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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212462/climate-change-contaminant-interactions-in-marine-food-webs-towards-a-conceptual-framework
#1
Juan José Alava, William W L Cheung, Peter S Ross, Rashid U Sumaila
Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate and effects, is likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation or culture. Published studies on climate change-contaminant interactions with a focus on food web bioaccumulation were systematically reviewed to explore how climate change and ocean acidification may impact contaminant levels in marine food webs...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209558/readiness-for-delivering-digital-health-at-scale-lessons-from-a-longitudinal-qualitative-evaluation-of-a-national-digital-health-innovation-program-in-the-united-kingdom
#2
Marilyn R Lennon, Matt-Mouley Bouamrane, Alison M Devlin, Siobhan O'Connor, Catherine O'Donnell, Ula Chetty, Ruth Agbakoba, Annemieke Bikker, Eleanor Grieve, Tracy Finch, Nicholas Watson, Sally Wyke, Frances S Mair
BACKGROUND: Digital health has the potential to support care delivery for chronic illness. Despite positive evidence from localized implementations, new technologies have proven slow to become accepted, integrated, and routinized at scale. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to examine barriers and facilitators to implementation of digital health at scale through the evaluation of a £37m national digital health program: ‟Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale" (dallas) from 2012-2015...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209328/plant-functional-traits-soil-and-ecosystem-services
#3
REVIEW
Michel-Pierre Faucon, David Houben, Hans Lambers
Decline of ecosystem services has triggered numerous studies aiming at developing more sustainable agricultural management practices. Some agricultural practices may improve soil properties by expanding plant biodiversity. However, sustainable management of agroecosystems should be performed from a functional plant trait perspective. Advances in functional ecology, especially plant functional trait effects on ecosystem processes and services, provide pivotal knowledge for ecological intensification of agriculture; this approach acknowledges that a crop field is an agroecosystem whose ecological processes influence soil properties...
February 13, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202244/changes-in-land-uses-and-ecosystem-services-under-multi-scenarios-simulation
#4
Jingya Liu, Jing Li, Keyu Qin, Zixiang Zhou, Xiaonan Yang, Ting Li
Social economy of China has been rapidly developing for more than 30years with efficient reforms and policies being issued. Societal developments have resulted in a greater use of many natural resources to the extent that the ecosystem can no longer self-regulate, thus severely damaging the balance of the ecosystem itself. This in turn has led to a deterioration in people's living environments. Our research is based on a combination of climate scenarios presented in the fifth report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and policy scenarios, including the one-child policy and carbon tax policy...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198464/sublethal-doses-of-imidacloprid-disrupt-sexual-communication-and-host-finding-in-a-parasitoid-wasp
#5
Lars Tappert, Tamara Pokorny, John Hofferberth, Joachim Ruther
Neonicotinoids are widely used insecticides, but their use is subject of debate because of their detrimental effects on pollinators. Little is known about the effect of neonicotinoids on other beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps, which serve as natural enemies and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. Here we show that sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid impair sexual communication and host finding in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Depending on the dose, treated females were less responsive to the male sex pheromone or unable to use it as a cue at all...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196322/ecosystem-services-mapping-for-sustainable-agricultural-water-management-in-california-s-central-valley
#6
Edward Matios, Jennifer Anne Burney
Accurate information on agricultural water needs and withdrawals at appropriate spatial and temporal scales remains a key limitation to joint water and land management decision-making. We use InVEST ecosystem service mapping to estimate water yield and water consumption as functions of land use in Fresno County, a key farming region in California's Central Valley. Our calculations show that in recent years (2010-2015), total annual water yield for the county has varied dramatically from ~0.97 km(3) to 5.37 km(3) (all ± ~17%; 1 MAF ≈ 1...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194224/carbon-uptake-by-mature-amazon-forests-has-mitigated-amazon-nations-carbon-emissions
#7
Oliver L Phillips, Roel J W Brienen
BACKGROUND: Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190693/long-term-monitoring-for-conservation-management-lessons-from-a-case-study-integrating-remote-sensing-and-field-approaches-in-floodplain-forests
#8
Patricia María Rodríguez-González, António Albuquerque, Miguel Martínez-Almarza, Ricardo Díaz-Delgado
Implementing long-term monitoring programs that effectively inform conservation plans is a top priority in environmental management. In floodplain forests, historical pressures interplay with the complex multiscale dynamics of fluvial systems and require integrative approaches to pinpoint drivers for their deterioration and ecosystem services loss. Combining a conceptual framework such as the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) with the development of valid biological indicators can contribute to the analysis of the driving forces and their effects on the ecosystem in order to formulate coordinated conservation measures...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190532/towards-a-threat-assessment-framework-for-ecosystem-services
#9
REVIEW
Martine Maron, Matthew G E Mitchell, Rebecca K Runting, Jonathan R Rhodes, Georgina M Mace, David A Keith, James E M Watson
How can we tell if the ecosystem services upon which we rely are at risk of being lost, potentially permanently? Ecosystem services underpin human well-being, but we lack a consistent approach for categorizing the extent to which they are threatened. We present an assessment framework for assessing the degree to which the adequate and sustainable provision of a given ecosystem service is threatened. Our framework combines information on the states and trends of both ecosystem service supply and demand, with reference to two critical thresholds: demand exceeding supply and ecosystem service 'extinction'...
