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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531796/spatially-explicit-modeling-of-multi-scale-drivers-of-aboveground-forest-biomass-and-water-yield-in-watersheds-of-the-southeastern-united-states
#1
Mukhtar Ahmed Ajaz Ahmed, Amr Abd-Elrahman, Francisco J Escobedo, Wendell P Cropper, Timothy A Martin, Nilesh Timilsina
Understanding ecosystem processes and the influence of regional scale drivers can provide useful information for managing forest ecosystems. Examining more local scale drivers of forest biomass and water yield can also provide insights for identifying and better understanding the effects of climate change and management on forests. We used diverse multi-scale datasets, functional models and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to model ecosystem processes at the watershed scale and to interpret the influence of ecological drivers across the Southeastern United States (SE US)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527741/reeling-in-the-damages-harmful-algal-blooms-impact-on-lake-erie-s-recreational-fishing-industry
#2
David Wolf, Will Georgic, H Allen Klaiber
Lake Erie is one of the most valuable natural resources in the United States, providing billions of dollars in benefits each year to recreationalists, homeowners and local governments. The ecosystem services provided by Lake Erie, however, are under threat due to harmful algal blooms. This paper provides recreational damage estimates using spatially and temporally varying algae measures and monthly fishing permit sales collected between 2011 and 2014. Results indicate that fishing license sales drop between 10% and 13% when algal conditions surpass the World Health's Organization's moderate health risk advisory threshold of 20,000 cyanobacteria cells/mL...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527145/an-appraisal-of-indonesia-s-immense-peat-carbon-stock-using-national-peatland-maps-uncertainties-and-potential-losses-from-conversion
#3
REVIEW
Matthew Warren, Kristell Hergoualc'h, J Boone Kauffman, Daniel Murdiyarso, Randall Kolka
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of the world's tropical peatlands occur in Indonesia where rapid conversion and associated losses of carbon, biodiversity and ecosystem services have brought peatland management to the forefront of Indonesia's climate mitigation efforts. We evaluated peat volume from two commonly referenced maps of peat distribution and depth published by Wetlands International (WI) and the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), and used regionally specific values of carbon density to calculate carbon stocks...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526833/grassland-restoration-reduces-water-yield-in-the-headstream-region-of-yangtze-river
#4
Jia Li, Dan Liu, Tao Wang, Yingnian Li, Shiping Wang, Yuting Yang, Xiaoyi Wang, Hui Guo, Shushi Peng, Jinzhi Ding, Miaogen Shen, Lei Wang
Large-scale ecological restoration programs are considered as one of the key strategies to enhance ecosystem services. The Headstream region of Yangtze River (HYZR), which is claimed to be China's Water Tower but witnessed the rapid grassland deterioration during 1970s-2000, has seen a series of grassland restoration programs since 2000. But few studies have thoroughly estimated the hydrological effect of this recent grassland restoration. Here we show that restoration significantly reduces growing-season water yield coefficient (WYC) from 0...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514052/shift-in-community-structure-in-an-early-successional-mediterranean-shrubland-driven-by-long-term-experimental-warming-and-drought-and-natural-extreme-droughts
#5
Daijun Liu, Marc Estiarte, Romà Ogaya, Xiaohong Yang, Josep Peñuelas
Global warming and recurring drought are expected to accelerate water limitation for plant communities in semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems and produce directional shifts in structure and composition that are not easily detected, and supporting evidence is scarce. We conducted a long-term (17 years) nocturnal-warming (+0.6 °C) and drought (-40% rainfall) experiment in an early-successional Mediterranean shrubland to study the changes in community structure and composition, contrasting functional groups and dominant species, and the superimposed effects of natural extreme drought...
