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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728002/development-of-an-integrated-generic-model-for-multi-scale-assessment-of-the-impacts-of-agro-ecosystems-on-major-ecosystem-services-in-west-africa
#1
Mahamadou Belem, Mehdi Saqalli
This paper presents an integrated model assessing the impacts of climate change, agro-ecosystem and demographic transition patterns on major ecosystem services in West-Africa along a partial overview of economic aspects (poverty reduction, food self-sufficiency and income generation). The model is based on an agent-based model associated with a soil model and multi-scale spatial model. The resulting Model for West-Africa Agro-Ecosystem Integrated Assessment (MOWASIA) is ecologically generic, meaning it is designed for all sudano-sahelian environments but may then be used as an experimentation facility for testing different scenarios combining ecological and socioeconomic dimensions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725419/tree-species-diversity-promotes-aboveground-carbon-storage-through-functional-diversity-and-functional-dominance
#2
Sylvanus Mensah, Ruan Veldtman, Achille E Assogbadjo, Romain Glèlè Kakaï, Thomas Seifert
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function has increasingly been debated as the cornerstone of the processes behind ecosystem services delivery. Experimental and natural field-based studies have come up with nonconsistent patterns of biodiversity-ecosystem function, supporting either niche complementarity or selection effects hypothesis. Here, we used aboveground carbon (AGC) storage as proxy for ecosystem function in a South African mistbelt forest, and analyzed its relationship with species diversity, through functional diversity and functional dominance...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725408/landscape-composition-and-configuration-in-the-central-highlands-of-ethiopia
#3
Terefe Tolessa, Feyera Senbeta, Moges Kidane
Landscape dynamics are common phenomenon in the human-dominated environments whereby it can be observed that the composition and configuration between landscape elements change over time. This dynamism brings about habitat loss and fragmentation that can greatly alter ecosystem services at patch, class, and landscape levels. We conducted a study to examine composition and configuration of forested landscape in the central highlands of Ethiopia using satellite images of over a period of four decades, and FRAGSTAT raster dataset was used to analyze fragmentation...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725378/ecological-role-of-vertebrate-scavengers-in-urban-ecosystems-in-the-uk
#4
Richard Inger, Daniel T C Cox, Esra Per, Briony A Norton, Kevin J Gaston
Recent research has demonstrated how scavenging, the act of consuming dead animals, plays a key role in ecosystem structure, functioning, and stability. A growing number of studies suggest that vertebrate scavengers also provide key ecosystem services, the benefits humans gain from the natural world, particularly in the removal of carcasses from the environment. An increasing proportion of the human population is now residing in cities and towns, many of which, despite being highly altered environments, contain significant wildlife populations, and so animal carcasses...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724103/nematode-community-response-to-green-infrastructure-design-in-a-semiarid-city
#5
Mitchell A Pavao-Zuckerman, Christine Sookhdeo
Urbanization affects ecosystem function and environmental quality through shifts in ecosystem fluxes that are brought on by features of the built environment. Green infrastructure (GI) has been suggested as a best management practice (BMP) to address urban hydrologic and ecological impacts of the built environment, but GI practice has only been studied from a limited set of climatic conditions and disciplinary approaches. Here, we evaluate GI features in a semiarid city from the perspective of soil ecology through the application of soil nematode community analysis...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722164/a-unifying-explanation-for-variation-in-ozone-sensitivity-among-woody-plants
#6
Zhaozhong Feng, Patrick Büker, Håkan Pleijel, Lisa Emberson, Per Erik Karlsson, Johan Uddling
Tropospheric ozone is considered the most detrimental air pollutant for vegetation at the global scale, with negative consequences for both provisioning and climate regulating ecosystem services. In spite of recent developments in ozone exposure metrics, from a concentration-based to a more physiologically relevant stomatal flux-based index, large scale ozone risk assessment is still complicated by a large and unexplained variation in ozone sensitivity among tree species. Here we explored whether the variation in ozone sensitivity among woody species can be linked to interspecific variation in leaf morphology...
July 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722121/the-importance-of-species-identity-and-interactions-on-multifunctionality-depends-on-how-ecosystem-functions-are-valued
#7
Eleanor M Slade, Laura Kirwan, Thomas Bell, Christopher Philipson, Owen T Lewis, Tomas Roslin
Studies investigating how biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning increasingly focus on multiple functions measured simultaneously ('multifunctionality'). However, few such studies assess the role of species interactions, particularly under alternative environmental scenarios, despite interactions being key to ecosystem functioning. Here we address five questions of central importance to ecosystem multifunctionality using a terrestrial animal system: 1) Does the contribution of individual species differ for different ecosystem functions?; 2) Do inter-species interactions affect the delivery of single functions and multiple functions?; 3) Does the community composition which maximises individual functions also maximise multifunctionality?; 4) Is the functional role of individual species, and the effect of interspecific interactions, modified by changing environmental conditions?; and 5) How do these roles and interactions change under varying scenarios where ecosystem services are weighted to reflect different societal preferences? We manipulated species' relative abundance in dung beetle communities and measured 16 functions contributing to dung decomposition, plant productivity, nutrient recycling, reduction of greenhouse gases, and microbial activity...