February 6, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186155/a-small-subset-of-protected-areas-are-a-highly-significant-source-of-carbon-emissions
#10
Murray B Collins, Edward T A Mitchard
Protected areas (PAs) aim to protect multiple ecosystem services. However, not all are well protected. For the first time, using published carbon and forest loss maps, we estimate carbon emissions in large forest PAs in tropical countries (N = 2018). We found 36 ± 16 Pg C stored in PA trees, representing 14.5% of all tropical forest biomass carbon. However the PAs lost forest at a mean rate of 0.18% yr(-1) from 2000-2012. Lower protection status areas experienced higher forest losses (e.g. 0.39% yr(-1) in IUCN cat III), yet even highest status areas lost 0...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185732/water-resources-management-in-the-urban-agglomeration-of-the-lake-biwa-region-japan-an-ecosystem-services-based-sustainability-assessment
#11
Xiaochen Chen, Yuqing Chen, Toshiyuki Shimizu, Jia Niu, Ken'ichi Nakagami, Xuepeng Qian, Baoju Jia, Jun Nakajima, Ji Han, Jianhua Li
An innovative ecosystem services-based sustainability assessment was conducted in the important urban agglomeration of the Lake Biwa region, Japan, covering the time period from 1950 to 2014. A 22-indicator system was established that was based on the major ecosystem services of Lake Biwa and its water courses, i.e., provisioning services regarding aquatic products and water; regulating services regarding floods and water quality; cultural services regarding recreation and tourism, scientific research, and environmental education; and supporting services regarding biodiversity...
February 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181724/freshwater-ecosystems-could-become-the-biggest-losers-of-the-paris-agreement
#12
Virgilio Hermoso
Securing access to energy for a growing population under the international commitment of reduction of greenhouse emissions requires increasing the contribution of renewable sources to the global share. Hydropower energy, which accounts for > 80% of green energy, is experiencing a boom fostered by international investment mainly in developing countries. This boom could be further accelerated by the recent climate agreement reached in Paris. Despite its flexibility, hydropower production entails social, economic and ecological risks that need to be carefully considered before investing in the development of potentially thousands of planned hydropower projects worldwide...
