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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155765/continuous-hydrologic-and-water-quality-monitoring-of-vernal-ponds
#1
Odette Mina, Heather E Gall, Joseph W Chandler, Jeremy Harper, Malcolm Taylor
Vernal ponds, also referred to as vernal pools, provide critical ecosystem services and habitat for a variety of threatened and endangered species. However, they are vulnerable parts of the landscapes that are often poorly understood and understudied. Land use and management practices, as well as climate change are thought to be a contribution to the global amphibian decline. However, more research is needed to understand the extent of these impacts. Here, we present methodology for characterizing a vernal pond's morphology and detail a monitoring station that can be used to collect water quantity and quality data over the duration of a vernal pond's hydroperiod...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152414/vegetation-structure-of-plantain-based-agrosystems-determines-numerical-dominance-in-community-of-ground-dwelling-ants
#2
Anicet Gbéblonoudo Dassou, Philippe Tixier, Sylvain Dépigny, Dominique Carval
In tropics, ants can represent an important part of animal biomass and are known to be involved in ecosystem services, such as pest regulation. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the structuring of local ant communities is therefore important in agroecology. In the humid tropics of Africa, plantains are cropped in association with many other annual and perennial crops. Such agrosystems differ greatly in vegetation diversity and structure and are well-suited for studying how habitat-related factors affect the ant community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152188/prey-use-by-dingoes-in-a-contested-landscape-ecosystem-service-provider-or-biodiversity-threat
#3
Damian S Morrant, Christopher M Wurster, Christopher N Johnson, James R A Butler, Bradley C Congdon
In Australia, dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) have been implicated in the decline and extinction of a number of vertebrate species. The lowland Wet Tropics of Queensland, Australia is a biologically rich area with many species of rainforest-restricted vertebrates that could be threatened by dingoes; however, the ecological impacts of dingoes in this region are poorly understood. We determined the potential threat posed by dingoes to native vertebrates in the lowland Wet Tropics using dingo scat/stomach content and stable isotope analyses of hair from dingoes and potential prey species...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152168/pollination-by-the-locally-endangered-island-flying-fox-pteropus-hypomelanus-enhances-fruit-production-of-the-economically-important-durian-durio-zibethinus
#4
Sheema A Aziz, Gopalasamy R Clements, Kim R McConkey, Tuanjit Sritongchuay, Saifful Pathil, Muhammad Nur Hafizi Abu Yazid, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Pierre-Michel Forget, Sara Bumrungsri
Fruit bats provide valuable pollination services to humans through a unique coevolutionary relationship with chiropterophilous plants. However, chiropterophily in the Old World and the pollination roles of large bats, such as flying foxes (Pteropus spp., Acerodon spp., Desmalopex spp.), are still poorly understood and require further elucidation. Efforts to protect these bats have been hampered by a lack of basic quantitative information on their role as ecosystem service providers. Here, we investigate the role of the locally endangered island flying fox Pteropus hypomelanus in the pollination ecology of durian (Durio zibethinus), an economically important crop in Southeast Asia...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149679/innovative-urban-forestry-governance-in-melbourne-investigating-green-placemaking-as-a-nature-based-solution
#5
Natalie Marie Gulsrud, Kelly Hertzog, Ian Shears
A nature-based approach to climate resilience aims to challenge and re-frame conventional environmental management methods by refocusing solutions from technological strategies to socio-ecological principles such as human well-being and community-based governance models, thereby improving and legitimizing the delivery of ecosystem services (ES). There are, however, many challenges to applying a socio-ecological agenda to urban climate resilience and thereby re-framing ES delivery as community and people focused, a knowledge gap extensively outlined in the environmental governance literature...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149641/site-closure-management-strategies-and-the-responsiveness-of-conservation-outcomes-in-recreational-fishing
#6
Lei Gao, Atakelty Hailu
We develop and use an empirically based model, which integrates fishing behaviour and a coral reef system, to evaluate outcomes from site closure strategies to manage the effects of recreational fishing. The model is designed to estimate management effects in complex settings with two-way feedback effects (between fishing and ecosystem dynamics) as well as spillover effects where the closure of a site (or sites) leads to the redistribution of fishing effort. An iconic coral reef system is used as a case study...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147982/opportunity-mapping-of-natural-flood-management-measures-a-case-study-from-the-headwaters-of-the-warwickshire-avon
#7
Tom Lavers, Susanne Charlesworth
The use of natural flood management (NFM) measures to address severe flooding received considerable public attention during December 2015-January 2016 storms. Within the Warwickshire-Avon Catchment, UK, high arable and improved grassland land cover with small, isolated communities at risk, lead to the exploration of novel techniques that use farmland high up in flood-prone catchments to hold water and reduce outflow discharge. This paper will discuss the methodology used to identify areas in the Warwickshire-Avon, which could be used to install NFM measures to attenuate the storm peak and provide wider ecosystem services, principally addressing total phosphate and sediment entering the receiving watercourse...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147780/the-effect-of-removing-numerically-dominant-non-native-honey-bees-on-seed-set-of-a-native-plant
#8
Annika J Nabors, Henry J Cen, Keng-Lou J Hung, Joshua R Kohn, David A Holway
Pollination services are compromised by habitat destruction, land-use intensification, pesticides, and introduced species. How pollination services respond to such stressors depends on the capacity of pollinator assemblages to function in the face of environmental disruption. Here, we quantify how pollination services provided to a native plant change upon removal of the non-native, western honey bee (Apis mellifera)-a numerically dominant floral visitor in the native bee-rich ecosystems of southern California...