May 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503701/incorporating-threat-in-hotspots-and-coldspots-of-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-services
#6
Matthias Schröter, Roland Kraemer, Silvia Ceauşu, Graciela M Rusch
Spatial prioritization could help target conservation actions directed to maintain both biodiversity and ecosystem services. We delineate hotspots and coldspots of two biodiversity conservation features and five regulating and cultural services by incorporating an indicator of 'threat', i.e. timber harvest profitability for forest areas in Telemark (Norway). We found hotspots, where high values of biodiversity, ecosystem services and threat coincide, ranging from 0.1 to 7.1% of the area, depending on varying threshold levels...
May 13, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494423/investigating-sources-of-pharmaceutical-pollution-survey-of-over-the-counter-and-prescription-medication-purchasing-use-and-disposal-practices-among-university-students
#7
Christine Vatovec, Emily Van Wagoner, Corey Evans
Pharmaceutical pollution in surface waters poses a range of risks to public health and aquatic ecosystems. Consumers contribute to pharmaceutical pollution via use and disposal of medications, though data on such behaviors is limited. This paper investigates the purchasing, use, and disposal practices among a population that has been researched only minimally to date, yet will determine pharmaceutical pollution for decades to come: young adults represented by a university student population. We employed an online, 21-question survey to examine behaviors related to pharmaceuticals among students at the University of Vermont (n = 358)...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494004/increasing-land-use-intensity-reverses-the-relative-occupancy-of-two-quadrupedal-scavengers
#8
Joshua P Twining, Henry Bernard, Robert M Ewers
Human land use is continuously altering the natural environment, yet the greater ecological implications of this change for many groups that are key to healthy ecosystem functioning remains uncharacterised in the tropics. Terrestrial scavenging vertebrates are one such group, providing integral ecosystem services through the removal of carrion which is a crucial component of both nutrient cycling and disease dynamics. To explore how anthropogenic processes may affect forest scavengers, we investigated the changes in the relative occupancy of two important terrestrial scavengers along a gradient of land use intensity, ranging from protected forest to oil palm plantation in Borneo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490624/removal-of-an-apex-predator-initiates-a-trophic-cascade-that-extends-from-herbivores-to-vegetation-and-the-soil-nutrient-pool
#9
Timothy Morris, Mike Letnic
It is widely assumed that organisms at low trophic levels, particularly microbes and plants, are essential to basic services in ecosystems, such as nutrient cycling. In theory, apex predators' effects on ecosystems could extend to nutrient cycling and the soil nutrient pool by influencing the intensity and spatial organization of herbivory. Here, we take advantage of a long-term manipulation of dingo abundance across Australia's dingo-proof fence in the Strzelecki Desert to investigate the effects that removal of an apex predator has on herbivore abundance, vegetation and the soil nutrient pool...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489912/eight-habitats-38-threats-and-55-experts-assessing-ecological-risk-in-a-multi-use-marine-region
#10
Zoë A Doubleday, Alice R Jones, Marty R Deveney, Tim M Ward, Bronwyn M Gillanders
Identifying the relative risk human activities pose to a habitat, and the ecosystem services they provide, can guide management prioritisation and resource allocation. Using a combination of expert elicitation to assess the probable effect of a threat and existing data to assess the level of threat exposure, we conducted a risk assessment for 38 human-mediated threats to eight marine habitats (totalling 304 threat-habitat combinations) in Spencer Gulf, Australia. We developed a score-based survey to collate expert opinion and assess the relative effect of each threat to each habitat, as well as a novel and independent measure of knowledge-based uncertainty...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489880/carbon-storage-in-the-seagrass-meadows-of-gazi-bay-kenya
#11
Michael N Githaiga, James G Kairo, Linda Gilpin, Mark Huxham
Vegetated marine habitats are globally important carbon sinks, making a significant contribution towards mitigating climate change, and they provide a wide range of other ecosystem services. However, large gaps in knowledge remain, particularly for seagrass meadows in Africa. The present study estimated biomass and sediment organic carbon (Corg) stocks of four dominant seagrass species in Gazi Bay, Kenya. It compared sediment Corg between seagrass areas in vegetated and un-vegetated 'controls', using the naturally patchy occurence of seagrass at this site to test the impacts of seagrass growth on sediment Corg...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488673/climate-warming-reduces-the-temporal-stability-of-plant-community-biomass-production
#12
Zhiyuan Ma, Huiying Liu, Zhaorong Mi, Zhenhua Zhang, Yonghui Wang, Wei Xu, Lin Jiang, Jin-Sheng He
Anthropogenic climate change has emerged as a critical environmental problem, prompting frequent investigations into its consequences for various ecological systems. Few studies, however, have explored the effect of climate change on ecological stability and the underlying mechanisms. We conduct a field experiment to assess the influence of warming and altered precipitation on the temporal stability of plant community biomass in an alpine grassland located on the Tibetan Plateau. We find that whereas precipitation alteration does not influence biomass temporal stability, warming lowers stability through reducing the degree of species asynchrony...
