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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885899/regenerative-medicine-lessons-from-mother-nature
#1
Juan Diego Naranjo, Michelle E Scarritt, Luai Huleihel, Anjani Ravindra, Crisanto M Torres, Stephen F Badylak
Regenerative medicine strategies for the restoration of functional tissue have evolved from the concept of ex vivo creation of engineered tissue toward the broader concept of in vivo induction of functional tissue reconstruction. Multidisciplinary approaches are being investigated to achieve this goal using evolutionarily conserved principles of stem cell biology, developmental biology and immunology, current methods of engineering and medicine. This evolution from ex vivo tissue engineering to the manipulation of fundamental in vivo tenets of development and regeneration has the potential to capitalize upon the incredibly complex and only partially understood ability of cells to adapt, proliferate, self-organize and differentiate into functional tissue...
December 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872398/five-year-study-of-unidentified-unclaimed-and-unknown-deaths-brought-for-medicolegal-autopsy-at-premier-hospital-in-new-delhi-india
#2
Abhishek Yadav, Adarsh Kumar, Rajanikanta Swain, Sudhir Kumar Gupta
Delhi is the second largest city of the world both in terms of population and area, as well as being the capital of India. Every year, thousands of people from different states throng to the capital in search of a job in order to earn a living. When these people die and their bodies are found without any identifying documentation, it is very difficult for the police to establish their identities. These bodies are labelled as unidentified/unclaimed or unknown, and are sent for usually sent for medicolegal autopsy...
November 21, 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853527/science-for-the-sustainable-use-of-ecosystem-services
#3
REVIEW
Elena M Bennett, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer
Sustainability is a key challenge for humanity in the 21st century. Ecosystem services-the benefits that people derive from nature and natural capital-is a concept often used to help explain human reliance on nature and frame the decisions we make in terms of the ongoing value of nature to human wellbeing. Yet ecosystem service science has not always lived up to the promise of its potential. Despite advances in the scientific literature, ecosystem service science has not yet answered some of the most critical questions posed by decision-makers in the realm of sustainability...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831739/does-social-capital-influence-preferences-for-aging-in-place-evidence-from-urban-china
#4
Nan Jiang, Vivian W Q Lou, Nan Lu
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationships between social capital and preferences for aging in place among older urban adults in eastern China. METHOD: Quota sampling was used to recruit 456 respondents aged 60 and older from Gusu District, Suzhou City, in 2015. Random-effects logistic regression was used to test the proposed model. RESULTS: Respondents who had better quality family social capital, a higher level of social trust, and more organization memberships were more likely to choose to live in local communities, even after we controlled for individual characteristics...
November 10, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828969/defining-ecosystem-assets-for-natural-capital-accounting
#5
Lars Hein, Ken Bagstad, Bram Edens, Carl Obst, Rixt de Jong, Jan Peter Lesschen
In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813256/a-qualitative-case-study-in-the-social-capital-of-co-professional-collaborative-co-practice-for-children-with-speech-language-and-communication-needs
#6
Cristina McKean, James Law, Karen Laing, Maria Cockerill, Jan Allon-Smith, Elspeth McCartney, Joan Forbes
BACKGROUND: Effective co-practice is essential to deliver services for children with speech, language and communication needs (SLCN). The necessary skills, knowledge and resources are distributed amongst professionals and agencies. Co-practice is complex and a number of barriers, such as 'border disputes' and poor awareness of respective priorities, have been identified. However social-relational aspects of co-practice have not been explored in sufficient depth to make recommendations for improvements in policy and practice...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810976/housing-type-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-and-loss-of-motor-function-in-elderly-victims-a-prospective-observational-study
#7
Kumiko Ito, Yasutake Tomata, Mana Kogure, Yumi Sugawara, Takashi Watanabe, Tadayoshi Asaka, Ichiro Tsuji
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported that elderly victims of natural disasters might be prone to a subsequent decline in motor function. Victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) relocated to a wide range of different types of housing. As the evacuee lifestyle varies according to the type of housing available to them, their degree of motor function loss might also vary accordingly. However, the association between postdisaster housing type and loss of motor function has never been investigated...
