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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434184/complex-problems-and-unchallenged-solutions-bringing-ecosystem-governance-to-the-forefront-of-the-un-sustainable-development-goals
#1
Liette Vasseur, Darwin Horning, Mary Thornbush, Emmanuelle Cohen-Shacham, Angela Andrade, Ed Barrow, Steve R Edwards, Piet Wit, Mike Jones
Sustainable development aims at addressing economic, social, and environmental concerns, but the current lack of responsive environmental governance hinders progress. Short-term economic development has led to limited actions, unsustainable resource management, and degraded ecosystems. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may continue to fall short of achieving significant progress without a better understanding of how ecosystems contribute to achieving sustainability for all people. Ecosystem governance is an approach that integrates the social and ecological components for improved sustainability and includes principles such as adaptive ecosystem co-management, subsidiarity, and telecoupling framework, as well as principles of democracy and accountability...
April 22, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434183/impacts-of-forestry-on-boreal-forests-an-ecosystem-services-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Tähti Pohjanmies, María Triviño, Eric Le Tortorec, Adriano Mazziotta, Tord Snäll, Mikko Mönkkönen
Forests are widely recognized as major providers of ecosystem services, including timber, other forest products, recreation, regulation of water, soil and air quality, and climate change mitigation. Extensive tracts of boreal forests are actively managed for timber production, but actions aimed at increasing timber yields also affect other forest functions and services. Here, we present an overview of the environmental impacts of forest management from the perspective of ecosystem services. We show how prevailing forestry practices may have substantial but diverse effects on the various ecosystem services provided by boreal forests...
April 22, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432292/created-mangrove-wetlands-store-belowground-carbon-and-surface-elevation-change-enables-them-to-adjust-to-sea-level-rise
#3
Ken W Krauss, Nicole Cormier, Michael J Osland, Matthew L Kirwan, Camille L Stagg, Janet A Nestlerode, Marc J Russell, Andrew S From, Amanda C Spivak, Darrin D Dantin, James E Harvey, Alejandro E Almario
Mangrove wetlands provide ecosystem services for millions of people, most prominently by providing storm protection, food and fodder. Mangrove wetlands are also valuable ecosystems for promoting carbon (C) sequestration and storage. However, loss of mangrove wetlands and these ecosystem services are a global concern, prompting the restoration and creation of mangrove wetlands as a potential solution. Here, we investigate soil surface elevation change, and its components, in created mangrove wetlands over a 25 year developmental gradient...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429710/life-cycle-assessment-needs-predictive-spatial-modelling-for-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-services
#4
Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Sarah Sim, Perrine Hamel, Benjamin Bryant, Ryan Noe, Carina Mueller, Giles Rigarlsford, Michal Kulak, Virginia Kowal, Richard Sharp, Julie Clavreul, Edward Price, Stephen Polasky, Mary Ruckelshaus, Gretchen Daily
International corporations in an increasingly globalized economy exert a major influence on the planet's land use and resources through their product design and material sourcing decisions. Many companies use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate their sustainability, yet commonly-used LCA methodologies lack the spatial resolution and predictive ecological information to reveal key impacts on climate, water and biodiversity. We present advances for LCA that integrate spatially explicit modelling of land change and ecosystem services in a Land-Use Change Improved (LUCI)-LCA...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428394/beyond-the-roots-of-human-inaction-fostering-collective-effort-toward-ecosystem-conservation
#5
REVIEW
Elise Amel, Christie Manning, Britain Scott, Susan Koger
The term "environmental problem" exposes a fundamental misconception: Disruptions of Earth's ecosystems are at their root a human behavior problem. Psychology is a potent tool for understanding the external and internal drivers of human behavior that lead to unsustainable living. Psychologists already contribute to individual-level behavior-change campaigns in the service of sustainability, but attention is turning toward understanding and facilitating the role of individuals in collective and collaborative actions that will modify the environmentally damaging systems in which humans are embedded...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424712/a-functional-approach-towards-understanding-the-role-of-the-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-in-an-endomycorrhizal-symbiosis
#6
Louis Mercy, Eva Lucic-Mercy, Amaia Nogales, Areg Poghosyan, Carolin Schneider, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are crucial components of fertile soils, able to provide several ecosystem services for crop production. Current economic, social and legislative contexts should drive the so-called "second green revolution" by better exploiting these beneficial microorganisms. Many challenges still need to be overcome to better understand the mycorrhizal symbiosis, among which (i) the biotrophic nature of AMF, constraining their production, while (ii) phosphate acts as a limiting factor for the optimal mycorrhizal inoculum application and effectiveness...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418204/modeling-aesthetics-to-support-an-ecosystem-services-approach-for-natural-resource-management-decision-making
#7
Pieter N Booth, Sheryl A Law, Jane Ma, John Buonogurio, James Boyd, Jessica Turnley
This paper reviews literature on aesthetics and describes the development of vista and landscape aesthetics models. Spatially explicit variables were chosen to represent physical characteristics of natural landscapes that are important to aesthetic preferences. A vista aesthetics model evaluates the aesthetics of natural landscapes viewed from distances over 1,000 m. and a landscape aesthetics model evaluates the aesthetic value of wetlands and forests within 1,000 m from the viewer. Each of the model variables is quantified using spatially-explicit metrics on a pixel-specific basis within EcoAIM™, a GIS-based ecosystem services decision analysis support tool...
