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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934286/denitrification-potential-of-the-eastern-oyster-microbiome-using-a-16s-rrna-gene-based-metabolic-inference-approach
#1
Ann Arfken, Bongkeun Song, Jeff S Bowman, Michael Piehler
The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is a foundation species providing significant ecosystem services. However, the roles of oyster microbiomes have not been integrated into any of the services, particularly nitrogen removal through denitrification. We investigated the composition and denitrification potential of oyster microbiomes with an approach that combined 16S rRNA gene analysis, metabolic inference, qPCR of the nitrous oxide reductase gene (nosZ), and N2 flux measurements. Microbiomes of the oyster digestive gland, the oyster shell, and sediments adjacent to the oyster reef were examined based on next generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rRNA gene amplicons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934282/assessing-ecosystem-service-provision-under-climate-change-to-support-conservation-and-development-planning-in-myanmar
#2
Lisa Mandle, Stacie Wolny, Nirmal Bhagabati, Hanna Helsingen, Perrine Hamel, Ryan Bartlett, Adam Dixon, Radley Horton, Corey Lesk, Danielle Manley, Manishka De Mel, Daniel Bader, Sai Nay Won Myint, Win Myint, Myat Su Mon
Inclusion of ecosystem services (ES) information into national-scale development and climate adaptation planning has yet to become common practice, despite demand from decision makers. Identifying where ES originate and to whom the benefits flow-under current and future climate conditions-is especially critical in rapidly developing countries, where the risk of ES loss is high. Here, using Myanmar as a case study, we assess where and how ecosystems provide key benefits to the country's people and infrastructure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932740/tapping-the-vast-potential-of-the-data-deluge-in-small-scale-food-animal-production-businesses-challenges-to-near-real-time-data-analysis-and-interpretation
#3
Flavie Vial, Andrew Tedder
Food-animal production businesses are part of a data-driven ecosystem shaped by stringent requirements for traceability along the value chain and the expanding capabilities of connected products. Within this sector, the generation of animal health intelligence, in particular, in terms of antimicrobial usage, is hindered by the lack of a centralized framework for data storage and usage. In this Perspective, we delimit the 11 processes required for evidence-based decisions and explore processes 3 (digital data acquisition) to 10 (communication to decision-makers) in more depth...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930157/getting-more-power-from-your-flowers-multi-functional-flower-strips-enhance-pollinators-and-pest-control-agents-in-apple-orchards
#4
Alistair John Campbell, Andrew Wilby, Peter Sutton, Felix Wäckers
Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators ('concealed-nectar plants'); (2) natural enemies ('open-nectar plants'); or (3) both groups concurrently (i...
September 20, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929570/impacts-of-human-induced-environmental-change-in-wetlands-on-aquatic-animals
#5
Michael Sievers, Robin Hale, Kirsten M Parris, Stephen E Swearer
Many wetlands harbour highly diverse biological communities and provide extensive ecosystem services; however, these important ecological features are being altered, degraded and destroyed around the world. Despite a wealth of research on how animals respond to anthropogenic changes to natural wetlands and how they use created wetlands, we lack a broad synthesis of these data. While some altered wetlands may provide vital habitat, others could pose a considerable risk to wildlife. This risk will be heightened if such wetlands are ecological traps - preferred habitats that confer lower fitness than another available habitat...
September 19, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928433/measuring-the-role-of-seagrasses-in-regulating-sediment-surface-elevation
#6
Maria Potouroglou, James C Bull, Ken W Krauss, Hilary A Kennedy, Marco Fusi, Daniele Daffonchio, Mwita M Mangora, Michael N Githaiga, Karen Diele, Mark Huxham
Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other 'blue carbon' habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917170/how-do-climatic-and-management-factors-affect-agricultural-ecosystem-services-a-case-study-in-the-agro-pastoral-transitional-zone-of-northern-china
#7
Jianmin Qiao, Deyong Yu, Jianguo Wu
Agricultural ecosystem management needs to ensure food production and minimize soil erosion and nitrogen (N) leaching under climate change and increasingly intensive human activity. Thus, the mechanisms through which climatic and management factors affect crop production, soil erosion, and N leaching must be understood in order to ensure food security and sustainable agricultural development. In this study, we adopted the GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model to simulate crop production, soil erosion, and N leaching, and used a partial least squares regression model to evaluate the contributions of climate variables (solar radiation, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, and maximum and minimum temperature) and management factors (irrigation, fertilization, and crop cultivation area) on agricultural ecosystem services (AES) in the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) of northern China...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917057/the-fungal-tree-of-life-from-molecular-systematics-to-genome-scale-phylogenies
#8
Joseph W Spatafora, M Catherine Aime, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Jason E Stajich, Meredith Blackwell
The kingdom Fungi is one of the more diverse clades of eukaryotes in terrestrial ecosystems, where they provide numerous ecological services ranging from decomposition of organic matter and nutrient cycling to beneficial and antagonistic associations with plants and animals. The evolutionary relationships of the kingdom have represented some of the more recalcitrant problems in systematics and phylogenetics. The advent of molecular phylogenetics, and more recently phylogenomics, has greatly advanced our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with fungal evolution, however...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916146/chinese-sacbrood-virus-infection-in-asian-honey-bees-apis-cerana-cerana-and-host-immune-responses-to-the-virus-infection
