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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110357/the-potential-role-of-tree-diversity-in-reducing-shallow-landslide-risk
#1
Yuta Kobayashi, Akira S Mori
Recently, interest in utilizing ecosystems for disaster risk reduction has increased, even though there remains considerable uncertainty regarding the role of ecosystems in buffering against natural hazards. This ecosystem role can be considered an ecosystem service. Although a strong body of evidence shows that biodiversity enhances ecosystem services, there are only a few studies of the relationship between biodiversity and the role of the ecosystem in reducing the risk of natural disasters. To explore the desired state of an ecosystem for disaster risk reduction we applied the finding that biodiversity enhances ecosystem services to evaluate the role of woody vegetation in reducing the frequency and severity of shallow landslides...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098236/wind-wave-behavior-in-fetch-and-depth-limited-estuaries
#2
Arash Karimpour, Qin Chen, Robert R Twilley
Wetland dominated estuaries serve as one of the most productive natural ecosystems through their ecological, economic and cultural services, such as nursery grounds for fisheries, nutrient sequestration, and ecotourism. The ongoing deterioration of wetland ecosystems in many shallow estuaries raises concerns about the contributing erosive processes and their roles in restraining coastal restoration efforts. Given the combination of wetlands and shallow bays as landscape components that determine the function of estuaries, successful restoration strategies require knowledge of wind wave behavior in fetch and depth limited water as a critical design feature...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094902/characteristics-of-dust-particles-abraded-from-pesticide-treated-seeds-2-density-porosity-and-chemical-content
#3
Dieter Foque, Wouter Devarrewaere, Pieter Verboven, David Nuyttens
BACKGROUND: Apart from particle size, drift of abraded seed particles during sowing is mainly affected by two other physical properties viz. particle shape and envelope density. The impact of these abraded seed particles on the environment is highly dependable on their active ingredient content. In this study, the envelope density and chemical content of dust abraded from seeds was determined as a function of particle size for six seed species. RESULTS: Envelope density and active ingredient content both change as a of function of particle size...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092752/optimising-uk-urban-road-verge-contributions-to-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-services-with-cost-effective-management
#4
REVIEW
Odhran S O'Sullivan, Alison R Holt, Philip H Warren, Karl L Evans
Urban road verges can contain significant biodiversity, contribute to structural connectivity between other urban greenspaces, and due to their proximity to road traffic are well placed to provide ecosystem services. Using the UK as a case study we review and critically evaluate a broad range of evidence to assess how this considerable potential can be enhanced despite financial, contractual and public opinion constraints. Reduced mowing frequency and other alterations would enhance biodiversity, aesthetics and pollination services, whilst delivering costs savings and potentially being publically acceptable...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092750/assessing-common-birds-ecological-requirements-to-address-nature-conservation-in-permanent-crops-lessons-from-italian-vineyards
#5
Giacomo Assandri, Giuseppe Bogliani, Paolo Pedrini, Mattia Brambilla
Viticulture has contributed to shaping cultural landscapes in several regions across all continents. Recent farming intensification is causing landscape homogenization and biodiversity loss in several of those areas, but knowledge about the impacts on biodiversity in vineyards is still scarce. Simplified agro-ecosystems resulting from intensification host mainly generalist and common species, which still play a key role in the regulation of ecosystems and in the provision of ecosystem services. We assessed the abundance of 11 common bird species at 47 linear transects in a vineyard-dominated landscape in Trentino (NE Italy), in both spring and winter, and analysed abundance variation in relation to three independent groups of predictors: landscape, management, and topographic-climatic variables...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092716/view-points-of-an-ecologist-on-practical-environmental-ethic-socioecology-common-pool-resources-and-conservation
#6
Juan Carlos Castilla
The paper centers on environmental practical ethic point of views according to a professional ecologist. Ecology and the science of Socio-ecology are defined. The framework of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment initiative (MA 2003), including the use of ecosystems as the environmental unit of analysis, ecosystem services and human well-being as the center for assessment are discussed. Common-pool resources (CPR) and the allegory of the tragedy of the commons are used to illustrate main scientific and ethical environmental approaches, and above all to highlight the case of climate change, considering ″air-atmosphere″ as a CPR...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078785/risks-of-ocean-acidification-in-the-california-current-food-web-and-fisheries-ecosystem-model-projections
#7
Kristin N Marshall, Isaac C Kaplan, Emma E Hodgson, Albert Hermann, D Shallin Busch, Paul McElhany, Timothy E Essington, Chris J Harvey, Elizabeth A Fulton
The benefits and ecosystem services that humans derive from the oceans are threatened by numerous global change stressors, one of which is ocean acidification. Here, we describe the effects of ocean acidification on an upwelling system that already experiences inherently low pH conditions, the California Current. We used an end-to-end ecosystem model (Atlantis), forced by downscaled global climate models and informed by a meta-analysis of the pH sensitivities of local taxa, to investigate the direct and indirect effects of future pH on biomass and fisheries revenues...