November 3, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791071/climatic-and-evolutionary-drivers-of-phase-shifts-in-the-plague-epidemics-of-colonial-india
#8
Joseph A Lewnard, Jeffrey P Townsend
Immune heterogeneity in wild host populations indicates that disease-mediated selection is common in nature. However, the underlying dynamic feedbacks involving the ecology of disease transmission, evolutionary processes, and their interaction with environmental drivers have proven challenging to characterize. Plague presents an optimal system for interrogating such couplings: Yersinia pestis transmission exerts intense selective pressure driving the local persistence of disease resistance among its wildlife hosts in endemic areas...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782843/discrimination-related-health-inequality-and-role-of-social-capital-among-marriage-migrant-women-in-south-korea
#9
Chang-O Kim
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate whether social capital could alleviate health inequality against racial discrimination and identify the critical nature of social capital that generates health inequality differences within the social context of South Korea. METHODS: Using the data of the 2009 National Survey of Multicultural Families, a nationally representative sample in which 40,430 foreign wives participated, the concentration index (CI) was used to measure the discrimination-related inequalities in self-rated health and was decomposed into contributing factors...
October 26, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773605/potential-of-water-surface-floating-microalgae-for-biodiesel-production-floating-biomass-and-lipid-productivities
#10
Masaki Muto, Daisuke Nojima, Liang Yue, Hideyuki Kanehara, Hideaki Naruse, Asuka Ujiro, Tomoko Yoshino, Tadashi Matsunaga, Tsuyoshi Tanaka
Microalgae have been accepted as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production owing to their capability of converting solar energy into lipids through photosynthesis. However, the high capital and operating costs, and high energy consumption, are hampering commercialization of microalgal biodiesel. In this study, the surface-floating microalga, strain AVFF007 (tentatively identified as Botryosphaerella sudetica), which naturally forms a biofilm on surfaces, was characterized for use in biodiesel production...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771419/aedes-stegomyia-albopictus-dynamics-influenced-by-spatiotemporal-characteristics-in-a-brazilian-dengue-endemic-risk-city
#11
Juliana Mt Bezerra, Raphaela Gp Araújo, Fabrício F Melo, Caroline M Gonçalves, Bárbara A Chaves, Breno M Silva, Luciana D Silva, Silvana T Brandão, Nágila Fc Secundino, Douglas E Norris, Paulo Fp Pimenta
Brazil reported the majority of the dengue cases in Americas during the last two decades, where the occurrence of human dengue cases is exclusively attributed to the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus). Nowadays, other recognized Dengue virus (DENV) vector in Asian countries, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), has been detected in more than half of the 5,565 Brazilian municipalities. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of, and determine the Ae. albopictus' dynamics influenced by spatiotemporal characteristics in a dengue-endemic risk city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State's capital...
October 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766964/adequacy-of-public-maternal-care-services-in-brazil
#12
Sonia Duarte de Azevedo Bittencourt, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Lenice Gnocchi da Costa Reis, Márcia Melo Ramos, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, hospital childbirth care is available to all, but differences in access and quality of care result in inequalities of maternal health. The objective of this study is to assess the infrastructure and staffing of publicly financed labor and birth care in Brazil and its adequacy according to clinical and obstetric conditions potentially associated with obstetric emergencies. METHODS: Nationwide cross-sectional hospital-based study "Birth in Brazil: national survey into labor and birth" conducted in 2011-2012...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757255/vector-control-response-in-a-post-flood-disaster-setting-honiara-solomon-islands-2014
#13
Matthew Shortus, Jennie Musto, Hugo Bugoro, Charles Butafa, Alison Sio, Cynthia Joshua
PROBLEM: The close quartering and exposed living conditions in evacuation centres and the potential increase in vector density after flooding in Solomon Islands resulted in an increased risk of exposure for the occupants to vectorborne diseases. CONTEXT: In April 2014, Solomon Islands experienced a flash flooding event that affected many areas and displaced a large number of people. In the capital, Honiara, nearly 10 000 people were housed in emergency evacuation centres at the peak of the post-flood emergency...
