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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631400/effects-of-uranium-concentration-on-microbial-community-structure-and-functional-potential
#1
Brodie Sutcliffe, Anthony A Chariton, Andrew J Harford, Grant C Hose, Greenfield Paul, Liam D H Elbourne, Yalchin Oytam, Sarah Stephenson, David J Midgley, Ian T Paulsen
Located in the Northern Territory of Australia, Ranger uranium mine is directly adjacent to the UNESCO World Heritage listed Kakadu National Park, with rehabilitation targets needed to ensure the site can be incorporated into the park following the mine's closure in 2026. This study aimed to understand the impact of uranium concentration on microbial communities, in order to identify and describe potential breakpoints in microbial ecosystem services. This is the first study to report in situ deployment of uranium-spiked sediments along a concentration gradient (0 - 4,000 mg U/kg), with the study design maximising the advantages of both field surveys and laboratory manipulative studies...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620759/participative-spatial-scenario-analysis-for-alpine-ecosystems
#2
Marina Kohler, Rike Stotten, Melanie Steinbacher, Georg Leitinger, Erich Tasser, Uta Schirpke, Ulrike Tappeiner, Markus Schermer
Land use and land cover patterns are shaped by the interplay of human and ecological processes. Thus, heterogeneous cultural landscapes have developed, delivering multiple ecosystem services. To guarantee human well-being, the development of land use types has to be evaluated. Scenario development and land use and land cover change models are well-known tools for assessing future landscape changes. However, as social and ecological systems are inextricably linked, land use-related management decisions are difficult to identify...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618126/temporal-scale-dependent-interactions-between-multiple-environmental-disturbances-in-microcosm-ecosystems
#3
Aurélie Garnier, Frank Pennekamp, Mélissa Lemoine, Owen L Petchey
Global environmental change has negative impacts on ecological systems, impacting the stable provision of functions, goods and services. Whereas effects of individual environmental changes (e.g. temperature change or change in resource availability) are reasonably well understood, we lack information about if and how multiple changes interact. We examined interactions among four types of environmental disturbance (temperature, nutrient ratio, carbon enrichment, and light) in a fully factorial design using a microbial aquatic ecosystem and observed responses of dissolved oxygen saturation at three temporal scales (resistance, resilience and return time)...
June 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618079/protected-areas-as-social-ecological-systems-perspectives-from-resilience-and-social-ecological-systems-theory
#4
Graeme S Cumming, Craig R Allen
Conservation biology and applied ecology increasingly recognise that natural resource management is both an outcome and a driver of social, economic, and ecological dynamics. Protected areas offer a fundamental approach to conserving ecosystems, but they are also social-ecological systems whose ecological management and sustainability are heavily influenced by people. This editorial, and the papers in the invited feature that it introduces, discuss three emerging themes in social-ecological systems approaches to understanding protected areas: (1) the resilience and sustainability of protected areas, including analyses of their internal dynamics, their effectiveness, and the resilience of the landscapes within which they occur; (2) the relevance of spatial context and scale for protected areas, including such factors as geographic connectivity, context, exchanges between protected areas and their surrounding landscapes, and scale dependency in the provision of ecosystem services; and (3) efforts to re-frame what protected areas are and how they both define and are defined by the relationships of people and nature...
June 15, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618067/prospects-for-stakeholder-coordination-by-protected-area-managers-in-europe
#5
Brady J Mattsson, Harald Vacik
Growing resource demands by humans, invasive species, natural hazards, and a changing climate are creating broad-scale impacts and have created the need for broader-extent conservation activities that span ownerships and even political borders. Implementing regional-scale conservation brings great challenges, and learning how to overcome these challenges is essential for maintaining biodiversity (i.e., richness and evenness of biological communities) and ecosystem functions and services across scales and borders in the face of system change...
June 15, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615084/community-wide-stable-isotope-analysis-reveals-two-distinct-trophic-groups-in-a-service-providing-carabid-community
#6
S Kamenova, C Leroux, S E Polin, M Plantegenest
Disentangling trophic interactions among species is important for elucidating mechanisms underlying ecosystem functioning and services. Carabid beetles are an important guild of predators that may regulate pest populations in arable landscapes, but their generalist feeding behavior hinders predictions about their actual contribution to pest control. In order to assess carabids' potential for pest control, we simultaneously analyzed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of a community of 45 co-occurring species in wheat and oilseed rape fields...