January 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073496/the-re-eutrophication-of-lake-erie-harmful-algal-blooms-and-hypoxia
#8
REVIEW
Susan B Watson, Carol Miller, George Arhonditsis, Gregory L Boyer, Wayne Carmichael, Murray N Charlton, Remegio Confesor, David C Depew, Tomas O Höök, Stuart A Ludsin, Gerald Matisoff, Shawn P McElmurry, Michael W Murray, R Peter Richards, Yerubandi R Rao, Morgan M Steffen, Steven W Wilhelm
Lake Erie supplies drinking water to more than 11 million consumers, processes millions of gallons of wastewater, provides important species habitat and supports a substantial industrial sector, with >$50 billion annual income to tourism, recreational boating, shipping, fisheries, and other industries. These and other key ecosystem services are currently threatened by an excess supply of nutrients, manifested in particular by increases in the magnitude and extent of harmful planktonic and benthic algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxia...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068361/the-use-of-mixed-effects-models-for-obtaining-low-cost-ecosystem-carbon-stock-estimates-in-mangroves-of-the-asia-pacific
#9
Jacob J Bukoski, Jeremy S Broadhead, Daniel C Donato, Daniel Murdiyarso, Timothy G Gregoire
Mangroves provide extensive ecosystem services that support local livelihoods and international environmental goals, including coastal protection, biodiversity conservation and the sequestration of carbon (C). While voluntary C market projects seeking to preserve and enhance forest C stocks offer a potential means of generating finance for mangrove conservation, their implementation faces barriers due to the high costs of quantifying C stocks through field inventories. To streamline C quantification in mangrove conservation projects, we develop predictive models for (i) biomass-based C stocks, and (ii) soil-based C stocks for the mangroves of the Asia-Pacific...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063185/soil-microbial-communities-are-shaped-by-vegetation-type-and-park-age-in-cities-under-cold-climate
#10
Nan Hui, Ari Jumpponen, Gaia Francini, D Johan Kotze, Xinxin Liu, Martin Romantschuk, Rauni Strömmer, Heikki Setälä
Soil microbes play a key role in controlling ecosystem functions and providing ecosystem services. Yet, microbial communities in urban green space soils remain poorly characterized. Here we compared soil microbial communities in 41 urban parks of (i) divergent plant functional types (evergreen trees, deciduous trees, lawn) and (ii) different ages (constructed 10, ∼50, and >100 years ago). These microbial communities were also compared to those in 5 control forests in southern Finland. Our results indicate that, despite frequent disturbances in urban parks, urban soil microbes still followed the classic patterns typical of plant-microbe associations in natural environments: both bacterial and fungal communities in urban parks responded to plant functional groups, but fungi were under tighter control of plants than bacteria...
January 7, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056075/correction-seagrass-ecosystem-services-and-their-variability-across-genera-and-geographical-regions
#11
Lina Mtwana Nordlund, Evamaria W Koch, Edward B Barbier, Joel C Creed
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163091.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052508/social-ecological-outcomes-in-recreational-fisheries-the-interaction-of-lakeshore-development-and-stocking
#12
Jacob P Ziegler, Elizabeth J Golebie, Stuart E Jones, Brian C Weidel, Christopher T Solomon
Many ecosystems continue to experience rapid transformations due to processes like land use change and resource extraction. A systems approach to maintaining natural resources focuses on how interactions and feedbacks among components of complex social-ecological systems generate social and ecological outcomes. In recreational fisheries, residential shoreline development and fish stocking are two widespread human behaviors that influence fisheries, yet emergent social-ecological outcomes from these potentially interacting behaviors remain under explored...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052502/ecophysiological-variation-of-transpiration-of-pine-forests-synthesis-of-new-and-published-results
#13
Pantana Tor-Ngern, Ram Oren, Andrew C Oishi, Joshua M Uebelherr, Sari Palmroth, Lasse Tarvainen, Mikaell Ottosson-Löfvenius, Sune Linder, Jean-Christophe Domec, Torgny Näsholm
Canopy transpiration (EC ) is a large fraction of evapotranspiration, integrating physical and biological processes within the energy, water, and carbon cycles of forests. Quantifying EC is of both scientific and practical importance, providing information relevant to questions ranging from energy partitioning to ecosystem services, such as primary productivity and water yield. We estimated EC of four pine stands differing in age and growing on sandy soils. The stands consisted of two wide-ranging conifer species: Pinus taeda and Pinus sylvestris, in temperate and boreal zones, respectively...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052390/peatland-plant-communities-under-global-change-negative-feedback-loops-counteract-shifts-in-species-composition
#14
Per-Ola Hedwall, Jörg Brunet, Håkan Rydin
Mires (bogs and fens) are nutrient-limited peatland ecosystems, the vegetation of which is especially sensitive to nitrogen deposition and climate change. The role of mires in the global carbon cycle, and the delivery of different ecosystem services can be considerably altered by changes in the vegetation, which has a strong impact on peat-formation and hydrology. Mire ecosystems are commonly open with limited canopy cover but both nitrogen deposition and increased temperatures may increase the woody vegetation component...