February 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181376/functional-outcomes-of-fungal-community-shifts-driven-by-tree-genotype-and-spatial-temporal-factors-in-mediterranean-pine-forests
#13
L Pérez-Izquierdo, M Zabal-Aguirre, D Flores-Rentería, S C González-Martínez, M Buée, A Rincón
Fungi provide relevant ecosystem services contributing to primary productivity and the cycling of nutrients in forests. These fungal inputs can be decisive for the resilience of Mediterranean forests under global change scenarios, making necessary an in-deep knowledge about how fungal communities operate in these ecosystems. By using high-throughput sequencing and enzymatic approaches, we studied the fungal communities associated with three genotypic variants of Pinus pinaster trees, in 45-yr-old common garden plantations...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179522/landscape-context-alters-cost-of-living-in-honeybee-metabolism-and-feeding
#14
Sean Tomlinson, Kingsley W Dixon, Raphael K Didham, S Donald Bradshaw
Field metabolic rate (FMR) links the energy budget of an animal with the constraints of its ecosystem, but is particularly difficult to measure for small organisms. Landscape degradation exacerbates environmental adversity and reduces resource availability, imposing higher costs of living for many organisms. Here, we report a significant effect of landscape degradation on the FMR of free-flying Apis mellifera, estimated using (86)Rb radio-isotopic turnover. We validated the relationship between (86)Rb kb and metabolic rate for worker bees in the laboratory using flow-through respirometry...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177420/small-reservoirs-as-a-beneficial-management-practice-for-nitrogen-removal
#15
Raea M Gooding, Helen M Baulch
There are few beneficial management practices (BMPs) with demonstrated efficacy in snowmelt-dominated regions. Small reservoirs are a BMP that can help mitigate flooding and reduce sediment transport, while reducing export of dissolved nutrients. To understand controls on nitrate removal and assess how this ecosystem service can be optimized, denitrification activity was measured in reservoirs and stream pools of the Tobacco Creek Model Watershed (Manitoba, Canada) via the chloramphenicol-amended acetylene block technique...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169033/combining-habitat-requirements-of-endemic-bird-species-and-other-ecosystem-services-may-synergistically-enhance-conservation-efforts
#16
Mattia Brambilla, Luca Ilahiane, Giacomo Assandri, Silvia Ronchi, Giuseppe Bogliani
Biodiversity conservation and the optimisation of other ecosystem service delivery as a contribution to human well-being are often tackled as mutually alternative targets. Modern agriculture is a great challenge for the fulfilment of both. Here, we explore the potential benefits of integrating biodiversity conservation and the preservation of wider ecosystem services, considering the conservation of an endemic species (Moltoni's warbler Sylvia subalpina; Aves: Sylvidae) and soil erosion control (a final ecosystem service) in intensive vineyards in Italy...
February 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169029/the-contribution-of-volunteer-based-monitoring-data-to-the-assessment-of-harmful-phytoplankton-blooms-in-brazilian-urban-streams
#17
Davi Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Simone Pereira Casali, Patrícia Bortoletto de Falco, Ian Thornhill, Steven Arthur Loiselle
Urban streams are vulnerable to a range of impacts, leading to the impairment of ecosystem services. However, studies on phytoplankton growth in tropical lotic systems are still limited. Citizen science approaches use trained volunteers to collect environmental data. We combined data on urban streams collected by volunteers with data obtained by professional scientists to identify potential drivers of phytoplankton community and determine thresholds for Cyanobacteria development. We combined datasets (n=117) on water quality and environmental observations in 64 Brazilian urban streams with paired data on phytoplankton...
February 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168020/trait-based-approaches-to-analyze-links-between-the-drivers-of-change-and-ecosystem-services-synthesizing-existing-evidence-and-future-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Violeta Hevia, Berta Martín-López, Sara Palomo, Marina García-Llorente, Francesco de Bello, José A González
Understanding the responses of biodiversity to drivers of change and the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem properties and ecosystem services is a key challenge in the context of global environmental change. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the scientific literature linking direct drivers of change and ecosystem services via functional traits of three taxonomic groups (vegetation, invertebrates, and vertebrates) to: (1) uncover trends and research biases in this field; and (2) synthesize existing empirical evidence...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168018/irbas-an-online-database-to-collate-analyze-and-synthesize-data-on-the-biodiversity-and-ecology-of-intermittent-rivers-worldwide
#19
Catherine Leigh, Baptiste Laporte, Núria Bonada, Ken Fritz, Hervé Pella, Eric Sauquet, Klement Tockner, Thibault Datry
Key questions dominating contemporary ecological research and management concern interactions between biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and ecosystem services provision in the face of global change. This is particularly salient for freshwater biodiversity and in the context of river drying and flow-regime change. Rivers that stop flowing and dry, herein intermittent rivers, are globally prevalent and dynamic ecosystems on which the body of research is expanding rapidly, consistent with the era of big data...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165643/toward-inventory-based-estimates-of-soil-organic-carbon-in-forests-of-the-united-states
#20
G M Domke, C H Perry, B F Walters, L E Nave, C W Woodall, C W Swanston
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest terrestrial carbon (C) sink on Earth; this pool plays a critical role in ecosystem processes and climate change. Given the cost and time required to measure SOC, and particularly changes in SOC, many signatory nations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change report estimates of SOC stocks and stock changes using default values from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or country-specific models. In the United States (US), SOC in forests is monitored by the national forest inventory (NFI) conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...
February 6, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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