November 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147779/the-role-of-ants-in-north-temperate-grasslands-a-review
#9
REVIEW
B D Wills, D A Landis
Historic and current land-use changes have altered the landscape for grassland biota, with over 90% of grasslands and savannas converted to agriculture or some other use in north temperate regions. Reintegrating grasslands into agricultural landscapes can increase biodiversity while also providing valuable ecosystem services. In contrast to their well-known importance in tropical and subtropical ecosystems, the role of ants in temperate grasslands is often underappreciated. As consumers and ecosystem engineers, ants in temperate grasslands influence invertebrate, plant, and soil microbial diversity and potentially alter grassland productivity...
November 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144421/paralytic-shellfish-toxins-and-cyanotoxins-in-the-mediterranean-new-data-from-sardinia-and-sicily-italy
#10
Antonella Lugliè, Maria Grazia Giacobbe, Elena Riccardi, Milena Bruno, Silvia Pigozzi, Maria Antonietta Mariani, Cecilia Teodora Satta, Daniela Stacca, Anna Maria Bazzoni, Tiziana Caddeo, Pasqualina Farina, Bachisio Mario Padedda, Silvia Pulina, Nicola Sechi, Anna Milandri
Harmful algal blooms represent a severe issue worldwide. They affect ecosystem functions and related services and goods, with consequences on human health and socio-economic activities. This study reports new data on paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy), the largest Mediterranean islands where toxic events, mainly caused by Alexandrium species (Dinophyceae), have been ascertained in mussel farms since the 2000s. The toxicity of the A. minutum, A. tamarense and A. pacificum strains, established from the isolation of vegetative cells and resting cysts, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
November 16, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140995/process-strengths-determine-the-forms-of-the-relationship-between-plant-species-richness-and-primary-productivity
#11
Zhenhong Wang
The current rates of biodiversity loss have exceeded the rates observed during the earth's major extinction events, which spurs the studies of the ecological relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functions, stability, and services to determine the consequences of biodiversity loss. Plant species richness-productivity relationship (SRPR) is crucial to the understanding of these relationships in plants. Most ecologists have reached a widespread consensus that the loss of plant diversity undoubtedly impairs ecosystem functions, and have proposed many processes to explain the SRPR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140983/ecosystem-services-in-european-protected-areas-ambiguity-in-the-views-of-scientists-and-managers
#12
Christiaan Hummel, Antonello Provenzale, Jaap van der Meer, Sander Wijnhoven, Arno Nolte, Dimitris Poursanidis, Guyonne Janss, Matthias Jurek, Magnus Andresen, Brigitte Poulin, Johannes Kobler, Carl Beierkuhnlein, João Honrado, Arturas Razinkovas, Ana Stritih, Tessa Bargmann, Alex Ziemba, Francisco Bonet-García, Mihai Cristian Adamescu, Gerard Janssen, Herman Hummel
Protected Areas are a key component of nature conservation. They can play an important role in counterbalancing the impacts of ecosystem degradation. For an optimal protection of a Protected Area it is essential to account for the variables underlying the major Ecosystem Services an area delivers, and the threats upon them. Here we show that the perception of these important variables differs markedly between scientists and managers of Protected Areas in mountains and transitional waters. Scientists emphasise variables of abiotic and biotic nature, whereas managers highlight socio-economic, cultural and anthropogenic variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138404/neonicotinoid-pesticide-limits-improvement-in-buzz-pollination-by-bumblebees
#13
P R Whitehorn, C Wallace, M Vallejo-Marin
Neonicotinoid pesticides have been linked to global declines of beneficial insects such as bumblebees. Exposure to trace levels of these chemicals causes sub-lethal effects, such as reduced learning and foraging efficiency. Complex behaviours may be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of neonicotinoids. Such behaviours may include buzz pollination (sonication), in which pollinators, usually bees, use innate and learned behaviours to generate high-frequency vibrations to release pollen from flowers with specialised anther morphologies...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137608/the-pennycress-thlaspi-arvense-l-nectary-structural-and-transcriptomic-characterization
#14
Jason B Thomas, Marshall E Hampton, Kevin M Dorn, M David Marks, Clay J Carter
BACKGROUND: Pennycress [Thlaspi arvense L (Brassicaceae)] is being domesticated as a renewable biodiesel feedstock that also provides crucial ecosystems services, including as a nutritional resource for pollinators. However, its flowers produce significantly less nectar than other crop relatives in the Brassicaceae. This study was undertaken to understand the basic biology of the pennycress nectary as an initial step toward the possibility of enhancing nectar output from its flowers. RESULTS: Pennycress flowers contain four equivalent nectaries located extrastaminally at the base of the insertion sites of short and long stamens...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136016/monitoring-the-effects-of-land-cover-change-on-the-supply-of-ecosystem-services-in-an-urban-region-a-study-of-santiago-valpara%C3%A3-so-chile