June 15, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614629/land-use-strategies-to-balance-livestock-production-biodiversity-conservation-and-carbon-storage-in-yucat%C3%A3-n-mexico
#7
David R Williams, Fredy Alvarado, Rhys E Green, Andrea Manica, Ben Phalan, Andrew Balmford
Balancing the production of food, particularly meat, with preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services is a major societal challenge. Research into the contrasting strategies of land sparing and land sharing has suggested that land sparing - combining high-yield agriculture with protection or restoration of natural habitats on non-farmed land - will have lower environmental impacts than other strategies. Ecosystems with long histories of habitat disturbance, however, could be resilient to low-yield agriculture and thus fare better under land sharing...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606405/biotechnological-advances-for-restoring-degraded-land-for-sustainable-development
#8
REVIEW
Vishal Tripathi, Sheikh Adil Edrisi, Bin Chen, Vijai K Gupta, Raivo Vilu, Nicholas Gathergood, P C Abhilash
Global land resources are under severe threat due to pollution and unsustainable land use practices. Restoring degraded land is imperative for regaining ecosystem services, such as biodiversity maintenance and nutrient and water cycling, and to meet the food, feed, fuel, and fibre requirements of present and future generations. While bioremediation is acknowledged as a promising technology for restoring polluted and degraded lands, its field potential is limited for various reasons. However, recent biotechnological advancements, including producing efficient microbial consortia, applying enzymes with higher degrees of specificity, and designing plants with specific microbial partners, are opening new prospects in remediation technology...
June 9, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605012/advancing-research-on-animal-transported-subsidies-by-integrating-animal-movement-and-ecosystem-modeling
#9
Julia E Earl, Patrick A Zollner
1.Connections between ecosystems via animals (active subsidies) support ecosystem services and contribute to numerous ecological effects. Thus, the ability to predict the spatial distribution of active subsidies would be useful for ecology and conservation. 2.Previous work modeling active subsidies focused on implicit space or static distributions, which treat passive and active subsidies similarly. Active subsidies are fundamentally different from passive subsidies, because animals can respond to the process of subsidy deposition and ecosystem changes caused by subsidy deposition...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600858/scale-dependent-effects-of-post-fire-canopy-cover-on-snowpack-depth-in-montane-coniferous-forests
#10
Jens T Stevens
Winter snowpack in dry montane regions provides a valuable ecosystem service by storing water into the growing season. Wildfire in coniferous montane forests has the potential to indirectly affect snowpack accumulation and ablation (mass loss) rates by reducing canopy cover, which reduces canopy interception of snow but also increases solar radiation and wind speed. These counteracting effects create uncertainty regarding the canopy conditions that maximize post-fire snowpack duration, which is of concern as montane regions across the western United States experience increasingly warm, dry winters with below-average snowpack...
June 9, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598770/review-of-the-ecotoxicological-effects-of-emerging-contaminants-on-soil-biota
#11
Ana R Gomes, Celine Justino, Teresa Rocha-Santos, Ana C Freitas, Armando C Duarte, Ruth Pereira
In recent years, emerging contaminants (e.g. pesticides and their metabolites, pharmaceuticals, personal and house care products, life-style compounds, food additives, industrial products and wastes, as well as nanomaterials) have become a problem to the environment. In fact, the cumulative use of a panoply of chemical substances in agriculture, industrial activities, in our homes and in health care services has led to their recent appearance in detectable levels in soils, surface, and groundwater resources, with unpredictable consequences for these ecosystems...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598568/managing-biological-control-services-through-multi-trophic-trait-interactions-review-and-guidelines-for-implementation-at-local-and-landscape-scales
#12
David J Perović, Sagrario Gámez-Virués, Douglas A Landis, Felix Wäckers, Geoff M Gurr, Stephen D Wratten, Min-Sheng You, Nicolas Desneux
Ecological studies are increasingly moving towards trait-based approaches, as the evidence mounts that functions, as opposed to taxonomy, drive ecosystem service delivery. Among ecosystem services, biological control has been somewhat overlooked in functional ecological studies. This is surprising given that, over recent decades, much of biological control research has been focused on identifying the multiple characteristics (traits) of species that influence trophic interactions. These traits are especially well developed for interactions between arthropods and flowers - important for biological control, as floral resources can provide natural enemies with nutritional supplements, which can dramatically increase biological control efficiency...