May 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488295/a-global-synthesis-of-the-effects-of-diversified-farming-systems-on-arthropod-diversity-within-fields-and-across-agricultural-landscapes
#13
Elinor M Lichtenberg, Christina M Kennedy, Claire Kremen, Péter Batáry, Frank Berendse, Riccardo Bommarco, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez, Luísa G Carvalheiro, William E Snyder, Neal M Williams, Rachael Winfree, Björn K Klatt, Sandra Åström, Faye Benjamin, Claire Brittain, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Yann Clough, Bryan Danforth, Tim Diekötter, Sanford D Eigenbrode, Johan Ekroos, Elizabeth Elle, Breno M Freitas, Yuki Fukuda, Hannah R Gaines-Day, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Andrea Holzschuh, Rufus Isaacs, Marco Isaia, Shalene Jha, Dennis Jonason, Vincent P Jones, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Jochen Krauss, Deborah K Letourneau, Sarina Macfadyen, Rachel E Mallinger, Emily A Martin, Eliana Martinez, Jane Memmott, Lora Morandin, Lisa Neame, Mark Otieno, Mia G Park, Lukas Pfiffner, Michael J O Pocock, Carlos Ponce, Simon G Potts, Katja Poveda, Mariangie Ramos, Jay A Rosenheim, Maj Rundlöf, Hillary Sardiñas, Manu E Saunders, Nicole L Schon, Amber R Sciligo, C Sheena Sidhu, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Teja Tscharntke, Milan Veselý, Wolfgang W Weisser, Julianna K Wilson, David W Crowder
Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, which can reduce the provisioning of ecosystem services in managed ecosystems. Organic farming and plant diversification are farm management schemes that may mitigate potential ecological harm by increasing species richness and boosting related ecosystem services to agroecosystems. What remains unclear is the extent to which farm management schemes affect biodiversity components other than species richness, and whether impacts differ across spatial scales and landscape contexts...
May 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482135/climate-and-landscape-drive-the-pace-and-pattern-of-conifer-encroachment-into-subalpine-meadows
#14
Kaitlin C Lubetkin, Anthony Leroy Westerling, Lara M Kueppers
Mountain meadows have high biodiversity and help regulate stream water release following the snowmelt pulse. However, many meadows are experiencing woody plant encroachment, threatening these ecosystem services. While there have been field surveys of individual meadows and remote sensing-based landscape-scale studies of encroachment, what is missing is a broad scale, ground-based study to understand common regional drivers, especially at high elevations, where land management has often played a less direct role...