#9
Liu Shan, Wang Liuhao, Guo Jun, Tang Yujie, Chen Yanping, Wu Jie, Li Jilian
Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a positive-stranded RNAvirus that infects both the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the Asian honey bee (A. cerana). However, CSBV has much more devastating effects on Asian honey bees than on European honey bees, posing a serious threat to the agricultural and natural ecosystems that rely on A. cerana for pollination service. Using quantitative RT-PCR method, we conducted studies to examine the CSBV infection in Asian honey bee colonies and immune responses of individual bees in response to CSBV infection...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913614/researchers-must-be-aware-of-their-roles-at-the-interface-of-ecosystem-services-science-and-policy
#10
Emilie Crouzat, Isabelle Arpin, Lucas Brunet, Matthew J Colloff, Francis Turkelboom, Sandra Lavorel
Scientists working on ecosystem service (ES) science are engaged in a mission-driven discipline. They can contribute to science-policy interfaces where knowledge is co-produced and used. How scientists engage with the governance arena to mobilise their knowledge remains a matter of personal choice, influenced by individual values. ES science cannot be considered neutral and a discussion of the values that shape it forms an important part of the sustainability dialogue. We propose a simple decision tree to help ES scientists identify their role and the purpose of the knowledge they produce...
September 14, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904775/how-shrub-encroachment-under-climate-change-could-threaten-pollination-services-for-alpine-wildflowers-a-case-study-using-the-alpine-skypilot-polemonium-viscosum
#11
Jessica A Kettenbach, Nicole Miller-Struttmann, Zoë Moffett, Candace Galen
Under climate change, shrubs encroaching into high altitude plant communities disrupt ecosystem processes. Yet effects of encroachment on pollination mutualisms are poorly understood. Here, we probe potential fitness impacts of interference from encroaching Salix (willows) on pollination quality of the alpine skypilot, Polemonium viscosum. Overlap in flowering time of Salix and Polemonium is a precondition for interference and was surveyed in four extant and 25 historic contact zones. Pollinator sharing was ascertained from observations of willow pollen on bumble bees visiting Polemonium flowers and on Polemonium pistils...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898749/time-lagged-response-of-carabid-species-richness-and-composition-to-past-management-practices-and-landscape-context-of-semi-natural-field-margins
#12
Audrey Alignier, Stéphanie Aviron
Field margins are key features for the maintenance of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. Little is known about the effects of management practices of old semi-natural field margins, and their historical dimension regarding past management practices and landscape context is rarely considered. In this paper, the relative influence of recent and past management practices and landscape context (during the last five years) were assessed on the local biodiversity (species richness and composition) of carabid assemblages of field margins in agricultural landscapes of northwestern France...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898268/diet-of-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-from-the-gulf-of-cadiz-insights-from-stomach-content-and-stable-isotope-analyses
#13
Joan Giménez, Ana Marçalo, Francisco Ramírez, Philippe Verborgh, Pauline Gauffier, Ruth Esteban, Lídia Nicolau, Enrique González-Ortegón, Francisco Baldó, César Vilas, José Vingada, Manuela G Forero, Renaud de Stephanis
The ecological role of species can vary among populations depending on local and regional differences in diet. This is particularly true for top predators such as the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), which exhibits a highly varied diet throughout its distribution range. Local dietary assessments are therefore critical to fully understand the role of this species within marine ecosystems, as well as its interaction with important ecosystem services such as fisheries. Here, we combined stomach content analyses (SCA) and stable isotope analyses (SIA) to describe bottlenose dolphins diet in the Gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic Ocean)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894226/assessing-the-ecosystem-services-provided-by-urban-green-spaces-along-urban-center-edge-gradients
#14
Jie Chang, Zelong Qu, Ronghua Xu, Kaixuan Pan, Bin Xu, Yong Min, Yuan Ren, Guofu Yang, Ying Ge
Urban green spaces provide various ecosystem services, especially cultural services. Previous assessment methods depend either on hypothetic payments for ecosystems or real payments not directly related to ecosystems. In this paper, we established a method for assessing the cultural ecosystem services in any location in urban area using only two variables, green space (ecosystem) and land rent (real payment). We integrated the cultural and the regulating services into the total ecosystem services because urban green spaces provide almost no provisioning services...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892868/assessing-the-feasibility-of-integrating-ecosystem-based-with-engineered-water-resource-governance-and-management-for-water-security-in-semi-arid-landscapes-a-case-study-in-the-banas-catchment-rajasthan-india
#15
Mark Everard, Om Prakash Sharma, Vinod Kumar Vishwakarma, Dharmendra Khandal, Yogesh K Sahu, Rahul Bhatnagar, Jitendra K Singh, Ritesh Kumar, Asghar Nawab, Amit Kumar, Vivek Kumar, Anil Kashyap, Deep Narayan Pandey, Adrian C Pinder
Much of the developing world and areas of the developed world suffer water vulnerability. Engineering solutions enable technically efficient extraction and diversion of water towards areas of demand but, without rebalancing resource regeneration, can generate multiple adverse ecological and human consequences. The Banas River, Rajasthan (India), has been extensively developed for water diversion, particularly from the Bisalpur Dam from which water is appropriated by powerful urban constituencies dispossessing local people...