June 9, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595042/hydro-dam-a-nature-based-solution-or-an-ecological-problem-the-fate-of-the-tonl%C3%A3-sap-lake
#13
Zihan Lin, Jiaguo Qi
Recent proliferation of hydro-dams was one of the nature-based solutions to meet the increasing demand for energy and food in the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMRB). While construction of these hydro-dams generated some hydropower and facilitated expansion of irrigated lands, it also significantly altered the basin-wide hydrology and subsequently impacted wetland ecosystems. Unintended adverse consequences of ecosystem services from lakes and wetlands offset the intended gains in hydroelectricity and irrigated agriculture...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594870/spatial-planning-for-a-green-economy-national-level-hydrologic-ecosystem-services-priority-areas-for-gabon
#14
Joshua Howard Goldstein, Heather Tallis, Aaron Cole, Steven Schill, Erik Martin, Michael Heiner, Marie-Claire Paiz, Allison Aldous, Colin Apse, Barry Nickel
Rapidly developing countries contain both the bulk of intact natural areas and biodiversity, and the greatest untapped natural resource stocks, placing them at the forefront of "green" economic development opportunities. However, most lack scientific tools to create development plans that account for biodiversity and ecosystem services, diminishing the real potential to be sustainable. Existing methods focus on biodiversity and carbon priority areas across large geographies (e.g., countries, states/provinces), leaving out essential services associated with water supplies, among others...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589278/hydrologic-monitoring-tools-for-freshwater-municipal-planning-in-the-arctic-the-case-of-iqaluit-nunavut-canada
#15
Michael Bakaic, Andrew Scott Medeiros, Jessica F Peters, Brent B Wolfe
Freshwater and the services it provides are vital to both natural ecosystems and human needs; however, extreme climates and their influence on freshwater availability can be challenging for municipal planners and engineers to manage these resources effectively. In Arctic Canada, financial and human capital limitations have left a legacy of freshwater systems that underserve current communities and may be inadequate in the near future under a warming climate, growing population, and increasing demand. We address this challenge to community water resource planning by applying several novel water supply forecasting methods to evaluate the Apex River as an alternative freshwater source for Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada)...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588145/ecosystem-based-management-and-the-wealth-of-ecosystems
#16
Seong Do Yun, Barbara Hutniczak, Joshua K Abbott, Eli P Fenichel
We merge inclusive wealth theory with ecosystem-based management (EBM) to address two challenges in the science of sustainable management of ecosystems. First, we generalize natural capital theory to approximate realized shadow prices for multiple interacting natural capital stocks (species) making up an ecosystem. These prices enable ecosystem components to be better included in wealth-based sustainability measures. We show that ecosystems are best envisioned as portfolios of assets, where the portfolio's performance depends on the performance of the underlying assets influenced by their interactions...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587309/dynamics-of-hierarchical-urban-green-space-patches-and-implications-for-management-policy
#17
Zhoulu Yu, Yaohui Wang, Jinsong Deng, Zhangquan Shen, Ke Wang, Jinxia Zhu, Muye Gan
Accurately quantifying the variation of urban green space is the prerequisite for fully understanding its ecosystem services. However, knowledge about the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green space is still insufficient due to multiple challenges that remain in mapping green spaces within heterogeneous urban environments. This paper uses the city of Hangzhou to demonstrate an analysis methodology that integrates sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis to fully investigate the spatiotemporal pattern and variation of hierarchical urban green space patches...
June 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586688/marine-ecosystem-services
#18
Edward B Barbier
Coastal and marine environments can begin up to 100 kilometers inland, extend to the continental shelf, and include ocean systems with waters up to 50 meters in depth. The distinct marine ecosystems found in these environments include estuarine and coastal wetlands, such as marshes and mangroves, sand beaches and dunes, seagrass beds, and coral and oyster reefs.
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586099/benchmarking-discount-rate-in-natural-resource-damage-assessment-with-risk-aversion
#19
Desheng Wu, Shuzhen Chen
Benchmarking a credible discount rate is of crucial importance in natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) and restoration evaluation. This article integrates a holistic framework of NRDA with prevailing low discount rate theory, and proposes a discount rate benchmarking decision support system based on service-specific risk aversion. The proposed approach has the flexibility of choosing appropriate discount rates for gauging long-term services, as opposed to decisions based simply on duration. It improves injury identification in NRDA since potential damages and side-effects to ecosystem services are revealed within the service-specific framework...
June 6, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584177/structural-drivers-of-vulnerability-to-zoonotic-disease-in-africa
#20
Vupenyu Dzingirai, Salome Bukachi, Melissa Leach, Lindiwe Mangwanya, Ian Scoones, Annie Wilkinson
This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a 'One Health' approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies-trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya-we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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