhanced by self-directed CAM use, alongside (sometimes informal) CAM practitioner instruction...
November 16, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163254/using-self-generated-cues-to-facilitate-recall-a-narrative-review
#17
REVIEW
Rebecca L Wheeler, Fiona Gabbert
We draw upon the Associative Network model of memory, as well as the principles of encoding-retrieval specificity, and cue distinctiveness, to argue that self-generated cue mnemonics offer an intuitive means of facilitating reliable recall of personally experienced events. The use of a self-generated cue mnemonic allows for the spreading activation nature of memory, whilst also presenting an opportunity to capitalize upon cue distinctiveness. Here, we present the theoretical rationale behind the use of this technique, and highlight the distinction between a self-generated cue and a self-referent cue in autobiographical memory research...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156096/males-that-drop-a-sexually-selected-weapon-grow-larger-testes
#18
Paul N Joseph, Zachary Emberts, Daniel A Sasson, Christine W Miller
Costly sexually selected weapons are predicted to trade off with postcopulatory traits, such as testes. Although weapons can be important for achieving access to females, individuals of some species can permanently drop (i.e. autotomize) their weapons, without regeneration, to escape danger. We capitalized on this natural behavior to experimentally address whether the loss of a sexually selected weapon leads to increased testes investment in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae)...
November 20, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151983/moving-beyond-china-in-africa-insights-from-zambian-immigration-data
#19
Hannah Postel
China's growing presence in Africa is not news: the expansion of bilateral trade and investment ties has garnered intense media and political focus over the past decade. However, less is known about the people accompanying these increasingly intensive flows of goods and capital. This paper focuses on Zambia, drawing on multiple primary datasets to shed light on both the scale and nature of Chinese migration to the continent. Two years of Department of Immigration employment-permit data serve as the basis for the first quantitative analysis of the "Chinese" in "Africa," illuminating the increasing diversity of this population flow...
2017: Journal of Current Chinese Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148749/glycosyl-cross-coupling-of-anomeric-nucleophiles-scope-mechanism-and-applications-in-the-synthesis-of-aryl-c-glycosides
#20
Feng Zhu, Jacob Rodriguez, Tianyi Yang, Ilia Kevlishvili, Eric Miller, Duk Yi, Sloane O'Neill, Michael Rourke, Peng Liu, Maciej A Walczak
Stereoselective manipulations at the C1 anomeric position of saccharides are one of the central goals of preparative carbohydrate chemistry. Historically, the majority of reactions forming a bond with anomeric carbon has focused on reactions of nucleophiles with saccharide donors equipped with a leaving group. Here, we describe a novel approach to stereoselective synthesis of C-aryl glycosides capitalizing on the highly stereospecific reaction of anomeric nucleophiles. First, methods for the preparation of anomeric stannanes have been developed and optimized to afford both anomers of common saccharides in high anomeric selectivities...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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