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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919393/business-analysis-for-a-sustainable-multi-stakeholder-ecosystem-for-leveraging-the-electronic-health-records-for-clinical-research-ehr4cr-platform-in-europe
#1
Danielle Dupont, Ariel Beresniak, Mats Sundgren, Andreas Schmidt, John Ainsworth, Pascal Coorevits, Dipak Kalra, Marc Dewispelaere, Georges De Moor
INTRODUCTION: The Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) technological platform has been developed to enable the trustworthy reuse of hospital electronic health records data for clinical research. The EHR4CR platform can enhance and speed up clinical research scenarios: protocol feasibility assessment, patient identification for recruitment in clinical trials, and clinical data exchange, including for reporting serious adverse events. Our objective was to seed a multi-stakeholder ecosystem to enable the scalable exploitation of the EHR4CR platform in Europe, and to assess its economic sustainability...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919075/land-use-intensification-causes-multitrophic-homogenization-of-grassland-communities
#2
Martin M Gossner, Thomas M Lewinsohn, Tiemo Kahl, Fabrice Grassein, Steffen Boch, Daniel Prati, Klaus Birkhofer, Swen C Renner, Johannes Sikorski, Tesfaye Wubet, Hartmut Arndt, Vanessa Baumgartner, Stefan Blaser, Nico Blüthgen, Carmen Börschig, Francois Buscot, Tim Diekötter, Leonardo Ré Jorge, Kirsten Jung, Alexander C Keyel, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Sandra Klemmer, Jochen Krauss, Markus Lange, Jörg Müller, Jörg Overmann, Esther Pašalić, Caterina Penone, David J Perović, Oliver Purschke, Peter Schall, Stephanie A Socher, Ilja Sonnemann, Marco Tschapka, Teja Tscharntke, Manfred Türke, Paul Christiaan Venter, Christiane N Weiner, Michael Werner, Volkmar Wolters, Susanne Wurst, Catrin Westphal, Markus Fischer, Wolfgang W Weisser, Eric Allan
Land-use intensification is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Alongside reductions in local species diversity, biotic homogenization at larger spatial scales is of great concern for conservation. Biotic homogenization means a decrease in β-diversity (the compositional dissimilarity between sites). Most studies have investigated losses in local (α)-diversity and neglected biodiversity loss at larger spatial scales. Studies addressing β-diversity have focused on single or a few organism groups (for example, ref...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917987/the-future-of-pastoralism-an-introduction
#3
J Zinsstag, E Schelling, B Bonfoh, L Crump, S KrÄtli
Two-thirds of the agricultural land on planet Earth is grassland on which no other crops can be grown, either because of limited rainfall, high altitude or mountainous conditions. Most of these semi-arid and high-altitude pastoral ecosystems are used by livestock husbandry systems with various forms of mobility and are not in competition with crop production for human nutrition. By devoting an issue of its Scientific and Technical Review to pastoralism, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is encouraging debate on this important topic and helping to shape the future of pastoralists and their livestock...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917981/the-role-of-pastoralism-in-regulating-ecosystem-services
#4
M A Seid, N J Kuhn, T Z Fikre
Pastoralism is rarely viewed as a major future form of land use, because of well-documented cases of rangeland degradation, attributed to irrational overstocking by pastoralists, and the subsequent losses of ecosystem services. However, pastoralists were actually encouraged to settle and adopt such strategies, copied from rangelands with higher and more reliable rainfall. This curtailed mobility resulted in a shift from opportunistic and extensive land use to more intensive and settled forms of use. The purpose of this review is to examine the link between pastoralism and the provision of ecosystem services by rangelands, focusing on biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917970/enhancing-the-economic-viability-of-pastoralism-the-need-to-balance-interventions
#5
H Rueff, I Rahim
Extensive mobile pastoral systems do not follow conventional marketing optimisation models, since they must deal with the factors of mobility, erratic environments, dependency on natural resources, seasonality, and distance to markets. While pastoralist systems contribute substantially to national economies, government investment to support pastoralism remains limited or non-existent. Pastoralists are becoming increasingly integrated into larger market systems and therefore need investment and specially adapted policies to supply a growing demand for livestock products and to support their livelihoods...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917966/enabling-sustainable-pastoralism-policies-and-investments-that-optimise-livestock-production-and-rangeland-stewardship
#6
R Ouedraogo, J Davies
Pastoralism is a system of dynamically managing livestock and land for economic, social and environmental benefit. To a large extent, pastoralism is an adaptation to ecological and climatic variability and is not simply a livestock production system but provides significant environmental services to humanity. Evidence from a range of national contexts shows that sustainable pastoralist development requires an understanding of the dual environmental and economic roles of pastoralism and an adaptation of policies and investments to support both...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917962/human-and-animal-health-surveys-among-pastoralists
#7
E Schelling, H Greter, H Kessely, M F Abakar, B N Ngandolo, L Crump, B Bold, J Kasymbekov, Z Baljinnyam, G Fokou, J Zinsstag, B Bonfoh, J Hattendorf, M Béchir
Valid human and livestock health surveys, including longitudinal follow-up, are feasible among mobile pastoralists and provide fundamental information to agencies for interventions that are responsive to realities and effective in addressing the needs of pastoralists. However, pastoralists are often excluded from studies, surveillance systems and health programmes. The occurrence of preventable and treatable diseases such as perinatal tetanus, measles and tuberculosis are indicative of limited access to health providers and information...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917961/trends-in-health-surveillance-and-joint-service-delivery-for-pastoralists-in-west-and-central-africa