May 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481311/evaluation-of-drought-implications-on-ecosystem-services-freshwater-provisioning-and-food-provisioning-in-the-upper-mississippi-river-basin
#15
Ping Li, Nina Omani, Indrajeet Chaubey, Xiaomei Wei
Drought is one of the most widespread extreme climate events with a potential to alter freshwater availability and related ecosystem services. Given the interconnectedness between freshwater availability and many ecosystem services, including food provisioning, it is important to evaluate the drought implications on freshwater provisioning and food provisioning services. Studies about drought implications on streamflow, nutrient loads, and crop yields have been increased and these variables are all process-based model outputs that could represent ecosystem functions that contribute to the ecosystem services...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479537/requirements-and-solutions-for-personalized-health-systems
#16
Bernd Blobel, Pekka Ruotsalainen, Diego M Lopez, Frank Oemig
Organizational, methodological and technological paradigm changes enable a precise, personalized, predictive, preventive and participative approach to health and social services supported by multiple actors from different domains at diverse level of knowledge and skills. Interoperability has to advance beyond Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) concerns, including the real world business domains and their processes, but also the individual context of all actors involved. The paper introduces and compares personalized health definitions, summarizes requirements and principles for pHealth systems, and considers intelligent interoperability...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469291/milled-cereal-straw-accelerates-earthworm-lumbricus-terrestris-growth-more-than-selected-organic-amendments
#17
Tom Sizmur, Elodie Martin, Kevin Wagner, Emilie Parmentier, Chris Watts, Andrew P Whitmore
Earthworms benefit agriculture by providing several ecosystem services. Therefore, strategies to increase earthworm abundance and activity in agricultural soils should be identified, and encouraged. Lumbricus terrestris earthworms primarily feed on organic inputs to soils but it is not known which organic amendments are the most effective for increasing earthworm populations. We conducted earthworm surveys in the field and carried out experiments in single-earthworm microcosms to determine the optimum food source for increasing earthworm biomass using a selection of crop residues and organic wastes available to agriculture...
May 2017: Applied Soil Ecology: a Section of Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466482/msec-queryable-global-layers-of-environmental-and-anthropogenic-variables-for-marine-ecosystem-studies
#18
Lauren A Yeager, Philippe Marchand, David A Gill, Julia K Baum, Jana M McPherson
Biophysical conditions, including climate, environmental stress, and habitat availability, are key drivers of many ecological processes (e.g., community assembly and productivity) and associated ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and fishery production). Furthermore, anthropogenic impacts such as coastal development and fishing can have drastic effects on the structure and function of marine ecosystems. Scientists need to account for environmental variation and human impacts to accurately model, manage, and conserve marine ecosystems...
May 3, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464275/the-role-of-ants-birds-and-bats-for-ecosystem-functions-and-yield-in-oil-palm-plantations
#19
Lisa H Denmead, Kevin Darras, Yann Clough, Patrick Diaz, Ingo Grass, Munir P Hoffmann, Fuad Nurdiansyah, Rico Fardiansah, Teja Tscharntke
One of the world's most important and rapidly expanding crops, oil palm, is associated with low levels of biodiversity. Changes in predator communities might alter ecosystem services and subsequently sustainable management but these links have received little attention to date. Here, for the first time, we manipulated ant and flying vertebrate (birds and bats) access to oil palms in six smallholder plantations in Sumatra (Indonesia), and measured effects on arthropod communities, related ecosystem functions (herbivory, predation, decomposition and pollination) and crop yield...
May 2, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460878/carbon-stores-from-a-tropical-seagrass-meadow-in-the-midst-of-anthropogenic-disturbance
#20
Mohammad Rozaimi, Mohammad Fairoz, Tuan Mohamad Hakimi, Nur Hidayah Hamdan, Ramlan Omar, Masni Mohd Ali, Siti Aishah Tahirin
Seagrass meadows provide important carbon sequestration services but anthropogenic activities modify the natural ecosystem and inevitably lower carbon storage capacity. The tropical mixed-species meadows in the Sungai Pulai Estuary (Johor, Malaysia) are impacted by such activities. In this study, we provide baseline estimates for carbon stores analysed from sediment cores. In sediment depths up to 100cm, organic (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC) stores were 43-101MgCha(-1) and 46-83MgCha(-1), respectively, and are in the lower end of global average values...
April 28, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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