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ecosystem services

Bachar Cheaib, Malo Le Boulch, Pierre-Luc Mercier, Nicolas Derome
Adaptation of microbial communities to anthropogenic stressors can lead to reductions in microbial diversity and disequilibrium of ecosystem services. Such adaptation can change the molecular signatures of communities with differences in taxonomic and functional composition. Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and functional variation remains a critical issue in microbial ecology. Here, we assessed the taxonomic and functional diversity of a lake metacommunity system along a polymetallic pollution gradient caused by 60 years of chronic exposure to acid mine drainage (AMD)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fazel Anjomshoa, Burak Kantarci
The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is aiming at being an integral part of the next generation networking services by introducing pervasiveness and ubiquitous interconnectivity of uniquely-identifiable objects. The massive availability of personalized smart devices such as smartphones and wearables enable their penetration into the IoT ecosystem with their built-in sensors, particularly in Mobile Crowd-Sensing (MCS) campaigns. The MCS systems achieve the objectives of the large-scale non-dedicated sensing concept in the IoT if a sufficient number of participants are engaged to the collaborative data acquisition process...
May 17, 2018: Sensors
Lucas A Cernusak, Nerea Ubierna, Michael W Jenkins, Steven R Garrity, Thom Rahn, Heath H Powers, David T Hanson, Sanna Sevanto, Suan Chin Wong, Nate G McDowell, Graham D Farquhar
Stomatal conductance (gs ) impacts both photosynthesis and transpiration, and is therefore fundamental to the global carbon and water cycles, food production, and ecosystem services. Mathematical models provide the primary means of analysing this important leaf gas exchange parameter. A nearly universal assumption in such models is that the vapour pressure inside leaves (ei ) remains saturated under all conditions. The validity of this assumption has not been well tested, because so far ei cannot be measured directly...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peter S Curtis, Christopher M Gough
Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Forest aging and carbon storage III. Successional trends of NEP in northern deciduous forests IV. Mechanisms sustaining NEP in aging deciduous forests Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Large areas of forestland in temperate North America, as well as in other parts of the world, are growing older and will soon transition into middle and then late successional stages exceeding 100 yr in age. These ecosystems have been important regional carbon sinks as they recovered from prior anthropogenic and natural disturbance, but their future sink strength, or annual rate of carbon storage, is in question...
May 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Julie Vercelloni, Sam Clifford, M Julian Caley, Alan R Pearse, Ross Brown, Allan James, Bryce Christensen, Tomasz Bednarz, Ken Anthony, Manuel González-Rivero, Kerrie Mengersen, Erin E Peterson
Aesthetic value, or beauty, is important to the relationship between humans and natural environments and is, therefore, a fundamental socio-economic attribute of conservation alongside other ecosystem services. However, beauty is difficult to quantify and is not estimated well using traditional approaches to monitoring coral-reef aesthetics. To improve the estimation of ecosystem aesthetic values, we developed and implemented a novel framework used to quantify features of coral-reef aesthetics based on people's perceptions of beauty...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Guilin Li, Hang Zhao, Zhenguo Liu, Hongfang Wang, Baohua Xu, Xingqi Guo
As one of the predominant pollinator, honeybees provide important ecosystem service to crops and wild plants, and generate great economic benefit for humans. Unfortunately, there is clear evidence of recent catastrophic honeybee colony failure in some areas, resulting in markedly negative environmental and economic effects. It has been demonstrated that various environmental stresses, including both abiotic and biotic stresses, functioning singly or synergistically, are the potential drivers of colony collapse...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anne Fünfhaus, Julia Ebeling, Elke Genersch
Pollination is an indispensable ecosystem service provided by many insects, especially by wild and managed bee species. Hence, reports on large scale honey bee colony losses and on population declines of many wild bees were alarming and resulted in increased awareness of the importance of bee health and increased interest in bee pathogens. To serve this interest, this review will give a comprehensive overview on bacterial bee pathogens by covering not only the famous pathogens (Paenibacillus larvae, Melissococcus plutonius), but also the orphan pathogens which have largely been neglected by the scientific community so far (spiroplasmas) and the pathogens which were only recently discovered as being pathogenic to bees (Serratia marcescens, Lysinibacillus sphaericus)...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Alexandra-Maria Klein, Virginie Boreux, Felix Fornoff, Anne-Christine Mupepele, Gesine Pufal