July 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720866/surges-in-trematode-prevalence-linked-to-centennial-scale-flooding-events-in-the-adriatic
#8
Daniele Scarponi, Michele Azzarone, Michał Kowalewski, John Warren Huntley
The forecasts of increasing global temperature and sea level rise have led to concern about the response of parasites to anthropogenic climate change. Whereas ecological studies of parasite response to environmental shifts are necessarily limited to short time scales, the fossil record can potentially provide a quantitative archive of long-term ecological responses to past climate transitions. Here, we document multi-centennial scale changes in prevalence of trematodes infesting the bivalve host Abra segmentum through multiple sea-level fluctuations preserved in brackish Holocene deposits of the Po Plain, Italy...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717594/effect-of-freshwater-mussels-on-the-vertical-distribution-of-anaerobic-ammonia-oxidizers-and-other-nitrogen-transforming-microorganisms-in-upper-mississippi-river-sediment
#9
Ellen M Black, Michael S Chimenti, Craig L Just
Targeted qPCR and non-targeted amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes within sediment layers identified the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) niche and characterized microbial community changes attributable to freshwater mussels. Anammox bacteria were normally distributed (Shapiro-Wilk normality test, W-statistic =0.954, p = 0.773) between 1 and 15 cm depth and were increased by a factor of 2.2 (p < 0.001) at 3 cm below the water-sediment interface when mussels were present. Amplicon sequencing of sediment at depths relevant to mussel burrowing (3 and 5 cm) showed that mussel presence reduced observed species richness (p = 0...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716918/an-invasive-foundation-species-enhances-multifunctionality-in-a-coastal-ecosystem
#10
Aaron P Ramus, Brian R Silliman, Mads S Thomsen, Zachary T Long
While invasive species often threaten biodiversity and human well-being, their potential to enhance functioning by offsetting the loss of native habitat has rarely been considered. We manipulated the abundance of the nonnative, habitat-forming seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla in large plots (25 m(2)) on southeastern US intertidal landscapes to assess impacts on multiple ecosystem functions underlying coastal ecosystem services. We document that in the absence of native habitat formers, this invasion has an overall positive, density-dependent impact across a diverse set of ecosystem processes (e...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716653/bioeconomy-in-latin-america
#11
REVIEW
Albert Sasson, Carlos Malpica
This article provides the authors' view on how Latin America has embraced bioeconomy principles in the last two decades with different levels of socio-economic impact. Examples of biodiversity resource valorization in medicine, eco-intensification of agriculture, biotechnology applications in mature sectors such as mining, food and beverage production, bio-refineries and ecosystem services are provided. The importance of participatory and social innovation initiatives is highlighted.
July 14, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714583/mapping-social-ecological-vulnerability-to-inform-local-decision-making
#12
Lauric Thiault, Paul Marshall, Stefan Gelcich, Antoine Collin, Frédérique Chlous, Joachim Claudet
An overarching challenge of natural resource management and biodiversity conservation is that relationships between human and nature are difficult to integrate into tools that can effectively guide decision-making. Social-ecological vulnerability offers a valuable framework for identifying and understanding important social-ecological linkages, and the implications of dependencies and other feedback loops in the system. Unfortunately its implementation at local scales has hitherto been limited, due at least in part to the lack of operational tools for spatial representation of social-ecological vulnerability...
July 17, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711000/ecosystem-services-response-to-urbanization-in-metropolitan-areas-thresholds-identification
#13
Jian Peng, Lu Tian, Yanxu Liu, Mingyue Zhao, Yi'na Hu, Jiansheng Wu
Ecosystem service is the key comprehensive indicator for measuring the ecological effects of urbanization. Although various studies have found a causal relationship between urbanization and ecosystem services degradation, the linear or non-linear characteristics are still unclear, especially identifying the impact thresholds in this relationship. This study quantified four ecosystem services (i.e. soil conservation, carbon sequestration and oxygen production, water yield, and food production) and total ecosystem services (TES), and then identified multiple advantageous area of ecosystem services in the peri-urban area of Beijing City...