April 18, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417562/climate-variability-drives-recent-tree-mortality-in-europe
#8
Mathias Neumann, Volker Mues, Adam Moreno, Hubert Hasenauer, Rupert Seidl
Tree mortality is an important process in forest ecosystems, frequently hypothesized to be highly climate sensitive. Yet, tree death remains one of the least understood processes of forest dynamics. Recently, changes in tree mortality have been observed in forests around the globe, which could profoundly affect ecosystem functioning and services provisioning to society. We describe continental-scale patterns of recent tree mortality from the only consistent pan-European forest monitoring network, identifying recent mortality hotspots in southern and northern Europe...
April 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417324/current-remote-sensing-approaches-to-monitoring-forest-degradation-in-support-of-countries-measurement-reporting-and-verification-mrv-systems-for-redd
#9
REVIEW
Anthea L Mitchell, Ake Rosenqvist, Brice Mora
Forest degradation is a global phenomenon and while being an important indicator and precursor to further forest loss, carbon emissions due to degradation should also be accounted for in national reporting within the frame of UN REDD+. At regional to country scales, methods have been progressively developed to detect and map forest degradation, with these based on multi-resolution optical, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and/or LiDAR data. However, there is no one single method that can be applied to monitor forest degradation, largely due to the specific nature of the degradation type or process and the timeframe over which it is observed...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416662/adapt-to-more-wildfire-in-western-north-american-forests-as-climate-changes
#10
Tania Schoennagel, Jennifer K Balch, Hannah Brenkert-Smith, Philip E Dennison, Brian J Harvey, Meg A Krawchuk, Nathan Mietkiewicz, Penelope Morgan, Max A Moritz, Ray Rasker, Monica G Turner, Cathy Whitlock
Wildfires across western North America have increased in number and size over the past three decades, and this trend will continue in response to further warming. As a consequence, the wildland-urban interface is projected to experience substantially higher risk of climate-driven fires in the coming decades. Although many plants, animals, and ecosystem services benefit from fire, it is unknown how ecosystems will respond to increased burning and warming. Policy and management have focused primarily on specified resilience approaches aimed at resistance to wildfire and restoration of areas burned by wildfire through fire suppression and fuels management...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413851/detecting-peatland-drains-with-object-based-image-analysis-and-geoeye-1-imagery
#11
J Connolly, N M Holden
BACKGROUND: Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Mapping drains is difficult and expensive and their spatial extent is, in many cases, unknown. An object based image analysis (OBIA) was performed on a very high resolution satellite image (Geoeye-1) to extract information about drain location and extent on a blanket peatland in Ireland...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413845/carbon-uptake-by-mature-amazon-forests-has-mitigated-amazon-nations-carbon-emissions
#12
Oliver L Phillips, Roel J W Brienen
BACKGROUND: Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413729/elucidating-the-diet-of-the-island-flying-fox-pteropus-hypomelanus-in-peninsular-malaysia-through-illumina-next-generation-sequencing
#13
Sheema Abdul Aziz, Gopalasamy Reuben Clements, Lee Yin Peng, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Kim R McConkey, Pierre-Michel Forget, Han Ming Gan
There is an urgent need to identify and understand the ecosystem services of pollination and seed dispersal provided by threatened mammals such as flying foxes. The first step towards this is to obtain comprehensive data on their diet. However, the volant and nocturnal nature of bats presents a particularly challenging situation, and conventional microhistological approaches to studying their diet can be laborious and time-consuming, and provide incomplete information. We used Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) as a novel, non-invasive method for analysing the diet of the island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) on Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411950/priorities-to-advance-monitoring-of-ecosystem-services-using-earth-observation
#14
REVIEW
Anna F Cord, Kate A Brauman, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Andreas Huth, Guy Ziv, Ralf Seppelt
Managing ecosystem services in the context of global sustainability policies requires reliable monitoring mechanisms. While satellite Earth observation offers great promise to support this need, significant challenges remain in quantifying connections between ecosystem functions, ecosystem services, and human well-being benefits. Here, we provide a framework showing how Earth observation together with socioeconomic information and model-based analysis can support assessments of ecosystem service supply, demand, and benefit, and illustrate this for three services...