Wild and managed bees provide pollination services to both crops and wild plants, and a variety of other services from which humans benefit. We summarize the most important and recent findings on bees as providers of provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services. With comprehensive literature searches, we first identified ten important bee species for global pollination of crops, which include wild and managed honey bees, bumble bees, orchard-, cucumber- and longhorn bees. We second summarized bee-dependent ecosystem services to show how bees substantially contribute to food security, medical resources, soil formation or spiritual practices, highlighting their wide range of benefits for human well-being and to identify future research needs...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Mostafa A R Hossain, Munir Ahmed, Elena Ojea, Jose A Fernandes
Aquatic ecosystems are of global importance for maintaining high levels of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and for the number of livelihoods dependent on them. In Bangladesh, coastal and delta communities rely on these systems for a livelihood, and the sustainability of the productivity is seriously threatened by both climate change and unsustainable management. These multiple drivers of change shape the livelihood dependence and adaptation responses, where a better understanding is needed to achieve sustainable management in these systems, while maintaining and improving dependent livelihoods...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Verónica Méndez, Jamie R Wood, Simon J Butler
Functional diversity metrics are increasingly used to augment or replace taxonomic diversity metrics to deliver more mechanistic insights into community structure and function. Metrics used to describe landscape structure and characteristics share many of the same limitations as taxonomy-based metrics, particularly their reliance on anthropogenically defined typologies with little consideration of structure, management, or function. However, the development of alternative metrics to describe landscape characteristics has been limited...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
David K A Barnes, Andrew Fleming, Chester J Sands, Maria Liliana Quartino, Dolores Deregibus
Sea ice, including icebergs, has a complex relationship with the carbon held within animals (blue carbon) in the polar regions. Sea-ice losses around West Antarctica's continental shelf generate longer phytoplankton blooms but also make it a hotspot for coastal iceberg disturbance. This matters because in polar regions ice scour limits blue carbon storage ecosystem services, which work as a powerful negative feedback on climate change (less sea ice increases phytoplankton blooms, benthic growth, seabed carbon and sequestration)...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Shereif H Mahmoud, Thian Y Gan
The implications of anthropogenic climate change, human activities and land use change (LUC) on the environment and ecosystem services in the coastal regions of Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Earth observations data was used to drive land use categories between 1970 and 2014. Next, a Markov-CA model was developed to characterize the dynamic of LUC between 2014 and 2100 and their impacts on regions' climate and environment. Non-parametric change point and trend detection algorithms were applied to temperature, precipitation and greenhouse gases data to investigate the presence of anthropogenic climate change...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shaoxia Xia, Yu Liu, Xiubo Yu, Bojie Fu
Environmental assessments estimate, evaluate and predict the consequences of natural processes and human activities on the environment. Long-term ecosystem observation and research networks (LTERs) are potentially valuable infrastructure to support environmental assessments. However, very few environmental assessments have successfully incorporated them. In this study, we try to reveal the current status of coupling LTERs with environmental assessments and look at the challenges involved in improving this coupling through exploring the role that Chinese Ecological Research Network (CERN), the LTER of China, currently plays in regional environment assessments...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Har'el Agra, Ariel Solodar, Omar Bawab, Shay Levy, Gyongyver J Kadas, Leon Blaustein, Noam Greenbaum