September 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889271/neurotoxicity-of-metal-mixtures
#16
V M Andrade, M Aschner, A P Marreilha Dos Santos
Metals are the oldest toxins known to humans. Metals differ from other toxic substances in that they are neither created nor destroyed by humans (Casarett and Doull's, Toxicology: the basic science of poisons, 8th edn. McGraw-Hill, London, 2013). Metals are of great importance in our daily life and their frequent use makes their omnipresence and a constant source of human exposure. Metals such as arsenic [As], lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], aluminum [Al] and cadmium [Cd] do not have any specific role in an organism and can be toxic even at low levels...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888940/environmental-change-in-a-modified-catchment-downstream-of-a-gold-mine-solomon-islands
#17
Simon Albert, Charlotte Kvennefors, Krista Jacob, Joshua Kera, Alistair Grinham
Solomon Islands is rapidly developing its natural resource exploitation sector, but data needed to assess consequent environmental impacts are scarce. We assessed catchments surrounding the Gold Ridge gold mine (Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands) and found that extensive changes in river course, and water and sediment quality have occurred downstream of the gold mine since its development. Sediment run-off from exposed areas associated with the mine pit has increased, elevating turbidity (up to 2450 NTU) and metal and arsenic levels, with levels of the latter being up to 0...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886541/abiotic-control-of-phytoplankton-blooms-in-temperate-coastal-marine-ecosystems-a-case-study-in-the-south-atlantic-ocean
#18
Paula Bermejo, E Walter Helbling, Cristina Durán-Romero, Marco J Cabrerizo, Virginia E Villafañe
Coastal waters of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) sustain one of the highest levels of production of the World's ocean, maintained by dense phytoplankton winter blooms that are dominated by large diatoms. These blooms have been associated to calm weather conditions that allow the formation of a shallow and well illuminated upper mixed layer. In Bahía Engaño, a coastal site in Patagonia, Argentina (chosen as a model coastal ecosystem) winter blooms recurrently peaked on June and they were dominated almost entirely by the microplanktonic diatom Odontella aurita...
September 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884169/cloud-engineering-principles-and-technology-enablers-for-medical-image-processing-as-a-service
#19
Shunxing Bao, Andrew J Plassard, Bennett A Landman, Aniruddha Gokhale
Traditional in-house, laboratory-based medical imaging studies use hierarchical data structures (e.g., NFS file stores) or databases (e.g., COINS, XNAT) for storage and retrieval. The resulting performance from these approaches is, however, impeded by standard network switches since they can saturate network bandwidth during transfer from storage to processing nodes for even moderate-sized studies. To that end, a cloud-based "medical image processing-as-a-service" offers promise in utilizing the ecosystem of Apache Hadoop, which is a flexible framework providing distributed, scalable, fault tolerant storage and parallel computational modules, and HBase, which is a NoSQL database built atop Hadoop's distributed file system...
April 2017: Proc IEEE Int Conf Cloud Eng
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880227/providing-personalized-energy-management-and-awareness-services-for-energy-efficiency-in-smart-buildings
#20
Eleni Fotopoulou, Anastasios Zafeiropoulos, Fernando Terroso-Sáenz, Umutcan Şimşek, Aurora González-Vidal, George Tsiolis, Panagiotis Gouvas, Paris Liapis, Anna Fensel, Antonio Skarmeta
Considering that the largest part of end-use energy consumption worldwide is associated with the buildings sector, there is an inherent need for the conceptualization, specification, implementation, and instantiation of novel solutions in smart buildings, able to achieve significant reductions in energy consumption through the adoption of energy efficient techniques and the active engagement of the occupants. Towards the design of such solutions, the identification of the main energy consuming factors, trends, and patterns, along with the appropriate modeling and understanding of the occupants' behavior and the potential for the adoption of environmentally-friendly lifestyle changes have to be realized...
September 7, 2017: Sensors
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