#8
M F Abakar, E Schelling, M Béchir, B N Ngandolo, K Pfister, I O Alfaroukh, H M Hassane, J Zinsstag
In most sub-Saharan African countries, pastoralism represents an important economic resource and contributes significantly to national growth; however, challenges remain, particularly in providing social services to pastoralists (especially health and education) and in avoiding conflict with local sedentary communities and local authorities. All of this takes place while pastoralists try to maintain their mobile lifestyle within a rapidly changing ecosystem. Transdisciplinary approaches, such as 'One Health', which covers both human and animal health, have proven effective in delivering services and reaching mobile pastoralists in remote areas...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916810/is-the-geographic-range-of-mangrove-forests-in-the-conterminous-united-states-really-expanding
#9
Chandra Giri, Jordan Long
Changes in the distribution and abundance of mangrove species within and outside of their historic geographic range can have profound consequences in the provision of ecosystem goods and services they provide. Mangroves in the conterminous United States (CONUS) are believed to be expanding poleward (north) due to decreases in the frequency and severity of extreme cold events, while sea level rise is a factor often implicated in the landward expansion of mangroves locally. We used ~35 years of satellite imagery and in situ observations for CONUS and report that: (i) poleward expansion of mangrove forest is inconclusive, and may have stalled for now, and (ii) landward expansion is actively occurring within the historical northernmost limit...
November 28, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911995/allometry-data-and-equations-for-coastal-marsh-plants
#10
Meng Lu, Joshua S Caplan, Jonathan D Bakker, J Adam Langley, Thomas J Mozdzer, Bert G Drake, J Patrick Megonigal
Coastal marshes are highly valued for ecosystem services such as protecting inland habitats from storms, sequestering carbon, removing nutrients and other pollutants from surface water, and providing habitat for fish, shellfish, and birds. Because plants largely determine the structure and function of coastal marshes, quantifying plant biomass is essential for evaluating these ecosystem services, understanding the biogeochemical processes that regulate ecosystem function, and forecasting tidal wetland responses to accelerated sea level rise...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911770/the-right-incentives-enable-ocean-sustainability-successes-and-provide-hope-for-the-future
#11
Jane Lubchenco, Elizabeth B Cerny-Chipman, Jessica N Reimer, Simon A Levin
Healthy ocean ecosystems are needed to sustain people and livelihoods and to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Using the ocean sustainably requires overcoming many formidable challenges: overfishing, climate change, ocean acidification, and pollution. Despite gloomy forecasts, there is reason for hope. New tools, practices, and partnerships are beginning to transform local fisheries, biodiversity conservation, and marine spatial planning. The challenge is to bring them to a global scale...
December 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902787/effects-of-a-possible-pollinator-crisis-on-food-crop-production-in-brazil
#12
Samuel M A Novais, Cássio A Nunes, Natália B Santos, Ana R D Amico, G Wilson Fernandes, Maurício Quesada, Rodrigo F Braga, Ana Carolina O Neves
Animal pollinators contribute to human food production and security thereby ensuring an important component of human well-being. The recent decline of these agents in Europe and North America has aroused the concern of a potential global pollinator crisis. In order to prioritize efforts for pollinator conservation, we evaluated the extent to which food production depends on animal pollinators in Brazil-one of the world's agriculture leaders-by comparing cultivated area, produced volume and yield value of major food crops that are pollinator dependent with those that are pollinator non-dependent...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902726/a-landscape-view-of-agricultural-insecticide-use-across-the-conterminous-us-from-1997-through-2012
#13
Timothy D Meehan, Claudio Gratton
Simplification of agricultural landscapes is expected to have positive effects on many crop pests and negative effects on their natural enemies, potentially leading to increased pest pressure, decreased crop yield, and increased insecticide use. While many intermediate links in this causal chain have empirical support, there is mixed evidence for ultimate relationships between landscape simplification, crop yield, and insecticide use, especially at large spatial and temporal scales. We explored relationships between landscape simplification (proportion of a county in harvested cropland) and insecticide use (proportion of harvested cropland treated with insecticides), using county-level data from the US Census of Agriculture and a variety of standard and spatiotemporal regression techniques...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901268/forecasting-pollination-declines-through-dna-barcoding-the-potential-contributions-of-macroecological-and-macroevolutionary-scales-of-inquiry
#14
Jana C Vamosi, Yan-Bing Gong, Sarah J Adamowicz, Laurence Packer
While pollinators are widely acknowledged as important contributors to seed production in plant communities, we do not yet have a good understanding of the importance of pollinator specialists for this ecosystem service. Determination of the prevalence of pollinator specialists is often hindered by the occurrence of cryptic species and the limitations of observational data on pollinator visitation rates, two areas where DNA barcoding of pollinators and pollen can be useful. Further, the demonstrated adequacy of pollen DNA barcoding from historical records offers opportunities to observe the effects of pollinator loss over longer timescales, and phylogenetic approaches can elucidate the historical rates of extinction of specialist lineages...