July 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710130/dead-or-alive-using-membrane-failure-and-chlorophyll-fluorescence-to-predict-mortality-from-drought
#14
Carmela Rosaria Guadagno, Brent E Ewers, Heather N Speckman, Timothy L Aston, Bridger J Huhn, Stanley B DeVore, Joshua T Ladwig, Rachel N Strawn, Cynthia Weinig
Climate models predict widespread increases in both drought intensity and duration in the next decades. Although water deficiency is one of the greatest environmental pressures to plant survival, limited understanding of how plants respond to extreme drought impedes adequate forecasts of how increasing aridity will impact both forest and crop productivity. Drought induces a suite of physiological responses; however, we lack an accurate mechanistic description of plant response to lethal drought that would improve predictive understanding of the timing of lethal drought with climate change...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709097/effects-of-land-use-and-climate-change-on-ecosystem-services-in-central-asia-s-arid-regions-a-case-study-in-altay-prefecture-china
#15
Qi Fu, Bo Li, Ying Hou, Xu Bi, Xinshi Zhang
The sustainable use of ecosystem services (ES) can contribute to enhancing human well-being. Understanding the effects of land use and climate change on ES can provide scientific and targeted guidance for the sustainable use of ES. The objective of this study was to reveal the way in which land use and climate change influence the spatial and temporal variations of ES in the mountain-oasis-desert system (MODS). In this study, we assessed water yield, soil conservation, crop production, and sand fixation in 1990, 2000, and 2010 in Altay Prefecture, which is representative of the MODS, based on widely used biophysical models...
July 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708881/large-anthropogenic-impacts-on-a-charismatic-small-carnivore-insights-from-distribution-surveys-of-red-panda-ailurus-fulgens-in-nepal
#16
Saroj Panthi, Gopal Khanal, Krishna Prasad Acharya, Achyut Aryal, Arjun Srivathsa
Protected areas are key to preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services. However, their ability to ensure long-term survival of threatened andendangered species varies across countries, regions and landscapes. Distribution surveys can beparticularly important for assessing the value of protected areas, and gauging their efficacy incatering to species-specific requirements. We assessed the conservation value of one such reserve for a charismatic yet globally endangered species, the red panda Ailurus fulgens,in the light of on-going land-use transformation in Nepal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708078/spatial-variation-of-soil-organic-carbon-and-total-nitrogen-in-the-coastal-area-of-mid-eastern-china
#17
Yan Xu, Lijie Pu, Qilin Liao, Ming Zhu, Xue Yu, Tianying Mao, Chenxing Xu
Soils play an important role in sequestrating atmospheric CO₂. Coastal tidal flats have been intensively reclaimed for food security and living spaces worldwide. We aimed to identify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) following coastal reclamation and their spatial variation in the coastal area of mid-Eastern China to provide information for coastal cropland management. We measured SOC and TN of 463 soil samples in the coastal plain of mid-Eastern China. The results showed that SOC and TN increased highly from the uncultivated coastal tidal flat (2...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706988/unsustainable-development-pathways-caused-by-tropical-deforestation
#18
Luis Roman Carrasco, Thi Phuong Le Nghiem, Zhirong Chen, Edward B Barbier
Global sustainability strategies require assessing whether countries' development trajectories are sustainable over time. However, sustainability assessments are limited because losses of natural capital and its ecosystem services through deforestation have not been comprehensively incorporated into national accounts. We update the national accounts of 80 nations that underwent tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012 and evaluate their development trajectories using weak and strong sustainability criteria...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706573/the-effects-of-catchment-and-riparian-forest-quality-on-stream-environmental-conditions-across-a-tropical-rainforest-and-oil-palm-landscape-in-malaysian-borneo
#19
Sarah H Luke, Holly Barclay, Kawi Bidin, Vun Khen Chey, Robert M Ewers, William A Foster, Anand Nainar, Marion Pfeifer, Glen Reynolds, Edgar C Turner, Rory P D Walsh, David C Aldridge
Freshwaters provide valuable habitat and important ecosystem services but are threatened worldwide by habitat loss and degradation. In Southeast Asia, rainforest streams are particularly threatened by logging and conversion to oil palm, but we lack information on the impacts of this on freshwater environmental conditions, and the relative importance of catchment versus riparian-scale disturbance. We studied 16 streams in Sabah, Borneo, including old-growth forest, logged forest, and oil palm sites. We assessed forest quality in riparian zones and across the whole catchment and compared it with stream environmental conditions including water quality, structural complexity, and organic inputs...
June 2017: Ecohydrology: Ecosystems, Land and Water Process Interactions, Ecohydrogeomorphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704969/urban-green-space-perception-and-its-contribution-to-well-being
#20
Gyula Kothencz, Ronald Kolcsár, Pablo Cabrera-Barona, Péter Szilassi
Individual perceptions are essential when evaluating the well-being benefits from urban green spaces. This study predicted the influence of perceived green space characteristics in the city of Szeged, Hungary, on two well-being variables: the green space visitors' level of satisfaction and the self-reported quality of life. The applied logistic regression analysis used nine predictors: seven perceived green space characteristics from a questionnaire survey among visitors of five urban green spaces of Szeged; and the frequency of green space visitors' crowd-sourced recreational running paths and photographs picturing green space aesthetics...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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