January 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046106/rural-household-preferences-for-active-participation-in-payment-for-ecosystem-service-programs-a-case-in-the-miyun-reservoir-catchment-china
#15
Hao Li, Michael T Bennett, Xuemei Jiang, Kebin Zhang, Xiaohui Yang
Many payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs, such as the Slope Land Conversion Program (SLCP), are passive and require full participation by impacted households. In contrast, this study considers the alternative of "active and incomplete" participation in PES programs, in which participants are not obliged to contract their own land, and have the right to select into the program or not. This type of program has been popular over the last decade in China; however, there have been few studies on the characteristics of willingness to participate and implementation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044182/mowing-submerged-macrophytes-in-shallow-lakes-with-alternative-stable-states-battling-the-good-guys
#16
Jan J Kuiper, Michiel J J M Verhofstad, Evelien L M Louwers, Elisabeth S Bakker, Robert J Brederveld, Luuk P A van Gerven, Annette B G Janssen, Jeroen J M de Klein, Wolf M Mooij
Submerged macrophytes play an important role in maintaining good water quality in shallow lakes. Yet extensive stands easily interfere with various services provided by these lakes, and harvesting is increasingly applied as a management measure. Because shallow lakes may possess alternative stable states over a wide range of environmental conditions, designing a successful mowing strategy is challenging, given the important role of macrophytes in stabilizing the clear water state. In this study, the integrated ecosystem model PCLake is used to explore the consequences of mowing, in terms of reducing nuisance and ecosystem stability, for a wide range of external nutrient loadings, mowing intensities and timings...
January 2, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040555/juncus-spp-the-helophyte-for-all-phyto-remediation-purposes
#17
Evdokia Syranidou, Stavros Christofilopoulos, Nicolas Kalogerakis
Helophytic plants contribute significantly to the remediation of ecosystems through a wide range of physiological or biochemical mechanisms including the role of endophytic bacteria. This review highlights the services provided by Juncus spp. wetland plants, from phytoremediation of soils and groundwater with heavy metals and/or organics to municipal or industrial wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands. The data presented also provide information on the efficiency of specific Juncus spp. in response to various metals and organic compounds, in an effort to exploit the natural capabilities of autochthonous over exotic species in phytoremediation strategies...
December 28, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040210/ecosystem-services-and-plant-physiological-status-during-endophyte-assisted-phytoremediation-of-metal-contaminated-soil
#18
Aritz Burges, Lur Epelde, Fernando Blanco, José M Becerril, Carlos Garbisu
Mining sites shelter a characteristic biodiversity with large potential for the phytoremediation of metal contaminated soils. Endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria were isolated from two metal-(hyper)accumulator plant species growing in a metal contaminated mine soil. After characterizing their plant growth-promoting traits, consortia of putative endophytes were used to carry out an endophyte-assisted phytoextraction experiment using Noccaea caerulescens and Rumex acetosa (singly and in combination) under controlled conditions...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036096/impacts-of-invasive-plants-on-carbon-pools-depend-on-both-species-traits-and-local-climate
#19
Philip A Martin, Adrian C Newton, James M Bullock
Invasive plants can alter ecosystem properties, leading to changes in the ecosystem services on which humans depend. However, generalizing about these effects is difficult because invasive plants represent a wide range of life forms, and invaded ecosystems differ in their plant communities and abiotic conditions. We hypothesize that differences in traits between the invader and native species can be used to predict impacts and so aid generalization. We further hypothesize that environmental conditions at invaded sites modify the effect of trait differences and so combine with traits to predict invasion impacts...
December 30, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034543/using-soil-microbial-inoculations-to-enhance-substrate-performance-on-extensive-green-roofs
#20
Chloe J Molineux, Alan C Gange, Darryl J Newport
Green roofs are increasing in popularity in the urban environment for their contribution to green infrastructure; but their role for biodiversity is not often a design priority. Maximising biodiversity will impact positively on ecosystem services and is therefore fundamental for achieving the greatest benefits from green roofs. Extensive green roofs are lightweight systems generally constructed with a specialised growing medium that tends to be biologically limited and as such can be a harsh habitat for plants to thrive in...
December 26, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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