November 30, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898759/establishment-and-optimization-of-genomic-selection-to-accelerate-the-domestication-and-improvement-of-intermediate-wheatgrass
#15
Xiaofei Zhang, Ahmad Sallam, Liangliang Gao, Traci Kantarski, Jesse Poland, Lee R DeHaan, Donald L Wyse, James A Anderson
Intermediate wheatgrass (IWG) is a perennial species and has edible and nutritious grain and desirable agronomic traits, including large seed size, high grain yield, and biomass. It also has the potential to provide ecosystem services and an economic return to farmers. However, because of its allohexaploidy and self-incompatibility, developing molecular markers for genetic analysis and molecular breeding has been challenging. In the present study, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology, 3436 genome-wide markers discovered in a biparental population with 178 genets, were mapped to 21 linkage groups (LG) corresponding to 21 chromosomes of IWG...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896606/a-knowledge-ecologies-analysis-of-co-designing-water-and-sanitation-services-in-alaska
#16
Dena Fam, Zoë Sofoulis
Willingness to collaborate across disciplinary boundaries is necessary but not sufficient for project success. This is a case study of a transdisciplinary project whose success was constrained by contextual factors that ultimately favoured technical and scientific forms of knowledge over the cultural intelligence that might ensure technical solutions were socially feasible. In response to Alaskan Water and Sewer Challenge (AWSC), an international team with expertise in engineering, consultative design and public health formed in 2013 to collaborate on a two-year project to design remote area water and sanitation systems in consultation with two native Alaskan communities...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896027/assessing-pollinators-use-of-floral-resource-subsidies-in-agri-environment-schemes-an-illustration-using-phacelia-tanacetifolia-and-honeybees
#17
Rowan Sprague, Stéphane Boyer, Georgia M Stevenson, Steve D Wratten
BACKGROUND: Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) are frequently used in agriculture for pollination services because of their abundance, generalist floral preferences, ease of management and hive transport. However, their populations are declining in many countries. Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) are being implemented in agricultural systems to combat the decline in populations of pollinators and other insects. Despite AES being increasingly embedded in policy and budgets, scientific assessments of many of these schemes still are lacking, and only a few studies have examined the extent to which insect pollinators use the floral enhancements that are part of AES and on which floral components they feed (i...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894123/safeguarding-pollinators-and-their-values-to-human-well-being
#18
Simon G Potts, Vera Imperatriz-Fonseca, Hien T Ngo, Marcelo A Aizen, Jacobus C Biesmeijer, Thomas D Breeze, Lynn V Dicks, Lucas A Garibaldi, Rosemary Hill, Josef Settele, Adam J Vanbergen
Wild and managed pollinators provide a wide range of benefits to society in terms of contributions to food security, farmer and beekeeper livelihoods, social and cultural values, as well as the maintenance of wider biodiversity and ecosystem stability. Pollinators face numerous threats, including changes in land-use and management intensity, climate change, pesticides and genetically modified crops, pollinator management and pathogens, and invasive alien species. There are well-documented declines in some wild and managed pollinators in several regions of the world...
November 28, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887836/modelling-white-water-rafting-suitability-in-a-hydropower-regulated-alpine-river
#19
Mauro Carolli, Guido Zolezzi, Davide Geneletti, Annunziato Siviglia, Fabiano Carolli, Oscar Cainelli
Cultural and recreational river ecosystem services and their relations with the flow regime are still poorly investigated. We develop a modelling-based approach to assess recreational flow requirements and the spatially distributed river suitability for white-water rafting, a typical service offered by mountain streams, with potential conflicts of interest with hydropower regulation. The approach is based on the principles of habitat suitability modelling using water depth as the main attribute, with preference curves defined through interviews with local rafting guides...
November 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886137/ecosystem-services-insights-into-water-resources-management-in-china-a-case-of-xi-an-city
#20
Jingya Liu, Jing Li, Ziyi Gao, Min Yang, Keyu Qin, Xiaonan Yang
Global climate and environmental changes are endangering global water resources; and several approaches have been tested to manage and reduce the pressure on these decreasing resources. This study uses the case study of Xi'an City in China to test reasonable and effective methods to address water resource shortages. The study generated a framework combining ecosystem services and water resource management. Seven ecosystem indicators were classified as supply services, regulating services, or cultural services...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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