#15
Claudia Montoya-Tangarife, Francisco de la Barrera, Alejandro Salazar, Luis Inostroza
Mankind's quest for well-being results in continuous pressure to transform landscapes, with said transformation driven by land use changes, urbanization, production activity, and protective measures in addition to climate variability and other environmental drivers. The relationship between anthropogenic landscape changes and the provision of ecosystem services (ES) is a topic of increasing interest in Latin America. In Chile, land cover changes due to increased urbanization and forestry, and expansion of agricultural land, in addition to conservation initiatives as a part of land planning, have been intensive in the last few decades...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134196/environmental-controls-on-modern-scleractinian-coral-and-reef-scale-calcification
#16
Travis A Courtney, Mario Lebrato, Nicholas R Bates, Andrew Collins, Samantha J de Putron, Rebecca Garley, Rod Johnson, Juan-Carlos Molinero, Timothy J Noyes, Christopher L Sabine, Andreas J Andersson
Modern reef-building corals sustain a wide range of ecosystem services because of their ability to build calcium carbonate reef systems. The influence of environmental variables on coral calcification rates has been extensively studied, but our understanding of their relative importance is limited by the absence of in situ observations and the ability to decouple the interactions between different properties. We show that temperature is the primary driver of coral colony (Porites astreoides and Diploria labyrinthiformis) and reef-scale calcification rates over a 2-year monitoring period from the Bermuda coral reef...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133790/climate-change-accelerates-growth-of-urban-trees-in-metropolises-worldwide
#17
Hans Pretzsch, Peter Biber, Enno Uhl, Jens Dahlhausen, Gerhard Schütze, Diana Perkins, Thomas Rötzer, Juan Caldentey, Takayoshi Koike, Tran van Con, Aurélia Chavanne, Ben du Toit, Keith Foster, Barry Lefer
Despite the importance of urban trees, their growth reaction to climate change and to the urban heat island effect has not yet been investigated with an international scope. While we are well informed about forest growth under recent conditions, it is unclear if this knowledge can be simply transferred to urban environments. Based on tree ring analyses in ten metropolises worldwide, we show that, in general, urban trees have undergone accelerated growth since the 1960s. In addition, urban trees tend to grow more quickly than their counterparts in the rural surroundings...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132720/intensify-production-transform-biomass-to-energy-and-novel-goods-and-protect-soils-in-europe-a-vision-how-to-mobilize-marginal-lands
#18
REVIEW
P Schröder, B Beckers, S Daniels, F Gnädinger, E Maestri, N Marmiroli, M Mench, R Millan, M M Obermeier, N Oustriere, T Persson, C Poschenrieder, F Rineau, B Rutkowska, T Schmid, W Szulc, N Witters, A Sæbø
The rapid increase of the world population constantly demands more food production from agricultural soils. This causes conflicts, since at the same time strong interest arises on novel bio-based products from agriculture, and new perspectives for rural landscapes with their valuable ecosystem services. Agriculture is in transition to fulfill these demands. In many countries, conventional farming, influenced by post-war food requirements, has largely been transformed into integrated and sustainable farming...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132088/analysing-the-impacts-of-air-quality-policies-on-ecosystem-services-a-case-study-for-telemark-norway
#19
L Hein, L White, A Miles, P Roberts
There is an increasing interest in considering the effects of air pollution on ecosystem services supply in order to enhance cost-benefit analyses of air pollution policies. This paper presents a generic, conceptual approach that can be used to link atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to ecosystem services supply and societal benefits. The approach is applied in a case study in the Telemark county of Norway. First, we examine the potential effects of four European air quality policy scenarios on N deposition in the ecosystems of this county...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132084/integrated-and-ecosystemic-approaches-for-bridging-the-gap-between-environmental-management-and-port-management
#20
Javier García-Onetti, Marinez E G Scherer, Juan Manuel Barragán
The rapid exploitation of coastal and marine ecosystemic capital is on course to reach a critical point. The difficulty of implementing Integrated and ecosystem based management models, taking into the account the great complexity of the marine socio-ecological systems, has resulted in a significant gap between theory and practice. The majority of authors emphasize difficulties in engaging and convincing private stakeholders and a number of economic sectors involved in these processes. This reticence is traditionally more pronounced in the port sector, despite their important role in the transformation of coastal and marine areas...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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