January 2016: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755724/fortifying-the-forest-thinning-and-burning-increase-resistance-to-a-bark-beetle-outbreak-and-promote-forest-resilience
#14
Sharon M Hood, Stephen Baker, Anna Sala
Fire frequency in low-elevation coniferous forests in western North America has greatly declined since the late 1800s. In many areas, this has increased tree density and the proportion of shade-tolerant species, reduced resource availability, and increased forest susceptibility to forest insect pests and high-severity wildfire. In response, treatments are often implemented with the goal of increasing ecosystem resilience by increasing resistance to disturbance. We capitalized on an existing replicated study of fire and stand density treatments in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)-Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest in western Montana, USA, that experienced a naturally occurring mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak 5 yr after implementation of fuels treatments...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726757/preharvest-food-safety-challenges-in-beef-and-dairy-production
#15
David R Smith
Foods of animal origin, including beef and dairy products, are nutritious and important to global food security. However, there are important risks to human health from hazards that are introduced to beef and dairy products on the farm. Food safety hazards may be chemical, biological, or physical in nature. Considerations about protecting the safety of beef and dairy products must begin prior to harvest because some potential food safety hazards introduced at the farm (e.g., chemical residues) cannot be mitigated by subsequent postharvest food processing steps...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717701/techno-economic-evaluation-of-a-tandem-dry-batch-garage-style-digestion-compost-process-for-remote-work-camp-environments
#16
Alexander C Hayes, S Enongene Ekwe, Steve Mervin, Earl Jenson
The extraction of natural resources often involves housing workers in remote work camps far from population centres. These camps are prevalent in northern Alberta where they house approximately 40,000 workers involved in oil sands processing. The central, full-service cafeterias at these camps produce a significant quantity of food and cardboard waste. Due to their remote nature, these camps face high waste disposal costs associated with trucking waste long distances to the landfill. In this study, we investigated the techno-economic feasibility of on-site treatment of food and cardboard waste in a tandem dry batch, garage-style anaerobic digestion-compost process in which the waste material is converted into renewable energy used to heat the camp water supply and a nutrient-rich soil amendment for local land reclamation projects...
October 4, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717006/commodifying-indigeneity-how-the-humanization-of-birth-reinforces-racialized-inequality-in-mexico
#17
Rosalynn Adeline Vega
This article examines the humanized birth movement in Mexico and analyzes how the remaking anew of tradition-the return to "traditional" birthing arts (home birth, midwife-assisted birth, "natural" birth)- inadvertently reinscribes racial "hierarchies." The great irony of the humanized birth movement lies in parents' perspective of themselves as critics of late capitalism; all the while, their very rejection of consumerism bolsters ongoing commodification of "indigenous culture" and collapses "indigeneity," "nature," and "tradition" onto one another...
September 26, 2016: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714804/ob-or-not-ob-idiosyncratic-utilization-of-the-trna-binding-ob-fold-domain-in-unicellular-pathogenic-eukaryotes
#18
Delphine Kapps, Marta Cela, Anne Théobald-Dietrich, Tamara Hendrickson, Magali Frugier
In this Review, we examine the so-called 'OB-fold', a tRNA-binding domain homologous to the bacterial tRNA-binding protein Trbp111. We highlight the ability of OB-fold homologs to bind tRNAs and summarize their distribution in evolution. Nature has capitalized on the advantageous effects acquired when an OB-fold domain binds to tRNA by evolutionarily selecting this domain for fusion to different enzymes. Here, we review our current understanding of how the complexity of OB-fold containing proteins and enzymes developed to expand their functions, especially in unicellular, pathogenic eukaryotes...
October 7, 2016: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689714/novel-covariance-based-neutrality-test-of-time-series-data-reveals-asymmetries-in-ecological-and-economic-systems
#19
Alex D Washburne, Joshua W Burby, Daniel Lacker
Systems as diverse as the interacting species in a community, alleles at a genetic locus, and companies in a market are characterized by competition (over resources, space, capital, etc) and adaptation. Neutral theory, built around the hypothesis that individual performance is independent of group membership, has found utility across the disciplines of ecology, population genetics, and economics, both because of the success of the neutral hypothesis in predicting system properties and because deviations from these predictions provide information about the underlying dynamics...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639098/developmental-genetics-in-emerging-rodent-models-case-studies-and-perspectives
#20
Ricardo Mallarino, Hopi E Hoekstra, Marie Manceau
For decades, mammalian developmental genetic studies have focused almost entirely on two laboratory models: Mus and Rattus, species that breed readily in the laboratory and for which a wealth of molecular and genetic resources exist. These species alone, however, do not capture the remarkable diversity of morphological, behavioural and physiological traits seen across rodents, a group that represents >40% of all mammal species. Due to new advances in molecular tools and genomic technologies, studying the developmental events underlying natural variation in a wide range of species for a wide range of traits has become increasingly feasible...
September 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
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