April 12, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411568/projecting-biodiversity-and-wood-production-in-future-forest-landscapes-15-key-modeling-considerations
#15
Adam Felton, Thomas Ranius, Jean-Michel Roberge, Karin Öhman, Tomas Lämås, Jari Hynynen, Artti Juutinen, Mikko Mönkkönen, Urban Nilsson, Tomas Lundmark, Annika Nordin
A variety of modeling approaches can be used to project the future development of forest systems, and help to assess the implications of different management alternatives for biodiversity and ecosystem services. This diversity of approaches does however present both an opportunity and an obstacle for those trying to decide which modeling technique to apply, and interpreting the management implications of model output. Furthermore, the breadth of issues relevant to addressing key questions related to forest ecology, conservation biology, silviculture, economics, requires insights stemming from a number of distinct scientific disciplines...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411563/spatio-temporal-trends-in-fire-weather-in-the-french-alps
#16
S Dupire, T Curt, S Bigot
The Alpine area is particularly sensitive to climatic and environmental changes that might impact socio-ecosystems and modify the regime of natural hazards. Among them, wildfire is of major importance as it threatens both ecosystems and human lives and infrastructures. Wildfires result from complex interactions between available vegetation fuels, climate and weather, and humans who decide of the land use and are the main source of fire ignitions. The changes in fire weather during the past decades are rather unknown in the French Alps especially due to their complex topography...
April 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406910/nutrient-enrichment-is-associated-with-altered-nectar-and-pollen-chemical-composition-in-succisa-pratensis-moench-and-increased-larval-mortality-of-its-pollinator-bombus-terrestris-l
#17
Tobias Ceulemans, Eva Hulsmans, Wim Vanden Ende, Olivier Honnay
Pollinators are declining worldwide and possible underlying causes include disease, invasive pest species and large scale land use changes resulting in habitat loss and degradation. One particular cause of habitat degradation is the increased inflow of nutrients due to anthropogenic combustion processes and large scale application of agricultural fertilizers. This nutrient pollution has been shown to affect pollinators through the loss of nectar and pollen-providing plant species. However, it may also affect pollinators through altering the nectar and pollen chemical composition of plant species, hence influencing pollinator food quality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405299/multifunctionality-is-affected-by-interactions-between-green-roof-plant-species-substrate-depth-and-substrate-type
#18
Yann Dusza, Sébastien Barot, Yvan Kraepiel, Jean-Christophe Lata, Luc Abbadie, Xavier Raynaud
Green roofs provide ecosystem services through evapotranspiration and nutrient cycling that depend, among others, on plant species, substrate type, and substrate depth. However, no study has assessed thoroughly how interactions between these factors alter ecosystem functions and multifunctionality of green roofs. We simulated some green roof conditions in a pot experiment. We planted 20 plant species from 10 genera and five families (Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) on two substrate types (natural vs...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404774/changes-in-the-location-of-biodiversity-ecosystem-function-hot-spots-across-the-seafloor-landscape-with-increasing-sediment-nutrient-loading
#19
Simon F Thrush, Judi E Hewitt, Casper Kraan, A M Lohrer, Conrad A Pilditch, Emily Douglas
Declining biodiversity and loss of ecosystem function threatens the ability of habitats to contribute ecosystem services. However, the form of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function (BEF) and how relationships change with environmental change is poorly understood. This limits our ability to predict the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystem function, particularly in real-world marine ecosystems that are species rich, and where multiple ecosystem functions are represented by multiple indicators...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401393/the-role-of-forest-in-mitigating-the-impact-of-atmospheric-dust-pollution-in-a-mixed-landscape
#20
Artur Santos, Pedro Pinho, Silvana Munzi, Maria João Botelho, José Manuel Palma-Oliveira, Cristina Branquinho
Atmospheric dust pollution, especially particulate matter below 2.5 μm, causes 3.3 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Although pollution sources are increasingly well known, the role of ecosystems in mitigating their impact is still poorly known. Our objective was to investigate the role of forests located in the surrounding of industrial and urban areas in reducing atmospheric dust pollution. This was tested using lichen transplants as biomonitors in a Mediterranean regional area with high levels of dry deposition...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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