Green roofs provide important ecosystem services in urban areas. In Mediterranean and other semi-arid climate regions, most perennial plants on green roofs need to be irrigated during the dry season. However, the use of freshwater in such regions is scarce. Therefore, the possibility of using grey water should be examined. Coal ash, produced primarily from the burning of coal in power plants, constitutes an environmental contaminant that should be disposed. One option is to use ash as a growing substrate for plants...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yan Zhang, Yanfang Liu, Yang Zhang, Yi Liu, Guangxia Zhang, Yiyun Chen
A clear understanding of the relationship between ecosystem services (ESs) and urbanization provides new insight into urban landscape planning and decision making. Although a considerable amount of literature has focused on this topic, few studies address the spatial interactions between ESs and urbanization, especially at the local scale. Various models and multisource data were integrated to estimate ESs and urbanization in Wuhan City, China. The bivariate Moran's I methods were employed to test and visualize the spatial correlations between ESs and urbanization...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kristina G Hopkins, Gregory B Noe, Fabiano Franco, Emily J Pindilli, Stephanie Gordon, Marina J Metes, Peter R Claggett, Allen C Gellis, Cliff R Hupp, Dianna M Hogan
Floodplains provide critical ecosystem services to local and downstream communities by retaining floodwaters, sediments, and nutrients. The dynamic nature of floodplains is such that these areas can both accumulate sediment and nutrients through deposition, and export material downstream through erosion. Therefore, estimating floodplain sediment and nutrient retention should consider the net flux of both depositional and erosive processes. An ecosystem services framework was used to quantify and value the sediment and nutrient ecosystem service provided by floodplains in the Difficult Run watershed, a small (151 km2 ) suburban watershed located in the Piedmont of Virginia (USA)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
G Leroy, I Hoffmann, T From, S J Hiemstra, G Gandini
This study investigates how the ecosystem services (ES) linked to livestock grazing are perceived across countries. A total of 82 case studies collected from 42 countries via survey (53.7% cases from Europe and 46.3% from outside of Europe) have been analysed through a multivariate approach. In all, 18 non-provisioning ES were considered. Overall, the reported impacts of livestock grazing on the different ES were much more positive than negative. Notably, a large proportion of respondents reported either positive or very positive impacts for some cultural ES, namely cultural, historic and natural heritage (84%), knowledge systems and educational values (77%), landscape values (74%), and for some supporting and regulating ES, namely habitat provision (66%), nutrient cycling (65%), and bush encroachment/fire control (66%)...
May 14, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Cecilia Arnaiz-Schmitz, Cristina Herrero-Jáuregui, María F Schmitz
Traditional rural landscapes host a biocultural heritage acquired by rural societies, developed in a secular adaptation with nature. Hedgerows play a key role in preserving biocultural diversity and associated ecosystem services. Despite their benefits, in some European regions inappropriate hedge management has led to a drastic degradation of hedgerows, with significant effects on natural and biocultural diversity, landscape connectivity and sustainable flow of ecosystem services. In Central Spain, an ancient hedgerow landscape constitutes a valuable natural and cultural heritage recognized by the establishment of different protection categories...
May 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kwabena Asubonteng, Karin Pfeffer, Mirjam Ros-Tonen, Jan Verbesselt, Isa Baud
Tree crops such as cocoa and oil palm are important to smallholders' livelihoods and national economies of tropical producer countries. Governments seek to expand tree-crop acreages and improve yields. Existing literature has analyzed socioeconomic and environmental effects of tree-crop expansion, but its spatial effects on the landscape are yet to be explored. This study aims to assess the effects of tree-crop farming on the composition and the extent of land-cover transitions in a mixed cocoa/oil palm landscape in Ghana...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Management
Hongbo Yang, Wu Yang, Jindong Zhang, Thomas Connor, Jianguo Liu
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs have been widely implemented as a promising tool to conserve ecosystems while facilitating socioeconomic development. However, the underlying pathways (or processes) through which PES programs affect socioeconomic outcomes remain elusive, and existing literature provides little guidance to quantify them. By integrating linkages among PES programs, livelihood activities, and socioeconomic outcomes, we develop a framework to reveal pathways from PES programs to socioeconomic outcomes...
March 2018: Science Advances
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